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Arthur Okun argues that a clear line must be drawn between dollars and rights. At the heart of his argument is that there is an inherent conflict between the two in a capitalist democracy, and politicians can only resolve this conflict through "The Big Tradeoff." With respect to rights, Okun notes that they are fundamentally different from dollars in that they are inalienable and equally distributed, and that as such they cannot be bought and sold, nor distributed in any other manner. Rights, therefore, must be held outside the market, otherwise they will have a price and lose their inalienability. Dollars are different because they are not inalienable, and they can be traded or used as incentive. He thus argues that they two are fundamentally distinct from one another, and must be held separate as a result. There can be no blending of the two, or rights will…
342). All applicants should be treated equally regardless of race. Creating a more diverse student body may be an admirable goal, but it is not a legally valid one for use during the admissions process (p. 345). The Constitution does not guarantee the right to preferential treatment on the basis of past discrimination; the Constitution does, however, guarantee equally protection of the law. Court decisions have wavered over the right of institutions to actively create a more ethnically diverse student body. Just as a school might prefer an athlete over a musician for admission because of the need to bolster athletics programs, a school might also prefer a Latino over a white student because of the need to bolster the campus's Spanish-language programs or social organizations. Courts have used terms like "flexibility" to describe admissions procedures that, while not being fully blind, are also nondiscriminatory (p. 348). Institutions aware of…
Gosepath, S. (2007). Equality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/equality/
Kaplan & Lee.
Historically, since the end of the Vietnam War in 1975, Cambodia has suffered under the oppression of dictators such as Pol Pot, who instituted Communism and its related rights violations of law. As a result, the question of the future of Cambodia has become vitally important and likewise, international law has had to step in to remedy the situation.
Statutes and Charters from the United Nations Tribunals
The evolution of international tribunals from the post World War II period to the present has likewise resulted in the development of United Nations statutes and charters in the interest of equality, justice and peace on a global scale, even beyond those such as the ICTY and ICT. Chief among these, in the opinion of many, is the United Nations Human ights Committee, which blends the consideration of the rights of all of the peoples of the world with the responsibility of international…
Pasqualucci, J.M. (2005). Interim Measures in International Human Rights: Evolution and Harmonization. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 38(1), 1+.
Rakove, J. (2003, September/October). Europe's Floundering Fathers. Foreign Policy 28+.
Rojansky, M. (2000). Tribunal Tribulations. Harvard International Review, 22(2), 13.
Tochilovsky, V. (2003). Globalizing Criminal Justice: Challenges for the International Criminal Court. Global Governance, 9(3), 291+.
Equality at Seeall
Much has been said and written about the importance of equity and fairness. After all, life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness are benchmark principles in this country. The purpose of this essay is to discuss equality and the positive and negative qualities that this ideal has in the public school system. This essay will address The Seeall Academy, the school where I teach, and discuss the ways that equality is addressed in that environment. The relationship between equality and excellence will also be discussed as a means of contextualizing the framework in how this principle is practically applied.
Equality is overrated in many aspects. While we are born equal, we no doubt progress at a different pace. Equality explains a static situation where all things are at standstill. Total equality is motionless and dead. In striving for equality we sell ourselves short many times. Instead…
Equality in Education: a Summary of Three Articles
EQUALITY IN EDUCATION
EQUALITY IN EDUCATION
Answering My Sister's Question: The Critical Importance of Education for Diversity in Those Spaces here e Think e Are All the Same
Issues of racism and segregation are fairly well documented in the United States, whereas Canada is not generally known for having any problems of the sort, now or ever. That is what is addressed in the article by Michael Corbett. The author's sister asked a question that, for him, symbolized the relationship Canadians, or more specifically, Nova Scotians have with the issue of discrimination; she asked, "hen were schools desegregated in Nova Scotia?"
The author first makes the point that although "officially" schools were desegregated in 1954, that doesn't necessarily mean anything changed for those schoolchildren on the receiving end of discrimination. More than five decades later, segregation remains in stark, unacknowledged…
Baldwin, J. (1963, December 21). A talk to teachers. Retrieved from http://www.richgibson.com/talktotheteachers.htm.
Corbett, M. (2010). Answering my sister's question: the critical importance of education for diversity in those spaces where we think we are all the same. Journal of Inquiry & Action in Education, 3(3), 1-17.
Willinsky, J. (1998). Science and the origin of race. In Learning to divide the world: Education at empire's end (pp. 161-187). Minneanapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Equality: One Small Step at a Time
The right of same-sex couples to marry could not be less relevant to my life, but I cannot help but notice our apparent inability to learn from past experience as a nation. Simultaneously with the historic election of the first black U.S. president, voters in California passed Proposition 8 as part of a nationwide "Defense of Marriage Act" (DOMA) initiative introduced by the Bush administration that has evolved into a series of attempts to oppose same-sex marriage through legislation and state constitutional amendments (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2009). There is tremendous irony in the extremely slow and largely incremental pattern of social progress in recognizing the need to apply equality more benevolently. In principle, the long argument over the rights of same-sex couples is playing out in the identical rhetoric as was used to justify laws prohibiting miscegenation (interracial) marriage until after the…
Bennett, W.J. "Gay Marriage: Not a Very Good Idea." The Washington Post (May
Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2009). Government in America: People,
Politics, and Policy. New York, NY: Longman.
This does not mean that women are the nicer or better sex; women are definitely capable of misusing power. However, in comparison to men, women have less power and status in heterosexual partnerships, are less prepared for physical fights, or affirm difference without being threatened, and are more likely to be dissatisfied with the relationship and want to leave. These factors often place women at high risk of domestic violence.
In the past decade, women have enjoyed opportunities that their mothers and grandmothers would have never imagined they could. Since early history and the ancient civilization of man, women have played a submissive role, in which women were viewed as unequal to men. A women's role in society was that of raising children, and jobs that required feminine characteristics. Many women today want careers and to be self-sustaining individuals. As more and more women are striving to gain equality in…
Earle, J., and V. Roach. (1989). Female Dropouts: A New Perspective. Alexandria, Va.: National Association of State Boards of Education, 4 Gillet, Sue; Morda, Romana. (2000). Gender Differences in Self-Estimated Leadership Skills. Victoria University, Research Paper.
Einarsson C. And Granstrm K. (June, 2002). Gender-biased Interaction in the Classroom: the influence of gender and age in the relationship between teacher and pupil. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Volume 46, Number 2.
Glick, P., Zion, C., & Nelson, C. (1988). What mediates sex discrimination in hiring decisions? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 178-186.
Henning, K. And Feder, L.. 2004. A Comparison of Men and Women Arrested for Domestic Violence: Who Presents the Greatest Threat? Journal of Family Violence. Vol. 19 no. 2: 69-80.
Thus, it also does not answer the three questions above in a positive fashion. The only thing that can be said is that for the short-run "it is a refuge from cleavage and strife" or the "best that we can do for the time being." That is not saying very much, surely.
It appears, then, that of the different ways to meet these three questions noted above, that it may be best to find ways to reduce disparity by changing public policy in areas such as housing and home ownership. The paper "The changing determinants of Inter-racial home ownership disparities: New York City in the 1990s" and "A dream deferred or realized: the impact of public policy on fostering black homeowners in New York City throughout the 1990s" by Lance Freeman and Darrick Hamilton, both show how the "prescription for change" is not one taking one action, but several: 1)…
A country built on the credo of democracy, America is a society built on the values of freedom and equality. These two concepts are inevitably related to each other, where the presence of freedom inevitably results to the creation of an egalitarian society. History is witness to significant events that showed how America and its people struggled to create a society where equality is considered essential. The American Civil War in 1861 was the first attempt of the Americans to fight not only for their freedom, but also for their right to be considered equal, and not a colony, to the British government. The World War II was another manifestation of America's regard for equality. Fighting against Hitler's anti-Semitist campaign, America involved itself in a world war that sought to achieve equal rights for people despite differences in race, gender, age, and socio-economic class. Lastly, the Civil Rights movement…
The nineteenth amendment to the United States Constitution that was enacted on August 26, 1920 granted women the right to vote. The amendment basically states that citizens of the United States have the right to vote, which shall not be edited or denied by the country or any State on the basis of gender. As a result of the enactment of this amendment, August 26 was designated by the U.S. Congress as "Women's Equality Day," which honors the ongoing contributions and efforts of women towards equality. Women's equality day has become an important date in the United States as workplaces, organizations, libraries, and public institutions or facilities participate in programs and activities that honor women's equality initiatives. The right to vote as granted in the constitution has enabled women to have the opportunity to try gain equal rights in the society and the U.S. military.
Betchel, K.J. & Arundel, A. (n.d.). Women's Rights in the American Century. Retrieved from University of Maryland, Baltimore County website: http://www.umbc.edu/che/tahlessons/pdf/Women%27s_Rights_in_the_American_Century.PrinterFriendly.pdf
"Fifty Years After The Equal Pay Act." (2013, June). National Equal Pay Task Force. Retrieved from United States Government website: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/image/image_file/equal_pay-task_force_progress_report_june_10_2013.pdf
Fuentes, S.P. (2001). The Women's Rights Movement: Where It's Been, Where It's At. Retrieved
from University of Maryland, Baltimore County website: http://userpages.umbc.edu/~korenman/wmst/womens_rights.html
Ultimately, there are differences between men and women, but these differences should not make a difference in the culture, and certainly in the law. Just because a woman can become pregnant and a man cannot is not a reason to create and perpetuate laws that deal with men and women differently in culture and society. Men can bond just as deeply with their children as women can, and so the "mother-nurturer" model that defines women could also define men, and it should not be used to create barriers between the sexes, in the home, or in the courtroom.
It is clear that American laws have come a long way since women gained their right to vote. However, they have not come far enough. Women are still seen as "different," and until this view changes in society, the courts will continue to uphold laws that create lines between men and women.…
Williams, Wendy M. "The Equality Crisis." The Second Wave: A Reader in Feminist Theory. Ed. Linda Nicholson. New York: Routledge, 1997. 71-91.
Equality often has an intangible element to it as it relates to causes and influences on others. Both chapter 5 and chapter 6 shed light on these intangible influences and their overall manifestation in society. Chapter 5 focuses heavily on the definitions of both power and oppression and how they can influence society. Oppression for example creates a set of policies, traditions and norms that look to benefit one social group at the expense of another. Even more alarming is typically, the group that benefits tends to own, control and influence all the factors of economic prosperity in society. As a result, it is difficult for the oppressed to elicit change without the help of those doing the oppressing. This dynamic creates a very powerful push and pull effect on society as parties look to recreate and establish equality. Chapter 5 using the example of the women’s suffrage…
Sadurski. Wojciech. (1986) 60 "Equality Before the Law: A Conceptual Analysis." The Australian Law Review. (Pp.66-71)
s everyone equal in the eyes of the law, regardless of creed, culture, or other group affiliation? Or should the law be made equal for everyone by considering the law's contextual application in society? t is this subtle distinction that Wojciech Sadurski (1986) grapples with in his article entitled "Equality Before the Law: A Conceptual Analysis." Sadurski comes down, in his opinion, squarely on the side of the second position. He suggests that to refuse to acknowledge individual differences and to enforce the law in the same fashion towards everyone in a society may actually reinforce societal structures of inequality rather than alleviate such strictures. This stands, he admits, in opposition to the liberal humanist tradition of Mill and Rousseau, on which most liberal democracies today were founded. (66-67)
Of course, some…
Is everyone equal in the eyes of the law, regardless of creed, culture, or other group affiliation? Or should the law be made equal for everyone by considering the law's contextual application in society? It is this subtle distinction that Wojciech Sadurski (1986) grapples with in his article entitled "Equality Before the Law: A Conceptual Analysis." Sadurski comes down, in his opinion, squarely on the side of the second position. He suggests that to refuse to acknowledge individual differences and to enforce the law in the same fashion towards everyone in a society may actually reinforce societal structures of inequality rather than alleviate such strictures. This stands, he admits, in opposition to the liberal humanist tradition of Mill and Rousseau, on which most liberal democracies today were founded. (66-67)
Of course, some legal theorists still believe that actions alone should determine legal enforcement, not affiliation with any particular group. The idea behind such a color-blind concept may have once been noble, namely that an accident of birth should not inhibit one's equal access to justice. (68) Often to justify such 'color blind' applications of the law generates a system of categorization of the individual's protected status of having involuntary or immutable (such as race or gender) and voluntary (such as wealth or intelligence) characteristics that are likely to generate discriminatory policies. The latter characteristics are theoretically controllable, the former uncontrollable. But Sadurski calls the idea of wealth or education as entirely chosen or voluntary a legal as well as a cultural fiction. (70; 69)
Sadurski suggests that uncontrollable factors such as birth certainly do influence one's ability to gain in both money, education, and thus social status, and moreover to ignore race for those individuals from historically discriminated against groups with entirely 'color blind' laws is an act of bias in and of itself, given the social and historical circumstances in which the laws are operating. (71) Equality under the law, states Sadurski, means that the law is operating in a just fashion. (71) Thus, Sadurski makes a plea for law in context, rather than law in the absolute.
John Locke, whose views helped to shape the values of the early American nation, equality is not just necessary in the establishment of government but is also a requisite in maintaining a safe and stable nation," (Broers, 2009). Locke based his ideas on two general observations: one is that nature exhibits ideal equality of opportunity even when there are differences between species or between individuals in each species. Equality does not mean sameness; it simply means the absence of "subordination or subjection," according to Locke (cited by Broers, 2009). The other observation Locke makes about equality being a state of natural law is the fact that membership in a democratic society is considered voluntary. Contrary to totalitarian regimes like that in North Korea, democracies are based on the rights of individuals to participate freely in the political process and make decisions based on shared values. Therefore, equality becomes the most…
Broers, A. (2009). John Locke on equality, toleration, and the atheist exception. Student Pulse. Retrieved online: http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/75/john-locke-on-equality-toleration-and-the-atheist-exception
Dunn, J. (2012). Political equality. Retrieved online: http://athensdialogues.chs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/WebObjects/athensdialogues.woa/wa/dist?dis=34
Marano, H.E. (2014). Love and power. Psychology Today. Jan 1, 2014. Retrieved online: https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/201312/love-and-powers
McCabe, H. (2015). Equality. Philosophy Now. Retrieved online: https://philosophynow.org/issues/94/Equality
MacKinnon's piece shows that free speech is not as free as many people in the country would like to believe, and that the people still have many inroads to reach real gender equality.
MacKinnon cites several examples of court rulings on free speech that actually seem to ensure hate crimes and speech can continue, even though they could incite further crimes of hatred that cause injury or death. This is disturbing for a number of reasons. It means that hate speech is considered free speech, and that hate speech, and the violence that often accompanies it, is condoned by the courts, which is not only dangerous but degrading. The ability to speak one's mind should not harm others, but it seems there is little distinction made in that regard, and that not only incites hatred and prejudice, it harbors danger for anyone who disagrees and chooses to answer with their…
MacKinnon, Catherine. "Equality and Speech," in Only Words. 1993, pp. 71-110.
Alexis de Tocqueville is best known for his development of political theories addressing equality in the social order and the way that revolutions were imminent in states where the masses were controlled by the aristocracy. The French political thinker had observed the benefits associated with equality being present in a community and linked this concept to the French Revolution in an attempt to demonstrate that the general public is inclined to discourage instances involving the upper classes attempting to exploit less privileged individuals.
"Democracy in America" and "The Old Regime and the Revolution" perfectly exemplify Tocqueville's rationale, as they both concentrate on the idea of developed nations promoting equality and thus influencing the masses to express disproval toward traditional political systems. To a certain degree, the two texts can be considered an essential step in the development of democracy during recent centuries. Tocqueville provided society with the opportunity to gain…
"Biography of Alexis de Tocqueville." Retrieved September 27, 2015, from http://www.gradesaver.com/author/alexis-tocqueville/
However, when these same advocates were faced with the possibility of losing their political power by living in accordance with their own arguments, they admitted that they understood the people they had under their absolute control were men and not animals. Such an admission was tantamount to declaring that they didn't really believe in equality, but instead wanted to protect their own liberty to live their preferred way of life. They formed arguments for states' rights, which consisted of a kind of collectivized justification of liberty at the state level rather than on the personal level, and threatened to reject the constitution if their rights were not protected. The North, on the other hand, had rid itself of slavery earlier in its history, driven by the moral arguments of abolitionists and the fact that their economy had never really depended on slavery. They espoused a belief in equality but were…
Merit and Equality
The immediate challenge of society revolves around the construction of a society that is fair and just. The exact principles that allow society to do that is particularly difficult to define and initiate within the context of the existing framework of society. Two concepts that appear to be diametrical opposites are equality and merit. Individuals who invite society to be structured on merit suggest that the inherent inequalities in individual abilities should be the mechanism through which individuals are separated and even stratified. Others suggest that such a position ignores historical antecedents that privilege some groups above others and hence it is important to construct a society that is based on the equality of all the citizens. Equality is a concept that is difficult to define and more difficult to achieve. I agree that merit and equality are incompatible structuring society on one of the concepts negates…
Gosepath, S. "Equality"(2011) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.),
Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2011/entries/equality/
Joseph L.B. (1980). Some Ways of Thinking about Equality of Opportunity. The Western
Political Quarterly, 33(3): 393-400.
(Stephen) High levels of socio-economic inequality may not be an ideal situation but such "unequal sharing of blessings" is far better than the "equal sharing of misery" that socialism promotes.
The Russian Revolution of 1917 also purported to bring true liberty for the mankind contending that all previous codes of liberty were ideologies of the ruling classes. Being based on a utopian concept of governance far removed from human nature, the Communist state required massive governmental restrictions to achieve its misguided goal of socio-economic equality. The so-called struggle for liberty eventually failed precisely because it was NOT a struggle for achieving "equality before law" and instead of requiring the runners to start from the same starting line, it attempted to ensure a dead-heat at the finishing line.
History has time and again proved that only those societies have prospered in which no class, race or group of people are considered…
Hayek, F.A. The Constitution of Liberty. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1972
The Philosophic Concept of Liberty." North Carolina Wesleyan College Website. 2004. January 2, 2005. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/410/410lect03.htm
Stephen, James F. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. The Online Library of Liberty. 1874. January 2, 2005. http://oll.libertyfund.org/Texts/LFBooks/Stephen0245/LibertyFraternityEquality/LibertyFundEdition/0021_Bk.html#hd_lf021.head.018
They perhaps anticipated that the deprived groups -- the slaves, women et al. would get their 'natural rights' and 'liberty' in the future
Empty Idea of Equality," Peter Western asserts that equality is not only unnecessary to a discussion of human rights and liberties, but that it can actually be damaging to these concepts by undermining the concept of individuality and the differences between people, whether those differences are innate or societal. Western notes that even if we conclude that all human beings are the same at a certain level, that cultural differences will require that different groups be treated differently, giving "equality" a much less important role in our society as compared to freedom, liberty, and the possession of "rights."
Western begins his dismantling of equality as an ideal by noting the oft-perceived "juxtaposition of 'rights' and 'equality'" and stating that perhaps this the two are not such mutually exclusive concepts. (34) In this statement alone, he challenges a vast amount of legal and philosophical assumption, like those that he cites from…
How, then, can we differentiate between people without being discriminatory or unfair? Western says that utilitarianism is too "equal," that it distributes things without taking individuality into consideration at all and as such is biased and perhaps inherently violates the rights of some (37). He notes that the central argument in creating equality is not "why?" But "what?" What needs to be equal in all people? Wealth? Income? Happiness? It can be assumed, he says, that on a certain level, of course human beings are equal. (39) However, citing William Letwin, Western notes that "in as much as people are unequal, it is rational to presume they be treated unequally." (38) Western notes that "human beings...begin life with different endowments of wealth and liabilities...different natural environments...[different] societies and communities... [different] epidemiological factors in the region in which we live..." (40)
A specific modern debate that directly relates to this is the assertion by certain religious groups that they should be treated unequally in the eyes of the law. Specifically, in 1990, a group of Native Americans asserted that their religion required the ingestion of peyote, a substance deemed illegal to ingest by the government. This group asked for an exception to the law, for unequal treatment, on the basis of their "difference," their religion. In the interest of "equality," the Supreme Court denied this request. (Smith v. Board of Employment, 1990) Disputes such as this one lend credence to the argument that "equality" can, at times, be in direct conflict with "liberties," in this case, religious liberty.
What, then, is Western's solution to this juxtaposition that he described at the beginning of the article? He says that we should differentiate between equality of "primary goods and the freedom to pursue one's objectives..." (43) This would allow different groups or individuals to be treated differently, to pursue their own objectives, without trying to regulate or redistribute goods, wealth, or rights so that they are exactly like other groups or individuals. And in doing so, in treating them unequally based on their individual circumstances, we will have established a baseline of "equal treatment."
Deconstructing Equality versus -- Difference or Poststructuralist Theory for Feminism (1988)," by Joan Scott gave details regarding some insight into the term post- structuralism and the battle of equality in differences between men and women in a case regarding Sears. This article at first was a little hard to follow but after looking a little closer, it all came together. For example Joan Scott wrote about the word "Language" under the understanding of poststructuralism this word does not stand for " a set of grammatical rules but, rather a meaning constituting system: that is, any system strictly verbal or other through which meaning is constructed and cultural practices organized." The structure of the article is easy to follow since one is given a basic understanding of concepts and rational in the beginning. Later in the body of the article, one is given an example of a court case with Sears.…
ace, Gender and Social Equality
San Leandro City, California is a rich agricultural city, which has recently experienced unprecedented urbanization. With an estimated population of about thirty-eight million people as of July 2012, this figure is predicted to double by 2020. This paper focuses on racial, economic, social, and housing characteristics shaping the life chances of residents in this city.
How socioeconomic characteristics affect quality-of-life
According to the American Fact finder website, the poverty rate has increased by an average of fifty-five percent between 1981 and 1991. This percentage is much greater than the average growth rate of the U.S. city. As a result, San Leandro City, California can be significantly compared to the U.S. city. However, the city's per capita income bounced up in the 2000s. Perhaps, the greatest change and one that is the most critical indicator of progress in comparison to U.S. is the percentage change regarding…
He is also saying there is much more to be explained about the period 1954-1980. He conveniently provides a Bibliographical Essay (pp. 239-248) for further research by the reader.
Is the struggle for Black equality over? Certainly there is proof that struggles of the Civil Rights Movement are over. Black Americans have the right to vote (which they didn't really until the Voting Rights Act of 1965) and they have (on paper at least) all fundamental civil rights guaranteed under the Constitution (thanks to the Civil Rights Act of 1964). The glass is half full (in the context of the Civil Rights movement). But it cannot be said that Blacks are on an equal basis with Caucasians in all aspects of American life. Just because the country elected Obama as president does not mean that Blacks are now on an equal footing. An ABC News / ashington Post poll (2010)…
Netter, Sarah. (2010). Racism in Obama's America One Year Later. ABC News. Retrieved May 13, 2010, from http://abcnews.go.com/ .
Pew Social Trends. (2010). Blacks Upbeat about Black Progress, Prospects. Retrieved May 13,
2010, from http://pewsocialtrends.org/pubs/749/blacks-upbeat-about-black-progress-obama-election .
Sitkoff, Harvard. (1981). The Struggle for Black Equality, 1954-1980. New York: Hill & Wang.
The Founding Fathers stated in the Declaration of Independence (1776) that “all men are created equal”—but it was a statement that only rang partially true if one is to judge by their actions. Even though Thomas Paine (1791) had identified the “Rights of Man” in his treatise by the same name, the Americans were not really interested in applying Enlightenment philosophy to its fullest, for they still wished to deny the Negro his fair share of equality. Slavery persisted for nearly another century and it took the Civil War to bring that issue to the fore, with the Great Emancipator finally taking the first steps in freeing slaves in states still occupied by the Rebels of the South. However, Emancipation Proclamation was still hardly the turning point in African-American relations that was needed—and Lincoln himself had been working on a plan that would see the slaves deported to a new…
Justice or Equality
For years now, we have been taught to fight for equality: equality this and equality that. One of the major things we have been taught about equality is that women are equivalent to men and should be treated the same. This is based on the argument that equality involves treating every individual the same regardless of whether he/she is male or female. However, that is not the case. Women are not created equally to men, nor are we the same, but rather similar to each other. Women are set out to be different from men, and men are set up to be different from women. For instance, men think about things differently from the way women do, which demonstrates that men and women are not the same. Why is it that we ask for such a burden, when we can ask for fairness and just actions instead?…
ole of Family Physician
It is important for us to understand the role of a family physician before we begin our discussion on the importance of family physicians in any health care system of the community. Many reforms have been made in the health care systems of various communities all over the world. Almost all of these reforms lay their focus on the prevention as well as the treatment of any disease along with the promotion of health and management of conditions that have become a chronic problem for the patients. All of these areas are the center of the family physicians and therefore family medicine has a huge role to play in here.
In this paper, we shall look at the current health care system in Libya and see how the government and other organizations like WHO are playing their role to improve the health care system in the…
(2005). Libya country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (April 2005).
(2004). Pfizer Clear Health Communication Initiative. What it Health Literacy? [Online].
(2004). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition; 2000. [Online].
Kates N. (1997). Psychiatry and family medicine: sharing care. Can J. Psychiatry. Vol. 42:913-14.
John Stuart Mill and the idea of equality
Society typically views the triad nexus of politicians, bureaucracies and the financial elite suspiciously, believing they breach the common man’s rights, and, consequently, strives to ensure they behave as it desires. Mills argues, “the government, whether completely responsible to the people or not, will often attempt to control the expression of opinion, except when in doing so it makes itself the organ of the general intolerance of the public (pg. 376).”
The above societal attitude is understandable as this triad nexus has violated people’s will and freedom. As a result, democracies were created in which the common man is allowed to take part in national decision-making. However, in a democratic system the community will govern governmental decisions, giving rise to a self-governing nation. However, Mills warns and asserts that in democratic systems, public opinion (i.e., the majority’s opinion) quells the minority’s views…
Education and Equality of Opportunity
The issue of equality in access to education has been a long running argument and each time legislations are passed and initiatives invented towards trying to make education actually equal and accessible, there are gaping gaps that still make these efforts run short of their target goal. There are several terms that are used in the education department that need to be well understood since most have been misused and hence leading to either a stereotype view of education, or a skewed perspective that only helps to make the situation worse than it already is.
The achievement gap; this is often referred to as the disparity or difference in the performance of students in various groups. From the surface of it, it looks justifiable definition, however, these groupings that are use to measure the academic performance are quite stereotyped and the academic achievements have nothing…
Reardon S.F., (2011). The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from http://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/reardon%20whither%20opportunity%20-%20chapter%205.pdf
Teachers College Columbia University, (2005). The Academic Achievement Gap: Facts and Figures. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from http://www.tc.columbia.edu/news.htm?articleID=5183
philosophical approaches to the study of equality presume that equality is an ideal, and suggest methods by which to achieve maximum equality. However, some philosophical approaches deny the inherent value of equality or an egalitarian society. All philosophical viewpoints relate equality to morals or ethics, primarily because equality is deemed an ethical objective. Using a utilitarian philosophical perspective, equality is an ethical ideal that presumably maximizes happiness for the greatest number of people. A deontological ethical perspective would similarly note that equality is an ethical ideal, not necessarily because it leads to a consequence like happiness, but because equality is inherently good.
"Equality is a contested concept" in philosophy and politics, but equality is actually fundamental to all practical applications of political philosophy (Dworkin, 2002, p. 2). Decisions made about things like taxes or due process of law hinge on a theory of equality. Similarly, access to health care, education,…
Arneson, R. (2013). Egalitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/egalitarianism/
Dworkin, R. (2002). Sovereign Virtue. Harvard University Press.
Gosepath, S. (2007). Equality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/equality/ #DefCon
Rodrigues, T.C. (2014). Is Rawls's difference principle preferable to luck egalitarianism? 2014 Undergraduate Awards. Paper 7. Retrieved online: http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=ungradawards_2014
Same Sex Couples Should Have Marriage Equality
Same sex marriage, which is commonly known as gay marriage is described as a union or marriage between two people of similar biological sex or gender identity. Same sex marriages have generated numerous debates in the recent past given the increase in the number of gay couples and increased enactment of legislation to support these kinds of marriages. The increase in the number of same sex marriages is attributed to the consideration that marriage is a fundamental right and prohibiting these kinds of marriages amounts to violating the rights of these individuals. From a legislative point-of-view, same sex marriages have been legalized in 37 states in America and 16 countries across the globe. One of the major issues surrounding same sex marriages is whether the couples should have marriage equality. This issue or concern has generated considerable debates that have been characterized by…
Baume, Matt. "Everything You Need to Know Now About Marriage Equality in Missouri." Advocate.com. Here Media Inc., 15 Dec. 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. .
"Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples." Committee Opinion Number 574. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Sept. 2013. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. .
"Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples in New York Frequently Asked Questions." Lambda Legal- Making the Case for Equality. Lambda Legal, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. .
"MARRIAGE EQUALITY." Revel & Riot. Revel & Riot, May 2014. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. .
hen it comes to the principle of equality -- which in this time of political change, of ongoing violence perpetrated by Islamic radicalism, and the uncertainty of what climate change will bring to the people of the earth -- it is simply a concept that has appeal in a philosophical context. On Saturday June 11, a terrorist entered a nightclub in Florida with an assault rifle and murdered about 50 people. There was no equality in that instance, there was only blatant power being brought to bear against innocents. Likewise, there is no across the board equality in the United States when 1% or 2% of the citizens hold the majority of financial and political power -- and the remaining 98% of the population struggles to rise above poverty and millions of families live on the edge -- check-to-check.
Meanwhile it is the position of this paper that the…
Conservapedia.com. "Equality Principle." Retrieved June 12, 2016, from http://www.conservapedia.com . 2013
H. Bedau. "Against Equality." Justice and Equality. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
McGinley, Ali. "Detention of women: principles of equality and non-discrimination. Forced Migration Review, Issue 44, p. 31. 2013.
WOMEN'S IGHTS: EQUALITY IN THE WOKFOCE, EQUAL PAY
Women's ights: Equality in the Workplace, Equal Pay
Legislative background. The word "sex" is always an attention-getter, and when used in legislation, it can be polarizing. Public Law 82-352 (78 Stat. 241) was passed by Congress in 1964 as a civil rights statute. The Law made it a crime to discriminate in all aspects of employment on the basis of race and sex. epresentative Howard W. Smith (D-VA) added the word "sex" at the eleventh hour (O'Neill, 2011), reported to keep the bill from being passed. As a conservative Southerner, Smith was seen as an opponent of federal civil rights legislation. But Smith defended his action, explaining that he had amended the bill because of his work with the National Women's Party and his efforts to support Alice Paul. The effort to retain the word "sex" in the bill was led by…
About NOW, National Organization of Women. Retrieved http://www.now.org / organization/info.html
About Us, Women's International Forum. Retrieved http://www.iwf.org/
About Us, WorkLife Law. 2011. A Center of UC Hastings College of the Law. Retrieved http://www.worklifelaw.org/ProveitAgain.html
Thomas, M. 2011. Another equal pay day. Really? Ms. Foundation for Women. Retrieved http://ms.foundation.org/
Gender Equality in the Gulf
Historically, there has been a marked dearth of gender equality and women’s empowerment in the countries compromising the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which include Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. There are a number of reasons responsible for this situation. Firstly, these countries are all predominantly Muslim. Traditional gender roles (and stereotypes) largely exist in Islam and in countries which adhere to this faith as their national religion. Women are supposed to remain covered up in their raiment and relegated to domestic roles. The problem is that women account for approximately 50 percent of the population in the GCC countries, yet only constitute approximately 25 percent of the labor force in those countries (World Bank). Therefore, these countries are disadvantageously affected in certain aspects of economics and society because of the lack of female contributions in both of…
Obstacle omen Face in Pursuit of Equality
hen it comes to overcoming obstacles, two essays, "Ain't I a oman" and "atching Oprah infrey" from Behind the Veil," clearly show that women are encountering hindrances in chase of impartiality all over the world. However, although both essays touch on the same type of injustice which is gender inequality, they each have different themes. For instance, one delves into a country where the sexes are thoroughly kept apart from each other, where topics like sex and race are just about banned for even discussing them openly and where a severe enigma of public morality is imposed by police that are religious. However, the other touches on a period that goes back over a hundred of years where women of color were treated as cattle. Basically bought and sold by a society ran by men. Although these essays are worlds apart, they are…
Cooley, Thomas. The Norton Sampler. New York: Eighth Edition, 2013.
Jacoby, Jeff. Jeff Jacoby: Watching Oprah from behind the veil. 2 March 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/24/opinion/24iht-edjacoby.1.16446161.html?_r=0 . 3 May 2014.
436-437). In other words, official commitment to multiculturalism is just a smoke screen for many Canadian officials who believe that the Euro-Canadian way of doing things is the norm.
The limits of multiculturalism in practice are also visible in the treatment of Canadian citizens and immigrants who have dark skin color. According to Kelly (1998), African Canadians are routinely "racialized" and "othered" (that is, they are put outside of the dominant group). The manner in which African Canadians are unable to become fully-fledged Canadians even if they are born in Canada was succinctly explained by Marlene Nourbese Philip, an African Canadian essayist: "Being born elsewhere, having been fashioned in a different culture, some of us may always feel 'othered,' but then there are those -- our children, nephews, nieces, grandchildren -- born here, who are as Canadian as snow and ice, and yet, merely because of their darker skins, are…
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010a) Chapter 10, Multiculturalism in Canada: "Living together with differences." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p283-308).
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010b) Chapter 11, "Institutional Inclusiveness: Putting Multiculturalism to work." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p309-343; 362-374).
Kelly, J. (1998) Under the Gaze: Learning to be Black in White Society. Fernwood publishing, Blackpoint Nova Scotia.
Millar. J. (1996a) Chapter 13, "Our greatest need today is proper education": Winding down the system. In Shingwauk's vision: A history of Native residential schools (p377-405; 526-535) Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
The gender-based sexual double standard is logically indefensible on any level.
Piercing the thin veil of justifications offered supporting it requires little more than substitution of the identity of the subjects in any hypothetical or analogy based on the premise. Nevertheless, it persists throughout most of American culture, and sadly, its manifestations in the Western World are infinitely more benign than the cruelty it inspires elsewhere. Ultimately, its roots lie both in the usefulness of rationalization for justifying the truly immoral pursuit of sexual conquests by deception, and (likely) male psychological fears of sexual inadequacy whose details far exceed the scope of this essay.
Baker, ., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey eports on Sexual behavior in…
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey Reports on Sexual behavior in the Human Male and Female. New York: Mentor
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essential of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Rebirth of Feminism
The women's movement was spurred on by some dastardly behavior and it has made an immeasurable amount of progress over the years, decades and generations. hile most of the progress could not and should not be rolled back, there is perhaps a moment where perhaps the women's movement has become just a little too over-zealous in their aims and ideas and they perhaps need to dial it back just a little bit. This idea can be gleaned from the work of Sara Evans in which she talks about the progress and force that the women's movement has had and still does have. hile feminism is still a work in progress and some work is still needed, the definition of success and what the priorities are needs to be refined as well as a more broad-based view of the world we live in and how it must be…
Bloom, Alexander. Long time gone: looking back at sixties America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
CBS. "In a first, women surpass men in college degrees." CBSNews. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/in-a-first-women-surpass-men-in-college-degrees / (accessed June 18, 2014).
WorldBank. "Ratio of female to male labor force participation rate (%) (modeled ILO estimate)." Data. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.CACT.FM.ZS (accessed June 19, 2014).
Bloom, Alexander. Long time gone: looking back at sixties America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
In order to reduce the negative implications of social inequality, based on race, ethnicity or even economic features, researcher James Jackson promotes three broad recommendations. They are as follows:
development of a sustained, comprehensive focus by government and private and public organizations on providing greater economic opportunities in education, employment and intergenerational transfer of wealth enforcement of existing Civil ights legislation and regulations to eliminate continuing, persistent racial and ethnic discrimination in housing, employment, schooling and the criminal justice system, and identification of common objectives among racial and ethnic minority groups to produce workable, long-lasting coalitions" (Jackson)
The past century has witnessed improvements in the conditions of the white immigrants to the United States and this has materialized in reduced crimes and punishments within the Chinese and Japanese communities. The improvements in their situation have been based on increasing socioeconomic status. The same cannot however be said about…
Hawkins, D.F., Herring, C., Race, Crime and Punishment: Old Controversies and New Challenges
Jackson, J.S., African-American Prospects in the 21st Century: A Framework for Strategies and Policies
Human rights in human resources
'Equality is a juridical principle . . . Difference is an existential principle which concerns the modes of being human, the peculiarity of one's own experiences, goals, possibilities, and one's sense of existence in a given situation and the situations one wants to create for oneself. The difference between woman and man is the basic difference of humankind [. . .] Equality is what is offered as legal rights to colonized people. And what is imposed on them as culture.'
Carla Lonzi's (1970) early insights into the shift in global situations in the workplace, where transformations in the international economy would leave workers wide open to inexplicable cultural differences in rights and responsibilities to their companies. The foregoing essay looks at the interchange of corporate workday experiences and the emergent human rights as human resources in the South American context. Based on Brazilian organizational…
Enloe, Cynthia (1990). Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Sense of Feminist International Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jaquette, Jane S., ed. (2009). Feminist Agendas and Democracy in Latin America. Durham: Duke University Press.
Lonzi, Carla (1970). 'Let's Spit on Hegel.' Bono, Paula & Sandra Kemp, eds. Italian Feminist Thought: A Reader. Oxford & Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 41.
UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm#article5
Women Voting Rights
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief essay that centers on a few particular topics as it relates to women and their place and function within the suffrage movement as well as other pushes for equal rights including in the military, the workforce and so forth. The particular events and topics that will be touched upon will include women and work, women's new deal, working for victory: women and war, women in the military and working women in war time. While women are still facing equality-related struggles now, it was much worse for them in the 1800's and beyond and even into some of the 1900's.
When it comes to women and work, the reasons for their slow progress over the duration of the existence of the United States as well as beyond that is not hard to figure out. Indeed, women…
Business Ethics and the Art of Inclusion: Women in White Collar America
The quantity of female CEOs at Fortune 500 companies decreased by 25% in 2018, falling from 32 to 24: this means that only 4.8 percent of the most profitable 500 firms in the world are run by women in America (Stewart, 2018). How one can achieve inclusiveness within the workplace is definitely a hot-button issue in today’s workplace, particularly given the climate. Social movements for equality and safety in the workplace for all genders such as the #metoo and #timesup movement have made companies large and small look inwards and attempt to clean house, revising their practices. This is in part because of numerous corporate scandals such as the ones at Nike and Uber that have shown white collar America still often does not provide a balanced work environment for women, even in the 21st century. This paper…
God Given Rights:
Understanding America's Equality and Freedom
The poem "On Being Brought to America" by Phillis Wheatley and The Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson share similarities on the ideals that America possesses. Each of these writings argues for their God given rights, claiming every person is equal. Each must start new: One as a Christian, the others as a government. It is the bravery and the challenge in these writings that fascinate readers and help them understand America's growth process into the country it now proudly is.
Wheatley writes a poem discussing the introduction to both America and the Christian faith. The author feels as though she was brought to America out of kindness, and is thankful for the introduction to Christianity. She continues on to discuss the social factors, asking why her race is good enough for God, but not for the other Americans. When asking,…
There has been a lot of progress when it comes to gender diversity. However, a lot of work remains to be done. Indeed, there is a cacophony of issues that keep cropping up including talk about the glass escalator vs. the glass ceiling, the myth that women are on equal status with men to this very day, the historical role of gender and diversity over the course of the history of the United States, the very different definitions of sex and gender and so forth. The recent Supreme Court of the United States decision that ensconced gay marriage as being an equal right that people in the LGBT community should enjoy as a civil right was a milestone moment. While this is an encouraging event and people in the workplace should not allow sexual behavior or gender/sexual identity to become an issue, there is still a lot of ignorance and…
Women have not played a significant role in law enforcement until recently, and especially since the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission legislation. Law enforcement continues to be a male-dominated profession, although women are becoming increasingly visible at multiple levels of the profession. Estimated representation of women in law enforcement ranges from 2 to 15%, depending on the jurisdiction/department, the rank/role, and the year of the survey (Blackstock, 2015, Horne, 2006; Price, 1996). Although women remain underrepresented in law enforcement, attitudes and norms may be changing significantly to encourage more women to achieve positions of power. Interestingly, African-American women comprise thirty percent of all female-held law enforcement positions; in contrast, African-American men comprise fifteen percent of all male-held law enforcement positions.
A review of literature shows what barriers women have encountered in law enforcement, from the time of job consideration and recruitment, through job satisfaction and role fulfillment, to…
Blackstock, H. (2015). Interview.
Flanagan, D. (n.d.). Women in policing. PB&J 1(1). Retrieved online: http://www.wtamu.edu/webres/File/Academics/College%20of%20Education%20and%20Social%20Sciences/Department%20of%20Political%20Science%20and%20Criminal%20Justice/PBJ/2009/1n1/1n1_02Flanagan.pdf
Harrington, P.E. (2002). Advice to Women Beginning a Career in Policing. Women & Criminal Justice, 14(1), 1-13.
Harrison, J. (2012). Women in law enforcement. Women and Criminal Justice 22(3): 226-238.
When she died in Toronto, after having a stroke while playing cards, her last words were "oddamn it, why did you lead that?" (Falk 315).
Until the end, she was strong, feisty and a true role model for all humans who strongly believe in and want to promote a cause. In oldman's biography, Falk clearly recognizes that oldman is no saint or a andhi, and will never be remembered as such. However, "Emma oldman provided an example for all women in the affirmation of her sexuality and her internal struggle with gender norms; she provided an example for all human beings in her total disrespect for the evil of institutions. She advocated freedom, which is admirable. But she lived freely in a world enslaved, which is heroic."
American Civil Liberties Union. News Reports. 7 August, 2007. http://www.aclu.org/safefree/nsaspying/31194prs20070804.html
Falk, Serena. Love, Anarchy and Emma oldman New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
Goldman, Emma. Anarchism and Other Essays. New York: Mother Earth Publishing,
Jewish Women's Archive. Emma Goldman. 6 August, 2007 http://www.jwa.org/exhibits/wov/goldman/deport.html
People esourcing and Development -- Case Study eport
People esourcing and Development
People esourcing and Development -- Case Study eport
Organizations need to implement effective H policies at their workplace in order to manage their human capital in an effective an efficient fashion. These policies are designed in the light of local laws and regulations on different industrial relation issues like anti-discrimination and equality, cultural diversity management, recruitment of right individuals at the right positions within the workplace, and others. This paper presents a case study report on the human resource management policies of EasyGlaze Ltd. -- a growing organization that intends to hire individuals and managers at different organizational levels in order to meet the increased need of human capital for its expanded business operations. The paper is divided into four major sections. The first part describes the anti-discrimination and equality legislation that EasyGlaze will have to…
Gennard, J. & Judge, G. 2006, Employee Relations, 3rd Edition. U.S.: CIPD passim
Koontz, H. & Weihrich, H. 2010, Essentials of Management: an international perspective, 7th Edition. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill
Saxena, P. 2009, Principles of Management: A Modern Approach, 1st Edition. India: Global India Publications
Tripathi, P.C. & Reddy, P.N. 2006, Principles of Management, 3rd Edition. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill
If one were to argue that both should have the opportunity to engage in their hobby, the question becomes how one deals with the fact that money allocated to the fisherman would leave that person with a glut as compared to how the photographer would have to spend their allocation. If the photography cost $100 and the fishing cost $20, both would have to be given $100 to allocate the same amount of money but the fisherman would be left with $80 after everything was paid for while the photographer would be broke. One might suggest giving $20 to the fisherman and $100 to the photographer, but Cohen notes that the question of "cost of taste" cannot be removed from this argument. The Cohen article is concluded by a talk about capabilities, not all that dissimilar from the Andreson offering, starting on page 941 (Cohen, 1989).
Compare and Contrast
Anderson, Elizabeth. "What is the Point of Equality." Ethics 109.2 (1999): 287-337. Print.
Cohen, G.A. "On the Currency of Egalitarian Justice." Ethics 99.4 (1989): 906-944. Print.
I do not feel that the state should be allowed to draft marriage terms that do not adequately protect the liberty and equality of each spouse. I believe that cultures of the world are slowing moving towards a global culture that embraces liberty and equality through globalization and advances of information technologies. In fact, this point seems evident in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 16 of this document states (the United Nations, N.d.):
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection…
Exploring Constitutional Conflicts. (N.d.). The Right to Marry. Retrieved from Exploring Constitutional Conflicts: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/righttomarry.htm
The United Nations. (N.d.). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved from the United Nations: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
Younus, F. (2013, January 28). Why Ban Cousin Marriages? Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/faheem-younus/why-ban-cousin-marriages_b_2567162.html
Though it is not often popular to say, it must be acknowledged that certain jobs in law enforcement -- specifically police and corrections officers -- attract personalities with control issues or problems with aggression. This is not meant to suggest that all or even most people who occupy these jobs have these issues, but the appeal of these jobs to people who do have these qualities should be obvious. The essence of such jobs is to maintain order, and in the case of corrections officers it is to exert control over a population of usually compliant but unwilling individuals. For those with an axe to grind, whether consciously or not, this can look like an appealing outlet for aggressive behaviors in a scenario where these behaviors are often required and will seldom, it is assumed, lead to reprimand or punishment.
The fact that the problem has been allowed to persist…
social, economic, and political changes the country as experienced since 1783 are fulfilling the promises of the Revolution?
The American revolutionary war is one of the most significant events in the history of today's United States of America. It involved a war between the American colonies and Great Britain. This great historical event took place in the years 1775 to 1783 and led to the formation of United States of America. Conflicts leading to the war of independence arose from the tension between the 13 colonies of North America's residents and the Britain colonial government. The tensions leading to the America's independence war emerged from attempts by British government to raise revenue by taxing her colonies.
The war with Great Britain created awareness to Americans and pushed the nation into the search for a new and long-lasting society based on equality, liberty and independent ideas. Following the war of…
Morton, C.J. The American Revolution. United States of America: Green wood press, 2003. Print
Frank, A. American Revolution: People and perspectives. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. Print
The text deals at length and often with a great variety of matters which bear on the human condition, but there are matters which would certainly have no place in a modern treatise on politics"
Therefore, it is rather hard to determine the extent to which Plato used this means of communication, the dialogues, to point out to the actual necessities of the society he lived in and the aspects that needed changes. In particular, the arguments he provides from the realities of the time are provided by Plato to merely support his own line of thought related to the philosophical ideas on happiness and justice.
An aspect that firmly relates to the way in which the "Republic" is constructed and that uses the arguments on the ideal state is related to the role the state may have in providing its citizens (here, the term "citizen" must be understood as…
Benjamin Jowett, trans. The Republic by Plato. (2003-2012) Online version at http://www.literaturepage.com/read/therepublic.htm
Berstein, Serge, and Pierre Milza. Histoire de l'Europe. (Paris: Hatier, 1994)
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. Les Grandes Doctrines. (Paris: Ellipses, 1998)
Dunleavy, Patrick, and Brendan O'Leary. Theories of the state. The Politics of Liberal Democracy. (London and New York: Macmillan and Meredith, 1987)
International Human ights, Women and Gender
International Human ights: Women and Gender
Women are the most assaulted segment of the human society. A shocking statistic reveals that a majority of the females are subjected to violence and sexual violence by the time they reach their late teens (Fergus, 2012).
Definitions of Violence against women, constitutes the mental and physical torture they are subjected to by way of restricting their right to freedom in the broader sense of the term. The crimes and exploitation against younger girls implies, by definition, violence based on gender discrimination. It has been observed that this act of violence is fallout of the negligence shown towards equality of the female child and womenfolk in general (Fergus, 2012).
The act of violence exposes the women and specifically the younger female child to isolation, loss of identity, unhealthy overall development, psychological and social stigma (WHO, 2006) and hence…
Arbour, L. (2007). Human Rights. Yes! Human Rights Resource Center, University of Minnesota.
Bhattacharya, D. (2013). Global Health Disputes and Disparities: A Critical Appraisal of International Law and Population Health. Routledge.
CEDAW (n.d.). Strengthening Health System Responses to Gender-based Violence in Eastern Europe & Central Asia: A programmatic package. A United Nations Publication.
CEDAW. (2010). General recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. United Nations Publications.
omen struggles in EL
The rights of women in society have always been a topic shrouded in a great deal of discussion. In many ways women are still struggling for equality within society and will likely continue to struggle for some years to come. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on how this theme of women's rights has informed English Literature and the manner in which it has been expressed including those thing that have changed and those things that have remained constant. More specifically the research will focus on women's rights in English literature from the Romantic Age until the 21st century.
The Romantic Age
In the real of English literature the Romantic age (1789-1830) was an extremely important time because it marked a new birth in the type literature that was written and the manner in which readers were exposed to the literature. As it pertains…
Bronte, Charlotte. (1847) Jane Eyre. London, England: Smith, Elder & Co
Rich, A. (1995) Of Woman Born - Motherhood As Experience And Institution
Showalter, E. (1982). A literature of their own. Princeton University Press
Woolf. V. (1989) A Room of Ones Own.
assumes the notion that it would be best to have "a system of economic
enterprises collectively owned and democratically governed by all the
people who work in them," meaning that he differs from the notions of Okun
and the Friedman's by proposing something radically different to promote
the ultimate goal of democracy (Dahl 92). Neither equality nor freedom is
necessary to fix the relationship between the economy and democracy, but
rather a completely different and even radical outlook on the relationship
between the economy and government can solve the dilemma. Furthermore Dahl
argues to how it is possible to retain the democratic principle within
firms, and prevent problems such as oligarchy. These notions in which the
economy becomes compatible with the political notions are completely
different than the Friedman's and Okun's notion that there lies a problem
with democracy. Dahl is even casting serious doubt on Tocqueville's long…
This includes previously mentioned measures such as increased governmental spending, directing funds towards education and health sectors etc.
Referring to Liberalism, we should first of all point out that liberalism does not necessarily limit its perceptions only to economic equality, as is the case with Socialism, but it extends its beliefs to the sector of civil and individual equality. This means that liberalism has always found itself as a promoter of human rights, as a sustainer of political freedom and the right to self - determination.
Going forth from these social and political perceptions, the social equality that liberalism promotes naturally leads to a policy of tolerance at a societal level. Liberal governances are generally know to be tolerant in terms of rights for social or religious minorities.
On the other hand, in terms of economic policies, liberalism promotes equality rather through the laissez-faire philosophy, through the capacity of the…
Not only is this situation frustrating for women who must work twice as long, or sometimes longer, then men when they combine their responsibilities of employment and home maintenance, but also it becomes stressful for the women in each family. Improving this issue will increase gender equality because it will make men and women's roles in the home more equal, relieving the short-term effects of the situation, which is stress for the family's women, and long-term effects, which are divorce and decaying family relations. This issue is more important than others because it not only affects the gender roles in society, but it also has an impact on the stability of the family.
In Michael Moore's recent film, Sicko, the documentary film maker discusses a situation in France in which the government sponsors a helper to lend aid to women who have recently had a baby. In order…
Equality Between Men and Women in Sweden." Ministry of Integration and Gender
Equality. 21 June 2004. Government Offices of Sweden. 11 August 2008 http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/4096 .
Gender Equality in Sweden." Sweden.Se. n.d. Sweden.Se. 11 August 2008. http://www.sweden.se/templates/cs/FactSheet____17932.aspx .
Kucera, Lee. "A Woman's Second Shift." The Cupertino Courier. 18 August 1999.
These organizations have championed global labors standards prior to becoming an agency promoting UN's newly formed standards and policies.
Out of all the major facets of association, the rights of trade unions have continued to contribute to the growth of equality and liberty across the world. Recently, freedom experienced by trade unions is fundamental in the consolidation and the emergence of democracy in countries such as South Africa, Serbia, Philippines, Nigeria, Chile, and Poland. With the increasing force of great repression and risk, employees are seeking to arrange themselves in free trade associations. Free trade associations strive to expand democracy, overthrow dictatorship, and halt the economic oppression after organizing themselves. It is unsurprising that authoritarian states try to curb the formation of free trade associations. They often impose state dominated associations in controlling the workforce.
Currently, free associations are portraying a politically and economically anachronistic, something that belongs to the…
The author of this report will offer a summary of two important laws and regulations when it comes to employment in the United Kingdom. Those two pieces of law will be the Employment Rights Act of 1996, commonly known as ERA 1996, and the Equality Act of 2010, commonly known as the EA 2010. For both laws, the particulars, specifics and common requirements for all parties involved, both employee and employer, will be covered. While the two laws covered in this report were pass nearly a generation apart, both of them hold a very important place in the employment law paradigm in the United Kingdom.
Employment Rights Act of 1996
Scope & Summary
There are several important requirements and regulations when it comes to the Employment Rights Act of 1996. When an employee starts work with an employer, they are obligated to get a summary of terms and requirements. As…
Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?
If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).
ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…
"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html
Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005
"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html
Dr. Asma Barlas. "Does the Qur'an Support Gender Equality? Or, Do I have the autonomy to answer this question?"
Questions about issues raised by the author of the dossier
The author gives a talk about whether the Qur'an supports gender equality and before the speaker delves in the matter, she decides to look at the pre-structure of understanding because it reflects on things that people encounter. The speaker reiterates why the poster includes the picture of a veiled woman that shows that the burqa has been used to define the lives of Muslim women. Therefore, the underlying question seeks to resolve whether Orientalism is supported. Her arguments are in line with the words of the immigration minister who asserted that they want to see the individual they are communicating with: she asserted the veiled woman's face should be her face on the poster. From this poster, they are showing that…
Barlas, A. (2006). Does the Qur'an Support Gender Equality? Or, Do I Have the Autonomy to Answer this Question? Keynote Address. Workshop on Islam and Autonomy at the University of Groningen.
Barlas, A. (2005). Globalizing Equality: Muslim Women, Theology, and Feminisms in on Shifting Ground, Ed. Fera Simone. New York: Feminist Press.
Crouch, G. (2006). Dutch Consider Banning Burqas In Public. NYT.
Hidayatullah, A. A. (2014). Feminist Edges of The Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press.