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EICSSON'S NEGOTIATIONS WITH CHINESE TELECOMMUNICATIONS
eview case study Ericsson's negotiations Chinese telecommunications organisations. write a Discussion posting describes Ericsson effective ineffective approach cross-cultural management. In explaining answer, make specific reference cultural dimensions: communication, ethics, relationships, marketing, human resource management, cultural characteristics ( models studied) specific Swedish Chinese culture.
Ericsson's Negotiations with Chinese Telecommunications
Ericsson being among the world leader in telecommunication sought to sell part of its operation in China and a joint venture of its establishment. At the time of the negotiations, Ericson's sales in the global market were U.S.$26 billion with 30% share in global mobile infrastructure. In china the corporation market share was 40% (Blackman, 1997). The initial investment of Ericsson in china was through desk telephone handsets to Shanghai. From this the country has continued to invest in China and also opened up representative office. This has seen the relations between China and Ericsson grow explosively…
Blackman, C. (1997). Negotiating China: Case studies and strategies. St. Leonards, . Australia: Allen & Unwin. .
Earley, P. (1997). Face, harmony, and social structure: An analysis of organizational behavior across cultures. . New York: Oxford University Press.
Gesteland, R.R. (2002). Cross-Cultural Business Behaviour (3rd edn.) Copenhagen: Business School Press, Copenhagen.
There were a number of things that Ericsson did that were effective in this situation. One was that Ericsson was keen to establish relationships with the Chinese delegation, for example bringing the delegation to Sweden and playing host.to the delegation. This helps to build trust with the Chinese delegation, something that is important in the negotiation.
Something else that Ericsson got right was understanding the nature of the relationship with the Chinese. The Chinese view business relationships as long-term endeavours, which is why they want to do business with "big mountains." As such, the Ericsson managers behaved well when they reminded themselves that the negotiations were long-term and for the good of the company. This approach is in line with how the Chinese viewed the relationship, so taking this approach avoided needless conflict or miscommunication.
One thing that might not have been as effective is treating the Chinese like…
Dong, Keyong & Liu, Ying. (2010). Cross-cultural management in China. Cross-Cultural Management: An International Journal. Vol. 17 (3) 223-243. Retrieved February 28, 2013 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1876002&show=abstract
Leung, Kwok; Brew, Frances; Zhang, Zhi-Xue; Zhang, Yan. (2010). Harmony and conflict: A cross-cultural investigation in China and Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Vol. 42 (5) 795-816. Retrieved February 28, 2013 from http://jcc.sagepub.com/content/42/5/795.short
Soderberg, Anne-Marie. & Holden, Nigel. (2002). Rethinking cross-cultural management in a globalizing business world. International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management. Vol. 2 (1) 103-121. Retrieved February 28, 2013 from http://ccm.sagepub.com/content/2/1/103.short
mobile phone and telecommunications industry is one of the fastest changing industry in the world. Within short periods of time, new technologies and designs are appearing on the market and it is often a challenge to keep pace with them. Further more, the latest change have shown a certain translation from the primary objective of such a product, communicating at all times, transforming it into a product that carries visual and sonic devices as well.
According to David Mery, the mobile phone market has five main characteristics, of which two are of particular interest for us. Mobile phones target a "mass-market of consumer, enterprise and professional users" and the "manufacturers need to differentiate their products in order to innovate and compete in a fast-evolving market"
. These two characteristics of the market will have a certain impact on the final strategic decision we will be taking.
In 2005, the forecasts…
1. Sony Ericsson website. On the Internet at http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc=global& lc=en& ver=4001& template=pc3_1_1& zone=pc& lm=pc3& prid=3679
3. Bartlett, Duncan. Nokia's battle to stay world's number one. BBC World Service. February 2005. On the Internet at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4257999.stm Data from Strategy Analytics.
4. Mery, David. Why is a different operating system needed? Symbian Ltd.Revision: 3.0 October 2003
Type of Intervention / Changes: A new focus on PC-related systems, a new relationship with Microsoft, and a shift in resources to the developing world
Sony's current strategy is to make inroads into the American market with Microsoft and to focus on replicating the PC experience on mobile devices, to continue its European, luxury models with Symbian, and to expand its base in the developing world, thus adopting a multi-pronged strategy.
Comment on Sufficiency of Change Initiatives
In general, the multifaceted approach seems wise, especially given the cutthroat competition in the mobile market. One neglected feature may be the cost or value factor as there is currently such a focus on innovation in the market. The consumer desire to access the new technology at a more reasonable price might be one way of circumventing Apple's dominance.
Gaining an inroad in the PC-driven mobile market does seem to be the…
Schenker, Jennifer L. (11 Feb 2008). "Who will control the heart of handsets?" Business
Retrieved 25 Feb 2008 at http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/feb2008/gb20080212_034898.htm?chan=globalbiz_special+report+ -- +mobile+world+congress+2008_special+report+-+mobile+world+congress+2008
Sony Ericsson's CEO talks strategy." (11 Feb 2008). Business Week. Retrieved 25 Feb 2008 at http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/feb2008/gb20080211_293680.htm?chan=search
A lack of cultural competence can explain the moral binaries that surround American allegations of bribery in cases like that of Ericsson. Bribery is a common and entrenched way of doing business in Asia and Africa: the continents on which the alleged briberies occurred (Turula 1). Bribery is not a black versus white ethical issue, which is why Carroll and Schultz describe it as a “subject of continuing debate, more than any other form of corruption (319). As Carroll and Schultz point out, “some countries of the world continue to assert that [bribes] are culturally obligatory or defensible,” with some businesspeople arguing they are “necessary,” (319). In the Ericsson suit, none of the people suspected of bribery are making any such claims because they are being investigated by the American Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Department of Justice (DOJ), neither of which take kindly to bribery regardless of…
As cloud computing became more and more popular, many major business names jumped at the chance to execute cloud strategies and services within their IT management strategies. Ericsson was one of those companies and has seen major benefits in terms of cost reduction, ease of automatic software updates, increased capabilities of remote access, and on-demand availability. Since its adoption of AWS services as provided from Amazon, it has seen vast benefits. Essentially, several cloud services provided by Amazon have helped increase the company's scalability with relatively little initial investments (Amazon, 2012). According to the research, Ericsson has benefited from cloud services ability to "lead to efficiency gains, operational flexibility, and substantial cost savings" (Ericsson, 2012, p 10). Cost reductions occur in the ability to cut loose expensive hardware and in house servers that would be needed to handle so much data without the use of cloud strategies. ather…
Amazon Web Services. (2012). AWS case study: Ericsson. AWS Products and Solutions. Retrieved August 23, 2012 from http://aws.amazon.com/solutions/case-studies/ericsson/
Ericsson. (2012). The telecom cloud opportunity: How telecom operators can leverage their unique advantages in the emerging cloud market. Ericsson Discussion Paper. Retrieved August 23, 2012 from http://www.ericsson.com/res/site_AU/docs/2012/ericsson_telecom_cloud_discussion_paper.pdf
Tyson, Bruce. (2010). Amazon Web Services (AWS): Learn why Amazon leads cloud computing. Helium. Retrieved August 23, 2012 from http://www.helium.com/items/1841853-amazon-web-services-aws-learn-why-amazon-leads-cloud-computing
Ericsson opted for Amazon Web Services (AWS) because of several features that AWS offered. There is no evidence presented in this case study with respect to the actual accrued benefits that Ericsson enjoyed. Furthermore, the information is presented by Amazon, who is selling this service. That makes this a source completely lacking in credibility. But Amazon does offer that "Ericsson explains that is has several Software as a Service initiatives that have or will soon need an infrastructure as a service provider." This does not really tell us anything -- we know that Ericsson believes it needs AWS because it paid for it. One of the stated benefits for Ericsson is that AWS gives it multiple global hosting centers -- this might well be a benefit of other providers but it is definitely a benefit of AWS that Ericsson felt was critical. This is one of the major…
AWS. (2014) Amazon S3. Amazon Web Services. Retrieved May 30, 2014 from http://aws.amazon.com/s3/
AWS. (2014). EC2. Amazon Web Services Retrieved May 30, 2014 from http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/
AWS. (2014). RightScale Inc. Amazon Web Services Retrieved May 30, 2014 from http://aws.amazon.com/customerapps/843
Carlin, S. & Curran, K. (2011). Cloud computing security. International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence. Vol. 3 (1) 14-19.
The U.S. government, for example, could back the CDMA technology by promising China that it would support its candidature for the WTO, where eventually China acceded.
3. To what extent do economic factors?
The economic factors are essential in explaining the global leadership of GSM, mainly because of the economies of scale that can be made when dealing with the GSM technology. The economies of scale are evident in terms of the equipment, going as far as the handsets, for example. This means that despite a cost advantage for the CMDA, the economies of scale obtained from the GSM technology can virtually nullify this and make GSM more profitable.
On the Chinese market, economic considerations also played an important role in the competition between GSM and CMDA. First of all, China Unicom had already invested significant sums of money in the development of a wireless network based on GSM, so…
Market penetration is one strategy that many businesses consider when they decide to expand their business operation to other regions but within the same market. Market penetration usually involves the establishment of business relationship to other region. With market penetration, businesses will be able to measure their success. For instance, the measure of percentage of sales in different region is one way to determine where a company is harvesting success and where it needs improvement in terms of operation and provision of services.
An example of a company that successfully gains from market penetration is FSI International, Inc., a supplier of surface conditioning equipment and technology for microelectronics manufacturing (FSI-International.COM). Since FSI decided to penetrate the Asian market with direct sales and support, they found a considerable growth in revenue. According to Electronic News Online, 40% of FSI's current sales in 2004 were from Asian customers. This is equivalent to…
2004. FSI Enjoying Greater Asian Market Penetration.
Retrieved on 25 October 2004, from Electronic News Online. Web site:
http://www.reed-electronics.com/electronicnews/article/CA452884?industryid=22115& ; industry=Supply+Chain
FSI International, Inc.
By opening stock options to middle management and employees, it was assumed that better employee performance would be incentivized. As company stock prices go up, it creates a greater spread between the option price when it was granted to the employee and the hypothetical sale price at the end of the vesting period. Consistently better performance over a longer period of time would yield greater reward when the option is exercised. However, as Hall and Murphy again point out, "even if employees can increase the value of the firm, their share of that gain through their option holdings is very small. Combining this enormous free-rider problem with the risk imposed on employees through stock-based pay, it seems obvious that cash-based incentive plans based on objective or subjective performance measures can provide stronger and more efficient pay-performance incentives."
Despite many early statements in the life of the practice that employee stock…
Calomiris, C. a. (2004, 01-08). Options Pricing and Accounting Practice. Retrieved 12-13, 2010, from Should We Expense Stock Options: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:tDxxxPDG3cwJ:www0.gsb.columbia.edu/faculty/ccalomiris/papers/Options%2520Pricing%2520and%2520Accounting%2520Practice.pdf+Stock+options+are+an+expense&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShtdjeKitOxVfuENYIeyxgGdUiOjraoDHCLwH-WWxt9w30pnL310kAkP21iDHhBpErxlJ6mC_GQS6NEu7L3UGdc6T1ky33N1e7CFGL_NSZAn5ntALxB4KVgA2vjEiww911f6x4d&sig=AHIEtbRx6dSwLFzFHZnpHTpV0lsNIVpCYw
Core, J. a. (2001). Stock option plans for non-executive eployees. Journal of Financial Economics (61), 253-287.
Engel, E. a. (2001, Jan.). The Roles of Performance Measures and Monitoring in Annual Governance Decisions in Entrepreneurial Firms. Retrieved 12-13, 2010, from an Analysis of Executive Compensation, Ownership, and Control in Closely Held Firms: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:5vp-iWjpPb4J:faculty.chicagobooth.edu/ellen.engel/research/egh-rev-11_2.pdf+%E2%80%98%E2%80%98Stock-based+pay+in+new+economy+firms%E2%80%99%E2%80%99.+Journal+of+Accounting+and+Economics,&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESifIyqUeDNwUoNkeDagDN_o40V-Jd9R56ECpswKKWzRQRdz_dZzpDHfcmTAKvZCDwZPpz9ZtR51HmXhCZ408jF-cv485C4m1xIxTy2zfTfQ4rp_g-4KFhIUdwKFVtmNCOWy82W5&sig=AHIEtbQapxbbbr0z-APPf2sdFQgWOYglLA
Glater, J. (2009, March 26). Stock Options Are Adjusted After Many Share Prices Fall. New York Times, p. B1.
BluetoothTM is a low cost, low power, short-range radio technology- originally perceived as cable replacement alternative for the cable / wire connected devices such as mobile phone hand, headsets, and portable computers. The BluetoothTM's goals expanded to include standardized wireless communications between any electrical devices and created a notion of Personal Area Network. The write-up traces history of BluetoothTM starting with its unusual name to formation of Special Interest Group, SIG's formation, its growth culminating into implementation of version 1.0b.
Version 1.0 of the Bluetooth came out in 1999-starting as early as 1994 by engineers from Ericsson. The specification is named after Harald Blatand- a tenth century Viking. Ericsson Corp. founded the Bluetooth SIG in February 1998, Intel Corp., IBM Corp., Toshiba Corp., and Nokia Mobile Phones. In December 1999, core promoters group enlarged to include four major players, namely, Micorsoft, Lucent, 3 Com and Motorola.
Then, the components of…
Bluetooth Revealed, Brent, Miller. September 2000, Prentice Hall PTR
Bluetooth Demystified, Nathan Muller, J.J. September 2000, Prentice Hall PTR
Bharti Airtel is the world's fifth largest telecom company and it is famous for outsourcing everything except finance, marketing and sales. In the early days Bharti used to do all the business processes itself and it used to cost much more. Then they came up with the idea of outsourcing everything and just keep the departments of core competencies. And they kept marketing because in today's world every telecom company is providing the same services. The only difference between them is brand positioning that is how a product or a brand's image is in the consumer's mind. So, they made sure they pay specialized attention on that and for that they hired the famous Asian musician A. ehman for the special Airtel tune that attracted people and associated them with AirTel.
Airtel outsourced their IT processes to IBM, entire network operations to Ericsson and Siemens along with…
Bharti Airtel -- "Perfect example of outsourcing all its activities! But can it succeed in Africa?. (n.d.). India Business Blog | Finance Telecom Stock Market. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from http://trak.in/tags/business/2010/09/20/bharti-airtel-outsourcing-africa-business/
Bureu, E. (2010, April 1). Ericsson wins Airtel's $1.3-billion outsourcing project - Economic Times. Featured Articles From The Economic Times. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2010-04-01/news/28469946_1_network-outsourcing-maintenance-and-management-contract-ericsson
Has Airtel outsourced too much? (n.d.). India Business Blog | Finance Telecom Stock Market. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from http://trak.in/tags/business/2009/06/12/has-airtel-outsourced-too-much/
particularly topical instance, lets say the internet or the SMS service that everybody is abundantly using these days. There are different shades of technology that color this kind of communication between two communicating devices like the cell phones. Following are the three main types of platforms for this technology and their suitability with the consumers: Wireless Access Protocol, General Packet Radio Service, and the third generation Universal Mobile Telecommunication System.
The acronym WAP stands for Wireless Access Protocol. This simply means that it is through WAP the wireless devices communicate. A lot of different types of data can be sent via a WAP. One of the main uses of WAP is in cellular phones and the exchange of data being voice or short messages. WAP is technically compatible with most of the GSM services and clients. There can be either a dedicated WAP server or a traditional web server to…
Ericsson Website: http://www.ericsson.com/technology/GPRS.shtml , http://www.ericsson.com/technology/WAP.shtml (Accessed April 15, 2002)
DSC Website: http://www.dsc.net/whitepapers/wap.html (Accessed April 15, 2002)
Erickson Kintsch Argument
Erickson and Kintsch Argument
In the world of psychology, there are number of theories which are used to understand the impact of various events and stimuli on long-term memory. Each one discusses these transformations and the lasting impacts on everyone. To fully understand what is taking place requires focusing on the ideas from: Cui, Kelley & Lavie and Ericsson & Kintsch. This will be accomplished by examining their overlapping methods and then designing an experimental approach. Together, these different variables will determine which approach is the most effective and the best ways for measuring them.
Cui (2012) determined that NMDA receptors in the brain will have an impact on long-term memory. This is taking place with genetics influencing their ability to function and maintain high levels throughout a person's life. When someone becomes older, this will affect the ability to analyze events and their meaning. This shapes…
Cui, Z. (2012). Increased NR2A. Scientific Reports, 3 (5), 1036-1044.
Ericsson, T. & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-Term Working Memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211 -- 245.
Kelley, T. (2013). The impact of distractor congruency on stimulus processing in retinotopic visual cortex. Neuroimage, 1 (81), 158 -- 163.
These worms play an integral part of the community. They do not have any digestive capacities, as they lack mouths and digestive systems. ather, they absorb the nutrient-rich waste products of the bacteria through their epidermal layers. They use hemoglobin produced inside their bodies to combine hydrogen sulfide, which is a necessity of many of the bacteria living in and around the vents. The worms transfer this hydrogen sulfide to the bacteria upon contact, and in return, the absorb the nutrients being produced by the bacteria. Additionally, one study examining vents off the coast of South Africa also found the presence of a new species of nematode, known as Halicephalobus mephisto (Borgonie et al., 2011). There are also a number of annelids as well as typical crustaceans, like snails, crabs, and shrimp are often common (Edmonds et al., 2003). There are also species of fish and octopi that form some…
Borgonie, G., Garcia-Moyano, a., Litthauer, D., Bester, a., van Heerden, E., Moller, C., Erasmus, M., & Onstott, T.C. (2011).Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa. Nature, 474(June). 79-88. Doi: 10.1038/nature09974
Ericsson, Magnus. (2008). Seabed deposits generate a new wave of interest in offshore mineral recovery. Offshore Mining (September).
Edmonds, H.N., Michael, P.J., Baker, E.T., Connelly, D.P., Snow, J.E., Langmuir, C.H., Dick, H.J.B., Muhe, R., German, C.R., & Graham, D.W. (2003). Discovery of abundant hydrothermal venting on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge in the Arctice Ocean. Nature, 421(16).
Lemonick, Michael D. & Dorfman, Andrea. (2002). Microbes at the extremes may tell us how life began. Time Europe, 160(6), 34-38. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&an=7091367&site=ehost-live
Cultural Analysis of Sony
Defining Organizational Culture:
Organizational culture can be defined in several ways. The definitions that apply to this essay are discussed below. Morgan (1986) defined organizational culture as the development patterns as mirrored by the society's ideology, laws, knowledge system, daily rituals and laws. Schein (1985) says that organizational culture has relations with observed norms, behavioral regularities, policies, philosophies or values, the acceptable behavior and the sense of belonging that an individual has by being part of an organization (p.6,9). An organization's culture is essentially a product of the organization's members. The members are driven to achieve the goals of the organization which in turn has an effect on the organization's life. The data used in this essay has been sourced from secondary electronic and print sources.
The Nature of Sony's Business
Sony is a leading brand in a wide range of electronic products like home entertainment…
Nilay Patel, (2009), 'Sony Posts 1b loss', Engaget. Also available at: http://www.engadget.com/2009/05/14/asus-eee-pc-1008ha-seashell-review-roundup/http%3A%2F2F20092F142F Retrieved: 13 January, 2015.
Sony Corporation, (2002), Sony and the People, Also available at: http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/csr_report/issues/report/2002/qfhh7c00000dls35-att/e_2002_04.pdf Retrieved: 13 January, 2015.
Sony Corporation, (2003), CSR Report, Also available at: http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/csr_report/issues/report/2003/qfhh7c00000dlrty-att/e_2003_04.pdf Retrieved: 13 January, 2015.
Richard Gershon and Tsutomu Kanayama, (2002), "The SONY Corporation: A Case Study in Transnational Media Management," The International Journal on Media Management
The Sports Imagery Questionnaire provides feedback to the researcher, coach, parents and players on how the player views what he or she is learning and the perceived purpose and benefits of imagery training. The findings from one recent study showed that "Elite and intermediate athletes used imagery more frequently and deliberately and perceived imagery to be more relevant and requiring more concentration than recreational athletes" (Nordin, Cumming, Vincent, McGrory, 2005, p. 346). If these findings are correct, and there is no reason to doubt that they are not, then the way to enhance top level performance in sporting activities is to have the players practice the art of imagery.
It is not surprising that athletes are now incorporating imagery into their training regimes. Advertisers have known for some time the effectiveness of imagery on consumer's spending habits. Many radio advertisements are created with the thought that the consumer must 'see'…
Bolls, P.D.; Muehling, D.D.; (2007) the effects of dual-task processing on consumer's responses to high and low-imagery radio advertisements, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 35-47
Cote, J.; (1999) Long-term athlete development, associated coaching pathways, and implications for coach education, Queens University, www.icce.ws/conference/documents/ICCE2005/LTAD.PPT, Accessed April 15, 2008
Da Matta, G.B.; French, K.S. (2002) the influence of Deliberate Practice and social support systems on the development of expert and intermediate female volleyball players in Brazil, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC,
Nordin, S.M.; Cumming, J.; Vincent, J.; McGrory, S.; (2005) Mental practice or spontaneous play? Examining which types of imagery constitutes deliberate practice in sport, Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 345-362
The restrictions of this section shall not be deemed to prohibit a child under sixteen from forwarding or otherwise sending marketing communications to another individual on his or her own behalf (Newcomb, 2005).
The book (Murphy, date, page) Ethical Marketing lists several maxims that should aid marketers facing an ethical dilemma. These are: The golden rule -- acting toward others as you would hope they would toward you; professional ethic -- take only actions that are seen as proper by an objective group of professional peers; T/newspaper test -- being comfortable explaining the action to the media and general public; "when in doubt, don't" -- if the action makes one feel uneasy, question it; slippery slope -- companies must take care not to be involved with practices that set precedent for other more unsure ideas later; kid/mother/founder on your shoulder -- would a naive child, your mother or company founder…
Vrancia, S. July 21, 2002. "That guy showing off his hot new phone may be a shill
New campaign for Sony Ericsson puts actors in real-life settings; Women play Battleship at the bar" Wall Street Journal. Website retrieved September 10, 2005.
Vrancia, S. February 9, 2005. "Getting buzz marketers to fess up." Website retrieved September 10, 2005.
Marketing Plan of Cingular Wireless
Cingular Wireless is a U.S.-based company that is focused on providing cellular mobile services through its wireless data services, which includes GSM and TDMA technologies. GSM (Global Systems for Mobile Communication) technology is the most basic form of wireless service that allows users to receive data service by connecting their mobile phones to cell site towers of Cingular. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) technology, meanwhile, allows users to use the same communication medium over different time slots. With the help of these technologies, Cingular Wireless is able to offer services ranging from text messaging, voice calls, and even multi-media messaging (MMS) that allows users to capture images and use video streaming/messaging with the use of their mobile phones.
Cingular Wireless' Promotions strategy is geared toward the mass communication media, such as broadcast (television) and print media. Through these very powerful media forms, Cingular was able…
Cingular Wireless Official Web site. Available at http://www.cingular.com.
Leotta, J. "A Singular Stance: Cingular's Commitment to Creative Expression." 17 June 2002. iCan! Incorporated Web site. Available at http://www.ican.com/news/fullpage.cfm/articleid/73-85BA77B465798635/cx/employment.for_employers/article.cfm .
Mucha, T. "Cingular Sensation?" 19 March 2003. Business 2.0 Newsletter Online Web site. Available at http://www.business2.com/articles/web/0,48145,00.html.
estern businesses who are negotiating with Chinese corporations may face many challenges, These begin from the initiation and continuation of the negotiations to the establishment of long-lasting relationships based upon mutual trust that range from bargaining and drafting agreements to the securing of their implementation. Chinese negotiators can be at once warm hosts and friends and tough bargainers. A unique group of Chinese cultural elements all add to the complexities of Sino-foreign business negotiations and can make the process tiresome and protracted. For these reasons, Chinese and western negotiators often harbor mutually unfavorable perceptions. estern negotiators need to get used to the indirect Chinese manner and realize that it is not deceptive, but just different. hile esterners are naturally direct, Chinese negotiators are more polite, at least on the surface (Graham, and Lam 4-5).
This can of course bring up serious issues of tension and trust. This is caused by…
Fang, Tony. "Negotiation: the Chinese style." Journal of Business & Industrial
Marketing. 21.1 (2006): 50-60.
Ghauri, Pervez, and Tony Fang. "Negotiating with the Chinese: A Socio-Cultural
Analysis." Journal of World Business. 36.3 (2001): 303 -- 325.
Global Economic Conditions
Apple operates in over 100 countries already, but there are still some markets available for the company. The one that has been chosen for the next international expansion in Myanmar. Apple already has a presence in most other Southeast Asian countries, but Myanmar has only recently become a democracy. It is a poor country, but relatively large, and is starting to see some strong economic growth. Foreign companies are starting to make their market entry. The trends for Myanmar are all quite recent. Five years ago there was little economic activity in the country, regular brownouts and a military junta. Today, there are signs of economic life. Moreover, where five years ago there was almost no broadband and it was prohibitively expensive, broadband in the country has been rolled out to most populated areas and is affordable.
Myanmar\'s economic story is mostly internal, but there is some…
etailers are the primary tier of buyers in the television segment of the global consumer electronics market. There are a variety of retailing channels used in this industry. The primary channel of distribution is through electronics retailers, like Best Buy, which comprises 65% of the total market value. Hyper and supermarkets, such as WalMart and Target, make up only 14.4% of the market. Sales via department stores, like Sears, only contributes 3.7% of the market's value. Although they typically don't sell televisions, music, video, books, and stationery retailers do contribute 3.1% of sales for the overall consumer electronics market. Lastly, a variety of other retailers make up 13.8% of the sales in this industry ("Global consumer," 2010) (See Figure 3).
The primary manufacturers in this market segment, like Sony, are often highly valued by retailers, as they provide branded products that retailers' buyers, the end consumers, have come…
"Global consumer electronics." (May 2010). Datamonitor. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from http://360.datamonitor.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com .
Gonsalves, a. (28 Jan 2010). "Samsung 3D TV mass production begins." InformationWeek. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from http://www.informationweek.com/news/personal_tech/TV_theater/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=222600258 ,
"History." (2010). Datamonitor. Retrieved November 30, 2010, from
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
The content language adopted for white collar workers will be a simple, plain one as the goal is for the message to be understood best and used by the employees in their interaction with the customers. In global communication campaigns, the language will be the same for white and blue collar workers and therefore a simple and plain one for everyone. In specific communications, the language can increase in complexity if the auditorium that needs to receive the message had a higher education level.
The content will take under consideration the cultural differences between the corporate headquarters country (e.g. UK) and the local offices (e.g. Korea) and adapt global campaigns to the local requirements. Additionally, the content will be designed to match company objectives and how these objectives can be understood by personnel. Therefore, a specialized team will be dedicated to understanding the personnel, the company values the personnel needs…
Acosta, C., Leon, V.J., Conrad, C., Gonzalez-Cervantes, R. And Malave, C.O. 2004. Case Study on Culture and the Implementation of Manufacturing Strategy in Mexico. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, vol. 23(3): pp. 173-181.
Davis, Alison. 2005. Applying Employee Demographics. Strategic Communications Management. August 1st, http://www.allbusiness.com/technology/computer-software-management/943392-1.html
Hofstede, G. 1984. Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning, Asia Pacific Journal: pp.84-99.
Internal Comms. 2006. The Top Seven Macro-Trends in Internal Communications. April edition, www.internalcommshub.com
Business transactions between independent business entities require the thoughtful integration of it systems, for example, as well as between a company and its customers, suppliers, or other business partners, such as co-producers and banks (Luftman). Consequently, effective system integration is important for both economic and strategic business reasons. In this regard, Luftman reports that, "External systems integration involves many technologies and business arrangements with different pros and cons, but they can be grouped in two broad categories: one-to-one or one-to-many approaches that link an individual company with its business partners and hub-and-spoke approaches that provide the possibility of many-to-many connections" (Luftman, p. 252).
Since the introduction of computers several decades ago, the increasing computerization of business organizations has experienced a sequence of transformations as a result of the rapid development in information technology and increasingly complex business needs (Yang & Lu, 2005). As these authors point out, "The continuous e-revolution…
Abdelraheem, a.Y. (2005). Integrating instructional technology with information technology and its implications for designing electronic learning systems. International Journal of Instructional Media, 32(2), 125.
Earl, M.J. (2003). Integrating business and it strategy: Reframing the applications development portfolio. In Luftman at p. 51.
Luftman, J.N. (2003). Competing in the information age: Align in the sand. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mcginn, D., Kudyba, S. & Diwan, R. (2002). Information technology, corporate productivity and the new economy. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Smartphone marketing, ACME
Smartphone Marketing Plan
Marketing Proposal: Smartphone
Palm Computing, Inc., released the Palm Pilot 1000 and 5000 in March 1996, in a technological climate that had weathered much disillusionment with handheld computing, owing largely to the unfortunate blunders in marketing the overhyped Newton Message Pad. The Palm Pilot, soon to have the word "Pilot" dropped from its name due to legal infringement on the Pilot Pen company's trademark, had a different approach to handwriting recognition than the Message Pad. It required that the user learn a glyphic alphabet that would allow the handwriting recognition software to use constraints as an aid to letter recognition. Thus, less processing power and software code would need to be dedicated to this task. This power came standard with the Palm's onboard operating system, the Palm operating system (OS).
The Early Days
The philosophy behind the Palm OS was also different than those…
Abascal, J. & Civit, A. (2007). "Bridging the 'Gap between Design for all and Assistive devices'" In Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.), Universal Access in HCI. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bailey, R. W (2006). Human performance engineering: Designing high quality professional user interfaces for computer products, applications and systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Buchanan, G.Jones, M., Thimbleby, H., Farrant, S., & Pazzani, M. (2004). Improving mobile internet usability. Proceedings of the 10th International. WWW Conference (pp. 673 -- 680). New York: ACM Press.
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…
references, and favorites)
Child and Family Assets
(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)
Functional and Meaningful Interactions
(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
Human Figure Drawing
Testing has become an integral part of psychological theory and practice. Rooted in historical perspectives and heated conversation of principles, wagering purpose and ethics, it involves the statistical conceptualizations of psychometrics and the connection of the validity of a test to the reality of a person. The field of psychological testing is characterized by the use of small samples to apply larger generalizations to a specific individual; samples of behavioral trends combine with observations over a limited time in which performance of prescribed tasks is compared to a the pre-studied responses of members of a norm group. These responses, compiled and analyzed before compared to the studied individual, are often crafted into statistical tables that allow the evaluator to compare the behavior of the specific person to the range of responses given by the norm group and make appropriate personality discussions therein. A common type of psychological…
Plubraarn and Theermonparp, p. S615.
Sturner, R.A., Rothbaum, F., Visintainer, M., Wolfer, J. "The Effects of Stress on Children's Human Figure Drawings." Journal of Clinical Psychology. Vol. 36, No. 1. January,1980. p. 324.
Wang, H., Ericsson, K., Winblad, B., Fratiglioni, L. "The Human Figure Drawing Test as a Screen for Dementia in the Elderly: A Community-Based Study." Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Vol. 27, No. 1. August, 1998. p. 25.
But despite these strides, the negative as well as the positive legacy of sports in American culture cannot be ignored.
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). unning through Kenya. Slate.com. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
Johnson, Jenna. (2010). NCAA graduation rates. The Washington Post. etrieved September 20,
2010 at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/campus-overload/2010/03/another_ncaa_bracket_player_gr.html
Lehrer, Jonah. (2010, August 24). How to raise a superstar. Wired Science. etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/08/how-to-raise-a-superstar/#ixzz107NwUSGh
Lovett, C. (1997). The fight to establish the women's Olympic marathon race. Olympic Marathon, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., Westport, CT. etrieved September 21,
2010 at http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm
Williams, Kam. (2006). eview of William C. hoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves. AALBC.
etrieved September 20, 2010 at http://aalbc.com/reviews/forty_million_dollar_slaves.htm
Witt, Jon. (2006). The…
About Title IX. (2010). University of Iowa. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/ge/aboutRE.html
Douglas, Scott. (2005). Running through Kenya. Slate.com. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2117122/entry/2117123/
Gettleman, Elizabeth. (2006, July). Review of William C. Rhoden's Forty Million Dollar Slaves.
Mother Jones. Retrieved September 20, 2010 at http://motherjones.com/media/2006/07/forty-million-dollar-slaves
In conjunction with these car ads, car insurance companies took advantage of this by advertising their services as well. Car insurance companies that I noticed advertising through billboards were Safeco, Progressive, and All State. Progressive provided a catchy and positive note to its ad by having the slogan, "Happy drivers make good drivers." From what I can recall in the All State ad, it mentioned something about safe driving, again with a catchy phrase: "Safe driving bonus for not driving like a paparazzi." These car insurance ads, particularly for Progressive and All State, tackle issues relevant to motorists, their target market: both chose to discuss driving behavior, using different ad 'treatments.' Progressive addressed reckless/irresponsible driving by focusing on the ideal driving behavior and its positive outcome, that is, drivers must have a happy temperament in order to be a good driver. All State, meanwhile, chose to go the opposite route…
al.); (Rahman, 136- 138) (Dasgupta)
From the segmentation analysis and mobile content revenues forecast, the need for launching the low-cost and ultra-low cost mobile cellular phone business in India based on value-added services that can be incrementally added to consumers' accounts is preferable to concentrating only on price alone. Creating the unique value proposition for the service based on mobile content also is attractive to potential partners who are necessary for the nationwide success of the company across India's broad geographic regions. This concentration on value-added services is also critical when the competitors to the proposed company are also taken into account. The following section provides insights into the competitive landscape in India for cellular and telecommunications.
Competitive Landscape and Analysis
The following is an analysis of the competitive landscape of providers that the proposed company will need to partner with in some cases, and compete with in others. Clearly…
AMR Research Study. Research Alert on Cellular Phone Costing and Forecast Alert. August 2005. Boston, MA. ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry. ProQuest.
Mike Clendenin. "Tale of two cell phone markets: INDIA and CHINA. " Electronic Engineering Times 4 Jun 2007: 33-34. ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry. ProQuest.
Nibedita Das. "Technology, efficiency and sustainability of competition in the Indian telecommunications sector. " Information Economics and Policy 12.2 (2000): 133-154. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 6 May. 2008
Anjan Dasgupta. Competition Policy in Telecommunications - a Case Study of India. 2005. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 8 May. 2008
. The mobile business market has seen significant of uptake of 2E (mobile sales-force and field service) solutions and Microsoft has the chance to develop its offerings around its acquisitions, adding mobile functionality. Microsoft partners with many application vendors across the board and moving too heavily into the application space would incense many. However, there is viability in developing a mid-market mobile application proposition, given the unconsolidated nature of offerings from operators, traditional ISVs, start-ups and mobile middleware players.
In the device OS market, as at desktop level and in the server-room, Linux clearly represents a threat to Microsoft, and one it expends much energy playing down. Although there has been little uptake of Linux to date specifically as an operating system for multimedia cell phones, there are many who are not keen to implement end-to-end Microsoft solutions. Linux will give these companies added freedom in choosing applications, middleware…
Ovum Research (2006) - Worldwide Multimedia Cell Phone Forecast.
Source: Credit Suisse First Boston Analysis of the Multimedia Cell Market (2006)
Flextronics (2006) - Annual Report and key investor5 briefing materials. Accessed from the Internet on November 29, 2006 http://www.flextronics.com/en/Investors/ConferenceCalls/tabid/69/Default.aspx
IDC (2006) - Worldwide Multimedia Cell Phone Forecast. Framingham, MA. Published July, 2006.
This plan is focused on financial stability and profitability, through the reduction of operational costs. In this business strategy, outsourcing plays a crucial role.
Dunai, M., 2012, Hungarian town suffers as Nokia announces big layoffs, euters, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/08/us-hungary-nokia-idUSTE8171OU20120208 last accessed on March 21, 2012
Haikio, M., 2002, Nokia: the inside story, Pearson Education, ISBN 0273659839
Layard, ., Nickell, S., Eichorst, W., Zimmermann, K.F., 2011, Combating unemployment, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199609780
Louis, P.J., Nokia restructuring and issues with outsourcing strategy, Venture Outsource, http://www.ventureoutsource.com/contract-manufacturing/product-market-segments/cell-phones-handsets/nokia-restructuring-and-issues-with-outsourcing-strategy last accessed on March 21, 2012
aby, M., 2012, Nokia announces more major layoffs, TG Daily, http://www.tgdaily.com/mobility-brief/61315-nokia-announces-more-major-layoffs last accessed on March 21, 2012
ugman, a.M., 2007, Multinational enterprises from engineering markets, Berlin oundtable
ugman, a.M., 2009, the Oxford handbook of international business, 2nd edition, Oxford Handbooks Online, ISBN 0199234256
2011, Foreign minister lobbying in Helsinki to keep Nokia in Hungary, Budapest Business Journal, http://www.bbj.hu/politics/foreign-minister-lobbying-in-helsinki-to-keep-nokia-in-hungary-nepszabadsag_61055 last accessed on…
Dunai, M., 2012, Hungarian town suffers as Nokia announces big layoffs, Reuters, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/08/us-hungary-nokia-idUSTRE8171OU20120208 last accessed on March 21, 2012
Haikio, M., 2002, Nokia: the inside story, Pearson Education, ISBN 0273659839
Layard, R., Nickell, S., Eichorst, W., Zimmermann, K.F., 2011, Combating unemployment, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199609780
Louis, P.J., Nokia restructuring and issues with outsourcing strategy, Venture Outsource, http://www.ventureoutsource.com/contract-manufacturing/product-market-segments/cell-phones-handsets/nokia-restructuring-and-issues-with-outsourcing-strategy last accessed on March 21, 2012
Flextronics International is the world's largest outsourcer of electronics manufacturing jobs. The company is based in Singapore and has established a devised sophisticated logistical, supply and design series of methods that allow the customers to reduce fixed assets and product development time. Although Flextronics is not just a company based on low-wages labor, it currently has 9,000 employees in 29 countries, with half of them being concentrated in China, while the others work in low-wage centers such as India, Poland and Mexico.
Flextronics' clients are a different story: they are all from the United States: Microsoft, Dell, Motorola, Palm, Hewlett-Packard and Xerox. There is a high chance that many Americans have used a Flextronics'-built product, thrown on the market under a more popular brand.
Michael Marks, the man who runs Flextronics International, is the one responsible for the increasing outsourcing trend in the hi-tech industry, as it has currently reached…
1. Justin Doebele, "Flex Forward," Chief Executive. New York: Jul 2004., Iss. 200; pg. 34
2 David W. Tice. "Remember the Bottom Line: What's going to happen when investors again demand profits? " On Wall Street. New York: Dec 1, 2000. pg. 1
3. Shad Dowlatshahi "Bargaining power in buyer-supplier relationships"
. Production and Inventory Management Journal. Alexandria: First Quarter 1999.Vol.40, Iss. 1; pg. 27,
" Managers are responsible for promoting open and honest two-way communications. Managers must be positive activists and role models who show respect and consideration for each of our associates. Managers must diligently look for indications that unethical or illegal conduct has occurred and report it. If you ever have a concern about unethical or illegal activities, you are expected to take appropriate and consistent action, and inform your manager, the Law Department or the EthicsLine." (Motorola)
In conclusion, this report aimed to find the greatest hazard for a corporation to not realize its strategic goals or not meeting the expectations of its stakeholders and investors. The report is designed to explain corporate decisions that are aligned with the corporate goals and objectives and also support the process to and the judgmental calls to a Board of Directors. The company this report focused on was Motorola. The overall objective was…
Motorola "Motorola Home Page." Retrieved on 29 Nov. 2004 from http://www.motorola.com/content/0,115-110,00.html .
Yahoo Finance. Motorola. Retrieved on 11/29/2004 from Yahoo at http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=MOT .
iPod (Apple's MP3 player) relates to Maslow's hierarchy of human needs.
Abraham Maslow created his theory of a hierarchy of human needs in the late 1960's and early 1970's. The psychologist wrote that human beings are primarily motivated by unsatisfied needs. Certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs are satisfied. (Maslow, 1970) Advertising new products often depends upon generating a sense of need, and promising that the new product can fulfill this need.
Take for example the Apple's new MP3 player, the iPod. True, on a Maslow-like physiological level, the first level of need, one cannot eat an iPod, and a less mechanical form of 'apple' is necessary for sustenance, iPods do satisfy the consumer's immediate physical needs for lighter equipment. iPods are portable and more amenable to working out, and for musical use on crowded subway, and the crush and strain of modern urban life. The iPod…
Mahr, Jackson. (2004) "HP & iPod." Branding.com. Retrieved 24 Mar 2005 at http://www.brandchannel.com/features_profile.asp?pr_id=205
Nixon, Paul. (2005) "Apple's Tipping Point: Macs for Masses." Retrieved 24 Mar 2005 at http://www.nixlog.com/archives/2005/01/12_apples_tipping_point_macs_for_the_masses_infographic.php
(1) Identification of issues responsible for failure of marketing services strategies of Sprint Corp in meeting customer expectations:
Sprint's 4G network offering wireless broadband services Xohm with download speeds in the range of 2 Mbps to 4 Mbps was the first commercial network across USA to use mobile WiMax technology. However because of limited availability of devices that is able to access the network, Sprint was compelled to use conventional broadband and wireless business models. This move brought the company in direct competition with the present broadband services and 3G services and the product offering was not actually satisfying an unmet customer need and hence the prospects of the service remained narrow. (eardon, 2008)
Sprint is targeting customers of existing cable and DSL cable providers with mobility. However with a small range of devices supporting WiMax currently, majority of the people purchasing the service will get similar mobility…
Better Trades. (2010) "Communications: Sprint" Retrieved 20 April, 2012 from http://www.better-trades.com/stock-reviews/communications/sprint/1-about.asp
Funding Universe. (2012) "Sprint Corporation" Retrieved 20 April, 2012 from http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Sprint-Corporation-Company-History.html
Reardon, Marguerite. (2008) "Sprint's WiMax efforts doomed to failure?" Retrieved 20
April, 2012 from http://news.cnet.com/8301-1035_3-10056030-94.html
Business organization must keep an eye on the threats and opportunities present in their external environment. With this analysis, they can strategize to encounter the potential threats with their strengths and core competencies while avail the attractive opportunities to grow in the industry in a more competitive fashion. The success and sustainability of an organization largely depends upon the effectiveness of its corporate wide strategies and organizational structure; both must be aligned with its day by day changing business requirements (Mu-hlbacher, Dahringer, & Leihs, 2006).
This paper acquaints the reader with the external environment and corporate strategies of a renowned multinational corporation -- Motorola, Inc. It starts with a brief description of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and weaknesses, and then explains the most important corporate strategies that are implemented to operate and compete in a challenging business environment. A set of recommendations is also proposed which can be…
Kurtz, D.L., MacKenzie, H.F., & Snow, K. (2010). Contemporary Marketing. 2nd Edition. Toronto: Nelson Education
Mu-hlbacher, H., Dahringer, L., & Leihs, H. (2006). International Marketing: a Global Perspective. 3rd Edition. London: Thomson Learning
Paley, N. (2006). The Manager's Guide to Competitive Marketing Strategies. 3rd Edition. London: Thorogood Corporation
Cox Communications Telecommunications Innovation
Status of the Sustainability Movement
The telecommunications industry, supported by the United Nations and the International Telecommunications Union, launched a formal cooperative effort to promote sustainable business practices and technology in June 2001. The Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) was officially launched on World Environment Day with the vision "to help improve the global environment and to enhance human and economic development, and thereby make a key contribution to a global sustainable future" (Thomsen, 2001).
This industry-wide initiative was significant in that its founders included some of the biggest global players: AT&T, British Telecommunications, Cable and Wireless, Deutsche Telekom, Ericsson, Lucent Technologies, Marconi, Telcordia Technologies, Telenor as, and the European Telecommunications Network Operators Association. Members implemented various programs to achieve environment-friendly business practices. For example, British Telecommunications calculated that employee use of audio and video conferencing contributed to saving over one million tons of CO2 emissions the…
AT&T investments in sustainability yield results in 2010. (2011) Fierce Telecom. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.fiercetelecom.com/press_releases/att-investments-sustainability-yield-results-2010
Adelman, T. (2010). For telecom industry, energy efficiency is only half the equation. . Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://www.environmentalleader.com/2010/11/08/for-telecom-industry-energy-efficiency-is-only-half-of-the-equation/
Bakrie Telecom is the pioneer of green business. 2011. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://bataviase.co.id/node/648347
Bardelline, J. (2011). ULE creates sustainability standard for cell phones. Greenbiz.com Web site. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://www.greenbiz.com/news/2011/01/06/ule-creates-sustainability-standard-mobile-phones
The lack of process orchestration shows that IBM is failing to understand and manage the bargaining power of suppliers effectively. The core requirements of the project center on a series of healthcare professionals who taken together are the stakeholders of a complex payroll processing system (Paull, 2013). The requirements from a project management standpoint is to concentrate on the bargaining power of suppliers as system integration partners and create a unified project plan that can successfully meet multiple stakeholder needs. Making this more difficult than other implementations is the bargaining power of buyers, who also are requiring that IBM construct a system they can quickly use to solve complex supply chain, procurement and strategic sourcing challenges as can be inferred from the article (Paull, 2013).
IBM has also allowed for a greater level of threat from new market entrants as well, through the ineffective management of stakeholder requirements. What's obvious…
Ball, L.D. 2000, "IT education success strategies for change management," Information Systems Management, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 74-77.
By, B.P. 2013, "Michael Dell Offered Lower Price for His Shares to Make Dell Deal Work," LBO Wire, .
Fickenscher, K. & Bakerman, M. 2011, "Change Management in Health Care it," Physician Executive, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 64-7.
Gunasekaran, a. & Ngai, E.W.T. 2005, "Build-to-order supply chain management: a literature review and framework for development," Journal of Operations Management, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 423-451.
Marketing Problem Nokia
Marketing problem: Lack of product innovation
Current marketing environment of Nokia
Marketing Problem Nokia
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish company that manufactures mobile phones, mobile computers, and networks. The company also provides services such as maps and navigation, music, media and software solutions for mobile phones. From late 1990s to late 2000s, Nokia remained the highest mobile selling company of the world. This however has changed recently and many other companies have effectively reduced the market share of Nokia. There are many causes of this decrease in global mobile sales share of Nokia however; one marketing issue has caused this downward journey more than others. The company reported having negative € 2.3 billion of operating income in FY 2012 whereas net income of the company was also reduced to -€ 3.1 billion in 2012 (Nokia Annual eport, 2012). Although Nokia was the first company to have launched…
Ewing, A., Moritz, S. & McMahon, M. (2013). Nokia Unveils Lumia Phone with Camera to Revive Demand. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from: [ http://www.businessweek.com/news/2013-07-11/nokia-to-sell-phone-with-high-resolution-camera-to-revive-demand ]
Gassee, J.L. (2012, April). Nokia: Three Problems for deposed king of Mobile Phones. The Guardian. Retrieved from: [ http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/apr/23/monday-note-nokia ]
Nokia Annual Report. (2012). Enabling a Mobile World. Nokia Siemens Networks. Retrieved from: [http://i.nokia.com/blob/view/-/2268488/data/3/-/NSN-form-2013.pdf]
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…
Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),
Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.
Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]
Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Companies use advertising plans to build awareness about their product. Company uses different plans to promote their sales. It uses trade show plan to demonstrate what they are selling, sales promotion plan for incremental sales, public relations plan for free ads, internet plan for instant distribution of product specifications and information, customer service plan to repeat sales, research plan to monitor activities regarding the products and customer satisfaction and last but not least marketing plan which helps to identify when to market, how to market and who are the target audience for the product (Luther, 2011).
Marketing plan must cover the below 12 areas to form an effective marketing plan to increase sales (Wong, 2010).
Marketing plan must have the executive summary
Introduction about the marketing plan and the product
Analysis of the market situation for the product.
Analysis of the target customers
Analysis of the competition for the product…
Luther, William M. (2011), "The Marketing Plan: How to prepare and Implement It," AMACOM Div American Mgmt Association.
Wong, Ken K. (20100, "Approved Marketing Plans for new Products and Services," iUniverse, Anselmo, Donna. (2010), "Marketing Demystified," McGraw-Hill Professional.
Thomas, Lorrie. (2010), "The McGraw Hill 36-Hour Course: Online Marketing," McGraw-Hill Professional.
Rognerud, Jon. (2010), "Ultimate Guide to Search Engine Optimization: Drive Traffic, Boost Conversion Rates and Make Tons of Money," Entrepreneur Press.
Roadmap of Co-branding Positions and Strategies, the Journal of American Academy of usiness, Cambridge, Vol. 15, Num. 1, September 2009
The delicate balance of managing brand equity across multiple product lines and brands vs. attaining a unified global brand capable of serving as a scalable platform for future growth is explored in Roadmap of Co-branding Positions and Strategies (Chang, 2009). Illustrating how co-branding strategies need to be applied in the correct customer, product, messaging and service context, the author successfully shows how the organizational level of co-branding is just as important as the co-branding type of strategy implemented. Using the example of the HP-Compaq merger as the basis of how to implement enterprise-wide co-branding initiatives, the author shows how this strategy differs significantly from the cooperation-based co-branding of SONY and Ericsson and their many co-development projects in the mobile industry (Chang, 2009). Contrasting these are the department-level coordination…
Chang, W. (2009). Roadmap of Co-Branding Positions and Strategies. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 15(1), 77-84.
The value delivery network is comprised of all direct participants in the industry in your area, and it is important to understand the ways in which supply chain management contributes to the value delivery network. Suppliers, intermediaries, agents and logistics partners are all part of the supply chain. Participants in the industry manage the supply chain in order to extract value that competitors cannot, either by moving goods around more cheaply, or more quickly, or preferably both, than the competitions. There are several different actors within the supply chain whose contributions to the value delivery network are relevant -- merchants and facilitators are two of the most important.
Priem and Swink (2012) view the issue of supply chain management through the resource-based theory of the firm. They argue that firms can gain competitive advantage by effectively managing key inputs. This means that they are able to find the best…
Chopra, S. & Sodhi, M. (2004). Managing risk to avoid supply-chain breakdown. MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/managing-risk-to-avoid-supplychain-breakdown/
Priem, R. & Swink, M. (2012). A demand-side perspective on supply chain management. Journal of Supply Chain Management. Vol. 48 (2) 7-13.
Seuring, S. & Muller, M. (2008). From a literature review to a conceptual framework for sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 16 (15) 1699-1710.
Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?
THE TWO SIDES
Should Parents be Allowed to Choose their aby's Gender?
A revolutionary lab technique, called sperm sorting, can now establish the gender of an offspring (Mail Online, 2013). The sperm carries the sex chromosome of a future child and sorting involves choosing the desired sex chromosome and then inseminating a woman with it. Gender can also be selected by abortion and before the embryonic stage through IVF or in vitro fertilization. Gender selection has been the subject of much debate because of its many consequences (Mail Online).
Artificial insemination consists of inserting concentrated sperm into the uterus to achieve a greater chance of fertilization (Stephens, 2011). Other methods are used to choose the gender of the baby. One is by using a dye on the desired gender from the sperm and then returning the dyed cell into womb. The Ericsson…
Dahl, E. (2003). Ethical issues in new uses of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis:
should parents be allowed to use pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to choose the sexual orientation of their children? Vol. 18 # 7, Human Reproduction. Retrieved on November 11, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12832358
Knoppers, B.M. et al. (2006). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis: an overview of socio-
ethical and legal considerations. Vol. 7, Annual Review of Genomic and Human
Wireless technology has developed a large way from its infancy and is fast becoming the latest trend in communication. Wireless LANs have added an entirely new dimension to the communication sector. The advent of cellular technology, infrared and spread spectrum radio services have bought about a huge change to our world of communication and wireless technology has materialized our dream of a mobile workforce. Today there is no single standard in the industry and there are different wireless technologies available. Let us have a brief outlook of the 'IEEE 802.11' and 'luetooth', two of the important wireless LAN technologies.
IEEE 802.11 Protocol
The IEEE 802.11 (First adapted in 1997) is primarily a standard developed to provide time bound and asynchronous wireless services. The MAC layer is meant to handle different physical layers with distinct medium and transmission characteristics. The standard uses 2.4 GHz ISM band and a minimum data…
Daniel L. Lough, T. Keith Blankenship and Kevin J. Krizman, "A Short tutorial on Wireless LANS and IEEE 802.11," Accessed on September 4th, 2003, http://www.computer.org/students/looking/summer97/ieee802.htm
2) Bluetooth Solutions, "What is Bluetooth," Accessed on September 4th, 2003, http://www.siliconwave.com/what_is_bluetooth.html
Jeff Strip, "Bluetooth: Value ADDS and Opportunities," Accessed on September 4th 2003, http://www.palowireless.com /bluearticles/docs/bluetooth_value_adds.pdf
Jochen Schiller, "Mobile Communications," Published by Pearson Education, 2000.
entepise wide netwoking has been the topic of discussion. Advances in technology and netwoking systems have caused oganizations to develop new management techniques fo entepise wide netwoks. The pupose of this pape is to discuss the Management of entepise-wide netwoking. We will focus on fou aspects of entepise wide netwoking including; legacy systems, Intenet Secuity, offshoe development and suppot and Mobile computing. We will investigate how each of these aspects is handled within an entepise.
Legacy systems wee once popula in the business wold but have become less popula in ecent yeas. (Sinn 2003) legacy system is loosely defined as "a softwae platfom developed in a pocedual language such as Cobol o RPG, hosted on a mainfame o an IBM iSeies. In most cases the maintenance costs of the system tend to incease ove time while the available technical expetise aound it deceases (Ludin 2004)."
Many entepises ae…
references and Deter Computer Crime. Yale Law Journal, 112(6), 1577+.
For the Indus Towers project, one of the challenges is to find goal congruence with the three major stakeholder groups. The three stakeholder groups are the three companies engaged in the joint venture -- Bharti Airtel, Vodafone and Idea Cellular. The Indus Towers venture is an effort between the three partners to join their tower resources. The three stakeholders are the three largest players in the Indian market. Airtel operates only in India; Vodafone is global and Idea is a subsidiary of an Indian multinational.
The benefits of the infrastructure sharing project are to achieve a higher level of efficiency with infrastructure buildout. If the companies do not work together, they will each need to build their own infrastructure to cover all of India. This will create a high level of overlap as in many markets all three companies will build towers and other critical infrastructure. Passive infrastructure sharing…
Gulati, R., Martinez-Jerez, F.A., Narayanan, V.G., and Tahilyani, R. (2010) 'Indus Towers: Collaboration with Competitors on Infrastructure', Course Pack.
Odoni, A., Stamatopoulos, M., Kassens, E., and Metsovitis, J. (2009) 'Preparing an Airport for the Olympic Games: Athens', Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 15 (1) pp. 50-59.
Yang, J. Shen, G.Q., Drew, D.S., and Ho. M. (2010) 'Critical success factors for stakeholder management: Construction practitioners' perspectives', Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136 (7), pp. 778-786.
Yuan, J., Skibniewski, M.J., Li, Q., and Zheng, L. (2010) 'Performance objectives selection model in public-private partnership projects based on the perspective of stakeholders', Journal of Management in Engineering, 26 (2), pp. 89-104.
Foreign Operations of Google
The companies initially operate within the confines of their local economic systems, and they decide for global expansion when demands for their products and services significantly decrease in the home country. The information technology arena is an international industry by default, and, therefore, the companies do not have the option of thinking small, but they have to have big plans in order to ensure their survival in the global market (Barnes & Kaplinsky, 2000). The human resources in the industry of information technology are expensive, and they demand high salaries that put a nasty dent on the profitability of their employers. However, computer programmers, engineers, and web designers living in developing are usually suffering from unemployment, and they need handsome jobs in order to fight inflationary trends. They do not require hefty packages whereas, they reap greater financial benefits as they earn in dollars while, working…
Aneesh, A. (2012). Negotiating Globalization: Men and Women of India's Call Centers. Journal of Social Issues Vol 68 (1), 514-533.
Banerjee, P. (2003). Resource dependence and core competence: insights from Indian software firms. Technovation 23 (3), 251 -- 263.
Barnes, J., & Kaplinsky, R. (2000). Globalization and the Death of the Local Firm? The Automobile Components Sector in South Africa. Regional Studies 34 (9), 797-812.
Dann, G.E., & Haddow, N. (2008). Just Doing Business or Doing Just Business: Google, Microsoft, Yahoo! And the Business of Censoring China's Internet. Journal of Business Ethics Vol 79 (3), 219-234.
Firms with what organisational patterns are more likely to acquire existing firms? In what stage of internationalisation is acquisition more likely? Such research should not assume that such decisions are always rational. It may be that irrational factors are important at times. For example, it might be that the rush to acquire businesses in Europe prior to 1992 and to acquire companies in Asia in the mid-1990s reflected a bandwagon effect with firms developing strategies to legitimise their investments after the decision has been made (McDougall, et al., 2004). Research might also give attention to a broader range of entry modes beyond exporting, licensing and FDI. Strategic alliances with local or other foreign firms may involve no transfer of funds. Alliances are another entry mode option which deliver similar strategic advantages to joint ventures but have received little attention in the literature beyond those firms whose home country is either…
Aspelund, a., and O. Moen 2001. "A Generation Perspective on Small Firms Internationalization -- From Traditional Exporters and Flexible Specialists to Born Globals," in Advances in International Marketing: Reassessing the Internationalization of the Firm, Vol. 11. Eds C.N. Axinn and P. Matthyssens. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, JAI Press, 197-226.
Bell, J., Crick, D. And Young, S. 2004. Small Firm Internationalization and Business Strategy: An Exploratory Study of Knowledge-Intensive and Traditional Manufacturing Firms in the UK. International Small Business Journal. 22(1):23-56.
Cavusgil, S. Tamer, Knight, Gary and Riesenberger, John R. 2008. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0137128339. Chapter 3.
Christensen, P.R. 1997. "The Small and Medium Sized Exporters' Squeeze: Empirical Evidence and Model Reflections," Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 3, 49-65.
The oston Matrix
1. Cash Cow: DVDs and DVD recorders are excellent sources of profit and revenues for Sony, as they have been for the last couple of years. Additionally, the electronics and game consoles, especially Playstation 2, even if encountering losses in 2004, may also be included in this category, as having a still consistent market share.
2. Dog: The classic CRT TVs and games software have encountered significant losses and decreasing sales over the last years, so it seems that there low market share/low market growth possibilities mark the end of their booming years.
3. Problem Child: The LCD TVs and the media ventures operated by Sony have high potential (high market growth), but the company is still under-represented of the market, with a low market share, even if prospects for improving it still exist.
4. Star: The flat screen TV seems the best representative of this category.…
1. JUSTIN MCCURRY (April 2004). Restructuring costs eat into Sony surplus. The Guardian.
JUSTIN MCCURRY (April 2004). Restructuring costs eat into Sony surplus. The Guardian.
These people can use what they have done in their lives to better understand what they will do in the classroom. This makes sense, and should not be discounted. However, if someone is illiterate and cannot read the material at all, doing well on tests and completely comprehending what is being discussed seems as though it would be an almost impossible task. It would certainly cause a lot of frustration and aggravation on the part of the student, and likely on the part of the teacher, as well. With this being the case, it seems unrealistic for Pogson and Tennant to indicate that adult learners who are not literate can get through education programs that are designed for literate individuals just based on their practical or life experience.
3. What reasons can you think of as to why it might not "fit" you?
This particular idea would not fit me…
Erikson Leading in Times of Change
Erikson: Leading In Times Of Change
The Leadership Style of Carl-Henric Svanberg
The leadership style of Carl-Henric Svanberg can be explained in terms of the context of the leadership situation. Svanberg's appointment as CEO of Erikson was an unprecedented move in the history of the company because he was the first CEO to be brought in from outside the industry. This created some discomfort to people within the organization. But most external to the company also felt optimistic about his taking control of the affairs of the company. The company itself was passing through a historic crisis in the form of declining profitability and a shrinking market. Network operators had ceased expanding their infrastructure which was a big blow to the growth Erikson had been experiencing for almost a decade. Svanberg was sensitive to the unique position he and the company were in and…
Adler, N.J., 1996. Global women political leaders: An invisible history and increasingly important future. Leadership Quarterly, 7 (1), pp. 133-161.
Alvesson, M. And Svenningsson, S., 2003. The great disappearing act: Difficulties in doing "Leadership." Leadership Quarterly, 14 (3), pp. 359-381.
Barge, J.K. And Fairhurst, G.T., 2008. Living leadership: A systemic constructionist approach. Leadership, 4 (3), pp. 227-251.
Cranfield School of Management, 2007. Interview: Professor Keith Grint. [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 May 2012].