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Erik Erikson: The Eight Stages of Development
Although not as famous as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson was no less influential in the development of 20th century psychology. Like Freud, Erikson viewed human beings as developing through a series of 'stages,' but he broke with Freud in terms of his emphasis on social development, versus sexual development. Erikson was the first major theorist to question Freud's emphasis on the Oedipus Complex and the Electra Complex in respectively influencing a boy's or a girl's development, Erikson conceived of what he called eight 'psychosocial stages,' or conflicts based not solely upon the relationship between parent and child but upon the child and the larger community. The conflicts inherent to the stages were based upon social dynamics of which sexuality was but one factor.
The reason for this different orientation may lie in the fact that Erikson's background was also different from Freud's:…
Coughlan, F., & Welsh-Breetzke, A. (2002). The circle of courage and Erikson's psychosocial stages. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(4), 222-226.
Cullitan, C.M. (2011). Please don't tell my mom! A minor's right to informational privacy.
Journal of Law and Education, 40(3), 417-460.
Friedman, Lawrence. (1999). Identity's architect. Scribners.
a summary of biographical information about the psychologist Erik Erikson
The work of Erik Erikson is like that of Freud it touches upon the individual growth but while Freud analyzed himself, and stated the growth in terms of the very infant, after which he assumed that the mind does not adapt or grow, in the sense of the personality, except ego, though himself an ego psychologist, Erik's works are different because unlike Freud he did not stop at the formative years. Freud did not have an identity crisis which Erik had, and which seems to have dogged him all through his childhood and adolescence. This can be noticed from his "career, his theories, and his impact on psychoanalysis, psychology, history, and the broader culture." (Douvan, 1997)
There are major elements in his theories that are threaded together. One is the growth during adolescence, and creation of internal values,…
Berzoff, Joan; Flanagan, Laura Melano; Hertz, Patricia. (2011) "Inside Out and Outside In:
Psychodynamic Clinical Theory and Psychopathology in Contemporary Multicultural Contexts" Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Elizabeth Douvan (1997) "Erik Erikson: Critical Times, Critical Theory" Child Psychiatry
and Human Development, vol. 28, no. 1, pp: 15-21.
I had to learn that I couldn't be good at everything naturally. I learned that if I wanted to be better at a skill, there were things at which I had to work.
Identity v. ole Confusion
Erikson's fifth stage of psychosocial development, Identity v. ole Confusion, is one I remember very clearly. As a typical teenager, I struggled to "find myself." There were so many identities out there to choose from, and it seemed like what was "cool" changed from week-to-week. Peer pressure also factored into what I thought was the type of person I should be. I'm sure my parents were worried about my ever-changing modes of dress, hairstyles, even the music I was listening to throughout my teenage years. However, eventually, I developed a sense of who I was (which was nothing like the stereotypes of people I and my friends had been trying to be) and…
Franz and hite (1985) argue that while Erikson's stages are generally sound, they could be made stronger by a discussion of the underlying process of interpersonal attachment. They argue that the tension of intimacy vs. isolation do not adequately account for how males and females form interpersonal attachments.
The writers are clear, however, that these shortcomings do not invalidate Erikson's theory.
Instead, they are looking for ways in which his theory could be made stronger and more nuanced.
In conclusion, Erikson's models remain quite relevant, as can be seen in the illustrations of these stages and in the body of research that his work has spawned. Erikson is among the first theorists who theorized continued psychosocial development past adolescence. For this reason alone, Erikson's work will continue to occupy an important space in estern psychology.
Asbury K, Dunn JF, Pike A, Plomin R. 2003. "Nonshared environmental influences on…
Asbury K, Dunn JF, Pike A, Plomin R. 2003. "Nonshared environmental influences on individual differences in early behavioral development: a monozygotic twin differences study." Child Development. 73:3.
Culp, R. 2000. "Relationships Among Paternal Involvement and Young Children's Perceived Self-Competence and Behavioral Problems." Journal of Child and Family Studies. 9:1.
Franz, C and White, K. 1985. "Individuation and attachment in personality development: Extending Erikson's theory." Journal of Personality. 53:2.
Erik Erikson has emerged as one of the most highly regarded contemporary psychoanalytic theorists and his psychosocial stages of development have attracted attention from many personality researchers who seek to explain personality development across the entire span of a person's life (Crain, 2011). Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development are still taught in college psychology courses, human development courses, and are referred to in developmental research. Nonetheless, there have been some major criticisms of Erikson's work. First, Erikson may have been overly optimistic regarding the potential outcomes of the conflicts of his stages (Crain, 2011). Second, some researchers/theorists have charged Erikson was supporting the status quo in suggesting that an individual must adjust to the norms/mores/rules of the society in which they grow up in a motor to develop properly (Crain, 2011; Sokol, 2009). For example Black and ubinstein (2009) note how influences of long-standing societal structures/norms actually result in…
Black, H.K., & Rubinstein, R.L. (2009). The effect of suffering on generativity: Accounts of elderly African-American men. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 64(2), 296-303.
Crain, W. (2011). Theories of development: Concepts and applications (6th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
McAdams, D.P. (2011). Narrative identity. In S.J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx & V.L. Vignoles
Characters in Development
Erik Erikson's theory of development divides psychological/social development into eight stages, identified by specific virtues and certain conflicts. These stages are typically associated with specific ages in physical development, as well, but it is possible to identify certain adults experiencing these various stages, too. This can be easier using characters from television programs, which tend to be more extreme and more two-dimensional.
The first stage in Erikson's development theory is defined by the virtue of hope and the conflict of trust vs. mistrust. Typically seen in infants, the character of Phoebe from the show Friends can be seen as exemplifying this stage. She interacts with the world on a completely naive basis, and is still learning how people can either help or hurt her.
From about 18 months to three years of age, Erikson believes that the virtue of will and…
guilt stage, that occurs in the preschool years, where the child is about 31/2 to 51/2 years old. During this stage the child learns: (1) to imagine, to broaden his skills through active play of all sorts, including fantasy (2) to cooperate with others (3) to lead as well as to follow (Wagner, 2007). Immobilized by guilt, he is: (1) fearful (2) hangs on the fringes of groups (3) continues to depend unduly on adults and (4) is restricted both in the development of play skills and in imagination (Wagner, 2007). During these years, the preschool aged child begins to assert his power and control over the world. Children that are successful at this stage feel capable and are able to lead others. In this stage exploration is very important, and the well-adjusted and treated child begins to explore his surroundings without any feelings of fear or uncertainty. This stage…
Cole, M. & Cole, S.R. (1989). The Development of Children. New York:
W.H. Freeman & Co.
Erikson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.
Erikson, E.H. (1975). Life History and the Historical Moment. New York:
Personality a Comparison
Erik Erikson has a very detailed and thorough picture of the developmental stages that we each go through throughout our lives. There are eight major stages within the context of Erikson's psychosocial development. Each individual goes through each predetermined stage and develops either positively or negatively based on his or her relationships with others and the external world. These stages last from an individual's first breath to their last, with several stages in adulthood. The first stage set out by Erikson is that of Trust vs. Mistrust, which occurs from birth to a year old. This stage is where infants gain a sense of basic trust for their caregivers and environment, or fail to trust, therefore leading to a general sense of mistrust. The infant learns to trust some aspects, while not trusting others which are a basic survival mechanism and the foundation of future psychosocial development.…
Feist, Jess & Feist, Gregory J. (2008). Theories of Personality. McGraw Hill Higher Education.
Unlike Freud, Erikson believed that sexual impulses were not the only conflicts within the child's developing psyche: a desire for autonomy, for example, was equally important at most stages of development.
Freud's most famous contribution to the study of development is his theory of the Oedipus Complex, which suggests that after a period of polymorphous perversity, or the ability to be sexually stimulated by a number of undifferentiated means, the child begins to desire the mother as its first love object. In the case of a boy, he begins to despise and feel murderously towards his father as a rival for the mother's affection, while the young girl begins to resent the mother for making her 'incomplete' (without a penis) and tries to 'have' her father as a way of 'having' what she lacks. Eventually, the girl tries to resemble her mother to win her father -- and other males'…
" (Harder 2002) This stage depends on the ability to help others and care for others in order to find strength, as one's family is usually grown and new goals must be developed. This ability Erikson calls "generativity." Success during this stage means not feeling inactivity and meaninglessness. (Myers. Stages)
The article discusses the father's success at generativity, or ability to find meaning in life and the ability to transmit values of culture through the family. The results of the research studied in the article is surprising because it found that just caring for their children did not predict the fathers' ability to achieve generativity, as one would think it would
Harder, a. (2002). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson Learning Place Online.com etrieved October 10, 2006 at http://www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Erikson.htm
Myers, obert (Editor).Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers. (1998- 2006). Child Development Institute, LLC etrieved October 10, 2006…
Harder, a. (2002). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson Learning Place Online.com Retrieved October 10, 2006 at http://www.learningplaceonline.com /stages/organize/Erikson.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Child abuse no doubt hampers the victim's personality growth and development, as backed out by various publications, studies and research. During these formative years, we are delicate and breakable. Our environment and our relationships either make or break us. The aggressive, apathetic or withdrawn behavior can be traced to feelings that they hardly anyone can be trusted, or that they are inferior to others. All these are residual effects that linger on even long after they were abused or maltreated in the past (Oates, 1984).
ut it is also important to note that while most child abuse victims succumb to maladaptive personality development patterns, there are also a remarkable few who manage turn their lives around and take the 'other path,' as Erikson would have put it. In a study on the personality development of victims of child abuse by Oates (1984), it was noted that because they were often…
Administration for Children & Families of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Child Maltreatment Report 2003. Retrieved November 23, 2008 at http://www.childhelp.org/resources/learning-center/statistics (as cited in Suprina and Chang, 2005)
Burger, Jerry (2005). Personality. Singapore: Thomson Asia Pte. Ltd.
Harder, a. (2002). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Retrieved November 23, 2008 at http://www.learningplaceonline.com /stages/organize/Erikson.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Erikson's Theory Of Identity Development
Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development was meant to provide society with a better understanding of the stages that an individual experiences across his or her life. Even with the fact that the first four stages described by Erikson are essential in a person's upbringing, it is only after these stages that he or she actually comes to understand society as a whole and starts to express interest in getting actively involved in the social order. It is actually probable that the first four stages are meant to prepare an individual to accumulate the experience needed for him or her to become a part of society.
The fifth stage provides the individual with the task of achieving "a sense of identity -- both who he or she is and what he or she will be" (Theories of personal development 254). While the individual was accustomed…
Aiken, Lewis R. "Human Development in Adulthood," (Springer, 1998)
"Theories of Personality Development"
How will my career and life goals fit in with the life of another person, whether a loved one, a close friend, or even my family? "Erikson describes intimacy as finding oneself yet losing oneself in another," in friendships and in love relationships ("Erik Erikson and psychosocial development," E-ssortment, 2007). Finding the right balance of intimacy and isolation from others, meeting my own goals but still caring about the needs others still feels like a challenge. I know who I am, but I sometimes find it difficult to make that 'I' fit into the worlds of others I care about, whether it is to strike a good balance between studying and going out with friends, or to show love and caring without putting myself last around loved ones and relatives.
Erik Erikson and psychosocial development." E-ssortment. Retrieved 2 Aug 2007 at t http://www.azaz.essortment.com/psychosocialdev_rijk.htm
Erik Erikson and psychosocial development." E-ssortment. Retrieved 2 Aug 2007 at t http://www.azaz.essortment.com/psychosocialdev_rijk.htm
Erikson also states that the development of personality continued through the entire life cycle, rather than just during childhood as Freud has postulated. Finally, Erikson believed that each stage of development had both positive and negative elements.
Erikson's departure from the Freudian school was not readily accepted, even by those who were close to him and admired his work. In each of Erikson's developmental stages there is conflict with bipolar outcomes, as previously described. In Erikson's belief, each individual must experience both sides of the conflict in order to incorporate them into life and to synthesize these into a higher level of functioning. This differs from Freud's theory in that each stage has a name, rather than relation to pleasure from a body zone (oral, anal, etc.). According to Erikson, when the conflict is worked through in a constructive manner, this positive experience then becomes the more dominant part of…
Chapman AJ, Foot HC, Smith JR. (1995) Friendship and Social Relations in Children. Transaction Publishers, New York.
Wallerstein, R.S. (1998). Erikson's Concept of Ego Identity Reconsidered. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 46:229-247
Leffert M. (2007) Postmodernism and its impact on psychoanalysis. Bull Menninger Clin. 71; 1:22-41.
Marzi a, Hautmann G, Maestro S. (2006) Critical reflections on intersubjectivity in psychoanalysis. Int J. Psychoanal 87; 1297-1314.
At school, he struggled with math academically, and occasionally had conflicts with his teachers. These conflicts were not characterized by anger, but at his teacher's frustration at what they saw as his lack of attentiveness and lack of class participation. He was often described (and still is) as quiet and reserved by teachers, friends, and family. He recalls resenting going to school many years, and did not get much positive reinforcement in terms of his academic intelligence. Although his academic performance was adequate, he says he did not feel particularly intelligent. This began to change in junior high, when his performance in sports grew stronger after a growth spurt. The growth spurt, the esteem this garnered him on the team and at school translated into a greater sense of self-worth in the classroom, and greater engagement and confidence when dealing with others. For the first time he succeeded in school,…
Cramer, Craig, Bernadette Flynn, & Ann LaFave. (1997). Erikson's stage 4: Latency.
Introduction to Stages. Erikson homepage. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/ERIK/stage4.HTML
Landon Carter's Character through
Erik Erikson's stages of development
Erik Erikson was an American developmental psychologist who was born in Germany and went to postulate eight stages of psychological development. He developed a model that talked about the eight stages every human passes through as he grows. These stages depict and analyze a person's life from when they are baby till they die. It mentions how in every stage a person is presented with problems and challenges. Every stage depicts a crisis which has to be resolved or else it will create problems in the next stage. Thus, for a person to attain a positive personality they need to attain positive goals of that stage and progress smoothly to the next one. (osenthal, Gurney, & Moore 2)
A Walk to emember is a popular romantic drama movie released in 2002. With the setting in North Carolina, the movie revolves around…
A Walk to Remember. Dir. Adam Shankman. Perf. Mandy Moore, Shane West, Peter Coyote. Warner Bros. Pictures, 2002. DVD.
Beaumont, Sherry L., & Zukanovic, Ray. "Identity Development in Men and Its Relation to Psychosocial Distress and Self-Worth." Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. January (2005) Web.
Elkind, D. "Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man." New York Times. New York Times, 5 April 1970. Web. 15 November 2012.
Gross, Francis L. Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 1987.Print
According to Erik Erickson's theory of psychosocial development, there are eight stages through which an individual should pass in the development from infancy through adulthood. If someone does not achieve the goal of a particular stage, s/he will be unable to move past it and will suffer the consequences for life. The goal of a stage is considered a personality trait; failure to reach the goal is considered to be the lack of a trait. For example, the final stage in Erikson's construct is "integrity vs. despair." A person who reaches that stage successfully is said to have integrity, while one who is not successful does not. Erikson referred to each stage as a "crisis." He did not use the word in the pejorative sense, but rather to express the idea of a turning point in one's life (Atalay, 2007, p. 16). In the sad case study of the…
Atalay, M. (2007). Psychology of crisis: An overall account of the psychology of Erikson.
Ekev Academic Review 11(33), pp. 15-34.
Erikson Institute: Erik H. Erikson. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.erikson.edu/default
Psychology -- Erikson and Rogers
Chaim is a Hasidic Jew who hung out in the underground scene and became a very creative underground rock star. However, Chaim was internally conflicted: the underground lifestyle was the polar opposite of his Hasidic lifestyle and he tried to live Hasidic-by-day and underground rock-star-by-night. Chaim left it to God to determine whether he would get a Hasidic wife or a record contract first. Eventually, he chose a Hasidic married lifestyle, moved upstate and would not touch the underground lifestyle again because he cannot have it and would lose everything by trying to get it back. An Ego Psychologist like Erik Erikson and a Humanist Psychologist like Carl Rogers would view Chaim's dilemma differently.
Erik Erikson believed that a person's life has 8 stages and develops by the interplay of the body, mind and culture influences. Erikson would believe that Chaim was in Stage…
During this stage the child learns to feel either confident or inferior based on external and internal cues of success and/or failure with completing these tasks. (Marlowe & Canestri 112-114) This stage lasts between the ages of 6 years and 12 years of age and is dominated by school. ("Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" (http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/ERIK/sum.HTML)
5. Identity vs. role confusion, is the stage that corresponds to the ability of an individual to resolve social and personal conflicts with identity, and especially that revolved around sexual identity. This stage dominates the adolescent years as individuals begin to have adult like relationships and conform or reject social roles assigned their gender. As this is the stage at which most children leave the education system it is the last stage discussed in Marlowe and Canestri reading of Erikson. (Marlowe & Canestri 114-116) This role last roughly corresponds with the ages between…
Marlowe, Bruce a. Canestri, Alan S. Educational Psychology in Context. New York: Sage Publications, 2006.
Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" Retrieved September 20, 2007 at http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/ERIK/sum.HTML
Erick Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
Erik Erikson, American psychoanalyst, is known in the field of psychology for his contribution in studying the socioemotional aspect of development among humans. Called the theory of socioemotional development, Erikson posits in his theory that, "people grow and develop "socialized by and socialize others -- parents, siblings, peers, teachers... processes that involve changes in an individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality" (Santrock, 2001:338). Erikson identified different dichotomies that specifically delineate positive and negative aspects of socioemotional developments among individuals. These dichotomies are placed at various levels, where different socioemotional characteristics are manifested at each level of the individual's development.
Erikson's theory is an essential tool to understanding human behavior because it serves as a guideline for people to understand the different changes in socioemotional characteristics of people as they grow older. Of course, there are certain exceptions…
Dundy, E. (1976). "Life is all ups and no downs on this carousel." New York Times Web site (NYTimes.com). Available at http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson-carousel.html .
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
EIK EIKSON'S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEOY
Analysis of Erik Erickson's Psychosocial Theory
Ayinde, Titus Adeboye wrote the article titled 'An Understanding of the Need for Psychosocial Support System among Children with Physical Disabilities: Linking Theory with ealities." The article focuses on the need to offer psychosocial help to people with disabilities as a pathway to acceptance and recovery. The psychological insights as developed the process of expression and thinking involved in the article made the concepts shared to be applicable in the context child growth and development. While undertaking the study, Ayinde (2013) expressed how Erickson evolved through different points of view and tried to express human growth and development in totality. The appropriateness of the article can be seen in its procedures of the psychological development of a child as categorized in the eight stages, the expression of the applicability of these stages, and the connection with the revelation of real-life…
Ayinde, Titus Adeboye. An Understanding of the Need for Psychosocial Support System among Children with Physical Disabilities: Linking Theory with Realities. Revista de Asistenta Sociala; Bucharest 4 (2013): 107-115.
Nursing and Erickson Psychosocial Developmental Theory
The objective of this study is to examine Erikson's psychosocial Developmental theory and to discuss how one might apply the theory to their selected nursing practice including a brief description of the theory, framework or philosophy.
The stages of psychosocial development proposed in the work of Erikson include personality stages, psychosexual modes, psychosocial modality and accompanying virtue. These are shown in the following chart labeled Figure 1 in this study.
Erikson's Psychosocial Development Theory Stages, Modes, Modality and Virtues
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt
retentive eliminative holding on letting go
Inititative vs. Guilt intrusive making
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. ole Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Source: Davis (1995, p. 1)
I. Use of This Theory in the Nursing…
Current Nursing (2014) Theory of Psychosocial Development. Erik H. Erikson. Retrieved from: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/theory_of_psychosocial_development.html
Davis, D. (1995) Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Haverford. Retrieved from: http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Erikson's Development Theory and Its Impact on Nursing (2011) Current Nursing. Retrieved from: http://emfrondren.blogspot.com/
For Pavlov, there was less an emphasis on constant, internal conflict and strife, and an even greater stress than Erikson upon the ability of the environment to shape behavior, and by shaping external behavior shape the psyche. Conflict did not occur within the individual, rather it was imposed upon the individual externally by a stimulus, positive or negative associations were given with that stimulus, and learning and development took place as behaviors continued, even in the absence of the original reward or punishment. This learning could be sexual or asexual in nature, and learning took place throughout an individual's lifetime.
All theorists, albeit to different degrees, addressed the complex interaction of cognitive, physical and emotional development on the overall development of the child.
Freud stressed that a child 'learns' the correct sexual and social identity from the conflicts of early childhood, and the way these conflicts are resolved can produce…
David, Doug & Alan Clifton. "Psychosocial Theory: Erikson." Haverford College. Retrieved 5 Aug 2008. http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Ivan Pavlov." (1998). PBS.org. Retrieved 5 Aug 2008. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhpavl.html
Stevenson, David. "Id, Ego, and Superego." The Freud Web. Retrieved 5 Aug 2008. http://www.victorianweb.org/science/freud/freud_ov.html
Freud's multi-tiered stages of development stresses the sexual nature of the evolution of human personality to the exclusion of all other drives.
he third key concept of Freud's theories centers on the importance of repression, and the long-term affects of the first five years of life. A fixation on the mother causes the young boy to develop an Oedipal complex, as he desires to kill his father and supplant his father's position. he girl develops resentment of her mother because she was not born with a penis, and as a result of penis envy, transfers her desire for a penis to a desire for her father. Eventually, the boy learns to identify with his father to 'have' his mother, just as the girl learns to emulate her mother to 'have' a penis in the form of a husband and son. Freud theorized that the repressive stage of sexual development, which…
The third key concept of Freud's theories centers on the importance of repression, and the long-term affects of the first five years of life. A fixation on the mother causes the young boy to develop an Oedipal complex, as he desires to kill his father and supplant his father's position. The girl develops resentment of her mother because she was not born with a penis, and as a result of penis envy, transfers her desire for a penis to a desire for her father. Eventually, the boy learns to identify with his father to 'have' his mother, just as the girl learns to emulate her mother to 'have' a penis in the form of a husband and son. Freud theorized that the repressive stage of sexual development, which occurs after age five, temporarily arrests this conflict and enables the child to become a fully socialized adolescent and adult later on, with appropriate, non-familial, transferred objects of affection.
Erickson: Freud's Adversary
Erik Erickson was a key critic of Freud's psychoanalytic theories. Erickson stressed the social component and influence upon human development, and advocated a multi-stage process of human development, in contrast to Freud's emphasis on infant sexuality (David & Clifton 2008). Eriksson's first key concept stressed that human conflict was never-ending, and suggested that rather than focusing on the conflict of personal identity. Erickson's second key concept is that each stage of development was marked by a more general conflict of, for example, "trust vs. mistrust" (David & Clifton 2008). The third concept is that not only the family was involved
He has received little personal affirmation for 'who he is' in all of the social settings in which he finds himself. He has had more success in school, but the challenges of his ADHD have resulted in disciplinary problems at time.
The first step is to find some form of social intervention to result in a more stabilized situation at home, either offering Jacob's mother support if she is at risk of violence at the hands of her husband, or attempting to offer some conflict or anger management for the couple. In school, Jacob would benefit from additional resource room support to help him deal with his ADHD, along with academic enrichment to enhance his sense of self. Jacob may also be referred to a school therapist to help him engage in more effective social interactions with peers. The school nurse may wish to discuss with Jacob's parents different medications…
Cherry, K. (2013). Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. Retrieved at:
Driscoll, M.P. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon
McLeod, Saul. (2007, August). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved at:
Jean Piaget's theory of child development dates back to the 1920s, although he became more prominent in the 1950s. Like the Freudians, he posited that children underwent certain stages of moral and cognitive development, although these were not so heavily based on sexuality and gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id. ather he maintained the infants and small children passed through a stage of gaining basic control over sensorimotor and bodily functions, eventually developing concrete and finally abstract thought by the end of adolescence. He also recognized that cognitive development and morality were closely related, as did Erik Erikson and the other ego psychologists. Piaget claimed that children should develop ethics of reciprocity and cooperation by the age of ten or eleven, at the same time they became aware of abstract and scientific thought. Erikson in particular deemphasized the early Freudian concern with oral, anal, phallic…
DeRobertis, E.M. (2008). Humanizing Child Development Theory: A Holistic Approach. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Sigelman, C.K. And E.A. Reder (2012). Life-span Human Development. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Psychological Movie Interpretation: Ordinary People
On the surface, the movie Ordinary People is a movie about loss. It focuses on a family that is recovering from the death of its oldest son. The older son, Buck, and the younger son, Conrad, are portrayed as stereotypical golden boys, with lifetimes full of promise ahead of them. Both boys are strong swimmers on the swim team, however, while out together, without any parents, on a boat, they get into a boating accident. Buck is unable to save himself. Perhaps more significantly, Conrad is unable to save Buck. Conrad spirals into a significant depression and attempts to commit suicide. He is hospitalized in a mental institution because of his suicide attempt. The movie opens after Conrad returns home from the mental hospital and focuses on Conrad's attempts to reintegrate into his family and his suburban environment. Conrad's father, Calvin, is distraught about Buck's…
Cherry, K. (2013). Erikson's psychosocial stages summary chart. Retrieved October 15, 2013
from About.com website: http://psychology.about.com /library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm
Erikson, E. (1994). Identity and the life cycle. New York, W.W. Norton & Company.
Harder, A. (2012). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Retrieved October 15, 2013
Sister's Keeper -- Case Study Using Developmental Theories
Anna Fitzgerald was given a life so that she could keep another person alive, her seriously ill older sister Kate. On the surface that seems terrible cruel and wholly unfair. Looking deeper into the issues surrounding the Fitzgerald family, Anna and her older sister Kate, it is more unfair and cruel than it appears on the surface. There are important ethical issues involved in this novel by Jodi Picoult, but there are also developmental issues that cry out to be addressed. Hence, this paper will review the developmental theories of Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, and use instances and circumstances from Picoult's book to link to concepts in the developmental theorists' work. The terribly inequitable theme of this book will be juxtaposed at the outset with what would be considered a "normal adolescent development" for a girl just reaching her…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2001). Facts for Families: Normal
Adolescent Development. Retrieved July 9, 2011, from http://www.aacap.org .
Harder, Arlene F. (2008). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online,
Retrieved July 9, 2011, from http://www.learningplaceonline.com .
According to the Kohlberg theory, the post-conventional level is when a person develops social contract orientation and becomes principled. I believe I felt that I owed society an obligation to work and try to make it better, so I sought public welfare work (Fowler, p. 56).
Eventually, a better job opportunity came to me in the form of a state job in the Department of Youth and Family Services, so I decided to leave the school system. I transferred from my city job and was able work in my chosen field. Between working there and at Families Matter, New Jersey, I learned quite a bit. I would spend hours with parents who did not have the skills to help themselves and children who were in crisis. This motivated me even more to finish my bachelor's degree. This experience made me realize how lucky I was to have supportive family and…
Colby, a and Kohlberg, L. (1987). The Measurement of Moral Judgment, Vol 2. Standard Issue Scoring Manual. Cambridge University Press.
Fowler, J.T., Hennesey, T. (ed.) (1976) "Stages in faith: the structural developmental approach," Values and Moral Development. New York: Paulist Press.
Harder, a.F. (2002). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online.com. Retrieved August 8, 2007 at http://www.learningplaceonline.com /stages/organize/Erikson.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Assignment 4: Erikson's Stages of Development.
According to Erik Erikson, every child passes through eight stages of 'man' or development. Erikson attempted to introduce a theory of development that incorporated other human needs and elements of culture into a human being's socialization process, unlike Freud who focused only on the family romance, of family…
Dement, William. (Sept 1997). "What All Undergraduates Should Know About How Their Sleeping Lives Affect Their Waking Lives." Stanford University Center of Excellence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Retrieved 24 May 2007 http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/sleepless.html
Mothering and Development
The presence of a sensitive mother throughout a child's developmental period is an essential determinant of healthy growth and maturation. The establishment of a solid social and emotional foundation during a child's formative years can not only aid in preparing one's youngster for life in the outside world, it can also instill a beneficial groundwork in the basic concepts of the self (Cassidy, 1990). In order to achieve such noble maternal goals a good mother needs to possess a plethora of fostering characteristics. The most important of such qualities include love, responsiveness, consistency, an eye to encourage and the ability to provide the child with a sense of security. Successful implementation of the aforementioned traits will allow the child to develop a healthy attachment to the mother. This attachment is most often constructed in the stages of infancy. Through the informative and enlightening work of John owlby…
Caldji, C., Tannenbaum, B., Sharma, S., Francis, D., Plotsky, P.M., & Meaney, M.J. (1998, February 24). Maternal Care During Infancy Regulates the Development of Neural Systems Mediating the Expression of Fearfulness in the Rat. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20261/
Cassidy, J. (1990). Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Attachment and the Self in Young Children. In M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E.M. Cummings, Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research and Intervention (pp. 87-119). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Cherry, K. (2011). Attachment Theory. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com /od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Bretherton, I. (1992). The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28 (5), 759-775.
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…
References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Psychosocial Development Theory
In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what…
Adler Graduate School. (2014). Alfred Adler: Theory and Application. Retrieved from: http://www.alfredadler.edu/about/theory
Beyers, W. And Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2010). Does Identity Precede Intimacy? Testing Erikson's Theory on Romantic Development in Emerging Adults of the 21st Century. Journal of Adolescent Research. 20(10). Retrieved from: https://biblio.ugent.be/input/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=941691&fileOId=967467
Davis, D. And Clifton, A. (n.d.) Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Retrieved from: http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Goodman, S.H., Connell, A.M., and Hall, C.M. (2011). Maternal Depression and Child Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Child Family Psychological Review. 14. Retrieved from: http://psych.colorado.edu/~willcutt/pdfs/Goodman_2011.pdf
Transition Into Late Adulthood
While at one hand an old man in his 60s would cherish the past years of his life sharing experiences about college sports, dating spots and holiday fun, an elderly woman would act grumpy showing discontent on every dish being served at a dinner. Such scenarios are commonly noticed in day-to-day life which surrounds people in their late adulthood; a period in 60s where according to Erik Erikson (1963), individuals aim at finding satisfaction in their lives instead of becoming disillusioned. Hence, the transition to late adulthood is a time marked with physical, social and emotional challenges which are usually faced by almost every person.
Life is divided into different phases where a child eventually grows up and is faced by the reality of life. With time, he has school, parties and fast food revolving around him when suddenly this is replaced…
Bennett, T. (2001). Understanding Everyday Life, Oxford: Blackwell
Carstense, L.L, Isaacowitz, D. & Charles, S.T. (2003). Life-span personality development and emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton
Fry, P.S & Debats, D.L. (2009). Perfectionism and the five-factor personality traits as predictors of mortality in older adults. Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 14 (4).
Death anxiety was given a broad definition and seemed to point to how one dealt with the death of others also. I found that I did not deal with death very well. Mainly because I was not able to know my real father, and I felt betrayed by the man who was my actual father when I had to experience the abuse that my family went through. It was an ordeal because my father died, but it was a bigger ordeal because of the revelations that came afterwards. I found that one can regress from a level of maturity when a major negative event occurs.
I look back at my life through the prism of these two theories and there is not much that I regret, even though there were some significant bumps along the way. I agree with the precepts because I can see a lot of what both…
Boeree, G.C. (2005). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/ewaters/345/2007_erikson/erikson.pdf
Bruess, B.J., & Pearson, F.C. (2002). Are there gender differences in moral
reasoning as defined by Kohlberg? College Student Affairs Journal, 21(2),
I think I want to go into nursing but I am not 100% sure yet. ight now, I am just taking basic gen ed classes since this is my first year in school -- I did take a couple of classes this past summer. Most adolescents I know in my neighborhood have graduated already as well." Georgia stated she was still 'feeling out' her identity, which is common in adolescence. She was willing to be independent enough to pay for her own college, which suggests a desire to 'stand on her own two feet' despite the fact that she still lives at home.
Georgia also noted that she does not contribute to the family income and that her father is a biopharma executive. Her desire to enter nursing could reflect her exposure to this field of work at home. However, she saw her decision not to attend a four-year college…
Santrock, Jack. (2011). Life-span development. (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
The church had taught Luther that the Earth was the center of the universe and he pretty much had bought into everything that was laid before him in schools and church. Then, after receiving his master or arts (in 1505), and while still willing to pursue his father's dream for him (to go into law), he began to become melancholy (a best friend died; two of his brothers died of the plague) and very sad.
On July 2, 1505, while on his way back to college at Erfurt, he encountered a thunderstorm (as mentioned earlier in the paper) and when lightning struck the ground near him he was "seized by a severe, some say convulsive, state of terror" (p. 91). Luther claims to have called out at that moment, "Help me, St. Anne...I want to become a monk." Nobody of course heard him cry out, but his family and colleagues…
Erikson, Erik H. Young Man Luther: A Study in Psychoanalysis and History. New York W.W.
Norton & Company Inc.
Sharkey, Wendy. "Erik Erikson: 1902-1994." Psychology History / Muskingum College. Retrieved 25 Oct. 2006 at http://muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/erikson.htm .
Wikipedia. "Erik Erikson." Retrieved 26 Oct. 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_Erikson .
Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?
Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…
Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging
Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.
DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.
Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
eligion and Education
eligious development in children and adults alike have been research areas that have historically been of interest to those involved in the developmental psychology arenas such as theorists of religious development, religious educators, and designers of religious education curricula in various settings. However, religious development did not receive a great deal of consideration during the early phases of growth in the psychology or the schools of human behavior and development. Even though the work of Sigmund Freud has been extremely influential in education and psychoanalysis, there are many other eminent psychologists who have made greater strides for humankind by trying to understand the planning and teaching aspects of religious education. This paper, therefore, aims to discuss three such prominent individuals: Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson and Jerome Bruner.
Ironically, behaviorism and psychoanalysis entail some aspects of atheistic presuppositions and therefore create many psychologists who are leaning more towards…
Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. (2004). 100 Eminent Psychologists. Retrieved on November 8, 2004, from http://www.coe.uga.edu/echd/counpsy/eminentpsychologists_new.htm#piaget
Jet Li-Psychological Personality Analysis
The Image of Jet Li: Development of a Wu-Shu Master
For many years, Asian actors have not been given enough opportunities to break into the entertainment industry in the United States, popularly called the Hollywood. Only few Asian actors have made it big in Hollywood, of which the famed martial arts master ruce Lee is considered as the first Asian who brought fame in the Asian entertainment industry through his martial arts movies. Jackie Chan, similarly, shares ruce Lee's glory but in a different genre, where Chan uses martial arts not as a form of physical violence, but a form of art movement. Also, Chan's movies are mostly humorous, illustrating Chan's penchant for a feel-good movie for his audience.
Another name that has emerged as another potential Asian martial arts actor is Jet Li, a wu-shu expert who hailed from eijing, China. Jet Li is popularly…
Maier, H. (1969). Three Theories of Child Development. New York: University of Washington.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
I have chosen midlife as my study since it is the period which is the most fascinating and on which too many conflicting and ambiguous statements are brought to bear. This may be due to the fact that the middle years contains too little regularity and too much diversity therefore many of the models that I have seen differ too in the age range given to the mid life years. To elaborate: Whilst most models define midlife as beginning at 40 and ending at 60, a ten-year range exists at either end with some theorists actually considering midlife as beginning at 30 and ending at 75 (Lachman, 2004). Given too the differences in people, magnified by socio-historical and geographical elements, people are bound to indicate differences in their mid -- life period. It is for this reason possibly that Erickson's findings sound so quaint to many western ears,…
Caspi A. (1987). Personality in the life course. J.Personal. Soc. Psychol. 5, 31203 -- 13
Erikson E. (1963). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.
Jung C.G. (1971). The Portable Jung. New York: Viking.
Lachman, M.E. (2004). Development in Midlife. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 305-331.
By praising a child every time they do something correctly instead of reprimanding him every single time he does something wrong, can better his self-esteem and show him that he is in control of his actions and feelings. A program that gives rewards for every accomplishment in form of tokens or tickets which can then be redeemed for things such as movie tickets or restaurant vouchers (something that is practical and useful) can be a motivator in children with mood disorders. A goal of a certain number or tickets could be set so that the child is often motivated to behave appropriately in order to attain the desired prize. Tickets or tokens should never be taken away or revoked since previous desired behavior has already earned them the current number of tokens or tickets, but not giving the redeemable tickets or tokens will be a better option. Ignoring his attention…
Perry, S.E., Hockenberry, M.J., Lowdermilk, D.L., & Wilson, D. (2009).
Maternal Child Nursing Care. Mosby. 4th Edition.
kbarlowe. (2010, July 7). 5- to 12-year-old, mood disorder NOS...help! Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation. Retrieved on May 30, 2011 from http://www.bpkids.org/connect/forums/general-discussion/5-yr-old-mood disorder-noshelp
Flanagan, Dr., Samantha, Psy. D. (2011) University of Maryland. Department of Psychology.
Human development refers to the psychological and biological growth of a human being throughout life. It starts from infancy all the way to adulthood. The scientific study of the development of a human being, psychologically, is referred to as Developmental psychology. According to Erik Erikson, there are eight critical stages in the development of a human being in order to become socially and psychologically well adjusted. This renowned psychologist is also credited with the expression identity crisis used to refer, not to the possibility of a catastrophic occurrence but to a critical turning point. Erikson points out that a person is confronted with challenges and experiences at each stage. One has to master all the dynamics at every stage in order to grow to the next one and each stage is successive and based on the completion of the earlier one (Sokol, 2009). This paper focuses on the adolescence and…
infant (birth-12 months old).
The observation is of Julie, the child of a friend who is 6 months old. Her parents are Jewish, the father is a Rabbi in the local Temple, the mother works as a physical therapist. The parents combine American and Jewish values in raising the child, and in comparison to any particular American child of her age, I do not expect to see nor do not see any particular cultural differences emerge as yet.
The family may be described as lower to middle class; it is difficult to make distinctions. They do have a large family -- ten children, with both parents involved in parenting and maintenance of the household. It is a warm, cohesive family with both sets of grandparents living close by and with close family and communal ties.
The observation was conducted last week and occurred during the duration of one and a…
Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development & adolescent depression
This is a paper concerning the development stages of an adolescent and depression. Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development will be used to explain what may lead to a child feeling depressed or suicidal.
DEPRESSION IN TEENS
Approximately five percent of children and adolescents experience depression at some point in their lives (AACAP 1998). Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson studied the development of the adolescents. Their theories will give clearer understanding to why teenagers become depressed and what can be done about the problem. Depression comes from a variety of problems in the adolescent's life. Recognizing depression is important. "Out of 100,000 adolescents, two to three thousand will have mood disorders out of which 8-10 will commit suicide" (Brown 1996). The causes of depression in a teenager can stem from family problems, peer pressure and bullying, and changes in…
Bond, Lyndal; Carlin, John B.; Thomas, Lyndal; Rubin, Kerryn; & Patton, director, George. "Does Bullying Cause Emotional Problems? A Prospective Study of Young Teenagers." BMJ: British Medical Journal. 9/1/2001, Vol. 323. Issue7311. p. 480
Chandler, Jim M.D. FRCPC. "Depression In Children and Adolescents -- what it is and what to do about it" http://www.klis.com/chandler/pamphlet/dep/depressionpamphlet.htm
Depression in Children and Adolescents" A Fact Sheet for Physicians. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depchildresfact.cfm
The Depressed Child" AACAP Facts for Families American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Fact sheets No. 4. 1997.
Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).
Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).
Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and rickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new tiquette Revolution for tots at…
Erik Erikson accepted the Freudian theory of infantile sexuality, but believed that other non-sexual issues were equally important in childhood development. He theorized that the infant moved from stages of "Basic Trust vs. Mistrust," followed by conflicts of "Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt," "Initiative vs. Guilt," Industry vs. Inferiority, "Identity vs. Role Confusion, "Intimacy vs. Isolation," Generativity vs. Stagnation," and finally into the stage of "Ego Integrity vs. Despair." Personality malformation was likely to occur if the child's conflicts were not resolved, resulting in the child being stuck in one of these stages (Davis & Clifton, 2007, p.1). Jean Piaget, in contrast believed that the child's neurological capacity was the primary influence upon his or her ability to comprehend the world, as the child moved from the sensorimotor, to the preoperational, to the concrete operational stages, followed by the formal operational stage when the child could comprehend such concepts as 'here' and 'away,' and size, shape and mass ("Jean Piaget's Theory of Development,"2007). Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).
Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and Erickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new Etiquette Revolution for tots at New York's Plaza Hotel, which hosts a class the teaches children how to be respectful of others by offering advice on how to choose the right silverware.
Kohlberg would no doubt see the age group that apparently delights in the class as being in the 'nice/good' child stage or law and order conventional periods of development, and are thus eager to obey parents in exchange for approval while Erickson would see the desire to receive rule-governed behavior as a desire for affirmation of boundaries and trust in adult authorities. Freud would see such an obsession with control over oral and sanitary issues as a hold over from the anal and oral stages. The teacher of the class does show some acknowledgement of the existence of stages of childhood development, when she states that
ABC/23 Version X
Week 3 Review Worksheet
Week 3 Review Worksheet
Highlight the correct answer.
Angelica wants to win the beauty contest because she wants the trophy and the recognition. She is extrinsically motivated.
intrinsically avoidance extrinsically situationally
Maslow believed that all human beings strive to become self-actualized great people self-actualized goal oriented achievement oriented
James-Lange theory postulates that bodily reactions occur before the emotions and Cannon-Bard theory postulates that both the bodily reactions and emotions occur at the same time.
Cannon -- Bard theory; James -- Lange theory
James -- Lange theory; Two factor theory
James -- Lange theory; Cannon -- Bard theory
Emotional intelligence; Dual Pathway Model of Fear
Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage emotions effectively in a variety of situations.
. Mental toughness
. Erik Erickson believed that the process in which we handle specific…
1. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory -- the process of development takes place in the course of social interaction. Cultural assimilation occurs in a person through interactions with others.
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Copyright © 2015 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Psychologists, such as Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson, theorize that humans go through stages in their development throughout life, growing from infancy to old age. Piaget outlined stages of thinking, referred to as cognitive development; Erikson described stages of personality, referred to as psychosocial development. How can you use this information to better understand your own life? hat stages of cognitive and psychosocial development have you gone through since you were an infant? hich stages will you encounter during adulthood and old age?
Piaget and Erikson both took a systematic approach to trying to determine what the different stages of human development. However, both individuals used different perspectives and formulated models that were inherently different. Piaget was interested in trying to determine the way children begin to develop various mental capacities to understand things such as numbers, time, causality, justice, etc. and he considered his work to be the realm…
McLeod, S. (2015). Jean Piaget. Retrieved from Simple Psychology: https://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2017). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: https://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
There's an attitude that if you're doing something you usually do with women, then you are not gay" (hoads, 1999, p. 136). This notion of homosexuality among Puerto ican community is reflective of the perception elsewhere in Latin America. For instance, hoads adds that, "Such a perspective exists throughout much of Latin America, where activos (sexual aggressors in same-sex encounters) are typically not considered to be gay, whereas pasivos are seen as subordinate and are considered to be gay" (1999, p. 136). Finally, Nicholas is even confronted with some differences in perception among the gay community itself that may account for his reluctance to openly reveal his sexual orientation to most of his peers. For example, hoads addsd that, "Queer students from diverse cultural backgrounds not only face possible rejection from their racial communities for being queer, but they also face racism within the gay community. A student commented: 'On…
Christiansen, S.L. & Palkovitz, R. (1998). Exploring Erikson's psychosocial theory of development: Generativity and its relationship to paternal identity, intimacy, and involvement in childcare. The Journal of Men's Studies, 133.
Hoare, C.H. (2002). Erikson on development in adulthood: New insights from the unpublished papers. New York: Oxford University Press.
Linn, S. (2003). Children and commercial culture: Expanding the advocacy roles of professionals in education, health, and human service. The Journal of Negro Education,
It's very interesting to discuss an individual's life in detail, especially when done so in a thoughtful manner. Through these conversations, one garners a distinct appreciation for life and the obstacles it presents. It also provides a great sense of the importance of perseverance in regards to success. Allen exemplifies the term "perseverance," in his behaviors throughout life. I personally had to the opportunity to meet Allen during a job fair. He was representing Macy's and immediately seemed approachable. He is warm hearted and very engaging. Little did I know that his background was one that was anything but warm.
Not much is known about Allen's father, who was appropriate named Allen himself. As the third, the younger Allen never made physical contact with his father. From the information garnered from his mother, Allen Sr. was an expert guitarist. His hobbies included playing instruments and teaching music.…
The 2012 movie, Silver Linings Playbook, provides a rather correct view of numerous mental health-related aspects and the impact it has on families and relationships. Bipolar disorder-diagnosed Patrick Solitano Jr. is enrolled in an eight-month court-commanded psychiatric hospital intervention after viciously assaulting a man his wife was cheating on him with. This mood disorder is accompanied by manic episodes (discrete minimum-seven-day-long periods of uncharacteristically and continually cantankerous, elevated, or expansive moods). Symptoms include escalated self-esteem, reduced need to sleep, impulsiveness, and quick speech, accurately portrayed by Pat in the movie. This results in vacillating extremely good and extremely bad moods together with acute impairment and distress, necessitating rigorous, steady medications (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Also, bipolar disorder patients typically have highly intense and charismatic personalities, as seen in Pat Jr. The character is quick to form an emotional bond with Tiffany, an unusual lady who is herself burdened by mental…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.
Bragazzi, N., Pezzoni, F., & Del Puente, G. (2014).Investigating aggressive styles and defense mechanisms in bipolar patients and in their parents.Health Psychology Research, 2(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/hpr.2014.1546
Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Erikson, E. (1982). The life cycle completed: A review. New York: Norton
family is, the stages in the development of a child into an adult, the benefits of early education for a child, and how he develop as a result of this program. Further the paper shall also deal with the eight stages of life as defined by famous psychologists, and how one pass through them; how can an adult feel empowered and in full control of himself; what has he learnt within an early education program, and how can this be coordinated with his family life as such.
'Family' is a social unit that lives together sometimes under one roof, sometimes under several different roofs, but all united by blood ties or familial ties. The primary social group of a family is a set of parents and their children. (Definition of family on the web) There are several issues that are related to the family as a unit, and primary among…
Definition of family on the web. Retrieved at http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:familyAccessed on 28 January, 2005
Ollhoff, Laurie. Ages, Stages and Growth. Retrieved at http://www.afterschool.gov/docs/Ages_stages_and_planning.doc. Accessed on 28 January, 2005
Critical issue: Organizing for effective early childhood programs and practices. Retrieved at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/earlycld/ea100.htm. Accessed on 28 January, 2005
Erikson's eight stages of human development. Retrieved at http://psychology.about.com /library/weekly/aa091500b.htm. Accessed on 28 January, 2005
The subject interviewed is a 17-year-old Hispanic male from Cleveland, Ohio. Although his legal name is Harley, this adolescent chooses to call himself by the name "Renegade." Renegade lives in a loft with 12 other boys ranging from the ages of 15 to 27 above a rare book store in a historic and impoverished section of the city. Renegade was either orphaned or abandoned at a young age, and spent many years bouncing around foster homes and group homes as a ward of the state of California. Since leaving the care of the state, Renegade was able to uncover many mysteries about his past that were officially "sealed" regarding his biological family. Renegade was not given any information about his ethnic background as a child, but his mocha-colored skin and dark, striking hair obviously set him apart as an ethnic minority. There were Latino and Mexican boys in…
Aranel et al. (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_H._Erikson
Brainmeta. (2004) "Jean Piaget" Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://brainmeta.com/personality/piaget.php
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [3/10/2005] from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html .
Karp, J. (2004) "Erikson's stages of psychosocial development." (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erikson%27s_stages_of_psychosocial_development
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
" (KGI, 1)
I did start to notice many changes in myself, both in terms of my increasing tendency toward physical activeness and my heightening interest in the opposite sex. At first, this interest was manifested of my generally social nature. And to the point, this adolescent period would be an excellent time in my life in terms of cultivating a loose but increasingly intimate social network. This conforms with my general research on this stage of development, which is highlighted by a transition from a life dominated by home and family to one increasingly more divided to the pursuits of school, extra-curricular activity, athletic team membership and information social gathering. These tend to function as substitutes in certain areas where previously only the family fulfilled certain needs.
This was a tough time though. In the midst of the rapid changes that were altering my physical and emotional experiences, my…
Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall.
Erikson, E.H. (1963). Childhood & Society. W & M. Morton & Co.
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University: Educational Psychology Interactive.
KGI. (2007). Growth Milestone-12 Years: Declaration of Independence. Kids Growth. Online at http://www.kidsgrowth.com/resources/articledetail.cfm?id=1130
Early Childhood Observation
year-old Andrew is a Caucasian male. He was dressed in brown khaki trousers and a navy blue shirt. Andrew' trousers have their pockets on the side. He is of average height and body mass. He loved this catchy haircut and put on a pleasant smile. He has this buoyant and controlling demeanor. He loved to play with his age mates, especially the boys. There are times when he played alone, especially when he noticed that matters were becoming too physical and here he demonstrates the withdrawn-rejected aspect of development. His psychosocial character is evident at times, for instance, when he goes off to meet his friends and have some games with them. However, Andrew carefully observed his cleanliness and grooming. He showed signs of being egocentric, viewing the world from his own perspective. The latter character was uncommon among the children in the children's park playground. This…
Advocates for youth. (2008). Growth and Development, Ages Nine to 12-What Parents Need to Know. Retrieved from Advocates for youth: http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/155?task=view
CDC. (2016, March 15). Middle Childhood (9-11 years of age). Retrieved from Division of Human Development and Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/middle2.html
Eccles, J. S. (1999). The Development of Children Ages 6-14. When School is Out, 9(2).
Erikson, E. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…
Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.
Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.
Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...
Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
Mammals will evolve (to choose an analogy) but they do not revert to being reptiles. If the subjects of this research had simply disagreed about the exact biographical dates of the model this would not have been problematic. If research subjects, for example, had argued to extend the period of middle adulthood to fifty rather than forty-five, for example, as people work until they are older than had been the case when Levinson was working, this would have in general supported his findings.
The validity of his model is not dependent on being absolutely precise in his age-related break-points and while Levinson himself might not have acknowledged this, it makes sense that details of the different stages should have to be shifted to meet changes in society. Such an acknowledgement is in fact missing from Levinson's model (as well as from the models of Erikson and Piaget) and must be…
children cannot help but notice about certain unusual behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physical traits and wonder if they are "normal." The puzzle of human development has been a popular area of study and, as a result, there is a wealth of theories striving to understand the many twists and turns of maturation. rik rikson, a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst; Jean Piaget, a Swiss biologist and Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, put forth three of the most well-known theories on aspects of human development.
rikson believed humans went through eight distinct physical and emotional developmental periods called "psychosocial stages." In each stage rikson proposed that humans confront a task or dilemma and that their ability to address each challenge would further define their personality and abilities. The stages correspond to specific physical stages and are as follows: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy), Autonomy vs. Shame (toddler), Initiative vs. Guilt (preschool), Industry vs.…
Erickson, E.H. (1972). Eight ages of man. In C.S. Lavatelli & F. Stendler (Eds.), Readings to child behavior and child development. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Piaget, J. (1929). The child's concept of the world. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1997). Educational psychology. Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucie Press