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This article is of value to the present research for its identification of some critical research promoting the integration of vocabulary acquisition strategies into more traditional modes of language development instruction.
Laufer, B. & Rozovski-Roitblat, B. (2011). Incidental vocabulary acquisition: The effects of task type, word occurrence and their combination. Language Teaching Research, 15(4), 391-411
This article by Laufer & Rozovski-Roitblat (2011) adds to the recurrent discussion -- often featuring contributions from Laufer -- regarding task differentiation and its impact on learning patterns among ESL students. The article here considers that a combination of learning task orientation and the degree of occurrence of a targeted term can be assessed in evaluating the effectiveness of certain teaching strategies in producing longterm retention. According to the study, in the methodology and data-gathering processes, "learners were exposed to 60 target words, 10 words in each condition during a 13-week course of study, and…
Aykin, N. (2009). Internationalization, Design and Global Development: Third International Conference. Springer.
Brown, T.S. & Perry, F.L. (1991). A Comparison of Three Learning Strategies for ESL Vocabulary Acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 25(4).
Phonetic reading methods are actually older than the whole language approach: "The traditional theory of learning established in the 19th century draws on the notion that children need to break down a complex skill, like reading, into its smallest components (letters) before moving on to tackle larger components (sounds, words, and sentences). Phonetic reading instruction applies this theory; children are taught to dissect unfamiliar words into parts and then join the parts together to form words. By learning these letter-sound relationships the student is provided with a decoding formula that can be applied whenever they encounter an unfamiliar word" (Curtis 2009). Advocates of this approach would say that given that ESL students are more apt to encounter unfamiliar words compared with their native English peers of the same level of academic intelligence, phonetics seems like the best solution. hole learning advocates state that approaching language in such a slow, methodical…
Curtis, Jenny. (1997). Whole language vs. phonetics: what is better?
Superkids. Retrieved March 25, 2009 at http://www.superkids.com/aweb/pages/features/reading/phonics.shtml
Eric. (2005, April 3). Teaching of reading. ESL HQ. Retrieved March 25, 2009 at http://www.eslhq.com/forums/esl-articles/teaching-reading-121/
Peyton, Joy & JoAnn Crandall. (1996). Philosophies and approaches in adult ESL literacy instruction. ERIC Digest. Retrieved March 25, 2009 at http://www.ericdigests.org/1996-2/esl.html
, 1997). Relevant to ESL students and teaming between ESL teachers and mainstream teachers, the St. Paul, Minnesota. school district has replaced assigning ESL students to a full-day ESL track or having an ESL teacher regularly pull them out of class. Instead, mainstream and ESL teachers co-teach in the same classroom. With this approach, the school district has nearly closed the achievement gap between English-language learners and native speakers, based on state test results (Zehr, 2006).
George and Alexander (2003) add to the St. Paul, Minnesota approach by exploring school structure and the way teams are organized. These researchers mention that there's no single acceptable model for organizing teams; they can include small partner (two-teacher) teams, three-teacher teams, four-teacher teams, or grade-wide teams. Schools will have to select a model that best fits with its environment. George and Alexander have also identified characteristics of highly effective teams: student-centered focus; strong…
Dickinson, T.S., & Erb, T.O. (1997). We gain more than we give: Teaming in middle schools. Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association.
Epstein, J.L. (1985). Effects of teacher practices of parent involvement on change in student achievement in reading and math. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Social Organization of Schools.
Felner, R.D., Jackson, a.W., Kasak, D., Mulhall, P., Brand, S., & Flowers, N. (1997). The impact of school reform for the middle years: Longitudinal study of a network engaged in Turning Points-based comprehensive school transformation. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(7), 528-532, 541-550.
George, P.S. And Alexander, W.M. (2003). The exemplary middle school (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth Learning
For such crucial areas as writing instruction, the simple use of email can prove to render this effect. To the point, one article indicates to us that "writing in itself is often considered a process that involves four main stages i.e., planning, drafting, revising and editing. These four steps seem to be applicable for paper-based writing as well as for e-mail writing. They can be integrated to form the electronic-based tutorials." (Article?, 1)
The application of this technology can be crucial not just for imposing practice and application of an evolving skill but also for helping to reinforce the centrality of writing in using the medium effectively. Such instruction tends to inform a reciprocal relationship between learned expressive insights and their practical applications in terms of inducing a culture as well. ith the internet, the flexibility enabled by email composition and other facets of writing uniquely facilitated in this context…
Article? (?). The Effectiveness of the Electronic Tutorial in Enhancing Writing Skills.
Clovis, D.L. (1997). Lights, Television, Action. Educational Leadership.
Hurt, J. (2004). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Teaching and Learning Online. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin.
Kurshan, B.; Isler, E. & Blackburn, J. (?). The ESL Electronic Classroom. Educorp Consultants Corporation.
They also use language to negotiate with parents and teachers for pocket money and extra time for assignments respectively, and so on. All these contexts can be used to provide students with a familiar and supportive environment of learning.
The most important element that emerges from this chapter is the fact that students can no longer be seen as homogeneous automatons, who learn language in precisely the same way. Human beings all differ in terms of ability and learning style. Recognizing this enables teachers to better address their students' learning needs and also to derive better ways of assessment that truly measures the learning process. An integrated assessment, in other words, will provide a better way of assessing the learning process rather than only fragments of language learning.
Chapter 5 focuses on the importance of observation in assessing the process of speaking and listening skills. Closely connected to preliminary and…
Brevity is also necessary because reading for content and for linguistic problem solving is the focus" (Kruger). In contrast to the brevity of the intensive program the extensive program "consists of longer selections, that are assigned to be read outside of class, like novels or short stories" (Kruger).
Of course a major goal of the program was English language knowledge and reading comprehension, but "Vocabulary building is an intrinsic part of all aspects of the program too," and "Increasing reading speed is an integral by-product of this program, and comes about naturally as a result of increasing facility in reading" (Kruger). Reading speed was not seen as essential, but, as the author said, it was a natural "by-product" of the program. Both of these last two features also were desired features of the programs. Reading comprehension truly comes with an increased vocabulary, and as students understand the material better they…
Cahyono, Bambang Yudi. "After Three-year Immersion in the Australian Mainstream
Classroom: Towards More Advanced ESL Literacy Learning Development."
[email protected] 8.1 (2006): 35-43.
Clachar, Arlene. "Re-Examining ESL Programs in Public Schools: A Focus on Creole-
3. Results will potentially uncover gaps within the program and/or issues that need to be addressed by a multidimensional, higher level, university committee.
What are the specific issues each group of stakeholders has regarding ESL?
Are there best practices that should be included in xy university's ESL program?
What are the most successful current ESL techniques? The least successful?
What can students and instructors do to improve ESL in the short-term? Long-term?
Learning Objectives for Barriers
1. Description of basic research data that focuses on barriers to learning ESL.
2. Categorize the template data from the research.
3. Address the major concerns through reevaluation of lesson plans.
For the stakeholders, what are the overall barriers to ESL language learning at xy universities?
What methods, changes, techniques, or alterations can be used to improve ESL instruction?
What responsibilities do the basic stakeholders have in regarding to improving listener accountability?…
(Echevarria, Short & Powers, 2006)
Arriaza, G. (1997). Grace under Pressure: Immigrant Families and the Nation-State. Social Justice, 24(2), 6+.
Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational esearcher, 33, 3-15.
California Department of Education, Educational Demographics Unit. (2004). Statewide Stanford 9 test results for reading: Number of students tested and percent scoring at or above the 50th percentile ranking (NP). etrieved January 5, 2007, at http://www.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/
Echevarria, J., Short, D., & Powers, K. (2006). School eform and Standards-Based Education: A Model for English-Language Learners. The Journal of Educational esearch, 99(4), 195+.
Harry, B. (1992). Making Sense of Disability: Low-Income, Puerto ican Parents' Theories of the Problem. Exceptional Children, 59(1), 27+.
Lavadenz, M. (1994). The role of paraprofessionals in the instruction of limited English proficient students (ep. No. ED 368206). Los Angeles: Loyola Marymount University.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2002). Schools and staffing survey,…
Arriaza, G. (1997). Grace under Pressure: Immigrant Families and the Nation-State. Social Justice, 24(2), 6+.
Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33, 3-15.
California Department of Education, Educational Demographics Unit. (2004). Statewide Stanford 9 test results for reading: Number of students tested and percent scoring at or above the 50th percentile ranking (NPR). Retrieved January 5, 2007, at http://www.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/
Echevarria, J., Short, D., & Powers, K. (2006). School Reform and Standards-Based Education: A Model for English-Language Learners. The Journal of Educational Research, 99(4), 195+.
We know this situation is particularly critical for special education, ESL, and bilingual teachers. Although these teachers require an even deeper understanding of reading, language, curricula, and instructional practices than do mainstream teachers, in fact they have even fewer opportunities in their preparation programs to acquire this expertise." (AND, nd) The report states that as well that grade retention does not result achievement in reading on a long-term basis without the provision of "specialized instruction." Stated as three findings in the AND study is that: (1) High stakes tests are affecting reading comprehension instruction in unknown ways; (2) The preparation of teachers does not adequately address children's need for reading comprehension instruction; and (3) Making good on the federal investment in education requires more knowledge about reading comprehension.
III. SUPISING ESULTS - LESAUX & THITY LANGUAGES ESL BASE
In a study conducted by Nonie Lesaux on a group of 30…
Potier, Beth (2003) Research on ESL Children Has Surprising Results - Harvard News Office 13 November 2003 Online available at http://www.hno.harvard.edu/gazette/2003/11.13/03-lesaux.html
Armaline, William & Levy, Donald P. (2005) No Child Left Behind: Flowers Don't Grow in the Desert. Journal of Race and Society. 2004 Elsevier Inc. Online available at http://sociology.uconn.edu/grads/armaline1.pdf .
RAND Reading Study Group (nd) Chapter Four - Online available at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:LopCBl2NnVUJ:www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1465/MR1465.ch1.pdf+ESL:+poor+achievement,+falling+behind+class&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=19
English is a Second Language and Poor Achievement
The LDDI results were rated separately and were compared with an inter-rater reliability of.99. esults were categorized independently and were then categorizations in three areas were compared: positively identified, not identified, and questionable.
The LDDI is a survey instrument with six independent scales used to identify specific learning disabilities. These scales include: Listening, eading, Writing, Mathematics, and easoning. Each scale has fifteen items associated with behaviors that typically indicate specific intrinsic processing disorders.
The teachers chose four students each, two LEP and two English, to complete the LDDI. None of the students were experiencing academic failure and none had been referred to special education. The LDDI was completed by each student, and the teacher raters completed demographic sheets for each student. External evaluators scored the LDDI tests.
To obtain results two statistical procedures were executed. First, independent t-tests indicated significant differences (at the.0001 level) between the two groups for all…
Lock, R.H., Layton, C.A. (2002). Isolating intrinsic processing disorders from second language acquisition. Bilingual Research Journal, 26, 213-24.
ESL Lesson Plan
Culturally Intuitive English Instruction for Norwegian Students
For the Norwegian student learning English, linguistic mastery is an achievable goal, but the learning process is fraught with cultural and conceptual frustration. Therefore, it incumbent upon the instructor to approach students with patience, clarity and a sensitivity to cultural differences as they inform the use of language. Likewise, it is necessary to select reading and learning materials that are designed to facilitate a greater understanding of sentence structure, vocabulary and diction as they are contextualized by the target culture. Therefore, the greater the emphasis on reading and improvisational simulation as supplementary to one another, the more probable that the Norwegian student will become a more effective English communicator. The overarching goal of the instructor is to help non-native speakers to draw equivalency in meaning between terms and ideas originating from two different languages. The use of Teresa Breslin's 1994…
Earl, L. & Katz, S. (2006). Rethinking Classroom Assessment With Purpose in Mind. Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth.
Flognfeldt, M.E. (2008). Teaching for Sustainable Vocabulary Development. Oslo University College.
Lund, R.E. (2008). Intercultural Competence -- An Aim for Teaching of English in Norway. Acta Didactica Norge.
ESL Student 1 & 2 Submissions
Do you agree with Alharbi's original order of VLS?
Alharbi states that ELs cannot acquire the vocabulary the first time interacting with it, they need "at least 5-16 times the exposure to master new words" (Alharbi, 2015, p. 502). The author further estimated that native English speaking high school students enter their high school studies with approximately eighteen thousand words in their total vocabularies. Therefore, for an ESL student to expect the same level of fluency, they will have to learn an immense amount of new vocabulary words and thus the order of VLS tactics can be an important success factor. I do believe that the order of the VLS priorities identified by the questionnaire is a good beginning strategy for most students. However, given the prevalence of different learning styles, it should also be noted that individuals may have to customize their own…
Alharbi, A. (2015). Building Vocabulary for Language Learning: Approach for ESL Learners to Study New Vocabulary. Journal of International Students, 501-512.
DeJong, E. (2011). Foundations for Multilingualism in Education: from Principle to Practices. Caslon Publishing.
Martinez, R.S., Harris, B., & McClain, M.B. (2014). Practices that promote English reading for English learners (ELs). Journal of Education and Psychological Consultation, 24, 128-148.
As Harmer points out (Harmer 25), "Teachers will want to ensure that their students Engage with the topic, exercise or language they are going to be dealing with. They will ask students what they think of a topic before asking them to read about it, for example." It would be preferable for the teacher to spend two minutes asking the class for any ideas about what has caused the teacher to disappear before allowing the students to make up their own versions of the story in groups.
It is not clear why the students have to take their questions to the teacher for answers. If this is a student centered class, could they not give their questions to another group for answers? However, there could be the underlying reason that at this point the teacher wants to input some new vocabulary.
I presume the teacher checks with the class that…
Krause, Kerri-Lee, Sandra Bochner and Sue Duchesne. "Cognitive Explanations of Learning." Educational Psychology. Melbourne: Nelson PTY Australia Limited,
e., verbal intelligence), regardless of the communicator's cultural background. His attempt to quantify competence is an example of how, holding all other things equal (such as cultural factors influential to language learning and development), competence can still be ascertained objectively and in the context of the specific language being taught or learned.
From Stubbs' perspective, Marcella's competence becomes an important issue. As an ESL student, Marcella's competence is ascertained on the vocabulary she knows and her usage of the English vocabulary in recollecting a story as a language learning activity. Most noticeable in Marcella's communication was her use of "then" to signal continuity in her narrative, or to demonstrate a series of actions she depicted in her recollection. The lack of other words to substitute "then" as a marker of continuity in the narrative signifies her incompetence as a communicator of the English language, primarily because she lacked the knowledge…
Chomsky, N. And M. Halle. (1991). The sound pattern of English. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Smith, N. (1999). Chomsky: Ideas and Ideals. NY: Cambridge UP.
Stubbs, M. (1986). "Language development, lexical competence, and nuclear vocabulary." In K. Durkin (ed.). Language development in the school years. (1986). Blackwell.
Young, R. (1992). Critical theory and classroom talk. Clevedon.
population of ESL has grown in recent years. While the population has grown, they have continually underperformed when it came to ESL classes and exams. ESL teachers must be better prepared and educated to deal with the hurdles ESL students experience as they learn English. They must also learn to adopt new strategies that provide a better learning outcome. This research paper will feature articles and studies that highlight the importance of teacher preparation and ways to improve ESL instruction.
In a 2013 study, the researchers drew on sociocultural theory, creating a study that investigated how Grade 6 children within an intensive elementary level ESL class supported each other while performing and engaging in cooperative learning tasks. The children, considered and classified as older learners, demonstrated capability in engaging in linguistically leaning support or scaffolding. The kinds of support seen within the study that appeared most commonly was other-correction and…
Baecher, L., Farnsworth, T., & Ediger, A. (2013). The challenges of planning language objectives in content-based ESL instruction. Language Teaching Research, 18(1), 118-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362168813505381
Best, K., Jones-Katz, L., Smolarek, B., Stolzenburg, M., & Williamson, D. (2014). Listening to Our Students: An Exploratory Practice Study of ESL Writing Students' Views of Feedback. TESOL J, 6(2), 332-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tesj.152
Bunch, G. (2013). Pedagogical Language Knowledge: Preparing Mainstream Teachers for English Learners in the New Standards Era. Review Of Research In Education, 37(1), 298-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0091732x12461772
Gagne, N., & Parks, S. (2013). Cooperative learning tasks in a Grade 6 intensive ESL class: Role of scaffolding. Language Teaching Research, 17(2), 188-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362168812460818
groups or the relationship between variables?
The hypothesis involves a relationship between variables. ESL programs are intended to help students who have a deficiency in English skills. In many instances the program has many individuals who are from other countries and speak another language. The Stanford English Language Proficiency Test is designed to gauge to proficiency of students English skills. Therefore, we would like to determine the relationship between involvement in ESL programs and the overall improvement of English skills of students.
How many independent variables do you have? How many dependent variables? What are they?
In the case of ESL programs and the link to improved scores, there are many independent variables. For example prior education is an independent variable that impacts test scores. The education of parents and their impact on learning comprehension and assessment is an independent variable. The overall caliber of the both the teacher and…
1) Bagdonavicius, V., Nikulin, M.S. (2011) "Chi-squared goodness-of-fit test for right censored data." The International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, p. 30-50
English as a Second Language
ESL students or English as a second language learners are at a disadvantage in the classroom. Unlike their native English speaking peers they do not fully understand all the complications and details of the English language. It can be said that the English language is somewhat irregular and inconsistent. Like any other language it has rules regarding syntax, grammar and sentence structure but it does not always follow these rules. This inconsistency in the English language makes it very difficult for ESL students to succeed in the classroom because it stunts their growth as students. Instead of focusing on the material that is being taught they are battling to simply master the language. ESL students are not able to narrow the gap between themselves and native English speakers due to the lack of teachers and instructors that specialize in this type of pedagogical trade. The…
Simon, Sebastion. (2007). Demand for ESL Teacher Growing: Districts Explore Language Solutions. Columbus Dispatch. 1-2.
English is one of the hardest languages to learn. It has a numer of complex grammatical structures and conventions that are often not in line with other languages, making it difficult for learners to really grasp English grammar while learning the language as a second or foreign language in ESL or EFL classes. Traditional methods for teaching grammar are often difficult in ESL and EFL courses. Thus, Widodo (2006) provides a series of alternative strategies with clearly outlined step to help etter introduce complex conventions of English grammar to those learning English as a second language.
Widodo (2006) developed a five-point method for teaching English grammar within the context of his work, "Approached and Procedures for Teaching Grammar." It is geared specifically towards teaching English as a second language in EFL and ESL courses. Thus, these students already have an advanced understanding of grammatical conventions in another language and are…
bibliography, it is the format that detracts from the strength of the essay. Reworking the format and providing greater depth for alternative options for each step would have greatly improved the informative standing and efficiency of the steps outlined within the context of Widodo's (2006) work.
Widodo, H. (2006) Approaches and Procedures for Teaching Grammar. In: English Teaching: Practice and Critique Vol. 5 Nr. 1.pp. 122-141
Socio-Cultural Influences in ESL
Socio-Cultural Influences in English Language Learning
Learning a language is an extremely difficult process, especially if it is a second language that is being learned after am individual has already established knowledge of another language. Students whose original language was something other than English have a unique set of challenges in learning English as their second language. Issues at home with their parents often not knowing English themselves can create a situation where the learner does not get the same kind of support as was seen in the development of the first language. By understanding how important culture is in acquiring language can ultimately help empower ELL initiatives in schools. Thus, because culture helps support English as a second learned language, it is crucial that ELL programs work to provide cultural instruction alongside language instruction in order to get the best results for the majority of…
Abedi, J., & Gandara, P. (2006). Performance of English Language Learners as a Subgroup in Large-Scale Assessment: Interaction of Research and Policy. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 25(4), 36-46.
Enlance. (2006). Cultural factors that influence learning for ELL students. U.S. Department of Education. Web. http://www2.sfasu.edu/enlace/Cultural%20Factors%20450.pdf
Genesee, F., Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders, W., & Christian, D. (2005). English language learners in U.S. schools: An overview of research findings. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 10(4), 363-385.
Harper, C., & Jong, E. (2004). Misconceptions about teaching English-language learners. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48(2), 152-162.
The knowledge that I have gained in the past 5 weeks of the course will be helpful in my own classes because it has helped to broaden my appreciation of both teaching and learning approaches. Giving students an opportunity to communicate more fully with one another and with teachers is a good way to promote language acquisition and implementing methods that give students more opportunities to receive feedback, focus on grammar, and practice communication techniques is a great way for everyone to progress successfully. I would implement the tips discussed in the book by focusing the class more on active exercises that give students the opportunity to do more than simply sit in a desk and receive a lecture. Students should be getting up, working together, participating in active learning, and having discussions. They should be using the language and not simply just taking notes, listening and taking tests. It…
Lightbrown, P.M. & Spada, N. (2013). How languages are learned (4th ed.). Oxford
As Mrthoth (2007) shows in his YouTube video, one of the best ways to understand writing is to understand grammar—and one of the best ways to understand grammar is to understand sentence diagramming. I did not receive much sentence diagramming instruction in my time at school, but I did learn it on my own because I was interested in it as a concept and thought it was fun to do.
I think sentence diagramming as Mrthoth (2007) explains can be used to help students understand grammatical structure because it allows you to diagram the parts of the sentence—i.e., the grammar—just like a builder would diagram the parts of a house or a biologist would diagram the parts of the body. The grammar can be visually depicted with each of the words performing a role, either acting as the subject or verb or as a modifier or object or…
Mrthoth. (2007). Sentence Diagramming 1: Verbs, Subjects, and Adverbs. English Grammar Lesson [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TeHhFuxw_5w
Issues in English Second Language Acquisition
All students have different learning styles and for Second Language learners or English-as-Second-Language (ESL) learners, the challenge faced by the ESL instructor is not only about using a differentiation-based method of instruction to convey the lesson (Peregoy & Boyle, 2013) but also about using a variety of methods to assess the ESLs (Gottlieb, 2006). ESLs come from a variety of different backgrounds; they have unique social contexts and socio-economic situations; they have different levels of communication skills, which makes measuring their L2 acquisition a challenge for the instructor if the instructor is not prepared to assess a group of students individually, based on where they are coming from and how much learning distance they have covered. This paper will examine the differences, problems and assessment issues within second language acquisition.
Every ESL comes from a unique background—socially, culturally, economically and linguistically.…
Bista, K. (2011). How to Create a Learning-Centered ESL Program. Online Submission, 10(31), 1-13.
Bonvillain, N. (2011). Language, Culture, and Communication: The Meaning of Messages, 6th edition. Boston: Prentice Hall.
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (2013). Reading, writing, and learning in esl: A resource book for teaching k-12 english learners.. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Saville-Troike, M., & Barto, K. (2016). Introducing second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press.
Sireci, S. & Faulkner-Bond, M. (2015). Promoting validity in the assessment of English learners. Review of Research in Education, 39(1): 215-252.
Whyte, K. L., & Karabon, A. (2016). Transforming teacher–family relationships: Shifting roles and perceptions of home visits through the funds of knowledge approach. Early Years, 36(2), 207-221.
Stereotypes have proven dangerous because they prevent communication, create barriers the mutual recognition of humanity between individuals of different groups, and have been used to justify violence, or the denial rights and opportunities to certain individuals
here do most of the new words in English come from today?
Most of the new words today are of foreign extraction.
hat are pro-mimics? hat does it have to do with teaching?
Using mimicry is one way to encourage ESOL learners to become more comfortable with the sounds of English speech. Using words that sound like what they mean, like onomatopoeias, and encouraging students to repeat the words of native speakers, encourages familiarity with the language.
Step One: Identification." State of Vermont: Education. 1994. 21 Oct 2007. http://education.vermont.gov/new/pdfdoc/pgm_esl/guide_94/guide_94_05.pdf
ESL Terminology." ESL Terms. University of Vermont. 21 Oct 2007. http://education.wsu.edu/esl/ESLterms.html
Step One: Identification." State of Vermont: Education. 1994. 21 Oct 2007. http://education.vermont.gov/new/pdfdoc/pgm_esl/guide_94/guide_94_05.pdf
ESL Terminology." ESL Terms. University of Vermont. 21 Oct 2007. http://education.wsu.edu/esl/ESLterms.html
ESOL Learner's Language & Reading Skills
You are invited to participate in a research project being conducted by researchers from Western Governors University. The researchers are conducting research to determine the most effective ways to improve the English reading abilities of immigrant students.
The purpose of this research is to survey ESL teachers, students, and parents in order to identify how much time students spend speaking in their native languages and the impact this has on their fluency in reading English. This research project will require students to read sample chapters aloud on two different occasions. Students may also be asked to increase the amount of time spent using their English speaking skills. The research will be conducted over a week period, where parents, faculty, and students will be interviewed and provided with surveys. Students will be required to continue all of their routine classroom activities with two additions of…
Meeting Community Needs
Language and Speech skills are vital to academic learning and success. Language is the foundation of communication. Reading, writing, gesturing, listening, and speaking is all methods of language. Learning takes place through the process of communication. The aptitude to communicate with peers and grown-ups in the educational setting is vital for a student to prosper in school. However, the problem of communication at this 2nd-grade level is the ESL. Comment by rammarly: Deleted:l Comment by rammarly: Deleted:are
Who are the people most affected by this problem?
The students are the ones hardest hit by this issue, especially in the classroom. A lot of times, students will routinely look to the teacher for correct answers rather than trying to find out what is going on for themselves. Sometimes this can be a problem among the student and the teacher. However, if the teacher assists them with the answer…
Garcia-Lascurain, M., Kicklighter, J. R., Jonnalagadda, S. S., Erin, A. B., & Duchon, D. (2006). Effect of a nutrition education program on NutritionRelated knowledge of English-as-second-language elementary school students: A pilot study. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 8(1), 57-65. doi: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.uvu.edu/10.1007/s10903-006-6342-9 Comment by Grammarly: Deleted:e
Wagner, R. M., & Huang, J. C. (2011). Relative performance of English second language students in university accounting courses. American Journal of Business Education, 4(5), 31-38. Comment by Grammarly: Deleted:e
Warren, E., Harris, K., & Miller, J. (2014). Supporting young ESL students from disadvantaged contexts in their engagement with mathematics: Teachers' pedagogical challenges. International Journal of Pedagogies & Learning, 9(1), 10-25.
children's story book subject teaching English picture books EFL I write carol moore story (Ollie's jar, kitty a box ) write's important story children learn drawing story color attractive children, writer means children's understand, disadvantage, children study English native, short texts.
Carol Moore's story "Ollie's Jar" discusses with regard to an eel named Ollie that lives in a jar in the sea. hile the story might seem pointless and uninteresting from the perspective of a fluent English speaker, it can be especially effective in providing children with a better understanding of the language. Beginning English speakers are more probable to learn something from the story and to generally get a better grasp of the language.
Some of the most interesting aspects of the story involve the words "over," "under," "through," "around," and "into." These respective terms provide readers with the ability to observe how each of these words describes a…
Epstein Ojalvo, H. "Should People Be Allowed to Obscure Their Identities Online?." Retrieved March 14, 2015, from http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/18/should-people-be-allowed-to-obscure-their-identities-online/
"Ollie's Jar," Retrieved March 14, 2015, from http://www.magickeys.com/books/ollie/index.html
Reaction to the source
The authors presented a well developed and cohesive approach to analyzing the manner in which young people learn a foreign language.
Kartal, G. (2006). Working with an imperfect medium: Speech recognition technology in reading practice. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 15(3), 303-305.
Description of the focus of the source
The focus of this study was the read-aloud behaviors of learners who were assigned an experimental computer-based program that used speech recognition software for reading practice that provided novice students with immediate feedback.
Usefulness of the source
The useful of this source was primarily for classroom ESOL teachers using speech-recognition applications.
Limitations of the source
Many ESOL classrooms may not feature speech-recognition software, making this study purely speculative for these educators.
Description of the intended audience
Primary school ESOL teachers.
Although speech-recognition software has become more accurate in its interpretation of speech, the technology…
Based on these standards, the researchers used nineteen competence indicators from four areas for their qualitative analysis. Following the qualitative analysis of each week's postings, the researchers also used a quantitative analytical approach to evaluate changes in participants' communicative competence as assessed the above-described ESL Standards during the administration of the three activities. The variables used in the quantitative paired sample t-tests analyses were the frequencies of children's use of language coded using the specific indicators in the ESL Standards. Subsequent qualitative analyses were also conducted to evaluate participants' improvements in their use of English through the three consecutive activities.
Data collection instruments. As noted above, the messages were captured using NVivo 2.0 as a data collection tool.
Explanation of the adequacy of the following:
Data analysis procedures. The use of both qualitative and quantitative data analysis procedures helps to improve the trustworthiness of research findings (Owen &…
Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Owen, P.S. & Demb, a. (2004). Dynamics and leadership in technology implementation.
Journal of Higher Education, 75(6), 636
Zha, S., Kelly, P., Park, M.K. & Fitzgerald, G. (2006, September). An investigation of communicative competence of ESL students using electronic discussion boards. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(3), 349-367.
Though extrapolating these results to public K-12 programs is somewhat premature, especially given the difference in resources between the average university and the schools that comprise the Mobile County school system, it seems reasonable that developing techniques of ESL instruction within mainstream classes could be beneficial to all.
Indeed, the standardization of expectations and benchmarks for academic success have proven an effective means of designing and implementing programs, as well. Both ESL standards developed by various educational organizations and agencies as well as overall academic standards for performance and achievement have, when applied to ESL students in proper settings, led to greater student improvements and teacher performance (Nunan 2007). The overriding principle of the Mobile County ESL program is to develop the same level of achievement for ESL students as exists for all students in the system, meaning that some sort of standards-based instruction is already present in this program,…
IES. (2007). "Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades." Institute of education sciences. U.S. Dept. Of Education.
MPCSS. (2010). Mobile county public schools. Accessed 18 September 2010. http://www.mcpss.com/?DivisionID=2149&DepartmentID=2013&ToggleSideNav=ShowAll
Nunan, D. (2007). "Standards-Based Approaches to the Evaluation of ESL Instruction." International handbook of English language teaching 15(3), pp. 421-38.
O'Day, J. (209). "Good Instruction is Good for Everyone -- Or Is It? English Language Learners in a Balanced Literacy Approach." Journal of education for students placed at risk 14, pp. 97-119.
ardhaugh indicates that there is a problematic need in the field to reverse expectations about the capacity of this approach to instruct in practicable and usable linguistic ability. The author takes exception with traditionalist ideas the argue "the single paramount fact about language learning is that it concerns, not problem solving, but the formation and performance of habits." (ardhaugh, p. 21) The linguistic theorist rejects this principle as failing to acknowledge many of the more abstract contextual factors relating to the applicable usage of language. Particularly, the impact levied by culture, by regional dialect, by accent, by generational difference, by distinctions between formal, informal or slang usage and by a host of other even less tangible effectors cannot be introduced simply through the use of habit-forming drills or other techniques which rely singularly on rote practice.
Kanno & Varghese (2010) contribute research that does endorse this more integrative approach, which…
Booth, N.B. (2009). English as a Second Language (ESL) learning communities: An approach to retaining ESL students in a community college. Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Burdett, B.E., & National Association of Independent Schools, B.A. (1967). Foreign language teaching- A Review of current problems. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Psychology Press.
Internet in Elementary ESL/EFL Classroom
Thanks to the technology, both teachers and students would find their learning sessions in class more enjoyable and more challenging than before. The Internet gives important experiences both for students and teachers, where they could advance their learning process very rapidly through the dynamic medium.
At the first place, Marco (2002) said, the using of Internet as a new medium with content-based approach in ESL and EFL classroom would:
Increase students' motivation and participation, give students more time to interact with language and content area, improve their reading and writing skills in meaningful contexts, and expose students to self-paced autonomous, learner controlled learning, rather than teacher controlled."
There are a lot of options to create classroom activities that include the using of web and e-mails. For elementary students in ESL and EFL classroom, it would give a breakthrough where not only they can learn English…
Ellinger, B., Sandler, S., Chayen, D., Goldfrad, K., and Yarosky, J. (2001). Weaving The Web Into an EAP Reading Program. English Teaching Forum Journal. Vol. 39 No. 2. pp. 22-25.
Ellis, B. Nov 1996. Integrating Science & Technology in the Elementary Classroom. Retrieved November 20, 2002 from Texas A&M University Commerce. Web site: http://faculty.tamu-commerce.edu/espinoza/s/ellis-b-657.html
Green, D.W., and O'Brien, T. Jun 2002. The Internet and the Upper Elementary Classroom: Making a Difference? Retrieved November 20, 2002 from: From Now On The Educational Technology Journal. Vol. 11 No. 9. Web site: http://www.fno.org/jun02/impact.html
Marco, M.J.L. (2002). Internet Content-based Activities for English for Specific Purposes. English Teaching Forum Journal. Vol. 40 No. 3. pp. 20-25.
Dramatic eading for ESL
Differentiated eading with 10th Grade EFL Students
ESL literature is replete with studies focused on optimal learning environments and enhancements to student motivation (Lazaraton, 1886). Some of this literature parallels earlier work by linguists, psychologists (Harter, 1981), and educators (ichards & odgers, 2001), and early childhood researchers (Vygotsky, 1986) who specialize in language acquisition. Indeed, there is a plethora of anecdotal information about how to use visuals, games, music, and drama to increase ESL students' engagement in their learning. However, formal research about the effectiveness of drama as context for teaching English as a second language is not readily found in the literature.
This case study offers a discussion of the use of drama as part of a differentiated reading strategy to teach literature to 10th grade ESL students. Although the highlighted strategy is generally applicable, the literature used in this exercise is Of Mice and…
Baxter, J. (1999). A message from the old world to the new: Teaching classic fiction through drama. English Journal, 89(2), 119-124.
Berlinger, M.R. (2000). Encouraging English expression through script-based improvisations. The Internet TESL Journal, VI (4), April 2000. Retrieved February 25, 2011. from http://iteslj.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Teaching ESL Students
At least 3.5 million children every year are identified as possessing limited English proficiency and require additional support before they are mainstreamed into the regular classroom environment (Miller & Endo 2004: 786). Approaches to ESL instruction run the gamut from total immersion to fostering a largely bilingual approach to education for this group of students. The two typical program approaches are that of a transitional bilingual education (TBE) versus a structured (sheltered) English immersion (SEI) program. In TBE, students are instructed in their native language and slowly transitioned to English, and are mainstreamed within 2-3 years to an English-only environment. In the SEI model, all instruction is provided in English immediately, with no accommodations (Tong 2009). A "major challenge that schools face under the pressure of the landmark No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is to prepare ELLs with native-like English proficiency through various instructional models…
Miller, P. & Endo, H. (2004). Understanding and meeting the needs of ESL learners. Phi Delta
Owens, A. (2010). In the Aftermath of question 2: Students with Limited English Proficiency in Massachusetts. Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants: Special report.
Lam (2000) noted that the top-down implementation of technology by administration and senior staff may make teachers resent and avoid its utilization. He added that concern regarding legitimacy of the computer as an effective educational tool has an influence on teacher adoption. He suggested that language teachers are not technophobes, as some believe, but do not incorporate technology because institutions and programs fail to notice the importance of training teachers and matching their goals with the tools they wish to use. Differences in acceptance and adoption of technology also occur in students, with some being more accepting of computer-aided learning than others. According to Na (2001), male students frequently have more confidence in computer technology than females. It is also known that students have different learning styles (VanZile-Tamsen & Livingston, J.A., 1999; Sankaran et al., 2000). There is thus a need to match course formats with students' attitudes and learning…
GED, ESL, & ABE
Individuals wanting to pursue an education or an educational venue have choices to fit their particular circumstance. An Adult Basic Education (ABE) allows individuals to learn basic skills needed to not only perform in an educational setting, but in a trade or in the workforce. It teaches skills from remedial math to basic reading for individuals sixteen and older who have no previous or very little previous high school education. The General Educational Development (GED) or the General Equivalency Diploma as it is often referred to as, has a more educational component and comparable to getting a high school diploma. In order for the GED to be earned, a student needs to fulfill a high school curriculum and needs to get a certain score in order to be awarded this diploma. English as a Second Language (ESL) classes are for students who know very little to…
Adult Basic Education. United States Department of Education. 01 September 2009. 16 July 2011.
ESL: English of a Second Language. 2011. 16 July 2011
I view education holistically. Students are developing their character and their values in addition to facts and figures. Language learning is a critical component of character development because language mastery enhances cross-cultural communication. A fellow teacher offers a powerful statement on the role of progressivism in the classroom: "In a progressivist classroom, teachers plan lessons to arouse curiosity and push the student to a higher level of knowledge. The students are encouraged to learn by doing and to interact with one another. This develops social virtues such as cooperation and tolerance for different points-of-view," (Wilt 2003). A progressive teaching philosophy acknowledges the persistence and potency of change. Optimism and creativity will motivate my students to achieve, inspiring their curiosity and ability to think critically.
The means by which I will achieve my teaching objectives include the use of proven classroom management techniques, the implantation of creative cooperative learning strategies, and…
Haugen, L. (1998). Writing a Teaching Philosophy Statement. Iowa State University. Retrieved online: http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/philosophy.html
Sofsian, D. (n.d.). Teacher education philosophies. Retrieved online: http://ezinearticles.com/?Teacher-Education-Philosophies&id=227410
Wilt, B.L. (2003). A personal philosophy of education. Retrieved online: http://schoolmarm.org/main/index.php?page=p-genphil
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…
Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),
Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.
Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]
Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners
The objective of this study is to examine whether auditory computer files assist college level ESL learners.
Linda Dwyer writes that text-to-speech readers are not generally available "outside of the disability community and may be prohibitively expensive when obtainable." (Dwyer, nd, p.1) In addition, Dwyer reports that ESL instructors are often not aware of the research or the resources that are available. Dwyer states that reading pens that are able to read line-by-line and other assistive devices that can copy and article and then paste it to the computer for text-to-speech support are useful to students who are ESL students. According to Dwyer, "ESL instructors in higher educational settings have worked primarily with high achieving international students. As such, these instructors have occupied a niche treated as short-term remedial support rather than an academic sub-field within the academy. Many positions in both…
Casidy (1996) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research Validating Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.vocalinks.com/site/vocalinks/assets/pdf/K3000_ELL_Research.pdf
Chisholm and Beckett (2003) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research VAliding Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from:
group work, especially for the ESL student? Are there any drawbacks? If so, how might one minimize them? (Chap 14. Sustaining Interactive with Group Work)
Group work among students working toward the same goal creates positive energy known as synergy. When one student is having difficulty understanding a concept, he or she can learn from their peers and understand the material in a calmer environment. Group work also allows students to become more experienced with public speaking in real world environments, and helps to improve language speaking.
What is the potential importance of self-awareness of style, and how can ESL teachers foster such self-awareness? (Chap 16. Strategies Based Instruction, pp 261- 268)
Being self-aware of your actions and body language is very important in conveying your point across. Body language helps to add emphasis to what an individual is trying to get across in conversational exchange. Teachers can express how…
Second language reading comprehension is known to be extremely complex, multi-componential, dynamic and multi-dimensional due to the fact that it involves numerous interactions among different reader factors. The factors are (L1)-first language literacy, L1 backdrop, background knowledge, language proficiency, knowledge of pragmatics and genre, motivation, metalinguistic knowledge, metacognition, and strategy, as well as contextual factors (e.g., content and text topic, genre and text type, text readability, both verbal and non-verbal (Phakiti, 2006; Salataci & Akyel, 2002).
Teaching English as a foreign or second language (EFL/ESL) can be very demanding and calls for teacher's understanding of not only the teaching methodology and nature of reading, but also learner's nature and the context under which the teaching or reading occurs. ESL is mostly a requirement where English is the official language for communication. EFL is used commonly in situations in which English is not the official language for communication, neither is it…
Phakiti, A. (2006). Theoretical and pedagogical issues in ESL/EFL teaching of strategic reading. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL,
Salataci, R. & Akyel, A. (2002). Possible effects of strategy instruction on L1 and L2
reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 14, 1-17.
Taber, J. (n.d.). A Brief History of ESL Instruction: Theories, Methodologies, and Upheavals.
Applying language universal in the ESL format
I would show the ESL students the commonalties between their specific language and English. For instance that both languages have distinction between vowels and consonants and also between front and back vowels as well as between obstruent and sonorant consonants.
Going on to grammar I would show them that distinction exists in both too between noun and verb, between pronoun and between subject and object.
Using their language as contrast, I would select subject, verb, pronoun object, choosing via images and actions to illustrate these (e.g. book being both object and noun). Book I would show them can have an -s' added in English as plural but 'fright' which is a verb cannot have an s added to it.
My first activity, in other words, would be to show them that commonalties exist between the new strange language and their own, and that…
Vocabulary Acquisition in ESOL Students
English as foreign/second language (EFL/ESL) classrooms widely neglected the area of vocabulary, until lately. Grammar lessons are founded on a collection of rules having coherent structure, expected to be remembered or followed by students. However, the same doesn't hold true when it comes to vocabulary (Jeff, 2010). In the past few years, this area of English learning has gained importance as a necessary component to be learned by ESL students. It is believed by many to be just as crucial as reading, speaking, writing, and listening (Jeff, 2010). Work of different researchers state that knowledge of vocabulary aids language use, which in turn helps expand vocabulary knowledge, while knowledge about the world leads to increased language use and vocabulary knowledge (p. 6). The above contextualized outlook towards vocabulary learning will aid students in expanding their vocabulary by means of authentic communication (Jeff, 2010).
Adel M. Alharbi. (2015). Building Vocabulary for Language Learning: Approach for ESL Learners to Study New Vocabulary. Journal of International Students. ISSN: 2162-3104 Print / ISSN: 2166-3750 Online Volume 5, Issue 4, pp. 501-511
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. (1992). Myths and misconceptions about second language learning. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/2a/1d/2b.pdf
Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Keiffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical guidelines for the education of English language learners: Research-based recommendations for instruction and academic interventions. Portsmouth, NH: Center on Instruction. Retrieved February 21, 2007, from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/ELL1 - Interventions.pdf
The chapter goes on to explicate each writing task by means of examples and further specific guidance for teachers. t is also suggested that the tasks do not need to be applied in isolation, but that they can also be used in combination for greater effectiveness. Examples are given of experience and guided tasks that can be done in groups. n this regard, the author points out that group work has advantages for both teachers, learners, and the learning process itself. Teachers' supervision and grading workloads are reduced, while learners view each other as a learning resource in addition to the teacher.
The chapter concludes by a short section that guides teachers' decision-making when implementing the four writing task types. t is suggested that teachers use a critical approach to determine which tasks would be most appropriate.
found the chapter extremely interesting, as teaching writing to ESL/EFL students is always…
In this regard, I found the chapter's insights on reproduction exercises such as dicto-comp and dicto-gloss very helpful. Rather than expecting them to understand a complicated explanation and diagram of what an essay should look like, I think I would save both them and myself a large amount of frustration by first allowing them to reproduce a piece of writing in this genre. In general, the chapter contributed to my development as a teacher.
Nation, ISP (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL Reading and Writing. New York, NY: Routledge (Tailor & Francis)
, notes at that there has been a "paucity of studies" on the effectiveness of video in teaching culture through foreign-language programs. Herron investigated whether students retain more ("little c") cultural "practices" or ("big C") cultural "products" by watching video in a second-language program (Herron, 1999, p. 522). Thirty-eight students were given a pretest before watching the 10 videos that were part of the French-language curriculum. Immediately afterward they were given a post-test. Interestingly, in terms of their evolving understanding of French culture, in 8 of the 10 total post-video quizzes, the students gave higher scores to their "little c" (understanding cultural practices) than to "big C" (cultural products). And 84.2% of the 38 students believed that the 10 videos showed "a lot or a vast amount" of little c (cultural practices in France) presented and 42.1% believed that "a lot or a vast amount" of big C (cultural products…
Herron, Carol, Dubreil, Sebastien, Corrie, Cathleen, and Cole, Steven. (2002). A Classroom
Investigation: Can Video Improve Intermediate-Level French Language Students' Ability
To Learn about a Foreign Culture? The Modern Language Journal, 86(i), 36-53.
Herron, Carol, Cole, Steven P., Corrie, Cathleen, and Dubreil, Sebastien. (1999). The
Maps to increase comprehension for ESL's
English as a Second Language Learner
The academic achievement gap between linguistic minority groups and other students is a persistent problem for the American public school system (Thernstrom and Thernstrom, 2003). The pattern of underachievement and a high school dropout rate for Hispanic/Latino students among immigrant groups is particularly pronounced (Wong Fillmore & Meyer, 1992) Of the school-aged English Language Learner (ELL) population, 73% come from Spanish language backgrounds (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002), and their test results in reading are of particular concern as literacy skills are the building blocks for academic achievement. The gap between the test scores of Hispanic/Latino students and white students is a well documented phenomenon, existing throughout grades K-12 in both reading and mathematics (National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2003). According to the NCES (2000), 44% of foreign-born Hispanics fail to complete high school. A much lower percentage…
Alper, L. & Hyerle, D (2006). Thinking Maps: A language for leadership. Cary, NC: Thinking Maps.Inc.
Anderson, S., Yilmaz, D., & Washburn-Moses, L. (2004). Middle and high school students with learning disabilities: Practical academic interventions for general education teachers -- A review of the literature. American Secondary Education, 32(2), 19-38.
Ausubel, D.P. (1960). The use of advances organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 267-272
Bahr, G.S. & Dansereau, D.F (2005). Bilingual knowledge maps as a presentation format: Delayed recall and training effects. Journal of Experimental Education 73(2), 101-118
However, I believe wholeheartedly that it is possible to help ESOL students keep up with classroom material and overcome the language barrier without suffering either socially or academically. Research reveals several ways teachers can work within diverse linguistic environments such as cooperative learning.
Because I have two boys of my own who both attend private schools, I also have insight into different pedagogy and educational environments. The philosophies of teachers who work in private schools does not differ greatly from those in public schools but the student body tends to be more homogenous in terms of socio-economic class than it would be in a comparable public school. Wherever I work as a teacher I will be acutely sensitive to the issues related to class including access to technology and other…
The components can be ranked by level of importance or relevance to the subject.
Sequential Graphic Organizers: Sequential organizers allow the educator to assess the ability of the student to logically link ideas and concepts together. Cause/effect and problem/solution are common types of sequential organizers.
Cyclical Graphic Organizers: According to Struble, cyclical graphic organizers help educators evaluate the ability of students to comprehend natural cycles.
In reviewing the application of graphic organizers to the science classroom, Struble (2007) further reports that these tools can provide a clear understanding of student learning at any given point in time. In addition, these tools can be used to assess student learning over the course of a lesson or unit. Because graphic organizers allow individual assessment of student learning, Struble also argues that these tools can be effective for "assessing student with limited English skills or with learning disabilities" (p. 71). Because these tools…
Craig, D.V. (2007). Alternative, dynamic assessment for second language learners. ERIC Database, (ED453691), 1-17.
Barlow, L., & Coombe, C. (2000). Alternative assessment Acquisition in the United Arab Emirates. ERIC Database, (ED448599), 1-8.
Bybee, R.W., & Van Scotter, P. (2007). Reinventing the science curriculum. Educational Leadership, 64(4), 43-47.
Fitch, G.K. (2007). A rubric for assessing a student's ability to use the light microscope. American Biology Teacher, 69(4), 211-214.
local school district has recently implemented a program designed to assist students that are currently in need of training in English as a Second Language (ESL). Many of these ESL students hail from a country and/or culture that features other languages other than English which puts them at a distinct disadvantage in schools that teach primarily using the English language, both verbally and in written form. What the school district would like to measure is how effective and beneficial the program has been for the students who have used it. Additional issues that the school would like to see addressed by the study include; the impact of the program on English language proficiency, overall student academic progress, and the satisfaction levels of the students, teachers, parents, administrators and other stakeholders.
esearch Questions and Hypothesis
The study will be guided by research questions and a hypothesis based upon the fact that…
Classen, N.; Covic, N.M.; Idsardi, E.F.; Sandham, L.A.; Gildenhuys, A. & Lemke, S.;
(2015) Applying a transdisciplinary mixed methods research design to explore sustainable diets in rural South Africa, International Journal of Qualitative
Methods, 14(2) p. 69-91
Devers, K.J. & Frankel, R.M.; (2000) Study design in qualitative research -- Sampling
School-Wide Assessment Plan
Schoolwide Devlopment Plan
Assessing the Context or Input
As a certified teacher in Special Education and capable to teach English to English Language Learners, I plan to create an assessment plan to measure abilities of students in high need areas in my school to read and write. Since I am equipped with a robust background and the essential skills to teach in these areas and to assess the needs of students who fall under this category, I will appear more subject specific and the overall improvement plan should be easier as I strive to develop and implement the correct assessment-instruction process. My focus during the first part of the project will revolve around the creation of a range of assessments in order to gather background information about my learners and instructional contexts in which we teach them. This information will then help me design my instructional plan,…
Bernhardt, V.L. (2006). Using data to improve student learning in school districts. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
Brooks, G.W. (2007). Teachers as Readers and Writers and as Teachers of Reading and Writing. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(3), 177-191. doi: 10.2307/27548176
Hudson, R.F., Lane, H.B., & Pullen, P.C. (2005). Reading Fluency Assessment and Instruction: What, Why, and How? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702-714. doi: 10.2307/20204298
Lesaux, N.K. (2012). Reading and Reading Instruction for Children from Low-Income and Non-English-Speaking Households. The Future of Children, 22(2), 73-88. doi: 10.2307/23317412
Curriculum and Policy
DaSilva Iddings, Combs, and Moll (2012) discuss policies surrounding English language learners in the United States (ELL). The article begins by considering the nature and prevalence of this population, postulating that students from this category have come to outnumber native English speakers in American schools. This emphasizes the importance of effective English language instruction for such learners, since it would empower them to access better opportunities in the future and to become contributing members of society. According to the authors, however, educational policy in certain states hinders the ability of these students to access adequate language learning in English.
In Arizona, for example, the policy is based upon Proposition 203, which was approved for Arizona in November 2000. This initiative essentially replaces bilingual education in the state with what was known as "Structured English Immersion (SEI), by which students are to learn English only by means of…
DaSilva Iddings, A.C., Combs, M.C., and Moll, L. (2012). In the Arid Zone: Drying Out Educational Resource for English Language Learners Through Policy and Practice. Urban Education, 47:495
Elementary School ESL Teacher
Befitting the United States of America's unique status as a cultural melting pot, the nation's educational system has learned to adapt its traditional method of English language instruction to suit students who primarily speak another language at home. The concept of English as Second Language (ESL) learners has emerged during the last few decades to recognize the need for teachers to customize their lesson plans, becoming more inclusive in terms of accessibility to ESL students. In light of the fact that ESL students are far more likely to absorb English during their earliest years, many school districts have elected to integrate ESL instruction within the 1st and 2nd grade levels, in the hope that this proverbial head start will enable the majority of ESL students to effectively utilize English in the educational setting. Recently, I was fortunate enough to have an opportunity to observe a 1st…
Education today has become more interesting and challenging than it has ever been before. This is particularly the case with the teaching and learning of English as a second language. Immigrants to the United States and other English speaking countries, for example, are faced with the challenge of not only learning a new language sufficiently to be able to communicate in their new environment, but also of fitting in with a lifestyle and culture that is more often than not completely foreign to them. These challenges can have both a motivating and demotivating effect on EFL and ESL learners. Teachers who are aware of these effects can then more effectively plan their lessons and work with such students to help them obtain optimal results. Hence, a myriad of research articles have seen the light regarding the challenges faced by this sector of learners. "EFL learners moving to an ESL context:…
Adriaensens, D. (2011). Further Destruction of Iraq's Higher Education: Blazing Fires, Forged Degrees And Silencer Guns. Countercurrents.org. Retrieved from: http://www.countercurrents.org/adriaensens021211.htm
Bao, D., Abdilah, H., and Chowdhury, R. (2012, Jan.). EFL learners moving to an ESL context: Motivating and demotivating factors in English language learning among Iraqis. The New English Teacher, Vol. 6.1
Griffiths, M. (2010). A Situational Analysis of Girls Education in Iraq. UNICEF. Retrieved from: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/A3F345FEB60FD713C12577AD00341F90-Full_report.pdf
McTaggart, R. (1996). 'Appraising reports of enquiry', in Social Science Methodology for Educational Inquiry: A Conceptual Overview, eds D. Caulley. H. Moore & J. Orton. Beijing Teachers College Press. Beijing.
Salcedo, C.S. (2010). The effects of songs in the foreign language classroom on text recall, delayed text recall and involuntary mental rehearsal. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7(6), 19-30. etrieved: http://search.proquest.com/docview/506757936?accountid=10901
One of the goals of teaching any foreign language is making the words seem fluid, easy, and natural to the new speaker as his or her own native dialect. However, this can be a challenging task for teachers of ESL, particularly given the multitasking they are forced to perform on a daily basis in the classroom and the additional academic demands under which they operate. Teaching English to a non-native speaker, and then attempting to aid the student to function in a biology or a math class, whether the alternative subject is in simplified English or even the student's first language, can sometimes seem like an insurmountable task. However, the 2010 article "The effects of songs in the…
Salcedo, C.S. (2010). The effects of songs in the foreign language classroom on text recall, delayed text recall and involuntary mental rehearsal. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7(6), 19-30. Retrieved:
Again, if the students got it wrong, she will switch the pictures and compliment their efforts either way.
The teacher will then tell the students that while pizza can be all different types of thicknesses in America, in Italy it is usually very thin, almost like a cracker. She will also tell them that in America, pizza is usually round, but in Italy, it is often rectangular in shape. Once again, if the students got it wrong, she will switch the pictures, and compliment their efforts either way.
Lastly, the teacher will tell the children that pizza in America is often loaded with all kinds of crazy toppings, but in Italy, the toppings are much sparser and tend to be just vegetables. Sometimes they don't even have cheese. Again, if the students got it wrong, she will switch the pictures and compliment their efforts either way.
The last part of…
Bloom B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longmans-Green
Coe, J. Pizza. Helium. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/996711-poetry-pizza
Difference between Italian food in Italy and "Italian" food in your country? (n.d.) Travel Expert Guide, retrieved from http://www.travelexpertguide.org/forum/Italy/Difference-between-italian-food-in-Italy-and-quot-italian-quot-food-in-your-country-319743.htm
NCSS Themes, retrieved from http://education.uncc.edu/theafner/SS%20Methods/ncss_themes_page4.htm
Of great benefit is the accompanying activity sheets that can be easily copied for use in the classroom setting. he work also goes even further by informing users through a presentation of the most important language skills to be learnt. his is supported by an excellent bibliography and answers to the questions. his book is an excellent resource for teachers and may even be used by some students based on their level of language competence. he work however could be more explicit in some areas as some of the directions are at times confusing. Additionally, there should be greater usage of online-based resources.
Frost, Richard. "esting and Assessment." eaching English: British Council, BBC. n.d. .
Frost draws on his personal experiences to demonstrate why testing does not work and what can be done to improve the assessment process. esting becomes a problem because students may become nervous and other challenges.…
The work provides the reader with a brief summary of some of the salient work on the subject of assessing writing. The readings are separated into background and theory, in this area the readings give sufficient coverage of the theoretical and foundational issues to ensure the reader has a basis understanding of the underlying themes. The section titled current issues presents the recent debates in the discipline as well as the most up-to-date concerns. Practices contains the experiences of practitioners as well as best approaches, there are several narrative and practical pieces in this section. The final section, additional resources points to other beneficial materials that can supplement the work found in the other sections. Each section contains multiple resources and while not making a claim to be exhaustive, the readings provide excellent coverage of the relevant subject area. This work is directed toward a general audience of teachers and persons with interest in the area. The value of the work is that it gives a quick summary of the material presented so that the reader can easily decide if that is the work required.
Rief, Linda. "Evaluation: Where I Am, Where I Want to Be." Seeking Diversity: Language Arts with Adolescents. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. 1992. 121-32.
Straw, Stanley B. "Assessment and Evaluation in Written Composition: A Commonsense Perspective." Research in the Language Arts: Language and Schooling. Eds. Victor Froese and Stanley B. Straw. Baltimore: U. Park P. 1981. 181-202.
V. Government System RARPA
The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…
McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.
Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf
English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.
Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
However this research fails to focus on the outcomes of this particular teaching method. For instance, the existing research does not reveal conversational abilities, level of comprehension or whether or not the learner is able to read and write English proficiently. All of these issues are relevant to understanding the success of teaching ESL online. A better understanding of the failure and/or success rates of online learning when compared to traditional teaching methods is needed so that instructors and administrators know whether or not they want to utilize online learning as a curriculum tool.
For the purposes of carrying out this type of research, the researcher must seek out institutions of learning that currently use online language learning to teach English as a second language. A decision must be made concerning whether or not the research will focus on adult learners or young learners. Once this decision is made,…
Campbell, a.P. (2003). Web logs for use with ESL classes. The Internet TESL Journal, IX (2). Retrieved from http://iteslj.org / Techniques/Campbell-Web logs.html
Coburn J. (2010) Teaching Oral English Online - Through Skype (VOIP). Retrieved from http://www.adno.no/index.php/adno/article/view/109/133
Dekhinet R. (2008) Online enhanced corrective feedback for ESL learners in higher education. Computer Assisted Language Learning 21 (5), 409 -- 425
Ferris, D., Hedgcock, J. (2005) Teaching ESL composition: purpose, process, and practice
articles regarding pedagogy to bridge the gap between practice and theory in education. We will see how new teachers can apply their freshly absorbed knowledge in order to benefit them in their fresh classroom environments in the area of ESOL teaching. Increasingly, immersion is seen to be effective in improving ESOL as well as it is in the teaching of foreign languages. What the study discovered is that interaction is the key in training children in ESOL
ESOL Effectiveness Online
In an article in Journal of esearch on Technology in Education analyzes the effectiveness ESOL students in communication using the agency of electronic discussion boards. The study focused on the use of electronic discussion boards equipped with ESOL students who were in grades K-12 in school. There has been a movement within ESL in recent years to concentrate on competency as opposed to grammar and form, hence the format…
Chiodo,, J.J. (2004). Do they really dislike social studies? A study of middle school and high school students. Journal of Social Studies Research, 28(1), 16-26 .
Lowery, N.L. (2002). Construction of teacher knowledge in context: Preparing elementary teachers to teach mathematics and science. School Science and Mathematics, 102(2), 68-83.
Zha, S., Kelly, P., Park, M.K., & Fitzgerald, G. (2006). An investigation of communicative competence of esl students using electronic discussion boards. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(3), 349-367.
udby (2005) specifically identifies organizational and generic difficulties that might be encountered as a part of the cultural disparity that exists between many non-native English speakers and the institutions wherein they earn advanced degrees, noting that it is far more than a simple linguistic barrier that makes the proper collation and presentation of research questions and data difficult for EFL and ESL students. Simple writing modules that emphasize theoretical underpinnings and practical techniques, and that incorporates other areas of academic knowledge and research as well, have proven especially effective in supporting ESL/EFL dissertation efforts and leading to greater clarity and reliability in the presentation of results and in the results and findings of ESL/EFL dissertations themselves (udby 2005). Though built on a single case study, the conclusions and recommendations made herein are also largely supported by previous and more general research (udby 2005).
This research compared language fluency…
Krase, E. (2007). "Maybe the communication between us was not enough": Inside a dysfunctional advisor/L2 advisee relationship." Journal of English for academic purposes 6(1), pp. 55-70.
Ismail, S. & Hussain, N. (2010). "Learning, re-learning and un-learning: our journey across the dissertation process: reflections of two student teachers. Reflective Practice 11(2), pp. 197-204.
Reynolds, D. (2005). "Linguistic correlates of second language literacy development: Evidence from middle-grade learner essays." Journal of second language writing 14(1), pp. 19-45.
Rudby, R. (2005). "A multi-thrust approach to fostering a research culture." ELT Journal 59(4), pp. 277-86.
Constructivism in TESOL-1
EFL - The term is the main topic on which the paper is based upon (English as a foreign language). It does not refer to the student learning English language which is not his or her native language nor is it being spoken in their native country English is totally a foreign language.
ESL -- This refers to English as a second language. Students who learn English as a second language intend to use it in places where English is a native language and it ain't their first or native language..
ELF - The term does stand for English as a lingua franca
EAL - Stands for English as an additional language. The term (EAL) is only applicable to certain countries where English is just an extra language.
EAP -- In this specific study means English for academic purposes
EIL - The abbreviation stands for English…
Anderson, R, & Freebody, P. (1981) Vocabulary knowledge; Comprehension and teaching: Newark, NJ: International Reading Association,
Bain, K., (2004) What the Best College Teachers Do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Blake, R. (2000) Computer-mediated communication: Language Learning & Technology, 4(1), 120 -- 136,
Jonassen, DH (1999) Constructing learning environments on the web: Engaging students in meaningful learning: Educational Technology Conference and Exhibition 1999: Thinking Schools, Learning Nation.