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Ethical decisions that corporations must make are not always the least costly ones when it comes to fixing a problem. hen a CEO is confronted with a choice of doing the ethical, customer-friendly decision, or saving money and shipping a product that is clearly not safe or in the best interest of children, there should be only one solution. That solution is to do the right thing: take the loss, bite the bullet, and pay for the fix so the product that is sent to the public is safe and fully represents the advertising that was designed to entice customers in the first place.
Memo to the Toy Company CEO: Background on Ethics and Toys
In the case of the toy whistles that have more lead than is safe for human health, it is absolutely imperative that the toys that are sent out meet the strictest standards for safety. This…
AT&T. (2011). Corporate Governance / AT&T Inc. Code of Ethics. Retrieved July 24, 2013,
From http://www.att.com .
University of Illinois at Chicago. (2001). Business Ethics. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from http://www.uic.edu .
'Not to Resuscitate' is indeed a difficult decision that has to be made by the patient, when he or she is in good health, or the guardians of the patient. However, according to the law and ethical code of conduct, the medical practitioner, or whoever is in charge of the health care of a patient in a hospital setting, should always inform the patient about the whole procedure (L., 2008). There are certain indications when resuscitation needs to be performed on the patients, meanwhile there are also some contradictions where it should not be performed on the patient. Nonetheless, the final decision lies with the patient or with family. The indications of this decision include a case in which resuscitation would be of any help to save the life of the patient. For example, if the patient is dying and who has been given all sorts of treatment…
Miller, Franklin and Wertheimer, Alan (2009). "The Ethics of Consent: Theory and Practice." Oxford Scholarship Online, Print.
Nandimath, Omaprakash V. (2009). Consent and medical treatment: The legal paradigm in India. Indian J. Urol. 25(3): 343-347.
O' Neill, O (2003).Some limits of informed consent. J Med Ethics.
Salins, Naveen S.; Pai, Sachin G.; Vidyasagar, MS; Sobhana, Manikkath (2010).Ethics and Medico Legal Aspects of "Not for Resuscitation." Indian J. Palliat Care.
As such, were the credit manager to approve of the loan in the given and uncertain circumstances, the bank might:
Be reworded for the trust they had bestowed in the client, who would pay up his debts; in this case the bank will earn a loyal customer
Be faced with financial losses as the client is unable to pay up his debts and return the borrowed money.
If on the other hand, the credit manager denies the loan request, the bank could:
Lose a potential customer and lose the financial resources derived from his payment of interest rate
Protect itself from the risk of not recovering its loan.
The situation encountered at Providian is a good example that unsafe actions which imply an increased amount of risk can be highly profitable, but can also turn into real disasters. The financial institution has set the trend for loaning money to rather…
Bad Credit? No Credit? College Student? Providian Loves You, Leadership Case Problem
That record must state that the patient's medical condition is terminal, irreversible and indefinite, involves permanent unconsciousness and that life-sustaining treatment would create tremendous or extraordinary burden on the patient. The guardian's decision to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatment must be filed with 2 witnesses, one of whom is the attending physician. The guardian may be a parent, adult sibling, healthcare provider, the CEO of the health facility or the commissioner of an agency in charge of mentally retarded who are terminally ill. Healthcare practitioners need to understand the state and local laws governing the delivery system. They should also reach out to the guardian who may be unaware of these laws. If refusing medical care is not allowed by these laws, guardians should resort to active lobbying (King).
Nurses' Values and Managing Pain and Ethics
Unprecedented medical advances view death as a disease that must be treated rather than…
Bimbacher, D. (2007). Terminal sedation, euthanasia and causal roles. Medscape General Medicine: Medscape. Retrieved on August 8, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/556486
Cardoso, T et al. (2003). Life-sustaiing treatment decisions in Portuguese intensive care units: a national survey of intensive care physicians. Critical Care: Biomed Central
Ltd. Retrieved on August 8, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/464501
King, E.L. (2007). Refusing medical care in New York state: politics and implementation of policy. 7 (3) Current Opinion in Gastroenterology: Medscape.
Ethical Decision Making
In general, there are three major ethical approaches to decision-making: that of consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics. Ethical dilemmas arise when there is a conflict of values or when it is impossible to satisfy all of the needs of stakeholders. A good example of this relates to food insecurity and the growing crisis of malnutrition and obesity amongst the poorest inhabitants of America. Some have advocated limiting the types of foods that can be bought with EBT (electronic benefits transfer) cards to healthy and nutritious foods -- for example, banning buying soda and candy with this supported nutrition program. Others have argued that it is wrong to limit a person's choice of foods simply because he or she is poor, while a wealthier person does not have to suffer such dehumanizing scrutiny of their eating habits.
From a consequentialist standpoint, the consequences of an ethical decision are…
Chaussee, J. (2013). Talk of banning soda from food stamp benefits elicits upset and uncertainty.
Oakland North Retrieved from: http://oaklandnorth.net/2013/10/09/mayor-jean-quan-joins-peers-in-supporting-potential-calfresh-soda-ban/
Hursthouse, Rosalind. (2013). Virtue ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Retrieved from: .
Nursing professionals have to make routine decisions bearing ethical principles and regulations in mind. Proper decision-making necessitates a grasp of the interface between nursing, laws, and ethics (Furlong, 2007, p. 29). But nursing professionals across the world face increasing difficulty when attempting to work with integrity amid the complicated ethical decisions and pressure they encounter. "Notes on Nursing" by Florence Nightingale describes the ethical obligations of communication, confidentiality, and the importance of fulfilling patient requirements (Ulrich et al., 2010)
Ethical / Moral Issue
Karen, a nurse practitioner (NP) fresh out of college, working in a little town, is visited by a first-time expectant mother (previous menstrual period -- 5 weeks ago), Susan uttley, aged 29 years. Karen wishes to begin prenatal care for the patient, who, although married, visits alone and claims she hasn't informed her husband of her condition, as he wished to postpone starting a family,…
Corbin, J. R. (2007). Confidentiality & the Duty to Warn: Ethical and Legal Implications for the Therapeutic Relationship. The New Social Worker, 14(4). Retrieved 5 September 2016 from http://www.socialworker.com/feature-articles/ethics-articles/Confidentiality_%26_the_Duty_to_Warn%3A_Ethical_and_Legal_Implications_for_the_Therapeutic_Relationship/
Furlong, E. (2007). Right or Wrong: Legal and Ethical Issues and Decision-Making. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Retrieved 5 September 2016 from http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763744352/44352_ch03_pass1.pdf
Kaplan, C. (2016). Ethical Dilemmas. Advance Healthcare Network for NPs & PAs. Retrieved 5 September 2016 from http://nurse-practitioners-and-physician-assistants.advanceweb.com/article/ethical-dilemmas-2.aspx
Ulrich, C. M., Taylor, C., Soeken, K., O'Donnell, P., Farrar, A., Danis, M. & Grady, C. (2010). Everyday Ethics: Ethical Issues and Stress in Nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(11), doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05425.x. Retrieved 5 September 2016 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3865804/
Ethics are essential for organizational success. They influence the decisions made by the employees and managers on issues affecting the performance of the firm (Project Management Institute, n.d.). An organization that upholds ethical behaviors has a culture that fosters not only productivity but also excellence in service and product provision to its target markets. Managers are tasked with the role of ensuring that ethics are upheld in a firm. However, they often face a wide range of ethical dilemmas that demand their use of ethical decision-making to come up with effective solutions that are beneficial to all the stakeholders involved. One ethical dilemma that a manager can face relates to cover an employee who has done something contrary to the policies and regulations of the firm. An example is a bank manager having to either choose to report or keep quiet concerning one of his close employee who had informed…
ethical decisions in business is great. There are many instances where ethical decisions are necessary in business operations, and corporations can get themselves into trouble even when they are trying to be ethical if they do not have a strong and effective procedural structure to guide employees in making such decisions. One aspect of ethical decision making comes under the heading of crisis management as corporations are faced with some huge problem that may involve liability and legal issues but that certainly involves questions of public image. A second aspect is the day-to-day decisions that have not yet reached the point of crisis but which could if ethical decisions are not made. Even without any external threat to a company, an ongoing process of ethical decision-making crates an atmosphere in a company that is beneficial, that contributes more to society, and that helps create an environment in which employees may…
Ethical dilemmas take place when a circumstance necessitates one to choose amongst alternatives that generates a values conflict amongst the various organizational stakeholders. One of the major contemporary ethical dilemmas is the use of social media. In the present-day organizational setting and the advancement of technology, social media has become a significant business marketing tool, and it a fundamental part in the lives of personnel (Massotte, 2017). The progressing nature of social media implies that it is becoming more challenging to make a distinction between personal and professional within the organization in terms of a social media setting. This paper will examine this ethical dilemma using the PLUS ethical decision-making model as a guide.
Application of the PLUS Ethical Decision-Making Model
Step 1: Define the problem
The first step of the model encompasses defining the problem. The most important stage in any decision-making process is to make a determination…
In choosing to dismiss the CEO the Board can create a significantly better situation for stakeholders than if they retained his services. Aggrieved customers can experience a feeling of closure over the event, and will be satisfied that the company is taking action by letting go the CEO. Flyers in general will recognize the move as the first step in cleaning house, and a wake-up call to the airline industry in general to proactively guard against the recurrence of a similar event. Flyers will also benefit from the passage of a passenger bill of rights which will have the backing of legislators if they can see the CEO's dismissal as an intelligent first step. Perhaps the greatest good will come to shareholders, as the company moves to arrest the fall in the stock price through rededicating itself to customer service and restoring trust. The internal shareholders: employees and…
Case Study. (N.D.). An Appropriate Response.
Stanford University. (March 27, 2009). The History of Utilitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/utilitarianism-history /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
[electronic resource] Journal of Business Ethics
Lin, C. And Ding, C.(2003) "Modeling Information Ethics: The Joint Moderating ole of Locus of Control and Job Insecurity," Journal of Business Ethics, 48:(4), 335- 346.
Molander, E. A 1987), 'A Paradigm for Design, Promulgation and Enforcement of Ethical Codes', Journal of Business Ethics 6, 619-631.
Paradice, D. B (1990) 'Ethical Attitudes of Entry- Level MIS Personnel', Information and Management 18, 143-151.
Parker, D. B (1981) 'Ethical Dilemmas in Computer Technology', in Ethics and the Management of Computer Technology (Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Business Ethics, Bentley
Pierce, M.A. And J.W. Henry (1996)'Computer Ethics: The ole of Personal, Informal, and Formal Codes', Journal of Business Ethics 15, 425 -- 437.
Pierce, M.A. And J.W. Henry (2000)'Judgements about Computer Ethics: Do Individual, Co-worker, and Company Judgements Differ? Do Company Codes Make a Difference?
Quinn, J. (1997) "Personal Ethics and Business Ethics: The Ethical…
Bass, K., Barnett, T., and Brown, G.(1999) "Individual Difference Variables, Ethical Judgments, and Ethical Behavioral Intentions." Business Ethics Quarterly, 9:(2),, 183- 205.
Barnes, R. F (1990), 'The Making of an Ethics Code', Bulletin of the American Society
for Information Science, pp. 24 -- 25.
Cassell, C., Johnson, P., and K. Smith (1997) 'Opening the Black Box: Corporate Codes of Ethics in the Organizational Context', Journal of Business Ethics 16, 1077 -- 1093.
This step entails communicating the decision to the concerned person or parties along with the penalties. This step also entails communicating the future course of action to concerned parties.
Close the case- the big errors that companies frequently make is that at times they let the case hang around on without any accomplishment on it. An imperative part of ethical decision making is to close the case by taking action as and when the decision has been communicated.
Set an example and move on- There is no damage in setting the examples for the other workers so that they have a complete awareness of it and they themselves stay away from making such mistakes at any costs. Making sure that everybody has good information of it, and then moving forward is one of imperative facet of ethical decision making (Problem-Solving and Decision-Making, 2010).
A Framework for Thinking Ethically. (2010).…
A Framework for Thinking Ethically. (2010). Retrieved March 22, 2011, from Web site:
Forester-Miller, Holly and Davis, Thomas. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision
Making. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from Web site:
Moreover, the simulation also made available several branching and interdependent decision pathways. The simulations presented in the beginning pertinent background information and then subsequent screens presented at least three decision choices. Based on the selection, a new screen presented the client's response. The process ended when the students reached the end of a decision pathway. The simulation also took into account that many counseling situations do not have right or correct answers, and may be ambiguous. The realistic choices offered, were meant to encourage students to engage in critical thinking. Moreover, situations were also designed so that more than one ethical code would apply to each situation. But when students chose a decision pathway, the responses were true to life. After making the decision, the students had to confront with the typical consequences of their decisions. Ethical decisions required that students determined the relevant sections of the various ethical codes…
Frame, M.W., Flanagan, C.D, Frederick, J., Gold, R., Harris, S.(1997). You're in the hot seat; an ethical decision-making simulation for counseling students. Simulation and Gaming, March Vol. 28, No. No. 1, 107-115
Joe has made considerable progress towards contract renewal between UWEAR and Peninsula Hotel chain and has planned a meeting with his management team to discuss the contract renewal. In light of the challenges relating to decline sales and profitability of UWEAR as well as the increased pressures to perform, Joe is optimistic that the contract renewal between these two firms will help in promoting continued success and employment with UWEAR. However, the contract negotiations have created a strained relationship between Joe and Bill lately because of the complexities involved in the negotiation process. Actually, the good relationship between Joe and Bill played an influential role in securing the contract renewal between the two companies despite the significantly cheaper offer from Threads4U. Bill has invited Joe and his wife for a short trip on the yacht, which will provide a good opportunity for both couples to catch up since…
UWEAR is undergoing a difficult period that has been characterized by declining sales and relatively low profit margins. This situation has generated considerable concerns and pressure of the firm's employees include Joe who is fearing cutbacks and layoffs because of the company's merger with PALEDENIM. However, Joe has established good relations with the CEO of Peninsula Hotels and signed a contract with them in the past financial year. Given the good relations that already exist between Joe and the CEO of this hotel chains, Peninsula is seeking to renew the contract for the upcoming financial year. However, the contract renewal has generated several concerns given that the initial price was so low while Threads4U has offered to beat that offer by 10%. As a result, Joe is facing a leadership and ethical decision-making dilemma that is exacerbated by the pressure to perform.
Joe's Probable Course of Action
In light of…
Helping others is not explicitly prohibited in Objectivist philosophy: it is just not considered the highest moral good, in contrast to acting in one's own, personal self-interest. It should be noted that acting in self-interest can result in assisting others indirectly: for example, in a capitalist society, my desire to sell a product and a consumer's desire to purchase a product frequently result in both individuals benefiting from this exchange. But this is not the ultimate purpose and goal of the capitalist exchange. People may also help others to make themselves feel better but and regards this impulse as inferior to self-interested actions such as creating art or working to sustain one's business.
Although in theory helping the poor is not banned in the Objectivist philosophy, all of Ayn and's writings show profound mistrust of altruistic impulses and question the idea that helping the weakest members of society achieves…
Badhwar, N.K. & Long, R.T., (2015). Ayn Rand. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2015/entries/ayn-rand/
Nash, L. (1981). Ethics without the sermon. Harvard Business Review, (59). Retrieved from:
Managerial Social Responsibility - Volkswagen Diesel Scandal
In 2015, Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. In order to determine the ethical decision Volkswagen should have made, one can use ethical decision-making models, such as: Utilitarianism; Kantian Ethics; Ethical Rights; and Distributive Justice. Though these four models use different approaches, one or more of them can result in a justified recommendation for the correct ethical decision that Volkswagen should have made.
Facts Underpinning the Ethical Dilemma
In 2015, Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. In 2014-2015, U.S. emissions experts tested some Volkswagen vehicles and found deliberate fraud through the use of "defeat device" software that turns emissions equipment on for emissions tests and off for actual driving (Plungis & Hull, 2015). The deception…
Ewing, J., 2016. VW presentation in '06 showed how to foil emissions tests. [Online]
Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/27/business/international/vw-presentation-in-06-showed-how-to-foil-emissions-tests.html?smid=tw-share&_r=1
[Accessed 27 April 2016].
Plungis, J. & Hull, D., 2015. VW's emissions cheating found by curious clearn-air group. [Online]
The Dowd Model of Ethical Decision Making in Medical Imaging: Two Dilemma Scenarios
An ethical dilemma is raised in a situation where two "right" courses of action are found to be mutually exclusive of each other; that is, when doing one "right" thing necessarily leads to leaving the other "right" thing undone or even contravening this "right" and doing the opposite (Towsley-Cook & Young, 2007). A scenario in which an employee's rights must be weighed against those of the patient/consumer typifies this type of dilemma, and this is found in the current scenario: a medical imaging professional suspected of having alcohol problems comes to work with the smell of liquor on his breath and shows some trouble walking straight and enunciating clearly. After a confrontation by the supervisor, this employee refuses to take a blood test for drugs and alcohol. The dilemma exists in determining whether this…
ADW. (2010). False Positive. Ask Doc Web. Accessed 8 December 2010. http://www.askdocweb.com/falsepositives.html
Moeller, K., Lee, K. & Kissack, J. (2008). Urine Drug Screening: Practical Guide for Clinicians. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83(1): 66-76.
Towsley-Cook, D. & Young, T. (2007). Ethical and Legal Issues for Imaging Professionals. New York: Elsevier.
Van Valkenberg, J., Gurley, L., Lam, R., Martino, S., Paschal, R., Temme, J. & Walker, R. (1998). Survey of alcohol, drug use by radiologic technologists. Radiologic Technology. Accessed 8 December 2010. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3387/is_n4_v69/ai_n28702788/pg_5/?tag=content;col1
Strategy for Moral Decision Making
To Choose in accordance with conscience
This section, of all the four sections stood out for me in the article since it deals with the daily application in the human approach to making choices. Centrally, this section tackles the role of the conscience in making the right or wrong choices taking into account the divine law and the reason behind that decision.
It also highlights the frequent difficulties that man often faces in making moral judgments, which in turn makes decision making, particularly with assurance of making the good or right decision being not so certain. It also makes it clear that discerning the will of God is not as obvious or easy as most may presume.
The section shows that the decision making process of man hence heavily relies on the experiences of self and others over the years, accompanied by the advice that…
Catechism of the Catholic Church, (nd). Life In Christ. Received January 19, 2017 from http://www.scborromeo.org/ccc/p3s1c1a6.htms
Santa Clara University, (2015). Thinking Ethically. Retrieved January 19, 2017 from https://www.scu.edu/ethics/ethics-resources/ethical-decision-making/thinking-ethically/
In a case such as with the Exxon Valdez, the company essentially saw the two arguments of shareholder value and ethics as mutually exclusive. To resolve the issue, the company chose to focus on shareholder value as a means of making its decision, and ultimately chose not to retrofit the ships. Thus, the company chose to look at the situation strictly from the shareholder model, where management is the agent of the shareholder only, and only seeks to increase shareholder wealth.
For many firms, this is not the normal approach. Many companies take different approaches to corporate social responsibility, perhaps with a stakeholder theory. Under the stakeholder theory, the environment and the citizens of the areas that could be potentially affected by a spill would be taken into account. This approach has an appeal because it forces managers to think about the broader implications of their actions, and…
Orts, E. & Strudler, A. (2002). The ethical and environmental limits of stakeholder theory. Business Ethics Quarterly. Vol. 12 (2) 215-233.
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
The role of ethics in healthcare is to mitigate risks and ensure oversight of each strategic process area, ensuring patient treatment quality consistency and transparency. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) Code of Ethics and its self-assessment provide foundational insights into how ethical decisions can be more effectively made and how decision making can align effectively to the ACHE standards. Ethics are the foundation of patient trust and need to be the catalyst of transparency throughout a healthcare provider organization to the practice level and ultimately solidifying patient and healthcare provider collaboration to common goals (Higgins, Gross, Hackett, 2000). In the highest-performing healthcare providers, there is a tight alignment of patient expectations and the need for transparency on the one hand, and the ethics and willingness of a healthcare provider to disclose data and knowledge necessary to keep treatment plans progressing (Frederick, Wasieleski, Weber, 2000). In addition…
Ehlen, K.J., & Sprenger, G. (1998). Ethics and decision making in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Management, 43(3), 219-21.
Frederick, W.C., Wasieleski, D., & Weber, J. (2000). Values, ethics, and moral reasoning among healthcare professionals: A survey. HEC Forum, 12(2), 124-40.
Higgins, W., Gross, J.W., & Hackett, K.L. (2000). Ethical guidance in the era of managed care: An analysis of the American College of healthcare executives' code of ethics. Journal of Healthcare Management, 45(1), 32-42; discussion 43-5.
Weil, Peter A, PhD., F.A.C.H.E., Kimball, P.A., & Lerner, Wayne M, Dr. P.H., F.A.C.H.E. (2010). The volunteer activities of healthcare Executives/Practioner Application. Journal of Healthcare Management, 55(2), 115-29; discussion 129-31.
Despite the fact that codes of conduct and belief systems permeate everyone's life on an everyday basis, developing a universally acceptable concept of ethics or moral philosophy remains a seemingly impossible task that has plagued philosophers and the world's great thinkers since the beginning of time. Over time a great number of different philosophical theories have arise. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses and each has enjoyed its own period of popularity but, strangely, due to the fact that some of the world's greatest minds have spent their lives formulating other theories, the theory that seemingly has the greatest degree of validity is one of that has enjoyed the longest history: virtue ethics.
Virtue ethics were developed as a theory by the ancient Greek philosophers. Aristotle and Plato in developing their views toward ethics placed little importance on the rules that people should obey or follow and,…
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…
Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.
Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.
Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
Describe in detail
Teleological, deontological, and virtue ethics: A comparison
Teleological ethics are also called consequence-based ethics. Teleological ethical systems emphasize the results of ethical decisions, versus the moral principles behind such decisions. Utilitarianism is an excellent example of teleological ethics. The stress in utilitarianism is doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people, versus setting a precedent for all ethical actions. "It denies that moral rightness depends directly on anything other than consequences, such as whether the agent promised in the past to do the act now" (Armstrong 2011). What is good for the greatest number of people one day may not be the case several years from now, or even to morrow.
For example, no one would state that as an abstract moral principle, having to fire competent employees is a 'good thing.' However, bosses are often forced to do so, because of the…
Alexander, Larry & Michael Moore. (2007). Deontological ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy. Retrieved: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Armstrong, Walter. (2011). Consequentialism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Ethical Issues in Nursing
The scenario in this study involves a nurse who has intentionally disregarded the elderly patient's expressed wishes to receive pressure area care. The patient finds the procedure uncomfortable, embarrassing, and painful. The nurse continues to turn the patient in spite of the patient's wishes. This study will answer if the nurse is justified in turning the patient and if so, on what ethical grounds and if not then why not. This case will be discussed in light of the principles of bioethics and at least one ethical issue.
The work of Lakeman (2000) entitled "Nurses as Tools: Instrumentality and Implications for Nursing Ethics" states "Nurses are left in a particularly compromised position when required to administer compulsory treatment. The task of administering the treatment is often left to nurses who are legally required to follow "doctor's orders." There is little room for conscientious objection by…
Browning, J.S. (2007) Ethical Issues in Nursing Practice; Identifications and Comparisons Across Clinical Specialty. Ethical Issues. 12 Jul 2007. Retrieved from: http://stti.confex.com/stti/congrs07/techprogram/paper_32839.htm
Johnstone, M.-J. (1999). Bioethics: a nursing perspective. (3rd ed.). Sydney: Harcourt Saunders.
Jonsen, AR, Siegler, M and Winslade, WJ (1998) Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1998.
Kurtz, R.J., & Wang, J. (1991). The caring ethic: more than kindness, the core of nursing science. Nursing Forum, 26(1), 4-8.
Emphasize the importance of courtesy, organization, and calmness to all staff members. These qualities on the part of the staff can reinforce the importance of generally good and ethical behaviour to the tourists, which may then carry over to their behaviour in the destination country.
Maintain a neutral stance on the culture of the destination country or countries. Making clear that all cultures have equal value and that ethical behaviour must be expected of all visitors. It must also be clear through explicit instructions and by example that tourists often have greater power than the people they are visiting and so must act with respect and restraint.
Obey the laws, regulations, customs, and traditions of both departure and destination countries. This is clearly linked to the above. (Fennell: 2006; Fennell & Malloy: 2007).
Charter airline companies are private corporations, which ensures that those who own them (either directly or indirectly…
Fennell, D.A. (2006). Tourism Ethics. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Fennell, D.A. And Malloy, D.C. (2007). Codes of Ethics in Tourism: Practice, Theory and Synthesis. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Holden, a. (2005). Tourism Studies and the Social Sciences. Oxon, England: Routledge.
Krippendorf, J. (1987) the Holiday Makers: Understanding the Impact of Leisure and Travel. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…
Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
Ethical subjectivism could also be called 'relativism,' or the notion that there is no external, objective moral authority. We as humans create our ethical norms, and ethics are culturally contextual. Ethical subjectivism stands in contrast to objectivism, which holds that there are objective moral standards by which all moral actions should be judged. "Moral statements are made true or false by the attitudes and/or conventions of the observers, and any ethical sentence just implies an attitude, opinion, personal preference or feeling held by someone" (Ethical subjectivism, 2012, Philosophy Basics).
A good example of this can be seen in the pragmatic philosophy of William James. In his Varieties of eligious Experience, James argued that all faiths were effectively divided into two categories: that of the 'religion of healthy-mindedness' and the 'sick soul. "We have all known or met people who seem happy all the time, who are…
Agler, David. (2012). Lecture 3: Ethical subjectivism and emotivism.
Ethical subjectivism. (2012). Philosophy Basics. Retrieved:
For example, and employee might decide they will never be late for a meeting, which will appear to be a noble duty, but there might be a hidden reason towards this action. Maybe the employee prefers to sit in a particular place or sit. Another negative attribute of the deontology theory is the fact that it is mostly concerned with the individual's welfare and not others.
This theory deals with the individual's ability to foresee the consequences of their actions. A person will have to analyze the choice they make to ensure that they benefit more people Weymark, 2005.
Using this theory a person can compare similar past solutions, and develop a system that determines which choice will be most beneficial for a majority of people.
For a large corporation, this theory would be beneficial because employees will endeavor to perform their duties while analyzing the consequences of…
Ronzoni, M. (2010). Teleology, Deontology, and the Priority of the Right: On Some Unappreciated Distinctions. [Article]. Ethical Theory & Moral Practice, 13(4), 453-472. doi: 10.1007/s10677-009-9209-z
Weymark, J.A. (2005). Measurement theory and the foundations of utilitarianism. [Article]. Social Choice & Welfare, 25(2/3), 527-555. doi: 10.1007/s00355-005-0017-7
In that regard, NatHealth Inc. managers and supervisors are trained to recognize potential ethical conflicts as early as possible, to analyze possible course of action, and to take decisive action by implementing the best possible ethical decisions and corresponding solutions that are the most consistent with organizational ethical values and principles.
In addition, all NatHealth Inc. managers attend a week-long mandatory training retreat every September at which they attend strategic meetings and receive training in several different aspects of their operational responsibilities. Two days are reserved for ethics-specific discussions, policy reviews, and updated training in the full range of ethical issues in the workplace. Subsequent to their return, individual managers conduct an ethics policy review session with their direct reports at which time they provide supplemental ethical instructions to update all employees with respect to any changes in organizational ethics policies and expectations.
While the organization does maintain scrupulous…
Halbert, T., and Ingulli, E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati, OH: West.
Locker, K. (2006). Business and Administrative Communication 2nd Edition. Boston,
hen searching for ideas use imagination and stimulate that imagination by brain-storming with others and reading the latest publications on the topic -- remember that approaches for difficult issue are always changing. Ten years ago, antidepressants were prescribed almost automatically for depression, now the use of such medication and their side effects, especially in teens, is under scrutiny.
Step 6: Evaluate the evidence
Sometimes writing things down can be helpful. hen contemplating different strategies of approaching the topic, charting and rating evaluations of the tentative solutions provides clarity. Viewing any data and studies side-by-side can be useful as well. Compare and test these solutions in a series of hypothetical scenarios before trying them out in the real world.
Step 7: Make the educated guess (hypothesis)
After reviewing the evidence, boil down the client's situation into a general statement. Make an educated guess about what is the core problem; choose the…
Decision-making worksheet. (2009). Decisionmaking.org. Retrieved February 22, 2009 at http://www.decisionmaking.org/worksheet.pdf
Fourteen decision-making steps
50 had been stolen out of the $1,000 in his drawer. The police interviewed Jones and after he admitted that he had ended his friendship over an unpaid $157 debt, they arrested him believing the neighbor's claim to have seen Jones climb out his window when he thought he was dreaming.
You have determined from interviewing several mutual friends of Jones and the neighbor that Jones was indeed owed the $157, and that Jones did commit the burglary, but you can easily subpoena the EZ-Pass records to prove that Jones' car was an hour out of town at the time he claimed to have been sleeping at home when the burglary occurred. The American Bar Association (ABA) Model Rules of Professional Conduct also allows you to use this witness who provided the information about the neighbor's habits during the discovery process to impeach the credibility of the neighbor as well…
If you allow Jones to take this plea, the consequences will be comparatively harmless: he will have to return $157.50 that was rightfully his in the first place and he will have to avoid any criminal conduct for six months to avoid jail time on the burglary charge. Jones could still sue the neighbor in civil court and recoup his debt by proving his case with the witnesses to the debt that you already interviewed. If you tell Jones about the neighbor's affair and you introduce that information in court, his family will be devastated. Your dilemma is whether or not to allow Jones to take the guilty plea or advise him to go to trial and then use the neighbor's lies to prove that he could not have witnessed the crime and that he is of questionable character in terms of his truthfulness as a witness. You know that Jones is guilty because he admitted it and you also know that the neighbor did owe Jones the exact amount that Jones stole from his drawer.
Implementing Cooper's Analysis:
This situation illustrates Cooper's definition (1998) of a complex ethical issue that involves multiple perspectives. You can prove the neighbor lied about witnessing Jones in his apartment even though you know that Jones did, in fact, steal the money that night while the neighbor was with his girlfriend. From the point-of-view of general equitable principles, Jones was morally and ethically entitled to the money that he stole from the neighbor. From the legal perspective, Jones did commit the exact crime of which he stands accused because he resorted to theft to recoup his debt. You use of the witness to impeach the
Ethical Theory or System
Other names for theory
eal World example
This approach prioritizes the value attached to results of actions. Consequence based approach points at the results of one's action on the others and the fact that other people tend to play a leading role in ethical decision-making.
One needs to evaluate the potential positive and negative effect of the available options in a situation and use the evaluation as a basis of decision making.
teleological, from the Greek telos
I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves
Organization prohibits conduct that is dishonest because this will affect the firm's accreditation. The organization has instituted stringent policy that ensures that honesty is upheld more so in dealing with stakeholders, more so the customers.
This theory attributes value…
Beauchamp, T.L. (2001). Philosophical Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy. Mcgraw-Hill.
McShea, J.R. (1979). Human Nature Ethical Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 386-401.
Decisions by School Superintendents
Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct of Teachers
To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society - President Theodore oosevelt.
That teaching is at one and the same time an intellectual as well as a moral endeavor, is an idea that is well entrenched in the minds of men since centuries past. The sayings of great teachers of ancient times bear ample testimony to this premise, which continues to hold sway across nations and vastly differing civilizations over the years.
In the sense that it takes care of the general well being of young students entrusted to the care of an educational institution and ensures that they are treated fairly and accorded the respect they are due as persons, teaching is most certainly a moral activity. It is concerned with building and maintaining relationships of trust with pupils…
Anderson, D.S., & Biddle, B.J. (Eds.) (1991). Knowledge for Policy: Improving Education through Research. New York: The Falmer Press.
Ave, M. (2002, April 24). Jesuit High teacher fired amid misconduct claim. Retrieved December 19, 2002 at http://www.sptimes.com/2002/04/24/TampaBay/Jesuit_High_teacher_f.shtml .
Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Benson, P. (1997). All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.
This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…
1. Janjua, N.Z., Kasi, P.M., Nawaz, H. (2006). Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 6, 84. 435- 488.
2. Ha, M., Lee, W.J., Lee, S., & Cheong, H.K. (2008). A literature review on health effects of exposure to oil spill. Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health 45,5 345-354.
According to research, "Each man deserves respect because only he has had those exact life experiences and understands his emotions, motivations, and body in such an intimate matter," (ainbow 2010). Thus, Broadway was respecting the individual decisions of its players to decide whether or not the game was ok to play.
However, this was only followed outside of the United States. The decision locally was much different. Because of the nature of the young audience, there was the moral dilemma for the insertion of such sexually explicit references. And so, Broadway was not acting ethically when they failed to uphold local ethics abroad. According to research, "A winking tolerance of other's unethical behavior is in itself unethical," (Jennings 2007:14). ather than acting out of ethical obligation to others as they did to their own, Broadway let it slide and moved sales elsewhere, where they knew they could get away with…
Alexander, Larry & Moore, Michael. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 25, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Jennings, Marianne Moody. (2007). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings. Cengage Learning Publishing.
Newton, Lisa H. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Business Ethics and Society. 10th ed. McGraw Hill.
Rainbow, Catherine. (2010). Descriptions of ethical theories and principles. Davidson College. Retrieved February 25, 2010 from http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/indep/carainbow/Theories.htm
Ethical Lens Inventory
There is probably nobody who goes through life without, at some point, being faced with an ethical dilemma. These are situations where either projected outcome might be equally undesirable, or where there are no clear rules to indicate the appropriate course of action. In these situations, it is helpful to first determine one's own ethical values and viewpoints. These can then be used to come to a decision that is least detrimental to one's own sense of fairness and justice. The ethical lens inventory is one tool that can be used to determine the specific nature of one's own sense of ethical fairness and justice (Ethics Game, 2009).
The ethical lens inventory includes four ethical lenses that might be used to determine one's own sense of values and ethics (Ethics Game, 2007). The most important element to recognize here is that ethics is not uniform, static, or…
Ethics Game (2009). Ethical Lens Inventory. Retrieved from: http://www.ethicsgame.com/Exec/GGEG/Products/EthicalLensInventoryEdSlick.pdf
Ethics Game (2007). Introduction to Four Ethical Lenses. Retrieved from: http://bahrec.shrm.org
Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry
The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…
Gordley, J., & Cecil, S. (1998). Good faith and profit maximization. Review of Business, 19(4), 11-17.
Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.
Kielsgard, M.D. (2011). Universalism and human rights in the 21st century. Asia Pacific Law Review, 19(2), 155-176.
Machan, T.R. (2004). Aristotle and the moral status of business. Journal of Value Inquiry, 38(2), 217-223.
Ethical Reasoning," Donaldson and Werhane outline the three fundamental theories of ethics: consequentialism, deontology, and human nature ethics. Consequentialism, also known as teological ethics, can be further divided into ethical egoism and utilitarianism. Ethical egoism is based on the theory that to act out of self-interest will ultimately be the most ethical decision. Ethical egoism is rarely supported by philosophers, especially in relation to other ethical reasoning theories such as utilitarianism. Philosophers like Bentham and John Stuart Mill argued that the ethical decisions should be based on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. Although Mill framed the concept of "good" in terms of happiness, the "greater good" does not necessarily entail happiness and may refer to other abstract concepts like aesthetics. Utilitarianism can itself be subdivided into pluralistic utilitarianism and preference utilitarianism: the former embraces all abstract concepts that can be classified as "good" whereas the…
The Definition of Ethics
In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…
Arnett R.C. (1992). Dialogic education: Conversation about ideas and between persons. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Berlo D.K. (1960). Dimensions for evaluating the acceptability of message sources. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 563-576.
Bauer R.A. (1964). The obstinate audience: The influence process from the point-of-view of social communication. American Psychologist, 19, 319-328.
Converse E.J., Campbell D.T., Miller R.D. And Stokes L. (1960). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
What does the patient have the right to know?
What the patient has the right to know (regarding genetic tests) is: a complicated matter and many people, including experts, have varying opinions. The information patients receive from genetic testing can have significant consequences, especially if it leads a pregnant woman to have an abortion. The ethical principles that arise in situations like this are varied and are often in conflict with each other. The ethical decisions in genetic counseling would be fairly cut and dry if the principle of autonomy was the only one that was considered. However, by doing this a counselor may be ignoring the other ethical concerns like: what is best for society and being fair to other people (regarding who the patient's decisions are affecting).
Who should have decision making power in our society on issues of genetic / medical testing?
Regarding the "Dwarfism…
Biesecker, Barbara. "Future Directions in Genetic Counseling: Practical and Ethical Considerations." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8.2 (1998). 145-160. Web.
Flackelman, Kathy. "Beyond the genome: the ethics of DNA testing." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 66-70. Print.
Flackelman, Kathy. "DNA dilemmas: readers and 'experts' weigh in on biomedical ethics." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 64-66. Print.
Ethical knowledge stems from the external world, what society has bred within us through our assimilation and experience within it. This is often set in place by societal foundations, legal requirements, and moral expectations of a community or culture at large. Ethical knowledge is thus shared by large groups of people from the same community or culture. From a nursing perspective, there is "a unique set of values and a particular culture and practice that affects the ethical decision-making processes" that are often shared by a number of members within the nursing community at large (Chinn & Kramer, 2010, p 93). On the other hand, personal knowledge is unique and often comes from our own internalization of the independent experiences each individual witness throughout his or her life. This is much more internal and variant than ethical knowledge, where each individual has a different knowledge base founded from their own…
Chinn, Peggy L. & Kramer, Maeona, K. (2010). Integrated Theory and Knowledge Development in Nursing. Mosby / Elsevier.
Not even the most brilliant, ethical, and rational person has the ability to research every conceivable implication and alternative before making every decision in life.
Group decision-making is another method of decision-making, where the decision is often arrived at by consensus or committee, such as coming to a decision as to where to take a family vacation. The decision is often time-consuming, because ideally it must please everyone, although quite often no one is fully pleased (Petress, 2002). Multiple levels of irrationality are injected into the process, even if the 'team leader' (the parents who are paying for the vacation) have the final veto. To make the group decision-making process more efficient, often a vote is taken at the end of the discussion if the effort is supposed to be democratic. It can be superior to individual decision-making in that individuals can point out when group members are being irrational,…
Baker, G. (2004). "Decision Making." University of Florida. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://www.unf.edu/~gbaker/Man6204/Decision.PDF
Levitt, Barbara & Clifford Nass. (Jun 1989) "The lid on the garbage can: institutional constraints on decision making in the technical core of college-text publishers." Administrative Science Quarterly. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4035/is_n2_v34/ai_7376934
Petress, Ken. (2002). "An alternative model for decision-making." Journal of Instructional Psychology. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCG/is_3_29/ai_91707794/pg_1
Williams, Tim. (Mar 2004). "Setting Impossible Standards."
Decision Making with Providers
The scenario facing Mike, the lab technician, is that of lateness, which attracted a reprimand from his supervisor. Seemingly, lateness had become a trend to Mike while reporting to work and that is why the supervisor had questioned him. He had made a promise that he would be punctual, the last time his supervisor questioned him. Mike's promise pegged on the importance he attached to his job because he was the sole breadwinner for his wife and newborn baby. Mike was overwhelmed by the thought that his job would be terminated in the possible reoccurrence of his tendencies to come to the workplace while late. He had received the assurance his supervisor (Grand Canyon University, n.d.).
On this day, Mike tries his best to reach work on time. Therefore, he leaves home twenty minutes before time but unfortunately, there was an accident on his commute. Although…
Dlugacz, Y.D., Restifo, A., & Greenwood, A. (2004). The quality handbook for health care organizations: a manager's guide to tools and programs. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass.
ECRI Institute. (July 2009). Risk Management, Quality Improvement, and Patient Safety. Healthcare Risk Control .
Grand Canyon University. (n.d.). Allied Health Community. Retrieved September 5, 2014, from Scenario: Critical Decision Making for Providers. Mike, Lab Technician: http://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt307v/allied-health-community/allied-health-community-v1.1.html .
Kuhn, A.M., & Youngberg, B.J. (2002). The need for risk management to evolve to assure a culture of safety. Qual Saf Health Care, 11 (2), 158-62.
Ethically, the social worker did everything in the correct manner. The NASW Code of Ethics states that "when social workers provide counseling services to families, couples or groups, social workers should seek agreement among the parties involved concerning each individual's right to confidentiality" (Code of Ethics, 2014). In this case, the social worker accomplished that by requesting confidentiality agreements before the group sessions began. Actions to be taken now include the fact that the social worker should speak with the party that leaked the information as well as the injured party. Legally speaking, the court system would not likely take kindly to a case such as this nature. Ethically speaking however, the case is a good example of just how careful the social worker has to be. Excluding the patient that leaked the information from participation in the group setting would be a good first step. The rationale for these…
Memo on a Ethical Analysis
____ (due date)
Decision making by a Healthcare Leader in case of an Ethical Dilemma
in an interview of my health care administrator of the long care health facility where I work, I asked, "How do you make a wise decision in a situation relating to an ethical dilemma?"
Description of the Answer
It seemed like my question took the administrator by surprise perhaps he did not expect such a question when I requested for an interview. However, he looked composed and amused by my question. Confidently and leaning a little bit forward and supporting his hands on his desk, he responded. He first pointed out the numerous occasions when ethical dilemmas were evident in his health care administration career at the health facility. He said that he learnt over time through many experiences and a little consultation and…
Forester-Miller, H., & Davis, T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. American Counseling Association, 1-5.
Pope, K.S., & Vasquez, M.J. (2010). Ethics in Psychotherapy and Counseling: A Practical Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
" To that end, the Treasury Department would limit executive compensation for institutions receiving "exceptional assistance" (Geithner and Summers, 2009).
Troubles continued in the financial sector -- both Citigroup and the Bank of America needed second rounds of capital infusions, and federal guarantees against losses totaling tens of billions more -- while Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, warned that more capital injections might be needed to further stabilize the financial system. On Jan. 16, the Senate voted 52-42 to release the second round of funds (Gerth, 2009).
THE GEITHNER PLANS -on Feb. 10, Mr. Geither presented the rough outlines of the Obama administration's plan. A central piece of the proposal would create one or more so-called bad banks that would rely on taxpayer and private money to purchase and hold banks' bad assets. Another centerpiece of the plan would stretch the last $350 billion that the Treasury has…
George must take time and think about his company, his coworkers, and Med-Train because his decision will have a ripple effect on them all. When applying the golden rule George will think about the stakeholders and make a more informed decision. A selfish decision in this case may not only harm George but also have negative consequences on all the stakeholders involved.
After analyzing the Georges case and considering the dilemma facing him; deciding between loyalty to his company and being honest to all stakeholders involved in the process and the ethical and legal ramifications to consult (albeit from a position of his own company) with his employer's main competitor. The recommendation to George has several facets to help him make the most beneficial ethical and legal decision.
George must schedule a meeting with the human resources director and check into XYZ Incorporated's policy to gauge the rules regarding…
Ethical Communication and Social Media: Discussion and Implications
“Almost a quarter of the world’s population is now on Facebook. In the USA nearly 80% of all internet users are on this platform. Because social networks feed off interactions among people, they become more powerful as they grow” (Gaitho, 2018). Social media has created a manifestation of a branch of society that human civilization has never had to deal with before. Due to the fact that society is experiencing and using social media as people attempt to scrutinize its impacts, it can be harder to pinpoint all the numerous ways that social media affects the individual and the collective. One phenomenon that has grown out of social media is that people don’t only share information about themselves and their own personal lives, they also share information, articles, and images about various aspects of the shared world. This can be problematic as many people…
Utilitarianism is most often used by healthcare organizations like insurance companies: to keep costs down for the many, a potentially valuable treatment may be denied to the individual because it is deemed experimental or unnecessarily costly. As unpalatable as the idea may be, no patient can be tested for every single conceivable illness he or she might contract. There must be some prioritization of high-risk groups. During his or her duties, a nurse may often ration her time, prioritizing where it will do the greatest good for the greatest number of people, based upon the severity of their need. However, in other instances a nurse may need to deploy the categorical imperative and state that something is clearly wrong or right, regardless of a financial calculus. A nurse must care for all patients to the best of his or her ability and preserve patient autonomy and privacy unless the patient…
Ethical System and Its Justification
In the definition of an ethical system, there are both the ethical theories and ethical principles. These provide the viewpoints upon which an ethical analysis is conducted Schwartz, 2003.
They provide guidance as to what path to take to arrive at the final decision James, 2000.
To me, good is defined as that action which is ethical in nature and which complies with the standards of the society at large.
There are several actions that I consider to be good. One example is helping another student revise for an exam. Secondly, there is the action of helping an elderly woman cross the street. There is also the act of encouraging and motivating people in their daily lives. Another action that I consider to be good is that of letting certain persons such as the elderly or a pregnant woman cut the line where you are…
James, H.S., Jr. (2000). Reinforcing Ethical Decision Making through Organizational Structure. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(1), 43-58.
Morris, M.H., Schindehutte, M., Walton, J., & Allen, J. (2002). The Ethical Context of Entrepreneurship: Proposing and Testing a Developmental Framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 40(4), 331-361.
Schwartz, M.S. (2003). The "Ethics" of Ethical Investing. Journal of Business Ethics, 43(3), 195-213.
Thong, J.Y.L., & Yap, C.-S. (1998). Testing an Ethical Decision-Making Theory: The Case of Softlifting. Journal of Management Information Systems, 15(1), 213-237.
IV: How to influence stakeholders and shareholders to behave ethically
It would be perfectly normal for any organization or individual that is often faced with ethical dilemmas to be assisted by someone who is experienced in decision making and who is better qualified to deal with ethical dilemmas. Shareholders often tend to be biased in decision making, as they are aware that their wealth can be put at serious risk if they perform a wrong move. In contrast, stakeholders are more likely to behave objectively when they know that their decisions will not necessarily affect their social position. Thus, stakeholders can behave more ethically than shareholders, but the downside on this is that the former have more chances of performing mistakes, as they know that the risks involved in most conditions that they encounter are lesser on their side.
In particular situations, stakeholders can feel more inclined to behave unethically,…
1. Klein, Linda S. "Ethical Decision Making in a Business Environment," Review of Business 13.3 (1991).
2. Sauer, Wolfgang "Also a Concrete Self-Interest," UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2002.
Linda S. Klein, "Ethical Decision Making in a Business Environment," Review of Business 13.3 (1991).
Wolfgang Sauer, "Also a Concrete Self-Interest," UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2002.
ethical dilemmas surround surrogacy and the donation of egg and/or sperm? Because surrogates are paid, is this a practice that exploits the poor, such as surrogate mothers in ndia? Why or Why not?
Egg donation and surrogacy raises ethical dilemmas on all four basic principles of medical ethics: autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence.
Autonomy -- .
Consent has to be given freely and with full volition of the surrogate mother. Yet, most times, intense pressure is involved aside from the fact that poor women in ndia may capitulate to the need for money and be taken in by the huge sums offered. The emotional and medical pressures are immense, but these women are often grossly misinformed about the situation that they are bound to undergo. Their poverty hampers them from making the clear, informed decisions that they would otherwise need to in order to undergo the procedure. Whilst most egg…
International Journal of Health Services, 20, 373 -- 392
What Are the Ethical Concerns Regarding Egg Donation? http://www.stanford.edu/class/siw198q/websites/reprotech/New%20Ways%20of%20Making%20Babies/eggethic.htm
Perloe, M. (nd) Eight is Enough: Balancing the risks of advanced fertility treatment. Georgia Reproductive Specialists. http://www.ivf.com/eightenough.html )
Asked by Friends to Overlook Shoplifting in a Store
Like many students, to supplement my income I worked in a jewelry store in a local mall. The store did exceptionally good business during the holiday season with many married couples choosing to get their wedding bands just before the holidays or right after. There was often a rush of customers during the big sales the Friday after Thanksgiving and throughout the holiday season which unfortunately met more customers would try to walk out with expensive merchandise without first paying. One of my friends came into the store and asked to see a gold necklace worth over $500. It was 14K gold and had a very unique design which made it immediately recognizable. My friend wanted to get it for his girlfriend, but did not have the money. Their efforts to get the necklace made me face a very…
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…
Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange
Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).
Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19
Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
esolving Ethical Business Challenges: Elaine
Business managers and executives usually face several ethical challenges that require them to demonstrate ethical leadership in resolving. Elaine's situation is an example of some of ethical business challenges that these leaders experience with regards to the advantage and disadvantage of each decision. The first decision relates to Graphic, Inc. loan, which was engaged in litigation about promotion of its products to children (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell, 2012, p.177). The advantage of Elaine's decision in this case is that she did what was morally acceptable while the disadvantage is that she lost a money-making opportunity and had no reason to doubt the firm's ability to repay the loan.
In the second situation involving the Canadian firm that was importing cigars from Cuba, the advantage of her decision is that it was based on clear policy guidance i.e. The 1996 Helms-Burton Act. The disadvantage is that…
Crain, W.C. (1985). Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development. In Theories of development
(Prentice-Hall, Chapter 7, pp.118-136). Retrieved from http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J. & Farrell, L. (2012). Business ethics: ethical decision making and cases (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
The final decision the issue of organizational stakeholders and the impact of these stakeholders on the organization were of vital importance. In this context, I chose to protect the organization, even though others would have made a different choice. Thus, the wide range of decisions made in the simulation indicates that the ethical frameworks employed will be influenced by the specific issues involved in decision making.
3. Considering what I learned from this simulation, it seems reasonable to argue that ethical decision making is a challenging task that provides no real comfort. Even when a person believes that he or she is making the right decision, there is still some concern about whether or not the right framework for reviewing a situation has been used. Because there are so many different "right" ways for exploring a problem, in many instances, is appears as if the individual has no other choice…
Hurley, R.F. (2006). The decision to trust. Harvard Business Review, 84(9), 55-62.
Pont, J. (2005). Doing the right thing to instill business ethics. Workforce Management, 84(4), 26-27.