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Ethical Principles in Clinical Mental Health Counseling
The principle of autonomy is used to address the idea of independence. The importance of this principle is that it allows an individual to have the freedom of action and choice. It addresses the counselor's responsibility of encouraging patients appropriately to make informed decisions, and act in accordance to their own values. In order for clients to become autonomous, it requires two primary considerations: assisting patients to understand how their decisions and actions may be rejected or accepted in the society and how they might affect the overall society. Second, the client must be able to make informed, rational and sound decisions (Aasheim, 2012).
• Non- maleficence
The concept of non-maleficence focuses on not inflicting harm on other people. It is usually described as 'do no harm'. The principle is held as the most crucial among all the principles,…
Aasheim, L. (2012). Practical clinical supervision for counselors: an experiential guide. New York, NY: Springer Pub
Callana, P., Corey, M. & Corey, G. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping professions.
Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Laugher, L. & Creek, J. (2008). Occupational therapy and mental health. Edinburgh; NY:
There are a number of mental health service providers such as an advocate, change agent, registered nurses, collaborator etc. A change agent is the one who aims at bringing change in the minds of the people. His main goal is to recover the patient from mental illness and let the patient to seek for hope. These change agents brings a positive mental change in families, individuals, communities, adults etc. They use education as their basic tool (Powell & Brodsky, 2004). In addition to this a registered psychiatric nurse is the one who work with mental health care organizations and their post keeps on increasing with the rise in education. These nurse work at two levels, advanced and basic. Basic level nurses work with different families and individuals; they diagnose the mental illness, plan the therapy and then implement it on the patient. On the other hand, registered nurses…
Barsky, A.E. (2010). Ethics and Values in Social Work: An Integrated Approach for a Comprehensive Curriculum. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Cordess, C. (2001). Confidentiality and Mental Health. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Leong, F., Pickren, W.E., Leach, M.M., & Marsella, A.J. (2012). Internationalizing the Psychology Curriculum in the United States. New York; Heidelberg: Springer.
Morrissey, S., & Reddy, P. (2006). Ethics & Professional Practice for Psychologists. South Melbourne: Cengage Learning Australia.
Ethical Principles Operationalized
The ethical principles that universities are obliged to follow when it comes to research are spelled out in each university's Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB is essentially a guide for employees at the university in terms of the protection of human subjects in biomedical and other forms of research. In this paper the IRB published by the University of isconsin-hitewater will be critiqued and reviewed vis-a-vis the ethical principles contained therein.
In the Overview of the U IRB (p. 2) the "Common Rule" offers discretion as to whether the proposal needs to be submitted to the "full" committee or just to the chair of the committee. The full committee will hear proposals for research when there is a "potential risk of harm to subjects" (p. 2). Certainly the U supports and encourages "free and responsible investigation by faculty, staff, and students" -- however, all projects require…
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. (2010). Institutional Review Board.
Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.niehs.nih.gov/about/boards/irb/index.cfm .
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. (2011). Institutional Review Board (IRB) for the Protection of Human Subjects. Instructions for Protocol Preparation and Submission
(Format). Retrieved February 2, 2012, from www.uww.edu/uwwhdbk/HumanSubjects.htm.
" (May 2008, p. 779) it is actually surprtising that there are as many people in th world as there are who believe that the poor are those who do not work, given the current state of the economy and that fact that the majority of people who seek health care but are unable to pay for it are members of the working poor, class, a group that works full or greater than full time but has no or little opportunity to achieve economic independence.
Part of non-maleficence is seeking to offer intervention and preventative care to those who need it so they may not have to face costly life saving care. Nurses and other front line health care workers feel fidelity with those they serve and seek to demonstrate this through active participation in the development of ethical standards that are inclusive of the disadvantaged, acting within their political…
Wray, J., Walker, L., Benedict, E. (August 2008) Student nurses' attitudes to vulnerable groups: A study examining the impact of a social inclusion module. Nurse Education Today 28(6) 779.
Wold, S.J., Brown, C.M., Chastain, C.E., Griffis, M.D. & Wingate, J. (October/December 2008) Going the Extra Mile: Beyond Health Teaching to Political Involvement, Nursing Forum, 43(4) 171-178.
Young and Uninsured," in Brief (July/August 2008) the American Nurse, 4-5.
Furthermore, the University's core values place an emphasis on development and learining. While the APA ethics statement is certainly not devoid of this requirement, as it asks for psychologists to continue their education and keep up-to-date on their understanding of subjects, the major theme in the APA's statement is an ethics violation free environment. The university's motivation, however, lies in the number of requirements that call for students to be engaged in community, honest learners, and those committed to their task of learning.
Thus, by comparing these two documents, one can quickly understand how the organizations as a whole are both similar and different. First, both share many of the same values. Second, both discuss community and its importance. Third, both discuss the importance of academic honesty. Thus, they are organizations that deal with academics and a diverse background. Their differences, however, lay primarily in the foundation of the morals,…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical Principals of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved 11 January 2009, from the American Psychological Association. Web Site: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html#general
E-mailed material was also used.
The relatives in this case state that they know the woman's wishes, and they have her regular health care provider to back their statement. Thus, it seems in the case that the on-call physician would not be in error, should he remove the support of the ventilator.
hat other measures could have been placed to assure the patient's wishes were honored?
Instead of merely giving proxy to the woman's relatives, a Living ill specifying the terms that were acceptable to the woman for life support would have enabled her to put her feelings in writing when she was still functioning as an autonomous individual, and capable of making her own decisions. "Of all the various acceptable forms of evidence, a health care declaration (often called a 'Living ill') can be the best. It simply documents a person's wishes concerning treatment when those wishes can no longer be personally communicated" (Freer,…
Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care Sample Form. (2007).
University of Michigan Medical School. Retrieved 1 Mar 2007. http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/aha/umlegal02.htm
Freer, Jack. (1994) the Living Will: A Guide to Health Care Decision Making."
SUNY Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. Retrieved 1 Mar 2007. http://wings.buffalo.edu/faculty/research/bioethics/lwill.html
Ethics in Purchasing/Procurement, Acquisitions (Contracting) Management
This paper looks into the concepts of responsibility and accountability, and procurement beneficence, through a review of the challenges and principles, which are often faced in the procurement process, by purchasing managers, staffs and suppliers, in both private and public institutions.
There are 2 basic definitions of ethics. The first is that ethics are moral principles that influence conduct, and the second is that ethics is a body of knowledge on moral principles.
Ethics is the grounds upon which almost all purchasing-related principles, including honesty, transparency and fairness, are based. There are several ethical standards that should be maintained in every organization, regardless of whether it is private or public. The standards are that every employee should commit to:
Conduct themselves in an honorable manner in all dimensions of their career activities.
Behave in a way that will ensure that trust and confidence is…
Arneson, R. J. (2004). Moral Limits on the Demands of Beneficence? In D. K. Chatterjee, The Ethics of Assistance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
CIP. (2007). Ethical Business Practices in Purchasing and Supply Management. Lincolnshire: UK: The Chartered Insitute of Purchasing Supply.
Denett, P. A. (2007). Memorandum For Chief Acquisition Officers Senior Procurement Executives. Washington DC: Executive Office Of The President Office Of Management And Budget.
Gert, B. (2005). Morality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Psychology and Ethics
Test Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation
Common errors made in the administration, scoring, and interpretation of psychological tests depends upon adherence to reliable practices and guides. The concepts of reliability and validity are situated within the framework of the tests themselves, which serves to affect the field of psychological testing by supporting it with data culled from participants. These tests, moreover, are formed using principles of psychological testing, such as standardization, objectivity, test norms, reliability and validity. In terms of reliability, these tests are shown to have provided the same findings following several takings. In short, they are consistent. In terms of validity, these tests have shown that they do indeed measure that which they set out to assess; in short, they are effective measuring tools (Schultz, 2010). eliability can be compared to validity in the sense that both are assessed by a degree of consistency (over time…
Anastasi, A., Urbina, S. (2007). Psychological Testing. NY: Prentice Hall.
APA. (2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/
Butcher, J., Williams, C. (2009). Personality assessment with the mmpi-2: historical roots, international adaptations, and current challenges. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 1(1): 105-135.
Gass, C., Odland, A. (2014). MMPI-2 symptom validity (FBS) scale: psychometric characteristics and limitations in a Veterans Affairs neuropsychological setting. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 21(2): 1-8.
Ethical Principles on Self-Assessment
The Principle of Autonomy
The term 'autonomy' denotes 'self-rule' in Latin. We are honor-bound to have regard for other individuals' autonomy, which implies respecting their decisions in relation to their personal choices. In simple words, the principle suggests that a competent and informed adult patient is free to accept or reject any medication, therapy or surgical treatment, in accordance with his/her wishes. This principle is also known as the 'human dignity' principle. It imparts a negative responsibility to refrain from intervening in competent adults' decision-making process, as well as a positive one for empowering those we are charged to take care of. The corollary in this regard asserts that we must not break promises and must be honest in our interactions with others (Four fundamental principles of ethics, 2012).
Beneficence: Every healthcare worker needs to endeavor towards improving the health of patients, and doing the best…
Herlihy, B., & Corey, G. (2014). ACA ethical standards casebook. John Wiley & Sons.
About ACHE. (2011, November 1). Retrieved January 6, 2016, from https://www.ache.org/policy/decision.cfm
Values and culture in ethical decision making. (2014). Retrieved January 6, 2016, from https://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/Values-and-culture-in-ethical-decision-making.aspx
Four fundamental principles of ethics. (2012, February 3). Retrieved January 6, 2016, from http://web.mnstate.edu/gracyk/courses/phil 115/Four_Basic_principles.htm
Ethics in the Helping Profession
Ethical principles are essential for good practice in helping professions. Counsellors require clearly defined principles to understand their responsibilities to their clients, their community and themselves. These principles outline the counsellor's responsibilities, such as; preserving clients' confidentiality, keeping current and informative records that assist in clients' progress, and choosing appropriate techniques and interventions based on individual knowledge and experience with clients. These principles also define clients' rights, such as; freedom to be vulnerable within a relationship where privacy and discretion are maintained, and trust in the intentions and competence of a chosen counsellor. Without ethics as a cornerstone to good practice there would be no authenticity in the therapeutic approach.
What reason would clients have to consider and value a counsellor's techniques if the counsellor does not apply his interventions in his own life? How can a person reflect on another person's life if she…
Bond, T. (2010). Standards & Ethics for Counseling in Action, 3rd ed.
A behavioral analyst applies the principles of behavioral analysis and provides suggestions about how to change behavior to improve a subject’s behavior and health (“About Behavioral Analysis,” 2019). But as is the case with all mental health therapies, behavioral analysis must adhere to ethical principles. As noted in Bailey & Burch (2016), the core principle of all medical research is to do no harm. This means that the work one does should have a positive effect upon the patient, and non-intervention is better than an intervention with potentially ill consequences. An example of harm might be a behavioral program that was excessively rigid. While it instituted compliance, it might cause the subject to become depressed and anxious.
A second principle is respect for autonomy. Behavioral analysts often deal with vulnerable populations, such as the mentally ill, elderly, or children. But this does not mean that subjects sacrifice their autonomy, simply…
Fast Food Nation" is an excellent treatise on the growth of the fast food business in North America. Schlosser points out many of the serious concerns that have arisen with our newest eating habits and dietary choices. Today, one of the most dangerous epidemics we are witnessing is growing obesity among the young. This can be directly attributed to our 'fast food' fetish Schlosser also explains the disconcerting 'short cuts' being taken to meet the high-demand for this high-speed "eat-on-the-run" lifestyle. After reading this book, you will think twice before you ever again drop in to that local 'burger' joint for lunch or dinner.
It is interesting how we seem to be prepared to sacrifice every aspect of our requirements for survival. First we polluted the air, then the water, then the soil, and now we are tampering with and threatening our food supply. Maybe humans are actually…
The field is social psychology, and the selected title is bullying. The articles selected as follows:
Mundbjerg Eriksen, T. L., Hogh, A., & Hansen, A. M. (2016). Long-Term Consequences of Workplace Bullying On Sickness Absence. Labor Economics, 43: 129-150. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2016.06.008
This peer-reviewed article explores the effects of bullying at the place of work. The study done in the article indicates that sickness, boredom, and poor productivity are some of the results of bullying from among employees. The article is significant in that it helps to understand the effects of bullying at the workplace and hence aids in deriving ways to reduce its occurrence. The social setting at workplace relates to the social psychology effects as seen with the occurrence of bullying (Mundbjerg Eriksen et al., 2016).
Priest, N., King, T., Becares, L., & Kavanagh, A. M. (2016). Bullying Victimization and Racial Discrimination among Australian Children. American Journal of Public Health,…
Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies
The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…
Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.
Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.
The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.
In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…
Stone, J. (2002) an ethical framework for complementary and alternative therapists.
Applebe, G. & Wingfield, J. (1997) Applebe's Pharmacy law and ethics. The Pharmaceutical Press
Gillon, R. & Lloyd, a. (eds.) (1993). Principles of health care ethics. Wiley.
Ethical Training -- Successes and Failures
Ethical Training: Successes and Failures
Ethics are often thought of as black and white, but that is really not the case. There are many shades of grey, and what is ethical in some instances may not be ethical in others. Additionally, there are concerns when it comes to what one person thinks is ethical vs. what another would find ethical. That is often why there are so many discrepancies and issues to consider when one talks about ethics. It is not just a simple issue where a person can say that something is always ethical or not ethical. Instead, the situation must be considered, as well as the people and the circumstances surrounding everything. In many cases, the issue comes down to ethical training, which does not always work out well. The plan is to train people to act ethically, but training someone to…
Becker, L.C. & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics (2nd ed.). NY: Routledge.
Singer, P. (2000). Writings on an ethical life. London: Harper Collins Publishers.
The Definition of Ethics
In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…
Arnett R.C. (1992). Dialogic education: Conversation about ideas and between persons. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Berlo D.K. (1960). Dimensions for evaluating the acceptability of message sources. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 563-576.
Bauer R.A. (1964). The obstinate audience: The influence process from the point-of-view of social communication. American Psychologist, 19, 319-328.
Converse E.J., Campbell D.T., Miller R.D. And Stokes L. (1960). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
According to research, "Each man deserves respect because only he has had those exact life experiences and understands his emotions, motivations, and body in such an intimate matter," (ainbow 2010). Thus, Broadway was respecting the individual decisions of its players to decide whether or not the game was ok to play.
However, this was only followed outside of the United States. The decision locally was much different. Because of the nature of the young audience, there was the moral dilemma for the insertion of such sexually explicit references. And so, Broadway was not acting ethically when they failed to uphold local ethics abroad. According to research, "A winking tolerance of other's unethical behavior is in itself unethical," (Jennings 2007:14). ather than acting out of ethical obligation to others as they did to their own, Broadway let it slide and moved sales elsewhere, where they knew they could get away with…
Alexander, Larry & Moore, Michael. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 25, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Jennings, Marianne Moody. (2007). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings. Cengage Learning Publishing.
Newton, Lisa H. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Business Ethics and Society. 10th ed. McGraw Hill.
Rainbow, Catherine. (2010). Descriptions of ethical theories and principles. Davidson College. Retrieved February 25, 2010 from http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/indep/carainbow/Theories.htm
In that regard, NatHealth Inc. managers and supervisors are trained to recognize potential ethical conflicts as early as possible, to analyze possible course of action, and to take decisive action by implementing the best possible ethical decisions and corresponding solutions that are the most consistent with organizational ethical values and principles.
In addition, all NatHealth Inc. managers attend a week-long mandatory training retreat every September at which they attend strategic meetings and receive training in several different aspects of their operational responsibilities. Two days are reserved for ethics-specific discussions, policy reviews, and updated training in the full range of ethical issues in the workplace. Subsequent to their return, individual managers conduct an ethics policy review session with their direct reports at which time they provide supplemental ethical instructions to update all employees with respect to any changes in organizational ethics policies and expectations.
While the organization does maintain scrupulous…
Halbert, T., and Ingulli, E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati, OH: West.
Locker, K. (2006). Business and Administrative Communication 2nd Edition. Boston,
What does the patient have the right to know?
What the patient has the right to know (regarding genetic tests) is: a complicated matter and many people, including experts, have varying opinions. The information patients receive from genetic testing can have significant consequences, especially if it leads a pregnant woman to have an abortion. The ethical principles that arise in situations like this are varied and are often in conflict with each other. The ethical decisions in genetic counseling would be fairly cut and dry if the principle of autonomy was the only one that was considered. However, by doing this a counselor may be ignoring the other ethical concerns like: what is best for society and being fair to other people (regarding who the patient's decisions are affecting).
Who should have decision making power in our society on issues of genetic / medical testing?
Regarding the "Dwarfism…
Biesecker, Barbara. "Future Directions in Genetic Counseling: Practical and Ethical Considerations." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8.2 (1998). 145-160. Web.
Flackelman, Kathy. "Beyond the genome: the ethics of DNA testing." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 66-70. Print.
Flackelman, Kathy. "DNA dilemmas: readers and 'experts' weigh in on biomedical ethics." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 64-66. Print.
Ethical Argument: Smoking in the Workplace
In 1994, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defined second- hand tobacco smoke as a potential workplace hazard, estimating that as many as 14,000 workers die each year from the effects of exposure to passive tobacco smoke. The National Cancer
Institute endorsed much higher estimates, according to which as many as 65,000 Americans die each year from heart disease and lung cancer caused by inhaling secondhand smoke (Washington Post, 2004). Since then, many states have instituted legislation prohibiting smoking in the workplace and the FAA has imposed an outright smoking ban on commercial aircraft, which many smokers view as an infringement of their rights.
While anti-smoking legislation certainly does affect the rights of smokers, it is justified on the basis of comparing the relative imposition on smokers to the rights of non-smokers to a healthy work environment. Certainly, smokers have the same…
Washington Post; "Who's Protecting Workers' Health." August 27, 2004; p. A20. (Washingtonpostonline.com) Accessed August 27, 2004, at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37210-2004Aug26.html
Best Ethical Approaches and Alternatives
Frankly, the Satyam case is not one that requires splitting the proverbial hairs sometimes associated with more complex ethical analyses. Virtually every known ethical system other than egoism would condemn aju's conduct (osenstand, 2008; Shaw & Barry, 2007). Unfortunately, the magnitude of the harm caused and the vast numbers of individuals detrimentally affected by aju's subterfuge absolutely defies any conceivable ethical solution that relies on restitution or compensation to the victims.
In the Satyam case, aju would not benefit from any of the ethical systems considered. Act utilitarian ethical analysis would condemn aju's actions simply by virtue of their consequences on the countless victims of his conduct. ights-based ethical analysis would reach the same conclusion regardless of whether the system relies on objective or conventional ethical rules. Justice-based ethics would condemn aju's conduct because it violated both objective ethical principles and the formal rules governing…
Halbert, T., and Ingulli, E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati, OH: West.
Rosenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:
Ethical Theory & Moral Practice
Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.
This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…
Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.
"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml
Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3
Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
That is a perfectly valid reason not to engage in the practice, at least in the case of any person who makes that decision because of his or her religious beliefs and values. However, the very same concept of religious freedom means that no person should ever have his or her rights defined against his or her will by the religious beliefs and values of other people. In this country, the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution expressly prohibits the state from imposing religion on any individual; yet that is exactly the situation to the extent that legislators ever oppose euthanasia on "religious" grounds. Incidentally, the exact same principle applies to abortion to the degree that the issue involves religious beliefs about when human life "begins."
Supporting the right of the individual to choose euthanasia does not mean that there should be no safeguards to protect mentally unstable patients…
J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.
A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.
4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…
Ectopic Pegnancy and the Jehovah's Witness
It is impotant to be awae of cultual and eligious beliefs within a community, especially as a health cae povide, because when dealing with patients fom within that community thee can be tensions that aise if the teatment violates a pinciple of the cultual/eligious community. This would be the case wee a membe of Jehovah's Witness community to come into the hospital with the symptom descibed in the case study in which the woman has ectopic pegnancy. Because it is a tenant of the Jehovah's Witness community to eject blood tansfusion, it is impotant that a hospital have a back-up plan fo such cases so as to be able to pactice "bloodless medicine" in ode to save the lives of patients like the 25-yea-old woman in the case scenaio (Ratcliffe, 2004). This pape will discuss the impact of teating Jehovah's Witnesses when the teatment…
references and the Right to Forgo Life-Saving Treatments. Social Theory and Practice, 41(4): 716-733.
Ethical System and Its Justification
In the definition of an ethical system, there are both the ethical theories and ethical principles. These provide the viewpoints upon which an ethical analysis is conducted Schwartz, 2003.
They provide guidance as to what path to take to arrive at the final decision James, 2000.
To me, good is defined as that action which is ethical in nature and which complies with the standards of the society at large.
There are several actions that I consider to be good. One example is helping another student revise for an exam. Secondly, there is the action of helping an elderly woman cross the street. There is also the act of encouraging and motivating people in their daily lives. Another action that I consider to be good is that of letting certain persons such as the elderly or a pregnant woman cut the line where you are…
James, H.S., Jr. (2000). Reinforcing Ethical Decision Making through Organizational Structure. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(1), 43-58.
Morris, M.H., Schindehutte, M., Walton, J., & Allen, J. (2002). The Ethical Context of Entrepreneurship: Proposing and Testing a Developmental Framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 40(4), 331-361.
Schwartz, M.S. (2003). The "Ethics" of Ethical Investing. Journal of Business Ethics, 43(3), 195-213.
Thong, J.Y.L., & Yap, C.-S. (1998). Testing an Ethical Decision-Making Theory: The Case of Softlifting. Journal of Management Information Systems, 15(1), 213-237.
Ethical Issues Surrounding the Adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) by Health Care Organizations and Meaningful Use
The objective of this work in writing is to examine why health care organizations are hesitant to adopt electronic health records (HER) in light of the potential of HER to improve quality, increase access, and reduce costs. This issue will be examined from a legal, financial, and ethical standpoint and in relation to 'meaningful use'.
The use of information technology in the health care field shows a great deal of potential toward improving quality, efficiency, and safety in medical care. (DeRoches, Campbell, and Rao, 2008, paraphrased; Frisse & Holmes, 2007, paraphrased; and Walker, et al., 2005, paraphrased) The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 is reflective of the unprecedented interest of the Federal government in the area of bringing about increases in the use of IT in health care for system…
A New Hospital EMR Adoption assessment Tool (2012) HIMSS Analytics. Retrieved from: http://www.himss.org/content/files/EMR053007.pdf
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Available athttp://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_bills&docid=f:h1enr.pdf. Accessed 5 August2010.
Daniel, J. And Goldstein, MM (2010) Consumer Consent Options for Electronic Health Information Exchange: Policy Considerations and analysis. 23 Mar 2010.
DesRoches CM, Campbell EG, Rao SR, et al. Electronic health records in ambulatory care -- a national survey of physicians. N Engl J. Med 2008; 359:50 -- 60.
The published codes of ethics for different professions try to make it clear that "professional" in that occupation will not misuse that power, and especially that the use will not be made for personal gain. Of course, in totality, the codes of ethics should provide guidance about the values to be upheld in the profession, specific ethical principles and specific standards. (Professional code of Ethics)
Since there is a wide variation in codes for different professions, it is required that codes from some professions be looked at to decide the ethical standards of a profession. However, studying ethical codes does not mean that the individual will be following the codes and behaving in an ethical manner. This is mentioned clearly in the code for National Association of Social Work as "a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving…
An Overview of Morality and ethical systems" Retrieved at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/415/415lect01.htm. Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Dean, John. W. (26 March, 2004) "A Closer Look at the Case from Which Justice Scalia Has
Refused To Rescue Himself." Retrieved at http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dean/20040326.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Etzioni, Amitai. (4 August, 2004) "When It Comes to Ethics, B-Schools Get an F" Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A38323-2002Aug2¬Found=true . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Another main factor that has also been mentioned above is the factor of Personal Development that is held highly important at Saint Leo University. The administration and education board at the university feels that it is essential for every educational institution to have the kind of educational setup that will promote the progress of every individual's mental, physical and spiritual being in an appropriate and composed way (ALA/ACL, 2008).
esponsible Stewardship is another important factor in the educational setup of the university as the administration feels that an individual's capability and service spectrum can not be fully utilized without his or her ability to truly use the resources available to him or her. The administration feels that they, as an institution, can use all the resources available to them and their students towards not only developing their university but also their community as well as the neighboring communities (ALA/ACL, 2008).…
ALA/ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. 2008. Accessed at http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/informationliteracycompetency.htm
Andberg, M., M. Caught in the Middle: Ethical/Legal Mandates and Test Security. Symposium: Recent Developments in Psychological Testing - Update for Assessment Professionals. American Psychological Association Convention; Honolulu, Hawaii. Marcia Andberg Associates LLC, 2004.
American Psychological Association (APA). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. American Psychological Association, Inc. December 2002; 57, 12
Dr. Kirk, a.F. The State of Saint Leo University. President of Saint Leo University Community Day. 2006. Accessed from https://www.saintleo.edu/resources/docs/intranet/commday_aug2006_kirkspch.pdf
Only parents with nothing to hide would allow their children to participate, while children with violent family histories might be withdrawn from the study, or pressured by their parents to lie.
Additionally, students might not want their records accessed, if there was potentially damaging evidence in their records, out of embarrassment or fear. Thus, to ensure that the study was valid, and to obtain a more representative cross-section of individuals, Ludwig violated basic ethical research principles of parental consent for participation for minors and did not obtain standard confidentiality waivers.
Describe your reactions to the way this study was done.
Regardless of Ludwig's rationale, no individual's personal rights can be sacrificed to the personal needs and desires of the researcher, however much Ludwig and those like him might cloak their unethical behavior in the language of 'science.'
Ethical Dilemmas in Police ork
For ethical training to be effective in a police profession then there must be continuous education and practice. Officers work in a rapidly evolving field that is in a dynamic environment and therefore will most likely encounter new challenges frequently. These challenges can be further complicated by the fact that officers must often make quick decisions in situations in which their physical safety is on the line. ithout proper training there is an increased likelihood that an officer will chose their own self-interest or preservation without regard for the ethical dilemmas that are present in their choices. This analysis will provide some ethical dilemmas that officers might encounter. Such dilemmas can also be used for learning or training purposes so that officers can practice beforehand some of the situations they may face on the job so that they are better prepared.
Gilmartin, K. And J. Harris. "Law Enforcement Ethics." 2006. E-S Press. Online. 2 April 2013.
Lieberman, B. "Ethical Issues in the Use of Confidential Informants for Narcotic Operations." 2007. The Police Chief. Online. 2 April 2013.
Pollock, J. Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
Professional Issues and Ethics in Counseling
Dr. Aaron Lieberman
Ethics and law are two concepts that are intertwined in the field of mental health though they have their own differences. According to Corey, Corey, Corey & Callahan (2014), law is a term that refers to the basic standards that will be tolerated by the society and imposed by government while ethics refers to the ideal standards that are established and imposed by professional associations. Medical professionals are faced with the need to be aware of any unethical behavior and practice since they can generate legal repercussions and affect licensure. This is an extremely important consideration for medical professionals, especially mental health practitioners who deal with situations that are likely to generate legal and ethical issues. An example of such as situation is Monique's situation, which has multiple relevant ethical and legal issues that need to be…
Corey, G., Corey, S. C, Corey, C., and Callahan, P. (2014). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions (9th ed.). Stamford, CT.: Brooks/Cole.
Counseling Connection. (2013, March). Ethical Issues in Counseling. Retrieved November 26, 2016, from http://www.counsellingconnection.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Legal-and-Ethical-Issues-11.pdf
ethical concerns when it comes to conducting human research. This paper presents those concerns and reviews the regulatory protocols that the United States employs in order to meet high ethical and legal standards.
How research involving human subjects works in the U.S.
In the Journal of Clinical Pathology author M.B. Kapp explains that the issue of ethics vis-a-vis human subjects in research isn't just a concern of clinicians and scientists; rather, these issues also have importance to lawyers, philosophers, and policy makers. And there definite legal provisions that are applied regarding "…participant safety, informed consent, and confidentiality" (Kapp, 2006). Of great interest when it comes to pathologists is how human tissue specimens are handled -- whether the tissues are to be used in the present or at some point in the future.
Kapp references what the writer calls "the most salient ethical values" that come into play when research involving…
Davidson, S. (2001). Protecting Research Participants -- A Time for Change. Ethical and Policy Issues in Research Involving Human Participants. National Bioethics Advisory
Commission. Retrieved March 7, 2015, from https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu .
Department of Health and Human Services. (1979). The Belmont Report. Retrieved March 8, 2015, from http://www.hhs.gov .
Kapp, M.B. (2006). Ethical and legal issues in research involving human subjects: do you want a piece of me? Journal of Clinical Pathology, 59(4), 335-339.
Aboriginal people are the Indians who live in Canada. Over the years, they have been characterized by poor living conditions, low social status, poverty, discrimination, and social injustices. Government organizations should be on the front ensuring proper treatment and social justice for the Aboriginal people. ed Cross is an example of non-profit organization, which seeks to improve the status of the Aboriginal people, regardless of their social status and with equal treatment to all, as discussed in the paper.
Non-profit organization aims at providing services to the public, while profit organizations aim at profit maximization. Public interest comes first, for the non-profit organization, rather than their interests. The ed Cross is recognized as the non-profit organization, and it is chartered by the U.S. congress. It provides services worldwide, and the general population during times of disaster and the workforce is predominantly volunteers.
ed Cross society
Nonprofit organizations have to be…
Journal of Education Controversy:. (1997). The Give Away Spirit.
Australia, N.L. (1992). Australian Public Affairs Information Service. Australia: National Library of Australia.
Ciconte, B.J. (2011). Fundraising Basics: A Complete Guide. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Learning.
Crooks, C.T. (2007). Engaging and Empowering Aboriginal Youth. Chicago: Trafford Publishing.
Definition of an Ethical Framework
An ethical framework that would be useful to me is one which I can use it to assess how to go about behaving in a given circumstance. The framework should be based on the virtue-ethics perspective. As Lutz (1996) points out, “Piaget and Kohlberg belong to the cognitive-developmental tradition of developmental psychology” in which the moral development of a child is decided through social interaction and comes about naturally rather than through formal education (p. 1). Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is that there are six stages of moral development. First, there is the stage in which the child does what is right to avoid being punished. Second comes the stage in which the child does what is right because he perceives it serves his own interests. Third comes the stage in which the child desires to see himself as a good person and for…
Anna's rationale for not obtaining informed consent?
Not informing research subjects regarding one's purpose is unethical. In order to see just how unethical her decision is, Anna must understand ethical concerns linked to studies that utilize human participants. The basic principles of justice, independence, and goodness form the basis of the aforementioned ethical concerns and warrant attention (UNC Charlotte| esearch& Economic Development Centre, n.d).). Ethics guidelines and codes explain the idea of informed consent with regard to studies on human participants. This process aims at presenting adequate facts to participants to ensure they are able to decide, after acquiring an adequate grasp of the situation, whether to participate in any research venture or not, and whether to continue participating or not. It is imperative to seek informed consent for every kind of research on humans, including therapeutic, diagnostic, social, behavioral and interventional researches, as well as for studies performed locally…
Argosy University (2014).Institutional Review Board Handbook. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from https://ucmrp.edmc.edu/idc/groups/webcontent/@edmc_aug/documents/webcontent/edmc-03428020.pdf
Office for the Protection of Research Subjects (OPRS)| University of Southern California (n.d) Informed Consent in Human Subjects Research. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from http://oprs.usc.edu/files/2013/04/Informed-Consent-Booklet-4.4.13.pdf
Office of Research Integrity| The University of Tennessee Chattanooga (n.d) Informed CnosentConsent Requirements. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from https://www.utc.edu/research-integrity/institutional-review-board/informedconsent/
UNC Charlotte| Research & Economic Development Centre (n.d). Informed Consent. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from http://research.uncc.edu/departments/office-research-compliance-orc/human-subjects/informed-consent
Contrasting Different Vantage Points Regarding the Role of CSR and Business Ethics
Introduction to Corporate Social Responsibility
Review of the Variety of Ethical Systems
Contemporary Vantage Points
Corporate social responsibilities as well as business ethics have served as hotly contested issues over the last few decades. There has yet to be a consensus reached, to say the least, as to what there composition should look like or even if they are necessary academic pursuits at all. Research was conducted in regards to the various categories of ethical systems in existence and concluded that each system has merit under various sets of circumstances. Furthermore, contemporary individuals who have acted to influence business culture were identified, compared, and contrasted. It was found that there arguments were reasonable based on their assumptions however these assumptions are inherently flawed. The article concludes, that given the growing body of evidence that suggests that life-sustaining…
Alahmad, A. (2010). To Be Ethical Or Not To Be: An International Code of Ethics For Leadership. Journal of Diversity Management, 31-35.
Cavanagh, G., Moberg, D., & Velasquez, M. (1981). The Ethics of Organizational Politics. The Academy of Management Review, 363.
Drucker, P. (1981). What is Business Ethics? The Public Interest, 18-36.
Friedman, M. (1970, September 13). The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. The New York Times Magazine.
The topic of spiritual transformation will be grounded upon the ethics presented within the Holy Bible and the teachings of the Apostle Paul. There must be a solid foundation to build ethical principles on for a true transformation to occur. When the training up is unrecognized, the transformation process will ultimately fail in its attempt. With this in mind, there will be a question to be answered in delivery of the thesis and its corresponding evidence of argument. The question will be "What is the foundational source to ground spiritual formation on?" The ethical ground of the Pauline ethics will consist of such things as moral instructions, passion, love, community formation, and virtues. The ultimate goal of Christian ethics is the fulfillment of being Christ-like. The character of Jesus Christ is the greatest goal to strive for. The thesis statement is "A Christians ethical foundation must be centered…
Giannet, S.M. (2002). The Radical Ethics of Jesus. The American Journal of Biblical Theology. Retrieved from http://www.biblicaltheology.com/Research/GiannetS02.html
Hartog, P. (2011). The Integrative Role of the Spirit in the Ethics of Galatians. Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal, 16, 19-39.
Harrison, N.V. (1996). The Holy Spirit and Ethics: A Response to Philip S. Keane. CTSA Proceedings, 51, 114-119.
Pettegrew, L. (2000). Theological Basis of Ethics. The Master's Seminary Journal, 11(2), 139-153.
Counseling is a highly sensitive profession that depends on maintaining boundaries and solidifying trust. The establishment of clear ethical codes helps counselors to understand their roles and responsibilities to clients and to their colleagues. Laws at the state and federal level may provide additional protection to both clients and counselors and determine penalties for ethical violations. However, counselors inevitably encounter ethical dilemmas. Ethical dilemmas can arise when there is a conflict between two or more moral standards, or between the law and an ethical standard. Likewise, a counselor’s personal moral code could sometimes conflict with the law or the ethical code guiding their professional practice. This paper outlines some of the most common ethical and legal dilemmas counselors are likely to face, and how counselors can rightfully and safely resolve those conflicts.
The counseling profession is governed by a set of ethical standards similar to those used in…
Ethics and Nursing
One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. When there are issues surrounding unethical behavior, the standard view is that the issue is one of ignorance (unaware of the issue or policy), failure (sloppy medical work), or intent (purposeful negativity). Instead, Christopher Meyers (2004) believes that it is more the culture of the institution that frames ethical behavior than it is anything more purposeful.…
Gaudine, A., et.al. (2011). Ethical Conflicts With Hospitals: The Perspective of Nurses
And Physicians. Nursing Ethics. 18 (6): 756-66.
Meyers, C. (2004). Institutional Culture and Individual Behavior: Creating an Ethical
Environment. Science and Engineering Ethics, 10 (1): 269-76.
eligion and health have long been linked, and continue to be so in most cultures around the world. In fact, both mental and physical health problems were once believed to have supernatural or spiritual origins, a belief which persists until this day in spite of empirical evidence showcasing the biological and chemical causes of illnesses (Koenig, 2000). egardless of whether or not religion is a worthwhile social institution, religion, spirituality, and practices like prayer remain central to the lives of most people. eligion can be inextricably linked with personal and cultural identity, and can greatly inform both medical decisions and health practices including lifestyle choices. There is also a notable link between religiosity and a number of health outcomes including morbidity and mortality rates, proven in empirical studies. The literature tends to support a strong connection between prayer and stress relief in particular, as prayer and religion are widely believed…
Bearon, L.B. & Koenig, H.G. (1990). Religious cognitions and use of prayer in health and illness. The Gerontologist 30(2): 249-253.
Davis, L.I. & Owens, C. (2013). The impact of religion on health practices. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Retrieved online: http://www.aacp.org/governance/SIGS/hdcc/Documents/Webinar%20Materials/Impact%20of%20Religion%20Webinar.pdf
Koenig, H.G. (2000). Religion and medicine I. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 30(4): 385-398.
Koenig, H., King, D. & Carson, V.B. (2012). Handbook of Religion and Health. Oxford University Press.
The Case of Tobacco Industry
Business ethics can be defined as the art, system, method and the discipline that is applied to along with ethical principles to solve complex business issues and dilemmas. It defines the actions that are taken that tries to reach a balance between the organization achieving its business and economic obligations and social obligations (Ferrell & Ferrell, 2009). For this paper, we consider the case of the tobacco industry and the role of ethics in the industry. The important ethical issues that should be followed while conducting business as a customer are primarily being truthful to the customer.
The first ethical issue that is expected from a tobacco company as the customer is in the realm of product safety and honesty towards the consumers. As a member of the society, a customer would also like to see that the tobacco industry fulfills its responsibility…
Ferrell, O. & Ferrell, L. (2009). Ethical business. New York: DK Pub.
Gavai, A. (2010). Business ethics. Mumbai [India]: Himalaya Pub. House.
McCambridge, J. (2016). Ethical issues raised by tobacco industry-linked research in the era of e-cigarettes. Addiction, 111(8), 1334-1335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.13308
Palazzo, G. & Richter, U. (2005). CSR Business as Usual? The Case of the Tobacco Industry. J Bus Ethics, 61(4), 387-401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-005-7444-3
Ethics is a term that is commonly used to refer to appropriate rules of conduct or moral guidelines that govern people’s behaviors and actions. Additionally, ethics is a terms that refers to standards or norms for differentiating between right and wrong (Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching, n.d.). As a result, ethics has become an important component in research because researchers have a moral responsibility to safeguard their research participants when conducting a study. Experiment ethics has become a common feature in modern research practices because of the role and significance of the moral responsibility that researchers have as they conduct their study.
One of the most famous and compelling psychological researches that highlight experiment ethics is The Stanford Prison Experiment, which provided a simple narrative regarding human nature (Resnick, 2018). According to McLeod (2017), this research was conducted to examine how willing and ready people would adapt to…
Ethical Analysis #2
Nurses face dilemmas of an ethical nature on a regular basis. This effectively means that from time to time, nurses are called upon make ethical decisions -- decisions that could have a huge impact on the well-being of patients. One of the current ethical issues being faced by nurses is whether or not to lie to patients. ecently, it was revealed that psychiatrists and nurses caring for dementia patients were actively practicing what Williams (2013) refers to as "therapeutic lying" in an attempt to keep the said patients happy. As a matter of fact 98% of nurses, as William further points out, admitted to lying to dementia patients. The question that ought to be answered in this case is; should nurses withhold some potentially upsetting information about diseases that happen to be life-threatening?
B. Ethical Principles and Theories at Issue
The ethical principles at work…
American Medical Association -- ANA (2014). Short Definitions of Ethical Principles and Theories: Familiar Words, What do they Mean? http://www.nursingworld.org/mainmenucategories/ethicsstandards/resources/ethics-definitions.pdf
Corner, J. & Bailey, C.D. (eds.) (2009). Cancer Nursing: Care in Context (2nd Ed.). Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
Williams, A. (2013). Dementia sufferers told white lies to keep them happy: Nurses and psychiatrists admit 'therapeutic lying' to confused patients. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2410811/Dementia-sufferers-told-white-lies-happy-Nurses-psychiatrists-admit-therapeutic-lying-confused-patients.html
Memo on a Ethical Analysis
____ (due date)
Decision making by a Healthcare Leader in case of an Ethical Dilemma
in an interview of my health care administrator of the long care health facility where I work, I asked, "How do you make a wise decision in a situation relating to an ethical dilemma?"
Description of the Answer
It seemed like my question took the administrator by surprise perhaps he did not expect such a question when I requested for an interview. However, he looked composed and amused by my question. Confidently and leaning a little bit forward and supporting his hands on his desk, he responded. He first pointed out the numerous occasions when ethical dilemmas were evident in his health care administration career at the health facility. He said that he learnt over time through many experiences and a little consultation and…
Forester-Miller, H., & Davis, T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. American Counseling Association, 1-5.
Pope, K.S., & Vasquez, M.J. (2010). Ethics in Psychotherapy and Counseling: A Practical Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Ethical Dilemma- A Framework
Taking into account ethical concerns is one of the key components in providing healthcare in the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship (osenbaum, 1982). Nurses face ethical uncertainty, distress and conflict in their day-to-day work. When more than one ethical value applies to a particular case, and all of them recommend following a different course of action, then an ethical dilemma exists in such a case a nurse would be not be sure of which value takes precedence (College of Nurses of Ontario, 2009). This specific case involves a 6-year-old who is by law a minor and thus a physician must obtain informed consent from their legal guardian. However, the child's primary guardian is his non-biological mother who is citing her religious reason to refuse medical treatment, while the biological father who resides in another state wants the kid to be treated, a situation that leaves the…
American Counseling Association (2005). Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author. College of Nurses of Ontario (2009). PRACTICE Standard: ethics. Retrieved 16 September 2015 from https://www.cno.org/Global/docs/prac/41034_Ethics.pdf
Forester-Miller H. & Davis T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. Retrieved 16 September 2015 from http://www.alabamacounseling.org/pdf/acaguide.pdf
Forester-Miller, H. & Rubenstein, R.L. (1992). Group Counseling: Ethics and Professional Issues. In D. Capuzzi & D. R. Gross (Eds.) Introduction to Group Counseling (307-323). Denver, CO: Love Publishing Co.
Haas, L.J. & Malouf, J.L. (1989). Keeping up the good work: A practitioner's guide to mental health ethics. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.
Ethical Issues in Healthcare
Euthanasia is also termed as 'mercy killing', involves concluding the existence of a terminally ill patient on deathbed due to a life-threatening illness. In essence, another individual decides to conclude the existence of the patient by multiple methods, such as using a lethal dosage of injection. The patients can choose euthanasia (voluntary), reject using euthanasia (involuntary), or could be unable to response, depending on their neural function. It is undertaken without the consent of the patient (non-voluntary). As euthanasia dictates authority over the life of an individual, it also allots this authority to an individual to act as an agent of death (American Nurses Association, 2013).
Euthanasia is a word taken from the Greek language, two words mainly, 'eu' and 'thanatos' which means 'good death'. As opposed to being condemned to an excruciating death, euthanasia provides a better opportunity to relieve a person of his…
American Nurses Association. (2013). Euthanasia, Assisted Suicide, and Aid in Dying. ANA Center for Ethics and Human Rights.
Bartels, L., & Otlowski, M. (2010). A right to die? Euthanasia and the law in Australia. J Law Med, 532-55.
Ebrahimi, N. (2012). The ethics of euthanasia. Australian Medical Student Journal.
(1969, December 31). Ethical Dilemma Faced by Professional Nurses on Abortion Issue.
Patients may also prioritize different interests over their physicians. A general practitioner, like the pediatrician of the above-cited teen, might believe that the risks of surgery are too great and that the teen's body type is not extreme enough to justify plastic surgery or that it is best to wait until the teen is fully developed. From the girl's perspective, the fact that she is teased by her peers and is afraid to change during gym class is an argument in favor of the surgery which surmounts any possible objections. Teens may have difficulty appreciating the future consequences of their actions although the surgery is certainly performed upon consenting adults and is not an 'extreme' procedure. Also, the teen might complain of back pain which could be potentially alleviated by the surgery.
A plastic surgeon may have a different perspective of beneficence than a general practitioner as well, believing that…
But not all decisions are so clear-cut. What about a teenager who wants breast reduction surgery? The argument of 'autonomy' is more complicated, even if the teen's parents are allowing her to go through with the surgery because she is young and may change her mind in the future and might not be aware of the fact that her body may 'catch up' with her current stage of development. The teen and the teen's parents may not be able to view the future with clear eyes because of an excessive focus on the present. In terms of doing good (beneficence), the argument in favor of the surgery are the possible physical and psychological benefits. But weight loss might serve the same purposes with less risk and greater benefits. The risk of the surgery, the availability of other options and the potential benefits: all of which must be weighed against one another.
Patients' perceptions of their own interests may not be the same as the physicians, as indicated by persons who religiously object to various medical procedures (McCormick 1998:8). Patients may also prioritize different interests over their physicians. A general practitioner, like the pediatrician of the above-cited teen, might believe that the risks of surgery are too great and that the teen's body type is not extreme enough to justify plastic surgery or that it is best to wait until the teen is fully developed. From the girl's perspective, the fact that she is teased by her peers and is afraid to change during gym class is an argument in favor of the surgery which surmounts any possible objections. Teens may have difficulty appreciating the future consequences of their actions although the surgery is certainly performed upon consenting adults and is not an 'extreme' procedure. Also, the teen might complain of back pain which could be potentially alleviated by the surgery.
A plastic surgeon may have a different perspective of beneficence than a general practitioner as well, believing that the psychological benefits of his practice outweigh any possible harm the surgery might impose. Another physician might object to the practice of plastic surgery entirely, given the risks of all surgical procedures, unless there is a dire medical need. The question of whether the procedure is the least intrusive one possible also arises: losing weight might (or might not) accomplish the same objective. But some patients find weight loss extremely challenging and do not consider this a feasible option to change their body shape, even though technically it exists. The same argument is also made in favor of weight loss surgery -- yes, it is better for patients to lose weight instead of risking the potentially life-threatening surgery, but if it were so easy, the target patients would have lost weight already. Furthermore, weight loss is not always successful in achieving breast reduction and if the teen has already tried other methods this might be seen as an argument in favor of the surgery.
Combining morphine and Ativan (lorazepam) can be deadly, making the Primary Care Physician (PCP) statement seem contradictory to medical ethics. The specific medical ethical issues addressed in this case include patient autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence. However, there are other ethical issues and dilemmas raised by this case. The nurse faces professional ethical dilemmas in terms of the conflicts between Provision 2 and Provision 8 in the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics. Provision 2 indicates that nurses have a primary commitment to the patient, followed by Provision 3, which calls for the professional nurse to actively advocate for and protect the "rights, health, and safety of the patient," (ANA, 2015). However, Provision 8 indicates that the nurse also "collaborates with other health professionals and the public to protect human rights, promote health diplomacy, and reduce health disparities," (ANA, 2015). This case shows how the nurse's primary obligation to protect…
American Nurses Association (ANA, 2015). Code of Ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.vcuhealth.org/?id=1220&sid=13
International Council of Nurses (2012). The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses. Retrieved online: http://www.icn.ch/images/stories/documents/about/icncode_english.pdf
"Patients' Bill of Rights," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.aapsonline.org/patients/billrts.htm
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…
Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.abort73.com .
Glionna, John M. (2012). Arizona passes law restricting abortion. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.southbendtribune.com .
Jones, K., and Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45-48.
Summarize briefly the organization's background / history.
The World Health Organization (WHO) was established in 1948. This was in response to the need for an entity which could address issues impacting various countries and their overall quality of health. They began cataloguing and analyzing how communicable diseases can be prevented over the long-term through effective coordination. Since this time, they have achieved a number of milestones through this approach to include: working to develop a vaccine for polio, helping to conduct the first heart transplant, focusing on effective vaccinations (in order to prevent the spread of communicable diseases), providing essential drugs to over 156 countries, the eradication of small pox and working to coordinate with various stakeholders around the globe. ("An Introduction to the World Health Organization," 2007)
Its primary mission is continuing to evolve with a focus on a number of objectives. The most notable include:
An Introduction to the World Health Organization. (2007). WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/about/brochure_en.pdf
Health Ethics. (2011). WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/ethics/publications/ETX_Newsletter_May2011.pdf
How Culture Influences Health Beliefs. (2012). Euro Med Info. Retrieved from: http://www.euromedinfo.eu/how-culture-influences-health-beliefs.html/
The business is also becoming one of the leading companies and a well-known case study of the fair trade principles within the market. The business is also creating a noble image within the target market through its efforts of creating awareness for paying the fair price to its coca producers. The image created by the business is significantly affecting its brand image as an ethical brand. The research of Britain (2007) is also evident of the findings presented above.
USA consumer attitudes:
According to Ma (2007) the consumers in United States are also familiar with the fair trade attitudes and principles. The young consumers are highly likely to purchase products that are manufactured by the businesses incorporating fair trade principles. The consumers of young age group prefer to value the contributions of manufacturers towards fair trade principles (Gropel, 2012). The graduates and educated high income group is also tilted towards…
Britain, G 2007, Fair trade and development: seventh report of session 2006-07, Vol. 2: Oral and written evidence (Vol. 356), Stationery Office, United Kingdom.
Clarke, N, Barnett, C, Cloke, P & Malpass, a 2007, the political rationalities of fair-trade consumption in the United Kingdom, Politics & Society, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 583-607.
De Pelsmacker, P, Driesen, L & Rayp, G 2005, Do Consumers Care about Ethics? Willingness to Pay for Fair-Trade Coffe, Journal of consumer affairs, vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 363-385.
DeCarlo, J 2011, Fair trade and how it works, the Rosen Publishing Group.
Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.
The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…
National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.
James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.
Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.
R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
Describe in detail
Teleological, deontological, and virtue ethics: A comparison
Teleological ethics are also called consequence-based ethics. Teleological ethical systems emphasize the results of ethical decisions, versus the moral principles behind such decisions. Utilitarianism is an excellent example of teleological ethics. The stress in utilitarianism is doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people, versus setting a precedent for all ethical actions. "It denies that moral rightness depends directly on anything other than consequences, such as whether the agent promised in the past to do the act now" (Armstrong 2011). What is good for the greatest number of people one day may not be the case several years from now, or even to morrow.
For example, no one would state that as an abstract moral principle, having to fire competent employees is a 'good thing.' However, bosses are often forced to do so, because of the…
Alexander, Larry & Michael Moore. (2007). Deontological ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy. Retrieved: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Armstrong, Walter. (2011). Consequentialism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Ethical Scenarios in Nursing Education
The scenario chosen for this analysis is one in which a colleague failed to conduct a class as was planned allowing students to leave early and not following instructions for the class. The problem that resulted is that only two groups presented in person and the other two groups posted their presentations on the Web. This content is scheduled on the next exam and no time is left for the student presentations.
This problem is one that should be handled in a manner that retains due respect for the colleague who instructed the class during the absence of the individual who was the instructor for this class. One of the principles in the statement of ethics for nursing education states as follows:
"As colleagues, professors have obligations that derive from common membership in the community of scholars. Professors do not discriminate against or harass colleagues.…
Statement on Professional Ethics (2012) American Association of University Professors. Retrieved from: http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/policydocs/contents/statementonprofessionalethics.htm
Ethical Issues in Nursing
The scenario in this study involves a nurse who has intentionally disregarded the elderly patient's expressed wishes to receive pressure area care. The patient finds the procedure uncomfortable, embarrassing, and painful. The nurse continues to turn the patient in spite of the patient's wishes. This study will answer if the nurse is justified in turning the patient and if so, on what ethical grounds and if not then why not. This case will be discussed in light of the principles of bioethics and at least one ethical issue.
The work of Lakeman (2000) entitled "Nurses as Tools: Instrumentality and Implications for Nursing Ethics" states "Nurses are left in a particularly compromised position when required to administer compulsory treatment. The task of administering the treatment is often left to nurses who are legally required to follow "doctor's orders." There is little room for conscientious objection by…
Browning, J.S. (2007) Ethical Issues in Nursing Practice; Identifications and Comparisons Across Clinical Specialty. Ethical Issues. 12 Jul 2007. Retrieved from: http://stti.confex.com/stti/congrs07/techprogram/paper_32839.htm
Johnstone, M.-J. (1999). Bioethics: a nursing perspective. (3rd ed.). Sydney: Harcourt Saunders.
Jonsen, AR, Siegler, M and Winslade, WJ (1998) Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1998.
Kurtz, R.J., & Wang, J. (1991). The caring ethic: more than kindness, the core of nursing science. Nursing Forum, 26(1), 4-8.
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…
Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.
Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.
Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
Ethical Practices ithin Business
BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster
Over the past 20th century and in the 21st century, ethics has neither been an option nor a luxury. It has not only become a moral or legal responsibility, but has also been an organizational priority within all sets of work groups, including both public and private institutions, organizations and companies. Ethical practices have also become the only strategy to combat the growing impatience within the society, as well as their responsible competitions and/or actions. These ill and unethical acts may in the long run impoverish a section of the regional economy through various organizations while enriching the crafty economies. Organizational leaders must thereby keep abreast of the rapidly changing technological advancements together with their possible effects on globalization, competitor products and services, opportunities, and threats that their organizations may face. Over a century, BP, the formerly Anglo-Persian Oil Company…
Carl, Safina. BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster. Annual Report and Form- Case
4, 32:2, (2012),342-352.