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Cyndi Banks' Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice
No serious-minded individual over the age of twelve actually thinks that justice and ethical issues involved in criminality are purely black-and-white or clear-cut issues of good and bad. The first chapters of Cyndi Banks' (2008) Criminal Justice Ethics, however, make it clear that the issues of right and wrong in the criminal justice system are far more complex, specific, and subtle than one might have guessed, even when grand and overarching principles serve as the ultimate source for the ethical considerations in a criminal justice case. Especially when supplemented by additional research regarding the workings of the criminal justice system and the application of ethics in cranial justice decisions and policies, the first chapters of this book have a profound effect in shaping an awareness of such considerations.
The Importance of Ethics
One of the most profound impacts the first chapter of…
Banks, C. (2008). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Chin, G. (2002). Race, the War on Drugs, and the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction. Journal of Gender, Race, & Justice 6: 253.
Easton, M., Den Boer, M., Janssens, J. Moelker, R. & Vanderbeken, T. (2010). Blurring Police and Military Roles. Berlin: Hogent.
In turn, the military institution involved should indeed follow such guidelines and allow the press the opportunity to investigate all the sides of the issue. Once again, if these limitations and conditions cannot be guaranteed by either the press or the military institution, the association with a single conglomerate cannot be ethical, as there is an inherent conflict of interest.
In this regard, there should be a continuous recognition that some press freedom will be restricted in the interest of the public and national security. Only when the necessary limitations are in place can the military operate from unified basis of ethics. And only then can military institutions guarantee that their actions will at all times be aimed towards public protection and national safety and security. Time, place and circumstances always play a role in the restrictions on both military action and press reports. Only when both function within the…
Kirkwood, R. Cort. (2003, June 21). The Military vs. Free Speech. http://www.lewrockwell.com/kirkwood/kirkwood18.html
Maloney, Samuel D. Ethics Theory for the Military Professional. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/au-24/maloney.pdf
The Independent (2002, 25 March) Onora O'Neill: Freedom of the press cannot be unrestricted. http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/onora-oneill-freedom-of-the-press-cannot-be-unrestricted-655228.html
White, Barry. (2007, June 15). Swiss trio cleared by military court. In the Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom. http://www.cpbf.org.uk/body.php?subject=freedom%20of%20information&id=1681
Going by history, the chain gangs found in America were mostly used as tools for humiliating, controlling and terrorizing the African-Americans. The chain gang reappeared in 1995 as a type of punishment in Alabama prisons, thus bringing back to life one of the most shameful and powerful symbol of America's bequest of institutionalized ethnic subjugation and racial prejudice. The 8th Amendment prohibits all punishments that are not in agreement with the evolving decency standards that exhibits the growth of an emergent civilization. Slavery was not abolished immediately as a consequence of implementation of the 13th Amendment.
Despite the constitutional provisions for the total prohibition of slavery; the remnants of slavery could still be found in several economic, political and social contexts. Under the disguise of criminal justice, slavery was almost unashamedly re-implemented. Before the 13th Amendment saw the light of the day, repressive labor practices were introduced into…
Anderson, J.F., & Dyson, L. (2000). Alabama Prison Chain Gangs: Reverting to Archaic Punishment to Reduce Crime and Discipline Offenders. Western Journal of Black Studies, 24(1), 9.
Haley, S. (2013). "Like I Was a Man": Chain Gangs, Gender, and the Domestic Carceral Sphere in Jim Crow Georgia. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society, 39(1), 53-77.
Guttierrez, A. (2013). Sufferings peculiarly their own: the thirteenth amendment, in defense of incarcerated women's reproductive rights, 15 Berkeley J.Afri.-Am. L. & Pol'y.
Banks, C. (2004) Criminal justice ethics: theory and practice. SAGE.
The importance of ethics in the criminal justice field cannot be overemphasised. All participants must portray acceptable moral conduct for positive criminal justice outcomes to be achieved (Braswell, McCarthy & McCarthy, 2008). This is particularly true for correctional institutions, a major component of the criminal justice system. Correctional authorities play a crucial role in rehabilitating offenders and facilitating their transition back to the society. The role places huge ethical demands on correctional personnel. This paper outlines ethical requirements for correctional officers. First, a comprehensive job description of correctional officers is offered, along with the key stakeholders they work together with in the fulfilment of their day to day duties and responsibilities. Next, a number of practical work scenarios where ethical decision making is required are highlighted, with an evaluation of the relevance of theoretical perspectives to the scenarios. Finally, a code of ethics and best-practices checklist relevant for correctional officers…
utilitarianism vs. Deontology
The case of Sam is one that raises ethical dilemma since Sam had stayed out of job market for long and immediately he gets the job, he finds there is some aspect he grossly disagrees with in his work. He realizes that the company adds some substance to their cigarettes that makes them addictive. This Sam disagrees with and would not like to be part of it, as a matter of fact he would like to expose them to the general public.
Taking a utilitarian angel to the case at hand, if Sam was a utilitarian, he would continue working and supervising his department and not expose discovery to the public. This is based on the fact that according to Bentham, Sam should think of what brings more pleasure than pain to him and follow that. Sam should also consider the extent of the pleasure he would…
Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to which it is applied. Therefore, the solution to the deontological issues raised by the issue presented by the movie is simply to reformulate a less restrictive rule that is incapable of being applied to every situation. Instead of proposing the rule that prohibits lying, the better rule might be to prohibit only lying for immoral purposes.
In fact, the blind adherence to rules under deontological principles often produces distinctly immoral results: it is difficult to imagine the moral purpose of informing a dying patient that a loved one was also killed in the same accident; nor is there a moral purpose for informing a child who is to young to understand the concept that he was adopted. In Guido's case, the…
So it has been suggested that social context of care must be examined and to establish limits to the ethics of care. In contrast, constructive evaluation of care ethic indicates that sensitivity as well as emotional response to particular state of affairs such as family discussions with doctor provide significant guides to morally satisfactory actions plus care ethic also seem to favor accepting procedures from Conflict Resolution as well as Dispute Mediation as optional way to approach evident ethical disagreement (Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy, 1996).
So on the whole, if we think regarding repair as something that should involve tools at least the type of tools found in hardware as well as plumbing supply stores and at construction sites, our cast of fixing characters is frequently going to involve men not for the reason that all men have them or apply them even if they have them…
Virginia Held. The Ethics of Care. New York: Oxford University Press, Feb 2007.
Gilligan, Carol, et al. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Devolpment. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1982.
Ethics of Care." Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosphy 1996. April 4, 2008 http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/80130/part2/II_7.html .
Spelman, Elizabeth V. "2 the Household as Repair Shop." Setting the Moral Compass: Essays by Women Philosophers. Ed. Cheshire Calhoun. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.
On the harm side, many…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v2n1/calculating.html
Cline, a. (2011). Deontology and ethics: What is deontology, deontological ethics? About.com. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from http://atheism.about.com/od/ethicalsystems/a/Deontological.htm
Miller, P. (2007). Genetic testing and the future of disability insurance: Thinking about discrimination in the genetic age. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Vol. 35 (2) 47-52.
Schafer, S. (2001). Railroad agrees to stop gene-testing workers. Washington Post. In possession of the author.
107) could also apply here. The confidentiality clause in such a case then only applies insofar as it is estimated that there is no need to disclose confidential information to others. In the case of Mrs. Z, her family deserves to know about her situation, because it affects their lives pertinently.
Because of the increasing cultural diversity throughout the world, cultural values also play an important part in making ethical decisions in the nursing profession. In the case of Mrs. Z, for example, she appears to have no powers of decision making either in her home or in society in general. Inside the home, her mother-in-law runs the household, while her husband is in charge of important decisions. This could have a significant influence upon her decision not to disclose her condition to her family.
According to Karahanne, Evaristo and Srite (2006, p. 34), for example, also note that cultures…
Alligood, M.R., Marriner-Tomey, a. (2006). Nursing Theory: Utilization and Application. Elsevier Health Sciences.
DeWolf Bosek, M.S. And Savage, T.A. (2007) the Ethical Component of Nursing Education: Integrating Ethics into Clinical Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Goodman, K.W. (2008, Jan) Privacy, Confidentiality, Law and Ethics. Norhteast Florida Medicine Supplement. Retrieved from: http://www.dcmsonline.org/jax-medicine/2008journals/ethics/privacy.pdf
Karahanna, E., Evaristo, J.R., and Srite, M. (2006). Levels of Culture and Individual Behavior: An Integtrative Perspective. Advanced Topics in Global Information Management, Vol. 5. Idea Group, Inc.
Ethics Awareness Inventory
According to the Ethics Inventory, I fell into two categories: those who are obligation-oriented, and those who are results-oriented. In some ways, the ethical beliefs of these two categories are in conflict; for instance, usually people who base ethical decisions on obligation or duty are not as concerned with results as with principles. However, I scored high in the results-oriented category as well. I believe that my ability to span both categories of ethical decision making have proved beneficial for me in the past and will continue to in the future. For example, the ethics awareness inventory analysis indicated that I do not operate in terms of absolutes; I do not feel that there can be any absolute standards of right and wrong because the world is too complex. Therefore, I am more prone to being open-minded and flexible than people who do feel that there should…
Ethics, Morality, Values, And Beliefs
According to "the ethics site," an Internet resource for college instructors regarding the teaching of different ethical systems, ethics may be defined as "the explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. The difference between ethics and morality is similar to the difference between musicology and music. Ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality, just as musicology is a conscious reflection on music." ("Glossary," The Ethics Site, 2005) In other words, ethics is the philosophy of what is right and wrong, while morality is the practice of ethics, or virtue in action.
The analogy between a musician and a musicologist proposed by the positioning of ethics vs. morality is interesting, because one might understand music very well, and be able to explain its theory and teaching as a musicologist. However, a great musicologist might be only a middling musician. In contrast, there…
"Glossary." The Ethics Site. 2005. http://ethics.acusd.edu/LMH/E2/Glossary.html. [11 Feb 2005]
Utilitarianism is one of the most useful ethical theories. It can frame decisions made in almost every aspect of daily life, and also large-scale decisions made by organizations, enterprises, and governments. The basic principles of utilitarianism, as they were developed first by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill, are all based in the essential notion of utility. Utility means usefulness, but it is also related to net benefit.
Utility is defined in terms of the question, "Is this action beneficial? If so, who is it beneficial for, and how beneficial is it?" Utilitarian theory suggests that an ethical decision should weigh the greatest good for the greatest number of people. If an action is beneficial, it should be beneficial to the greatest number of stakeholders. It should be the decision that most maximizes the target population's happiness, or however success is being measured. This end result can…
"Ethics 5: Utilitarianism." [video]. Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdtWu4Cqx1Y
"John Stuart Mill's Essay On Liberty." Retrieved online: http://www.serendipity.li/jsmill/jsmill.htm
Santa Clara University (n.d.). A framework for thinking ethically. Retrieved online: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/framework.html
Criticism of Consequentialism:
The deontological criticism of consequentialism would suggest that the very fact that two identical acts can be highly ethical or highly unethical in different circumstances renders consequentialism purely subjective and dependent on opinion instead of objective principles. In that view, the deontological ethical approach may produce unintended negative results on occasion, but at least deontological ethics are predictable and consistent; furthermore, deontological values lead to the better choice of conduct often enough to justify any specific instances where practical injustices could result from adherence to rules.
Adhering to rules is the surest way of ensuring ethical human conduct notwithstanding that isolated societies may establish rules that could be defined objectively as unethical. One of the best examples of the impracticality of consequentialism is the general law of false arrest in most American states. A citizen arrested unlawfully by a duly authorized law enforcement officer may not flee…
Beauchamp, Bowie, & Arnold. (2009). Ethical Theory and Business. 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Ethics Awareness Inventory (EAI) is a way of measuring different people's ethical approaches. It measures ethics in four different dimensions: character, obligation, results, and equity. The combined score for character was 8, the combined score for obligation was 4, the combined score for results was -4, and the combined score for equity was -8. My ethical profile was most closely aligned with character, and least closely aligned with equity. My obligation and results scores were opposites, which was interesting because those two traits are thought be diametrically opposed.
The character perspective is aligned with virtue theory, and looks at what is good to be, rather than what is good to do. In other words, actions are not as critical as character. This means that the character perspective is not overly focused on actions. In fact, character looks more broadly at ethics than a simple determination of right and wrong and…
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…
Anderson, K. (2009). Ethnographic research: A key to strategy. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://hbr.org/2009/03/ethnographic-research-a-key-to-strategy/ar/1
Gert, B. (2011). The definition of morality. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/morality-definition/
Kohlberg, L. (1971) From Is to Ought: How to Commit the Naturalistic Fallacy and Get Away with It in the Study of Moral Development. New York: Academic Press.
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Description of esearch Procedure
The study reviewed here was conducted in order to test whether the ethical standards were much more loosely based on individual decision practices rather than a larger universal underlying theme. esearchers used the Vignette method which is "a scenario-based approach that is about how managers (participants in this study) respond to certain ethical dilemma situations," (Kim & Chun 2003: 378). Thus, various situations within the context of marketing were given to the sample population of Korean managers as to find correlations and similarities within how Korean business is supposed to act when acting within the limitations of ethical practices. 473 original participants were given questionnaires, with 452 totaling the final number of answered questionnaires for analysis.
Flaws in Procedural Design
Yet, within the context of this study, only managers were included. There were no participants on the two extreme sides of the spectrum. No one form…
Kim, Sang Yong & Chun, Sung Yong. (2003). A study of marketing ethics in Korea: what do Koreans care about? Journal of Management. 20(3):377-379.
More than replacing a Code of Ethics, solutions to the issue might revolve around simply understanding, adopting, and enforcing codes that are already in place. For instance, the IACP code of ethics for law enforcement has four major themes that would clearly handle most situations: 1) Fairness towards everyone -- the public, clients, the accused, colleagues, etc. Fairness also implies the maxim of not using one's power to take advantage of the public (e.g. bribes for service, etc.); 2) Service -- Public service is a calling -- the community holds law enforcement personnel to a high standard, and expects service to be part of the regular job description; 3) Importance of the law -- Upholding the Constitution or the statues of the law that are mandated by the profession, and; 4) the importance of personal conduct -- law enforcement professionals must hold a standard of behavior that is consistent and…
Banks, J. (2004). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf
Chery, D. (May 7, 2009). Judges on Wrong Side of the Law. CBS News. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/08/04/national/main566433.shtml
IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology. (2012). Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions. Ethics.itt.edu. Retrieved April 2013 from: http://ethics.iit.edu/
Pollock, J. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Ethics and the Internet
As the computer has evolved in the modern world, so the potential for communication has also increased. The computer, and the development of the Internet, has meant that human society has become more connected than ever before and the barriers between nations and people around the globe have been broken down. While this is a positive development in many ways, the growth of the Internet has also meant that there has been an increase in a wide range of new problems. One of these is the issue of ethics. "Just as ethics evolve as human societies grow and change, so similar ethical questions are raised during the evolution of this global electronic community." (Ethics on the Web)
The more that technology for communication and open publication of information advances, the more questions are raised about issues relating to moral codes of behavior and problems about what…
Ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 11, 2005. http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/e/ethics.htm
Ethics on the Web. 1995, Accessed March 11, 2005, http://www.echonyc.com/~ysue/ethics.html
INTERNET ETHICS: OXYMORON OR ORTHODOXY? March 12, 2005.
Therefore, the best way to help employees act ethically is to view the workplace and daily operations as a training ground.
In your estimation why is there a growing need for organizational ethics programs? What are the factors contributing to ethical problems in the global corporate world? What are possible solutions?
The need for organizational ethics program is growing for several reasons. First, organizational ethics have become crucial for companies to avoid legal and financial distress. Second, ethics help businesses run smoothly and well, attracting the best caliber of employee. Ethics programs are important especially in large organizations with a diverse staff. Global and multinational companies will be working with people from around the world, who operate in unique ethical environments. Ethics programs help multinational companies create standards for employees that will help avoid conundrums and miscommunication. Ethics programs bring all employees together on the same page and therefore become…
However, according to Trevino and Nelson, diverting the runaway train to an alternative track will result in the death of one person who is standing unawares on the alternative track (95). hat would be the best course of action in such a case? From a teleological perspective, diverting the train to the alternative track would seem most reasonable as it would save the life of five people. The end in this case - saving the lives of five people, effectively justifies the means, i.e. pulling the lever so as to divert the train to an alternative route where it will kill only one person.
To begin with, this kind of reasoning in my view erroneously assumes that there can only be a single means to a definite end. However, this is not always the case. For instance, in the example I have offered above, the person standing by the lever…
Bradburn, Roger. Understanding Business Ethics. London: Thomson Learning, 2001. Print.
Trevino, Linda, and Katherine A. Nelson. Managing Business Ethics: Straight Talk About How To Do It Right. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Print.
Ethics inventory is a program that evaluates ones particular ethical style. Everyone has their own view of ethical behavior and expectations hence it is important everyone to realize for everyone to realize what that perspective is, hence this program asks various questions and evaluate the answers and eventually realize what type of ethical person one is. Most people base their ethical views on character, obligation, results or equity. People might have blended styles that place them in two categories at the same time (Collak, 2007). This paper will look at how educational experience has affected the way I think ethically. It will further look at how I use ethics in my way of thinking and every decision making process that I undertake. Finally the paper will highlight on the potential for conflict in situations where people have different interpretations of ethical behavior.
From the results of my ethical…
Collak, V. (2007).Ethics Awareness Inventory Interpretation. Retrieved December 7, 2012 from http://collak.net/index.php?view=article&id=50&tmpl=component&print=1&page=&Itemid=60
Consider the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter 1. Which of these would it be easier for utilitarianism to fulfill and which could well be more difficult for that system to fully meet?
Of the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter One, perhaps the easiest purpose for the ethical system of utilitarianism, as developed by the Englishman Jeremy Bentham, to meet would be to create a functional system of social ethics, or the ethical schema that holds a society together by its ethical 'glue.' Utilitarianism suggests that society, when pressed on many sides by the competition of different ethical claims, or even simply by different but equally valid claims for personal happiness, should choose the truth claim that allows for the greatest good for the greatest number of individuals within that particular society. For instance, the happiness of the many in my neighborhood to sleep late at…
Chapter 4: Administrative responsibility: The key to administrative ethics
Administrators are responsible for complying with the law -- and also for complying with the administrative responsibilities. Ethics requires a delicate balancing of objective and subjective responsibilities on the part of administrators. All this is easier said than done, of course. The administrator's role is complicated by a network of often conflicting responsibilities -- responsibilities to his or her own ethics, to immediate superiors, to his or her specific agency, to elected officials who speak for the public, and to the public good (which may not always be fully articulated within the desires of public officials) Furthermore, the law is not always clear-cut but it must be an important cornerstone of administrative policies. Of course, when administrative policies are potentially conflict with the law, an immediate red flag should be raised.
If an administrator does not have the authority to resolve…
Pharmaceutical drugs are among the most expensive products to produce globally and as a result have a major impact on the profitability of these firms. Without accurate financial reporting of these costs many investors have no idea of whether the companies are doing as well as they report they are.
The second most troubling issue that is impacting the community and the pharmaceutical industry is the lack of credibility of scientific research and its implications on the new drug development and marketing strategies of pharmaceutical firms (Verschoor, 2006). This continues to be a major concern specifically for government regulators who have seen pharmaceutical industry spend up to $5.5B a year to promote drugs to physicians, often citing inaccurate or falsified research (Verschoor, 2006). Not only does this impact the physician's credibility if the drugs do not perform, it also harms the patient.
The third major issue is the lack of…
Curtis C. Verschoor. (2006). Pharma Industry Has Many Ethics Issues. Strategic Finance, 87(8), 16, 18, 61.
The nineteenth century German philosopher Immanuel Kant presented an ethical code that assigned a strict "right" or "wrong" to every action. Called the categorical imperative, Kant believed that it does not matter what the consequences or outcome of actions are; there are certain things that are right and certain things that are wrong. These ethical categories of right and wrong are not negotiable. It can never be "sometimes" ok to tell a white lie, or to steal. Instead, Kant created easy to understand categories that apply theoretically to all cultures and all people at all times. Human beings are always morally obliged to do the right thing in any given situation, even if doing so leads to suffering. Therefore, it would be considered right to tell the truth to a murderer and subsequently die rather than to lie to the murderer and survive. Davis (n.d.). uses the example of…
Davis, S.P. (n.d.). Three-minute philosophy: Immanuel Kant. [video] Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwOCmJevigw
"Ethics." Retrieved online: http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/kant.html
Johnson, R. "Kant's Moral Philosophy," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Retrieved online: .
Whistle-blowing can have many adverse effects on the person doing the whistle-blowing and there are definitely feelings of loneliness that can arise when a whistle-blower decides to make some noise. Cooper gives some prime examples of whistle-blowing cases in chapter six, but he insists that there are still many who have "gone away quietly" (202), which may appear to be the safest option for the individual, yet that means that the public will never know the truth about what was going on -- and so, the individual really does have a moral responsibility to the public so that unethical behavior isn't allowed at any level as it will eventually seep into the very core of the organization and back into society.
Whistle-blowing, no matter what way it is looked at is "risky," according to Cooper (203). People who blow the whistle not only face scrutiny and alienation, but they may…
Clearly, his moral standing is highly dubious, if not completely tarnished.
If the Gyges ring were to fall into my possession, I would attempt to do something just to make the world a better place - but what I consider to be just, others might consider to be unjust. For example, I am opposed to many of George W. Bush's actions as President of the United States. I believe that, through his actions, he is personally responsible for many instances of death and destruction, not the least of which has resulted from starting a war that never should have been a war, as there is not a single shred of evidence that affirms this war is being fought for a good reason. Yet more and more people continue to die each day as a result of it.
Thus, if I had the Gyges ring, I would try to figure out…
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Weber, J., & Glyptis, S.M. (2000). Measuring the impact of a business ethics course and community service experience on students' values and opinions. Teaching Business Ethics, 4, 341-358.
Weber, J., & Green, S. (1991). Principled Moral Reasoning: Is it a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 325-333.
Wynd, W.R., & Mager, J. (1989). The business and society course: Does it change student attitudes? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(6), 486-491.
There are several ways that BP could have chosen to respond, all of which were "open" to them (i.e. they had free will), yet those chose to take paths that were less moral. Kant's universal law would have them put their responsibility to humanity as the motivator, however, their motives have not proven to be driven by doing what is genuinely good for humanity.
Blackburn (2009) states that it is tricky to apply the categorical imperative and that the most persuasive examples of it being effective are in cases where there is an institution whose existence depends on sufficient performance by a sufficient number of individuals.
Suppose, as is plausible, that our ability to give and receive promises depends upon general compliance with the principle of keeping promises. Were we to break them sufficiently often, or were promise-breaking to become a 'law of nature,' then there would be no such…
Blackburn, S. (2009). Ethics: A very short introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kant, I. (2010). Groundwork of the metaphysic morals. Trans H.J. Paton. Introduction philosophy: Classical and contemporary readings. Eds. John Perry, Michael Bratman,
and John Martin Fischer. (5th edition). New York: Oxford. 504-20.
Lyon, Susan. (2010). Climate Progress. Retrieved on August 24, 2010, from the Web site:
The Divine Command theory of morality is known as a nonconsequentialist theory because this particular theory of morality is one that is not in any way based on the consequences or outcomes of specific action, but rather holds that all actions have any intrinsic rightness or wrongness. In the case of Divine Command Theory, rightness or wrongness is decided based upon whether or not a specific action can be said to be in accordance with the dictates of God. Indeed, while there are advantages to this idea of morality, such as the more simple categorization of actions into a dichotomy of what is permitted, there are also many sever disadvantages, as well. These disadvantages can make the view difficult to entertain. For example, one of the main issues depends on the source of the divine command. If the divine moral commands come out of scripture, for example, how can…
Utilitarianism is one of the most common forms of moral reasoning. ooted in normative ethics, the notion of utilitarianism essentially asserts that an action is morally right if it maximizes utility or happiness for everyone (West, 2004). In other words, as long as a course of action generates the greatest benefit for everyone affected, then the means utilized to generate the benefits (such as coercion, manipulation, or lies) do not matter -- what matters is the end, not the means. This moral principle is commonly applied in various spheres including personal decisions, business, and public policy.
The notion of utility ethics can be ideally applicable in the case of Airxyz. Choosing Opting to voluntarily ground its fleet would be the most appropriate course of action for not only the airline, but also the general publicpublic. The public uses airlines to move quickly and conveniently move from one location…
West, H. R. (2003). An Introduction to Mill's Utilitarian Ethics. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press.
West, H. (2004). An introduction to Mill's utilitarian ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…
Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.
Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.
SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility
The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.
A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…
Animal Ethics. Virtue ethics and care ethics - Animal Ethics. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.animal-ethics.org/virtue-ethics-care-ethics/
Berger, J. (2010, December 25). Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Obama's Reversal on 'Indigenous Peoples' Rights Stirs Concern Over Legal Claims | Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/12/24/obama-reversal-indigenous-peoples-stirs-concern-legal-claims/
Calman. (2004). Teaching and learning ethics Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. Retrieved, from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/366.full
Difference Between Similar Terms and Things. Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology | Difference Between | Utilitarianism vs. Deontology. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-utilitarianism-and-deontology/
On the contrary, for Kant, to live a moral life is to live a life that is lived almost completely because of obligation (Moran, Rein & Goodin 2008, p 354). Someone can still do something that is their duty, but that doesn't mean that what they do isn't immoral. A simple example would be if a person owed money: in Kantian morality, if a person paid back the money simply because they owed it and they felt it was their moral obligation to do so, this would be moral; however, if a person paid back money only because they thought that it would help them out if they ever needed to borrow money again, this would be immoral.
Kantian morality -- or the ethical system that we call "deontological" (luhm & Heineman 2007, p. 26) -- has to do with whether or not "its rules do not allow us to…
Bardach, Eugene. (2008). A practical guide for policy analysis: the eightfold path to more effective problem solving. CQ Press; 3rd edition.
Bluhm, William. & Heinemann, Robert A. (2007). Ethics and public policy: method and cases. Longman.
Fischer, Frank. & Miller, Gerald J. (2006). Handbook of public policy analysis: theory, politics and methods. CRC Press; 1st edition.
Moran, Michael., Rein, Martin. & Goodin, Robert E. (2008). The Oxford handbook of public policy. Oxford University Press.
c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics
d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics
e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics
f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics
g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics
Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.
Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…
Trevino, L.K., & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right (4th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Ethics in Criminal Justice:
The police function has continued to be the most needed elements since the beginning of the existence of human societies because social coordination and harmony have never prospered without some kind of supervisory authority. The supervisory authority or power has usually been shared among several agencies or departments including policing. These various departments have been planned and synchronized to provide the service efficiently and effectively. Since its inception, policing have been mandated with the task of identifying and convicting criminals. However, the police have been expected to have an increasingly wider social role in acting as crisis managers or problem busters. As the police have been faced with numerous moral challenges, there are various theories that have been developed to describe ethics within the field of criminal justice.
Slippery Slope and Gratuities:
One of the long-standing and controversial practices within the police force is police gratuities…
Andrews, W.C. (2004, June). Police Gratuities, Public Perception after September 11, 2001.
Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.clearwaterpolice.org/articles/andrews.asp
Delattre, E.J. (2002). Character and cops: ethics in policing (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice
RIGHT FROM WRONG
A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.
. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing
In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…
Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/tableofContents/Vol131998/NO3Dec1998/PrivacyIssues.aspx
Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2
Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June
15, 2012 from http://www.journal.ICS.ac.uk/pdf/0902178.pdf
Ethics of the Death Penalty
The death penalty is a majorly decisive issue. Some countries feel that it is a cruel punishment and have outlawed it, such as England. Others practice the punishment liberally with small caliber crimes receiving the harshest possible punishment. In the United States of America, the death penalty exists in some states but has been abolished in others. Crimes that qualify for the death penalty are serious felonies such as murder. Those on opposing sides of the issue often look to the philosophy of ethics to prove their own position or to subvert the opposition's perspective. Often those who support the death penalty argue that this is the only just punishment for someone who has committed heinous crimes against other people. The dignity of the victim is the only one they consider. Antithetically, those who oppose the death penalty argue that committing a crime like that…
Bedau, H.A. (2004). The death penalty in America, yesterday and today. Killing as Punishment:
Reflections on the Death Penalty in America. Northwestern UP: Boston, MA. 3-15.
Kant, I. (1972). Justice and punishment. Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment. Ed. G.
Ezorsky. State University of New York Press: Albany, NY. 103-106.
Imagine that it's your responsibility to select an ethics officer for your organization. What qualities, background, and experience would you look for? Why? Would you ever be interested in such a position? Why or why not?
An ethics officer plays a significant role for an organization. In the selection of the right ethics officer for my organization, I would have to consider several major factors such as the personal qualities, background and experience. First of all, the ethics officer should posses the following qualities: honesty, truthfulness, integrity, fairness, accuracy, and significance of moral values. These qualities are the basic ingredients that should be searched thoroughly in the ethics officer during the selection process.
The background of the ethics officer should be related to any field such as business, medicine, engineering, sociology, psychology or armed forces, but it should be kept in mind that the ethics officer belongs to a…
Luthans, F. (2003). Organizational Behavior."Ethics," 2nd Ed, .pp.441-494.
Trevino, L.K. & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing Business Ethics -- Straight talk about how to Do it Right -- Fourth Edition John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright 2007 ISBS 0-471-75525-7
Giving Voice to Values
The class discussion on giving voice to values touched on many different topics of great interest, not the least of which were the many different systems of values that exist. I have always found myself caught between ethical theories that emphasize intentions and those that emphasize effects, and I truly feel that different situations call for different understandings of right and wrong -- some situations might be best determined by a consideration of intentions, while others must be judged on the ultimate effects of a given action or set of actions. Determining which situation deserves which application of ethics is obviously highly subjective, and this was definitely highlighted in the class discussion. A large number of individual and cultural values were brought up that point out different features of specific cases or derive differing interpretations from an agreed upon set of circumstances to a degree that…
Ethics of Spider Man
The character Spider Man is a foundational superhero of the modern era. His history and life demonstrate the development of an ordinary and even some would say subpar or at the very least "un-cool" young adolescent into a super hero by a twist of fate, i.e. being bit by a genetically modified spider on a science filed trip. The early life of the Spider Man character as depicted in both comic books, television cartoons and movies in live action or animation depict a young man, who stumbles upon a great power and then struggles with how to use that power. In the 2002 film depiction, and true to the comic storyline Peter's/Spiderman's ethics are developed through the film as he struggles with his new found powers, seizing the opportunity to use them for personal gain, by attempting to win money as an amateur fighter/wrestler in a…
Lee, S. (1962) (Spider Man) Amazing Fantasy Vol. 1 #15.
Jenkins, P. (September 2002) Peter Parker, Spider-Man Vol. 2 #48, titled "The Big Question,"
Raimi, S. (Director). (2002) Spider-Man [Motion Picture]. USA. Columbia Pictures Co.
Raimi, S. (Director). (2004) Spider-Man 2 [Motion Picture]. USA. Columbia Pictures Co.
The employee is faced with ethical requirements throughout their workday that must be met with knowledge and a trained attitude. Workplace ethics is one of the most crucial elements whether the person involved in an ethical dilemma is a high-level manager or an entry-level employee. An ethical stance is important because it is what guides the interactions that the employees will have with each other, their management, and the customers that patronize their products. It is also important that the business leaders follow an internal and external ethical stance so that the culture generated within the company is one that promotes positive ethical practices. This paper begins by talking about the way that the business leaders view the external world of ethics through accounting practices and how they deal with other companies. The discussion then moves inside the company and how the management treats its employees. Employee to employee…
Brandt-Rauf, S.I., Brabdt-Rauf, E., Gershon, R., Li, Y., & Brandt-Rauf, P.W. (2011). Genes, jobs, and justice: Occupational medicine physicians and the ethical, legal, and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace. Ethics & Medicine, 27(1), 51-55.
Dinkins, C.S. (2011). Ethics: Beyond patient care practicing empathy in the workplace. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(2), 1-8.
Embse, T.J.V.D., Desai, M.S., & Ofori-Brobbey, K. (2010). A new perspective on ethics safeguards: Where is the clout? SAM Advanced Management Journal, 75(3), 4-13.
Klimek, J., & Wenell, K. (2011). Ethics in accounting: An indispensable course? Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 15(4), 107-113.
Ethics Must Be Global Not Local
Ethics Must Be Global, Not Local
International Business equirements
Global Business Ethics
The large business units expand their operations in global markets through their own presence as well as franchising and distributors. The business operations are expanded on the basis of various standard practices. The business freedom provided by countries and various global practices are utilized as a basis for taking global operational decisions. The business also encounters various legal, operational, and ethical issues related to the local market. However in order to expand business beyond borders and physical boundaries of countries it is required to maintain a degree of uniformity in products and ethical practices followed throughout the manufacturing processes. It is advised to understand various aspects of international business requirements, global operations, ethical practices, and recommendations to assert a standard for global ethical business operations.
International Business equirements:
Beer, L.A. (2010). A Strategic and Tactical Approach to Global Business Ethics. USA: Momentum Press.
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. USA: South-Western Pub.
George, B. (2008, February 12). Ethics must be global, not local. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2008-02-12/ethics-must-be-global-not-localbusinessweek-business-news-stock-market-and-financial-advice
Martens, P., Akin, S.-M., Maud, H., & Mohsin, R. (2010). Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health.Globalization and Health, 6(1), 16.
Ethics, Gross National Products
Gross National Product
Ethics is a branch of Philosophy and deals with the basics questions about right and wrong, virtue and vice, as well as good or bad nature of things human beings do in their daily lives. Thus, ethics is essentially related to the moral aspect of things. A thing, act, or idea of practice might be legally correct but may not be morally sound in given conditions. For instance, the pursuit of profit by firms is legally correct but ignorance to the well being of society in which that firm operates is morally incorrect. Essentials of ethics: The essential elements of ethics are related to the character of actions being taken by the human beings. The topic essentially deals with the behavior and its outcomes with respect to the impact created on fellow human beings and society as a collective…
Stimpert, J.L., & Duhaime, I.M. (1997). SEEING THE BIG PICTURE: THE INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRY, DIVERSIFICATION, AND Business STRATEGY ON PERFORMANCE. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 560-583.
Taylor, A., Chaloupka, F.J., Guindon, E., & Corbett, M. (2000). The impact of trade liberalization on tobacco consumption. Tobacco control in developing countries, 343-64.
Yue, C., Beghin, J., & Jensen, H.H. (2006). Tariff equivalent of technical barriers to trade with imperfect substitution and trade costs. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88(4), 947-960.
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Ethics in Nursing
Every professional in the field of healthcare has a special responsibility and obligation to treat patients with care and dignity -- and at all times there should be an ethical approach as well. Nurses, too, is a vitally important component of healthcare, are nurses are certainly bound by ethical rules and values, and this paper delves into the various aspects of ethics in nursing.
Ethics and Nursing
"Codes of ethics refer to systems of rules and principles by which a profession is expected to regulate the moral behavior of its members and demonstrate its responsibility to society" (Numminen, et al., 2011, p. 710).
Ethics in nursing boils down to taking responsibility for providing good care to patients, being fair, professional and just, Zane olf writes in the peer-reviewed journal Nursing. But there is more to it than just offering professional care, olf continues. The author, who is…
Kangasniemi, Mari. (2010). Equality as a central concept of nursing ethics: a systematic literature review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 24(4), 824-832.
Lachman, Vicki D. (2012). Applying the Ethics of Care to Your Nursing Practice. Nursing.
Numminen, O.H., Leino-Kilpi, H., van der Arend, A., and Katajisto, Jouko. (2011).
Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a hreat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA oday, Volume 130, Issue 2678, 62.
he author discusses different types of advertising and promotion and finds ethical problems in the way many are handled, especially with reference to advertising and promoting goods and services to children. He cites the use of focus groups for toy companies and the ethical implications of improving advertising to kids.
Cohn, E. (2000, January 31). Marketwatch: Consuming Kids. he American Prospect, Volume 11, Issue 6, 13.
he author questions the promotion of certain products to children and finds marketers hiring psychologists to shape the message so as to reach children. Other psychologists have denounced such actions and have called for an emendation of the ethics code to govern this sort of promotion in the future.
Ethics in Pricing
This author also considers the ethics of distribution in terms of the distribution of goods to foreign markets and also uses the Nestle case of the distribution of baby formula as the primary example. He also offers a review of literature on the subject of cross-cultural marketing.
Pinstrup-Andersen, P. (2005, December 1). Ethics and economic policy for the food system. American Journal of Agricultural Economics.
The author notes that economists usually do not address ethical issues but that he will do so in terms of questions about the food system and how ethical considerations affect the way food is distributed.
Ethics of Marketing esearch in the Internet Era
Increasingly, management is being taken to be a critical production factor alongside the other factors of production. It therefore follows that the success of a business enterprise is largely hinged on the ability of management to make superior decisions. However, for managers to make effective decisions, they not only need a supportive decision making environment but also a set of tools to enhance their ability to correctly analyze and interpret information so as to advance the agenda of the business in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Marketing research is one such tool.
Marketing esearch as a Management Tool
The relevance of marketing research as a decision making tool for management cannot be overstated. According to Blankenship, Breen and Dutka (1998), marketing research can be taken to be "the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific situation…
Blankenship, A.B., Breen, G.E. & Dutka, A.F. (1998). State of the Art Marketing Research. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Boone, L.E. & Kurtz, D.L. (2011). Contemporary Marketing. Cengage Learning.
Evans, A.N., & Rooney, B.J. (2010). Methods in Psychological Research. SAGE
Haugtvedt, C.P., Machleit, K.A. & Yalch, R. (2005). Online Consumer Psychology: Understanding and Influencing Consumer Behavior in the Virtual World. Routledge Keillor, B.D. (2007). Marketing in the 21st Century: Interactive and Multi-Channel Marketing. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Ethics in Law Enforcement
Ethics are what almost anyone would define as a person's determination between what is good or bad, or more accurately what is right or wrong. Although many of these attitudes can be a product of parenting or other factors in one's maturing environment, ethical decisions could also be a product of environmental factors that are outside of the control of individuals. It is difficult to determine where a person's ethical code, but some professions demand an ethic that is not needed elsewhere.
One such profession is law enforcement. Officers of the law are called upon to "stand in "harm's way" not so much against enemies with bullets, but against enemies skilled in every form of trickery, deceit, feigned ignorance, and deception" (Stevens, 2005). Because of the environment that they must exist in, police officers are constantly deciding whether to make the right decision or take the…
Gilmartin, K.M., & Harris, J.J. (1998). Law enforcement ethics: The continuum of compromise. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://emotionalsurvival.com/law_enforcement_ethics.htm
Russell, B. (1910). Determinism and morals. From The Elements of Ethics. Retrieved November 26, 2010 from http://fair-use.org/bertrand-russell/the-elements-of- ethics/section-iv
Sanford, DH (2010). Indeterminism: Causation and conditionals, ethics and history of philosophy, primer on determinism. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://science.jrank.org/pages/22033/indeterminism.html#ixzz16cFBtAvu
Stevens, M. (2005). Police deviance and ethics. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://faculty.ncwc.edu/mstevens/205/205lect11.htm
Ethics and IT
Ethics and Information Technology
Doing Ethics Analysis
This case concerns trade secret misappropriation and theft of intellectual property, as well as issues of surveillance and cybercrime. Sergey Aleynikov attempted to steal computer code from Goldman Sachs in order to build competing technology for his new employer. Goldman Sachs prosecuted Aleynikov and won a conviction. The case discusses applicable case laws, including the difficulty of enforcing non-compete and non-disclosure agreements.
Sergey Aleynikov was employed by Goldman Sachs, and as part of his employment, had signed a confidentiality agreement. Aleynikov found new employment with Teza Technologies, where he was hired to build a high-speed trading platform to compete with Goldman Sachs. On his last day of employment for Goldman Sachs, Sergey Aleynikov downloaded proprietary high-speed trading computer code for use in his new employment at Teza Technologies. Aleynikov attempted to cover up evidence of his theft by erasing and…
Australian Computer Society Code of Ethics. University of Western Australia website. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http://undergraduate.csse.uwa.edu.au/units/CITS3200/ethics/acs-ethics.htm
Mastin, L. (2011). Basics of Philosophy. Retrieved April 28., 2011 from http://www.philosophybasics.com/branch_contractarianism.html
Sevenoaks School Philosophy Department. (2011). Ethics. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http://www.sevenoaksphilosophy.org/ethics/egoism.html
Simpson, C. (2003). Doing Ethics: A universal technique in an accessibility contest. Retrieved April 29, 2011 from http://dl.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/159/141
Contemporary agency theory dictates that managers only act in the interest of maximizing shareholder (owner) wealth (Roberts, 2004). This standard can be reasonably viewed as the minimum ethical standard that the president of a company should have. Taking this view, Thomas Koltun is essentially in damage control mode. Because of the mistakes of the company in the past, Koltun is faced with significant downside risk from mishandling this situation. It could also be reasonably argued that Thomas Koltun still bears responsibility for the original ethical imperatives that the company has had all along as the result of bringing the Travel-Lite to market. If three-quarters of these products are as yet unaccounted for, then the company still bears ethical obligations as defined by the CPSC with regards in particular to consumers.
There are serious implications associated with a mishandling of these obligations. The company has suffered ethical failures in relation to…
Health Canada. (2005). Recalling consumer products -- a guide for industry. Health Canada. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/advisories-avis/child-enfant/recalling-guide-2005-04-rappel-eng.php
Rose, J. (2007). Communication styles. Suite 101. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://trainingpd.suite101.com/article.cfm/communication_styles
Johnson, R. (2008). Kant's moral philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-moral/
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2006). Consequentialism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/
In the former approach, tradable goods, money or services are exchanged between buyers and sellers at a rate that is agreeable to all parties. This approach assumes both the buyers and sellers have enough money, services or goods to have their needs met. The latter approach, public provision, is when all is available to those on an as-needed basis.
The Pharmaceutical and Manufacturing Association warns that whenever there is government control of prices it only has a negative impact on those who are in need of being helped: 1) When funding for new medical technology, cures for diseases and research and development are diverted to more lucrative economic areas; 2) Incentives to enter the pharmaceutical industry decline; 3) More restrictions are placed on providers; 4) the quality of medical care suffers and 5) This leads to a rationing of care. Instead, the association says there has to be a healthcare…
Barry, W., and Shaw, V. (2006) Moral Issues in Business. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Donaldson, T., and Werhane, P. (2007) Ethical issues in business: a philosophical approach. Englewood-Heights, NJ: Prentice Hall
DesJardins.(2008) an introduction to business ethics. New York: McGraw Hill.
Friedman, M., & Becker, G. On economics. (2008) Chicago: University of Chicago.
Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) spoke 'initiation' and 'induction' as learning functions and held that these forms of learning effectively reached further than 'training' and 'instruction' which are instrumental learning. The initiation stage of learning is an independent learning stage where the learner grasps and understands for themselves the object of learning and in which the learner's dependence upon both the teacher and upon learning structures are lessened. A higher stage of independent learning was referred to by Stenhouse as 'induction' and is a stage of learning in which the learner has come to the place of owning, valuing and believing in the object of learning for themselves. Stenhouse affirmed the need for foundational knowledge upon which the higher learning skills can be constructed and held that the functional knowledge must be solidly in place before higher learning functions could begin.
Curriculum, according to the work of Grundy "is often written and…
Butts, Robert Freeman (1971) The College Charts Its Court: Historical Conceptions and Current Proposals. Ayer Publishing, 1971.
Fenner, David E.W. (1999) Ethics in Education. Routledge, 1999.
Moles, Joanne (2005) You Say Potato Implications of a Prescribed Curriculum on Three Irish Physical Education teachers. Paper Presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conferences, University of Glamorgan, 14-17 September 2005.
Murphy, Anne (2008) The Interface between Academic Knowledge and Working Knowledge: Implications for Curriculum Design and Pedagogic Practice. Dublin Institute of Technology 2008.
This information, stored on a computer and used to correlate with other data could be considered invaluable by many researchers, but the patients have a right to keep certain information private, and to suggest anything else would be an ethical violation of the patient's privacy.
Because computer ethics is such a volatile issue, an entire branch of study has grown up around computer ethics, which proponents who believe the computer age caused these ethical issues, and others who believe these issues would have surfaced anyway. One of the proponents of computer ethics, who actually was the first to teach the concept, Walter Maner, from Old Dominion University, is a proponent of the computer creating brand new ethical issues. An expert quotes Maner, "For all of these issues, there was an essential involvement of computing technology. Except for this technology, these issues would not have arisen, or would not have arisen…
Adams, H.R., Bocher, R.F., Gordon, C.A., & Barry-Kessler, E. 2005 Privacy in the 21st Century: Issues for Public, School, and Academic Libraries. Libraries Unlimited, Westbrook, CT.
Bynum, Terryl 2008 Computer and Information Ethics, Stanford University, URL=" http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/ "
Fisher, C.B. 2006 Privacy and Ethics in Pediatric Environmental Health Research-Part I: Genetic and Prenatal Testing. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(10), 1617+.
Rennie, John 2008 Who's Watching You: The Future of Privacy, Scientific American, URL=" http://www.sciam.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=28825D7D-D772-2192-12177C05B4B2AED7 "
In this area the facilitators are the human resource personnel. The contribution of HM to ethics in organization is widespread. Human resource management serves with models and theories to implement an ethical environment for the development of organization. First and foremost relates to performance management. This is a sort of theory that involves performance appraisement, compensation, selection and training. The improvement through this process leads to motivation in employees. Therefore performance management leads the way to effective ethical performance that helps in the advancement of people's ethical conduct or behavior. The HM establishes the performance management with help from popular tool such as 'ethical values matrix'. This is just to show the importance of establishing ethical values and its implementation. This conveys a message that achieving productivity without ethics would put your job at risk. The most important effects of going by ethical values are it provides long-term profits, productivity…
Deckop, John Raymond. Human Resource Management Ethics. IAP. 2006. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=K3O-u89su_UC&pg=PA88&dq=Ethics+and+Organizational+Development&ei=Iy28R_mBBp6ktgO11riaBQ&sig=J-PZuq3azr5iIwOuU6tzIik9beQ#PPA71,M1
Heathfield, Susan. M. Build Support for Effective Change Management. 2008. http://humanresources.about.com/od/changemanagement/a/change_lessons5.htm
Johnson, Kenneth W. Integrating Applied Ethics and Social Responsibility.
Ethics Resource Center. 2005. http://www.ethics.org/resources/articles-organizational-ethics.asp?aid=798
Milgram's study illustrates that many who have had the responsibility taken from them are although not happy but content to continue with a procedure as long as they are not directly held responsible, thereby giving rise to an obedience through social bonding and situations (Hayes & Orell PG).
In this situation in a comparison with the Tuskegee experiment and Milgram's experiment it can be argued that the members of the medical team were acting under orders from the government and therefore were blameless in their experiments as were the teachers in theory only following orders, obviously this form of passing blame can be seen be as a paradigm in ethical understanding as we are all cogent beings with the ability to reason and question yet it seems when a person is actively allowing himself to take the blame as such then all reason as to ethical understandings of what is…
Brown, Kathleen W.; Cozby, Paul C.; Kee, Daniel W.; Worden, Patricia E (1999) Research methods in human development (2nd ed.). Mountain View, California, Mayfield Publishing Company.
Burley, Kim a., (1995 08-01), Family variables as mediators of the relationship between work-familyconflict and marital adjustment among dual-career men and women.. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 135, pp 483(15).
Crane a (1999 Jul) Are you ethical? Please tick yes or no on researching ethics in business organizations, Journal of Business Ethics 20 (3): 237-248
Journal is published by Kluwer Academic Publishers)
However, without taxation, the protective mechanisms that make up the state, such as a standing army to protect the economic apparatus of the nation would not exist. And if taxation must occur to preserve the state, should it not be redistributive, so as not to incapacitate the weakest members of society, and thus would it not cost taxpayers to not have redistributive taxes even more money in the long run, debilitating the coffers of the state still further? While the passage bifurcates the individual's right to private property and the state's duty to protect public welfare, it is not so easy to make such a distinction, for threatening the public good without redistribution ultimately harms private industry's ability to make money and to have a healthy and educated workforce. An uneducated and unhealthy employee without schooling or Medicare helps no company, CEO, or shareholder
Only the most dedicated advocate…
408). If what Berenbeim states as truth, is true, then it is important to the business community as well as specific business' to have employees that understand the difference(s) between ethical and unethical behavior. The question then remains, where would these employees acquire that knowledge. Many students of business could be missing a key component to their future success by not having access to ethical studies and training. Therefore, teaching ethics at the university level becomes of paramount importance.
3. ecently a manager at a small financial advisors firm was offered a contract by a large financial services firm to transfer the assets under his control to the larger firm and accepting a bonus to move from one firm to the other. Events such as these take place on a regular and consistent basis in the financial services industry, however, in this particular case, the manager was told that the…
Berenbeim, R.; (2012) Capitalism and the moral economy: Part of a conversation without end, Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 78, Issue 12, pp. 407 -- 410
This impacts the entire citizenry, not just the think tank or its backers. Again, we reach the intersection between classical ethics philosophy and economics. hether or not a think tank strives to eliminate bias from its published research, if that research influences public policy to the detriment of the populace, it would be considered unethical. Resnick (2007) promotes the idea that research ethics are important to maintain the trust of the public in such research. hen considering the outcomes of published research, we must then consider whether an economic think tank bears any duty of care towards the populace at large.
It such a duty of care is not owed to the populace, to whom is it owed? This brings back the question of motivation. Basic motivation theories such as Maslow's Hierarchy discuss motivation in terms of human needs (NetMBA.com, 2007). Applied to an organization, we find the heart of…
Broome, John. (1999). Ethics out of Economics. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at http://books.google.com/books?id=Nj0nBRX8pVsC&dq=ethics+economics&printsec=frontcover&source=bll&ots=rk9IvUym0q&sig=l8-MdbqiVZBnqacBGm7Rs0Zsc6g&hl=en&ei=W82mSfz-H4H8tgfA7MHXDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=11&ct=result#PPA2,M1
Friedman, Milton. (1970). The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Resnick, David B. (2007). What is Ethics in Research and Why is it Important? National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis.cfm
No author. (2007). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. NetMBA.com. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
Cable provider Adelphia was one of the major accounting scandals of the early 2000s that led to the creation of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. A key provision of the Act was to create a stronger ethical climate in the auditing profession, a consequence of the apparent role that auditors played in some of the scandals. SOX mandated that auditors cannot audit the same companies for which they provide consulting services, as this link was perceived to result in audit teams being pressured to perform lax audits in order to secure more consulting business from the clients. There were other provisions in SOX that increased the regulatory burden on the auditing profession in response to lax auditing practices in scandals like Adelphia (McConnell & Banks, 2003). This paper will address the Adelphia scandal as it relates to the auditors, and the deontological ethics of the situation.
Adelphia was once a…
McConnell, D. & Banks, G. (2003). How Sarbanes-Oxley will change the audit process. Journal of Accountancy. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/issues/2003/sep/howsarbanesoxleywillchangetheauditprocess.htm
Barlaup, K., Dronen, I. & Stuart, I. (2009). Restoring trust in auditing: Ethical discernment and the Adelphia scandal. Managerial Auditing Journal. Vol. 24 (2) 183-203.
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html