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95). While many nationalities have such established support systems already in place, many such immigrant support networks remain weak today (amirez, 2002).
Furthermore, these elderly citizens will likely be accustomed to a level of respect and honor that may be missing from the cultural setting upon their arrival in the United States, further contributing to the potential for "culture shock." According to Haskins (1999), culture shock is "a feeling of impotence that results from the inability to deal with the environment because of unfamiliarity with cognitive aspects and role-playing skills; we usually think of culture shock when we imagine immigrant groups visiting or moving to a new country" (p. 122). There are opportunities for culture shock across all measures for new immigrant, many of them unperceived and unexpected from the host nation's perspective. For example, Stanger (1999) notes that despite the ready availability of a modern metro subway system, most…
Aroian, K.J., Chiang, L., & Norris, a.E. (2003). Gender differences in psychological distress among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 39.
Cross, S.E. (1995). Self-construals, coping, and stress in cross-cultural adaptation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26(6), 673-97.
Haskins, D. (1999). Culture Shock. College Teaching, 47(4), 122.
Inose, M., & Yeh, C. (2002). Difficulties and Coping Strategies of Chinese, Japanese and Korean Immigrant Students. Adolescence, 37(145), 69.
In the 1970's the first major military regime collapsed and there was a brief return to democracy. However, a new military power returned and took control until 1998. Democracy returned to Nigeria in the election of 1999, and the country has remained a democratic nation ever since, despite long rooted divisions still tormenting parts of the nation.
In 1950, three years after the ritish left India, an Indian constitution was drafted to ensure the nation would remain in democratic hands. The initial formation of the independent state stipulated on the split between India and Pakistan. Pakistan was a region which was largely Muslim, in contrast to the majority of Hindus in mainland India. After the constitution was written in 1950, India has had its fair share of ethnic divisions and conflicts which threatened its ties to democracy. India's constant conflict with Pakistan has also been a source of violence and…
Both India and Nigeria had been under British rule for generations. As the sun fell on the British Empire, both eventually gained their independence. However, this independence reached limited initial success and came about very differently in both regions. Before eventually entering a democratic style of government, Nigeria was ruled by military forces after the British pulled out. Slowly, it has come to become more of a democratic nation. On the other hand, India has seen more success in its move to democracy, despite some problems. After independence in 1947, only about three passed before India molded into a democratic nation.
Nigeria achieved its independence from the British in 1960. After the British left their African colony, the country was thrown into military rule for the next thirty years. Initially, several different power houses opted to create their own nations. Divisions sprouted between the Muslim and Christian majorities within the small African nation. Corrupted democratic elections led to military overthrows which dominated the political scene until the 1990's. Skirmishes broke out between the eastern and western portions of Nigeria, and the country was in violent upheaval for several generations. In the 1970's the first major military regime collapsed and there was a brief return to democracy. However, a new military power returned and took control until 1998. Democracy returned to Nigeria in the election of 1999, and the country has remained a democratic nation ever since, despite long rooted divisions still tormenting parts of the nation.
In 1950, three years after the British left India, an Indian constitution was drafted to ensure the nation would remain in democratic hands. The initial formation of the independent state stipulated on the split between India and Pakistan. Pakistan was a region which was largely Muslim, in contrast to the majority of Hindus in mainland India. After the constitution was written in 1950, India has had its fair share of ethnic divisions and conflicts which threatened its ties to democracy. India's constant conflict with Pakistan has also been a source of violence and strife. However, despite such conflicts, India has held on to its democratic ideals and original 1950 constitution and formulation of government figures. In comparison to the thirty years of military rule seen in Nigeria, India has held on to their democratic traditions.
Enhancing Ethnic Diversity at a Big Ten University Through Project TEAM" by Christine I. Bennett covers an instructional program called Project Transformative Education Achievement Model (TEAM) is used to increase ethic diversity at a Big Ten University (Indiana University), which has a predominately white student base. The author discusses how minorities are under represented as teachers across the nation, and this matches their lower rates for completing high school and college than their white counterparts. Since the 1980s, many programs to encourage and support minorities in their quest for higher education have been created, and many of these programs were geared specifically to encouraging minorities to become educators. Specifically, Project TEAM began in 1996, and this is a discussion of its application at Indiana University, and its success. The Project TEAM recruitment and scholarship program seems to have increased minority enrollment in education at the Bloomington Campus, and the graduation…
Bennett, Christine I. "Enhancing Ethnic Diversity at a Big Ten University Through Project TEAM."
Ethnic minorities that were previously discriminated were provided with more chances of experiencing success in integrating the French society as a result of this measure. "The president also proposed requiring 100 large companies to experiment with recruitment based on anonymous CVs, to combat rampant discrimination against names revealing an immigrant origin" (Galliot, 2008). Even with the fact that Sarkozy appears to be determined about creating equal opportunities for ethnic minorities, conditions in France are critical because the president's set of programs are ineffective and particular groups are still discriminated on a daily basis. Considering that there was only one black individual in the French National Assembly in 2008, it is obvious that France was not prepared to deal with one of its main values-equality-at the time. "France officially has no minorities-everyone is by definition equal. The law prohibits statistics based on race or religion" (Harriss 2006). Although the general public…
1. Azouz Begag, Ethnicity and Equality: France in the Balance trans. Alec G. Hargreaves, (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007).
2. Esapzai, Samar. "True democracy or pseudo-democracy?" Retrieved December 5, 2010, from the Online Journal Website: http://onlinejournal.com/artman/publish/article_6125.shtml
3. Galliot, Lorena. "Promoting ethnic diversity through social criteria." Retrieved December 5, 2010, from the france24 Website: http://www.france24.com/en/20081218-promoting-ethnic-diversity-through-social-criteria-france-sarkozy-yazid-sabeg
4. Harriss, Joseph a. "Riots? What Riots?," the American Spectator, February 2006.
It is their behavior that has created such great concern and continues to wreak havoc on helpless children who probably feel defenseless. Society should not be shocked or dismayed when occasionally one of these victims grows up with a rage for revenge so painful as to go on a rampage. Of course, when that happens, the media and school administrators proclaim that being teased is no excuse, all students are teased. This is absurdity, since if it were true, psychologist and doctors would not be expressing concern. Conversely, what of the victim who drops out of school to stop the pain or even the ones who commit suicide?
Schools, teachers, parents and others are failing the youngest and most innocent who are victimized by their peers. Many studies have been conducted, surely examining the process of becoming a victim, or who becomes a victim and why. Research about the sad…
Graham, Sandra, Bellmore, Amy, Nishina, Adrienne, & Juvonen, Jaana. (2009) "It Must Be Me": Ethnic Diversity and Attributions for Peer Victimization in Middle School. Journal of Youth
and Adolescence: A Multidisciplinary Research Publication, 38(4), pp 487-499. doi: 10.2007/s10964-008-9386-4. Retrieved from: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/6ks014wp
Kwanzaa and Me: A Teacher's Story is Vivian Gussin Paley's personal account of race relations and institutionalized racism in American public schools. The author has taught for several decades in American public schools including a stint in pre-Brown v. Board of Education New Orleans. Paley's credentials for writing Kwanzaa and Me are therefore strong. The book suffers a little in terms of structure and organization but it is a compelling argument in favor of more open dialogue. Writing from the perspective of a Jewish woman also enhances the credibility of Paley's argument because although an invisible minority, the sense of being culturally different is an important perspective. Paley writes mainly as a white woman who has taught a large number of black students in her public school classrooms before realizing the weaknesses that are embedded into the educational system.
Paley has written about race relations in the classroom before, such…
Shipler, D.K. (1995). Are white schools bad for black children? The New York Times. 19 Feb, 1995. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/1995/02/19/books/are-white-schools-bad-for-black-children.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
Paley, V.G. (1995). Kwanzaa and Me: A Teacher's Story. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Public school teachers are disproportionately white, middle-class females, in spite of the student body becoming increasingly diverse across the nation. As many as ninety percent of grade school teachers are white, but as many as thirty percent of students are persons of color, according to an article by Christine I. Bennett entitled "Enhancing Ethnic Diversity at a Big Ten University Through Project TEAM." The under-representation of teachers from various ethnic minority groups is a detriment for students of color, who are commonly placed in remedial learning classes and who have relatively low rates of high school completion. In order to correct this imbalance and provide students of color with an enriched learning environment, a group of researchers designed and implemented a program at several Indiana University campuses to recruit, support, and help graduate students of color in an educational tract. Called Project Transformative Educational Achievement Model (TEAM), the program…
.." (Fluker, 2006). According to research, 90% of faculty and 75% of students enrolled in doctoral religious studies programs in the United States and Canada are Caucasian (American Academy of eligion, 2003). Fluker argues (and rightfully so), "Without racial and ethnic diversity, schools fail to create a positive institutional climate in which students from all backgrounds can succeed. Without racial and ethnic diversity, students fail to meet and learn from role models and mentors they can emulate in their own vocations. Without racial and ethnic diversity, students of all races fail to learn how to relate to the diverse world in which they will live and work after graduation..."
The fourth article "Education Groups Push for Greater Diversity in Teaching Force" defends the fact that "a lack of racial and cultural diversity among teachers is hurting the chances of success for minority students..." (Cox, Matthews & Associates, 2004). esearch suggests…
Cherwitz, R.A. (2004). Capitalizing on unintended consequences: Lessons on diversity from Texas (Reality Check). Peer Review 6 (3), 33-36.
Fluker, S.W. (2006). Diversity delayed, excellence denied. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 23 (4), 59-60.
Noteworthy News (2004). Education groups push for greater diversity in teaching force. Black Issues in Higher Education, 21(21), 14-15.
Valentin, S. (2006). Addressing diversity in teacher education programs
Diversity and Teaching
Perhaps no other institution so clearly reflects the diversity of individuals in America as that of public school systems. After the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) case that ruled segregation a constitutionally prohibited practice, schools have been struggling to incorporate and value the diversity in students. However, this has not been an easy endeavor given the influx of illegal immigrants into America and the declining funding available for school districts.
While immigration continues to change the once homogenous makeup of classroom's throughout America, teachers, administrators and students continue to struggle with the implementation of practices designed to address a discernable minority-based achievement gap in test scores, grades, and overall successes in education. With the increase in student's in America's classrooms that do not speak English as a native language and who continue to struggle with language acquisition, it is more important than ever to objectively evaluate…
The United States Commission on Civil Rights (2006). The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education: A Briefing Before. Washington, D.C., Retrieved from: http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/112806diversity.pdf
Grissmer, D., Flanagan, A., Kawata, J., & Williamson, S. (2000). Improving student achievement: What state NAEP test scores tell us. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
Diversity: Demographic Dynamism and Metropolitan Change
This is a paper concerning the article Demographic Dynamism and Metropolitan Change. There is one reference used for this paper.
Demographics are changing in many major cities throughout the United States. It is interesting to compare four major cities and the changes occurring there.
There are a number of factors which influence demographic dynamism and urban theory. These factors include "state of urban theory, population factor, people vs. place orientation, black-white conceptions of race and life-cycle trajectories in the city (Myers, 1999)." It has been noted that all ethnic groups will make advances in terms of housing and economic goals over a period of time, however upward mobility is often neglected by urban scholars. Upward mobility is "measured by two major outcomes important to both people and the places they live: poverty and homeownership (Myers, 1999)."
When comparing four major…
Myers, Dowell. (1999) Demographic Dynamism and Metropolitan Change: Comparing
Los Angeles, New York, Chicago and Washington, D.C. Housing Policy Debate,
Vol. 10, Issue 4. pp. 919-954. (accessed 07 January, 2003). http://www.fanniemaefoundation.org/programs/hpd/pdf/hpd_1004_myers.pdf .
According to Phinney and Alipuria (1987), ethnic self-identity is the sense of self that an individual feels; being a member of an ethnic group, along with the behavior and attitudes with that feeling (p. 36). The authors point out that the development of ethnic identity is an evolution from the point of an ethnic identity that is not examined through an exploration period, so as to resonate with a specified and attained ethnic identity (p. 38).
Ethnic identity refers to a feeling, attitude and identification of one with the behavior and character of people of a specified culture and cultural ethos. They often have a common origin, values, beliefs, practices, customs and other commonalities. Therefore, as opposed to the race concept in which the physical traits are the main controlling factor, ethnicity relates to the common values, beliefs and concepts help by a group of people (Yeh & Huang,…
35). Information can also be added that relates to families, parents, and others whose primary culture and language are not in the mainstream.
Using children's literature to teach diversity: It is not a new idea for teachers to use literature to educate young children. But because Gillian Potter and colleagues assert that teachers are being challenged "as never before" to create experiences that are culturally meaningful to all children -- literature has come under a new and vitally important focus. And for those purposes, children's literature is a "powerful resource" to aid children in the knowledge of their known world, and literature allows them to travel to other worlds and "explore the unfamiliar" (Potter, 2009, p. 108).
For children of diverse cultures literature enhances their development of language, it fosters intellectual development and supports the growth of the child's personality and moral development as well, Potter goes on (p. 2).…
Biles, Barbara. (2008). Activities that Promote Racial and Cultural Awareness. KCET. Retrieved
January 26, 2011, from http://www.pbs.org/ .
Corso, Robert M., Santos, Rosa Milagros, and Roof, Virginia. (2002). Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials. Teaching Exceptional Children.
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet, and Pulido-Tobiassen, Dora. (1999). Teaching "Diversity": A Place to Begin. Early Childhood Today. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www2.scholartic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3499&print=1.
Kizilos and others showed that diverse organizations portrayed reduced pro-social organizational behavior compared to homogenous groups, and Pelled and others, showed proof that increased standards of ethnic diversity are linked to more emotional contradiction in organizations. iordan and Shore showed that in diverse organizations, employees are less considered to be committed or view that they are prone to grow in the organization. (Pitts; Jarry, 2005)
With this contextual understanding we could have a comprehension of the 'Social Identification and Categorization Theory'. The social identification theory shows that people involve in several social comparisons to others on the basis of ethnicity, gender, religion, and socio-economic standing, amongst others. Empirical research has indicated that people mostly accord negative features to members of the out-group due to this process, understanding the out-group to be consisting of persons who are less honest, faithful, and cooperative or being intelligent. The procedures of categorization mostly include…
Dessler, Gary. (2002). "Human Resource Management."
Ely, Robin J; Thomas, David a. (2001, Jun) "Cultural Diversity at Work: The Effects of Diversity Perspectives on Work Group Processes and Outcomes" Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 229-273.
Fine, Marlene G. (1996) "Cultural Diversity in the Workplace: The State of the Field" Journal of Business Communication, vol. 33, no. 4, pp: 485-502.
Expanding Diversity Consciousness
Diversity can be viewed in many ways and it can be experienced in both outer and inner phenomena. We find that diversity of people is present in our dreams, feelings, states, religions, thoughts, ethnicities, ages, political views, sexual orientations and physical abilities. A life can become more sustainable and richer through these differences. We all know that there is not one kind of vegetable, person or point-of-view. In simple words diversity can be defined as a welcoming attitude and an integration of diverse people and elements. This research paper is based on learning, identifying and evaluating diversity practices in any place. I want to explore how the environment and places help people to create and compare their intended purposes.
Expanding Diversity Consciousness
Every state or a country has some ethnic minorities. These minorities are basically the groups that differ in their language, religion or…
Bestelmeyer, B.T., Miller, J.R., & Wiens, J.A. (2007). Applying Species Diversity Theory to Land Management. Ecological Applications, 13, 1750-1761.
Cox, T., & Nkomo, S.M. (1990). Invisible men and women: a status report on race as a variable in organization behavior research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 419-431.
Harrison, D.A., Price, K.H., & Bell, M.P. (1998). Beyond relational demography: time and the effects of surface- and deep-level diversity on work group cohesion. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 96-107.
Janofsky, M. (2005). Gay Rights Battlefields Spread to Public Schools. Retrieved July 21, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/09/education/09clash.html?pagewanted=all
Global Awareness and Cultural and Racial Diversity
The need to successfully promote global awareness and cultural and racial diversity took on a completely new meaning recently. "There are over six billion people on this planet we call Earth. Diversity is more than just a notion. The term diversity has been defined by Merriam-ebster online as meaning 'differing from one another or unlike. Composed of distinct or unlike elements or qualities', this word is also used to simply mean different." (Burns) By Barak Obama becoming the nation's first black president, we have forever changed the nation's future; but in a sense, this momentous election will also alter how we will forever look at our nations past history. For more than two hundred years, the United States of America was traditionally managed by older white guys and by them being in charge, the world's thinking was shaped. The expectations of every…
Works Cited, continued
Schniedewind, Nancy. "There Ain't No White People Here!": The Transforming Impact of Teachers' Racial Consciousness on Students and Schools. Equity & Excellence in Education. 2005, 38: 280 -- 289.
Over the course of time, this helps to break down the common stereotypes and will improve individual understanding of different cultures. Once this takes place, is when you will see those who grew up in these communities become the face of new generation, who is looking beyond racial / ethnic generalities. Instead, they look at the individual's character, versus the racial group or nationality of a person.
The Impact of Diversity
When a community is more diverse, this will have a positive long-term benefit for everyone. Where, certain ethnic groups or nationalities that have been having problems advancing economically / socially will have the ability to do so. This is because when a community is practicing such polices; those who may have trouble obtaining access to various kinds of services or benefits have greater upward mobility. The reason why is: the different nationalities and racial groups will bring varying degrees…
Arreola, D. (2004). Hispanic-American Legacy. Hispanic Place, Latino Place (pp. 24 -- 30). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Krase, J. (2009). Diversity in America: Past, Present and Future. Retrieved June 24, 2010 from Brooklyn Soc website: http://www.brooklynsoc.org/blog/node/70
Ethnic Future of America
The evolution of the United States has seen many changes in the racial and ethnic composition of its parts. It appears certain that the race will continue to meld, change and expand into new and interesting combinations that will fuse culture and traditions into new forms of society. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the cultural blending that will occur as an outcome of the changing ethnic and racial composition of the United States. This essay will discuss some specific outcomes that appear likely and contrast them to how today's world operates in this cultural evaluation.
Kenneth Prewitt, former director of the U.S. Census Bureau, has said of the United States that "we're on our way to becoming the first country in history that is literally made up of every part of the world." This suggest something special about America's time and place and…
2) Verizon's commitment to diversity meets the needs of America's changing demographics. Visible minority groups are becoming an increasingly large portion of the population, to the point where in some border states certain groups are projected to be the largest ethnic group in the coming years and decades.
In the face of such demographic shifts, a diverse workforce can be a powerful tool for sustainable competitive advantage. It captures a greater share of an underutilized source of talent. For example, Diversity Inc.'s top 50 employs 17% of college-educated blacks, Asians, Latinos and Native Americans, despite only employing 5% of the nation's workforce. This in turn acts as a draw for future graduates from these groups, as well as for non-graduates. Verizon's customer base cuts across all lines of race and gender, and having such a diverse workforce allows for them to better understand their customers, and thus better meet their…
Editors of Diversity Inc. April 2, 2008. The 2008 DiversityInc Top 50 Companies for Diversity.
Henry, Pamela K. Diversity and the Bottom Line: Prospering in the Global Economy. Turn Key Press. Austin.
How do gende diffeences affect communication?
Geneally, males and females communicate somewhat diffeently. Males tend to communicate vey diectly and to focus on issues, often without consideing moe pesonal aspects of the convesation o the feelings of the othe peson. Females tend to communicate moe indiectly and often devote consideable attention to the pesonal aspects of communications and the specific thoughts and feelings of the othe peson. Males also tend to discuss abstact ideas and tangible things wheeas females tend to discuss people and elationships. Males ae moe likely to discuss things in impesonal ways wheeas females ae moe likely to establish pesonal appot befoe addessing impesonal issues. I have had expeiences woking with females whee my focus on wok was peceived incoectly as coldness o unfiendliness because of the diffeences in ou pesonal styles that wee pobably functions of gende.
Descibe thee baies to bidging diffeences. What stategies may…
references of some individuals and negative expectations of others. Naturally, those perceptions and expectations conflict with decision-making based on objective merit or the value actually contributed by individuals to the group.
Healey, J.F. (2008). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group
Conflict and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
Schaefer, R.T. (2006). Racial and Ethnic Groups. New York: Harper Collins.
Diversity and Environment
Diversity as an object of sociological analyzation comes from the idea that diversity is an issue that affects everyone. The way society is shaped, the way that it functions, and the way that it is structured all have histories in the way that diversity has interacted with each other (Bonacich 1973). From a sociological perspective, diversity is what defines a society. Focusing on one of its most important and influential aspects, the idea of diversity has guided the way society has formed its ideas of one another, and how its reactions vary from situation to situation, comes this idea that diversity even exists. However, diversity goes beyond that of physical differences from person to person. Diversity is a result of the implications that society has put upon every given diverse group (Smedley & Smedley 2005).
When diversity is brought up as an issue impacting economics, negative connotations…
Bonacich, E. (1973). A theory of middleman minorities. American Sociological Review 38(5), 583-594.
Clark, R., Anderson, N.B., Clark, V.R. & Williams, D.R. (1999). Racism as a stressor for African-Americans: a biopsychosocial model. American Psychologist, 54(10), 805-816.
Duster, T. (2003). The reality of race. Scientific American
Eberhardt, J.L. (2005). Imaging race. American Psychologist, 60(2), 181-190.
Using Power Point: Understanding Diversity answer the below questions
How could prejudice affect a person's ability to learn and work?
Prejudice could affect the person's self-esteem and self-confidence. Teachers and peers might treat the student differently than they would without the prejudice, even if the prejudice is "positive," such as prejudice toward Asian students in a math class. Prejudice might impede a person's ability to learn and work, because it impacts the reactions of both teachers and students.
How important is the issue of diversity in your daily life?
Diversity is hugely important in my daily life. I do not like being in homogeneous places, because they are not reflective of the world at large. The world is diverse, filled with people with differing points-of-view and backgrounds. My views and outlooks change when I interact with different people, and I like that diversity makes me think more critically and…
251). This would show how well they observed, organized their thoughts and read (or were read to). "Overall, children from both middle-class and economically disadvantaged homes produced reasonably long narratives, but children from disorganized families did not.... Follow-up... showed that the first two groups did not differ from each other" (Peterson, p. 258). All the children were Caucasian, from English or Irish ethnic backgrounds, whose families had been in Newfoundland, Canada for generations, However, the children from disorganized home were distinctly disadvantaged in story-telling ability. All seemed to be much alike in intelligence; what made the difference was the kind of home life they had, whether middle class or economically disadvantaged, if their home life was disorganized and confusing, they experienced foster care, poor parenting skills and a disorganized family life, they were at a disadvantage in learning skills.
Students come to school from many different ethnic backgrounds. They speak…
1986 Task Force on Racism and Bias in the Teaching of English. (1996). Expanding opportunities: academic success for culturally and linguistically diverse students. NCTE Guideline of the National Council of Teachers of English.
NSF. (2006). Getting results: creating a community of learners. National Science Foundation, a Professional Development Course for Community College Educators.
Peterson, Carole. (1994.) Narrative skills and social class. Canadian Journal of Education. 19:3. 251-269.
Sadker, David. (2002). An educator's primer to the gender war. Phi Delta Kappan.
The media outlets that participated in discussing important race relations included such media giants as ABC News, ESPN, and the New York Times. But in Woods analysis also, there are disturbing trends. As he explains, for instance, many media outlets erroneously conflate the "Hispanic" with the word "immigrant." Some media commentators easily describe Mexican-Americans as "them" who could be contrasted with "us" (a code word for White Americans). These are but a few examples of how media misrepresents the realities of American diversity.
To improve diversity in the media, it is important to become proactive. First, we need to expose negative stereotyping and misrepresentation by responding to them in the media. We can contact the media stations and their sponsors and warn that we will withdraw our viewership and support unless they present American diversity in a balanced way. Second, we can pressure media stations to increase their ethnic staff,…
Diversity in the media and entertainment industries. (n.d.). Ethnic Majority. Retrieved from http://www.ethnicmajority.com/media_home.htm
Media activism. (n.d.). National Organization for Women. Retrieved from http://www.now.org/issues/media/index.html
Woods, K. (2001). The essence of excellence: Covering race and ethnicity (and doing it better). The Poynter Institute. Retrieved from http://www.poynter.org/content/content_view.asp?id=5048
Barak concludes by suggesting that the issue and concept of diversity take on a "special urgency" in human service healthcare organizations among the organization as a whole and staff, and that the organization review its quality of service and commitment to the community in order to truly impact the lives of diverse populations.
Managing Diversity: Best Practices
H Management often works off of the ideals of 'best practices.' This concept is discussed in the next article, "Managing the Diversity evolution: Best Practices for the 21st Century Business." Aronson takes a more general approach to diversity but one that can be applied directly to the healthcare industry nonetheless. Aronson points out many of the trends previously identified with regard to diversity problems in the nation's business climate as a whole. In particular the author points out that diversity issues may stem from a number of causes including cultural differences and systematic…
Aronson, D. (2002). "Managing diversity revolution: Best practices for the 21st century."
Civil Rights Journal, 6(1):46
Barak, M.E.M. (2000). "The inclusive workplace: An ecosystems approach to diversity
Management." Social Work, 45(4):339
Exercise 5: Population Survey
It was in October 1997 that the Office of Management and Budget or the OMB announced that the standards for the gathering of federal data on race and ethnicity in the United States of America would be changed from thenceforth, and that the minimum categories for race would be form then onwards, divided into the following categories: American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian; Black or African-American; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; and White. This meant that any individual, when choosing to self-identify himself, would not have to place himself according to the multi-racial perspective that had been in use earlier, but rather; he could select one or more races when he would have to identify himself for any purpose. In addition, the OMB has today made an added provision, which is known as the 'Some Other ace'. (acial and Ethnic classifications used in Census…
Berardinelli, James. "To Kill a Mockingbird, all time 100" Retrieved From
Accessed 27 October, 2005
Dirks, Tim. "To Kill a Mockingbird (1962). Review by Tim Dirks" Retrieved From
Diversity Issues in Higher Education and the University of Vermont
How does this school present its interests in " diversity"(college's mission statement, diversity statement, website)
The University of Vermont takes great pride in the diversity of its student population. The school courts students from throughout both the United States and the international community, creating an atmosphere in which all races, religions, ethnicities, nationalities, sexual orientations and genders are made to feel welcomed and embraced. According to UVM's informational website, the school has been engaged in an array of diversity improvement programs that speak to the school's commitment to creating a multicultural community. UVM reports that the school is engaged in five separate "presidential commissions" which are focuses on better understanding diversity issues and improving the university's response to these issues. The mainstream curriculum also requires students to engage in 6 mandatory credits relating to diversity issues in education.…
Boyer, E. (1990). Campus Life: In Search of Community. Jossey-Bass.
Cappex. (2011). University of Vermont. Cappex.com.
Shampnois, G. (2011). Office of Student and Community Relations. UVM.edu.
Silverman, A. (2011). Racial Diversity Inches Higher in Vermont. USA Today.
Diversity Issues for Lesbian, Homosexual and isexual People
The 21st Century has brought us new and greater understanding of issues surrounding diversity as it pertains to lesbian and bisexual issues. In the past it was assumed that homosexuality represented a deviant manifestation of some form of mental illness. It was not until the late 1950s (Hooker, 1957) that this idea began to be questioned as an absolute and the lifestyle brought into closer study. It is to be the purpose of this paper to review issues surrounding the homosexual, lesbian and bisexual lifestyle, to identify the general nature of the lifestyle as it exists today and to examine the state of diversity issues as they pertain to this group.
As previously mentioned, for many years homosexuality and lesbianism, as well as bisexuality were classified as mental illness. Evelyn Hooker (1957) was one of the first to do in depth…
Chan, C. (1992). Asian-American lesbians and gay men. In S. Dworkin and F. Gutierrez (Eds.), Counseling gay men and lesbians: Journey to the end of the rainbow (pp. 115-124). Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development.
Chan, C. (1995). Issues of sexual identity in an ethnic minority: The case of Chinese-American lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. In A. DiAugelli & C. Patterson (Eds.), Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the life span (pp. 87-101). New York: Oxford University Press.
Fox, R. (1996). Bisexuality in perspective: A review of theory and research. In B. Firestein (Ed.), Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp. 3-50). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Frost, J. (1997). Group psychotherapy with the gay male: Treatment of choice. Group, 21(3), 267-285.
Moore shared this insight with other children's-book writers, librarians and editors, including Elinor Sinette, Franklin Folsom, Mary Elting Folsom, Frances Keene, Stanley Faulkner and Sylvia Faulkner" (Kohl, 1991).
Later on the Council on Interracial Books for Children was founded by Moore and they made it their cause to highlight the flaws in the text books. The council not only supported reform but it also became an example of an interracial organization. They started their work with the Interracial Books for Children Bulletin as a platform to highlight issues of treatment of minorities in textbooks and library books. Later workshops, public meetings and the Bulletin were used to augment the cause. This and other such organization made public the stereotypes and biases portrayed in the text books. They not only criticized writers but they also blamed publishers for encouraging books that supported a racist stance. Due to their efforts a moderate…
Graner, P., Lacava, P., & Simpson, R. (2004). The No Child Left Behind Act: Challenges and Implications for Educators. Intervention in School & Clinic, 40 (2), 67+.
Kohl, H. (1991). Staying Alive. The Nation. 252(14): 495+.
Black, J.S., & Porter, L.W. (1991). Managerial Behaviors and Job Performance: A Successful Manager in Los Angeles May Not Succeed in Hong Kong. Journal of International Business Studies, 22(1), 99+. etrieved March 27, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000126798
Business Case for Diversity. etrieved March 27, 2009, from http://www.chubb.com/diversity/chubb4450.html
Clarke, .D. (2005, September). Workplace Bias Abounds: New Study Confirms the American Workplace Has Much Farther to Go to Achieve True Diversity. Black Enterprise, 36, 38. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011221717
Hicks, D.A. (2003). eligion and the Workplace: Pluralism, Spirituality, Leadership. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110647891
Madden, ussell SHATTEING THE GLASS CEILING. etrieved March 29,
2009, from http://home.earthlink.net/~rdmadden/webdocs/Shattering_the_Glass_Ceili.html
Mor Barak, M.E. (2000). The Inclusive Workplace: An Ecosystems Approach to Diversity Management. Social Work, 45(4), 339. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001074518
Stretch, J.J. (2006). Managing Diversity: Toward a…
Black, J.S., & Porter, L.W. (1991). Managerial Behaviors and Job Performance: A Successful Manager in Los Angeles May Not Succeed in Hong Kong. Journal of International Business Studies, 22(1), 99+. Retrieved March 27, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000126798
Business Case for Diversity. Retrieved March 27, 2009, from http://www.chubb.com/diversity/chubb4450.html
Clarke, R.D. (2005, September). Workplace Bias Abounds: New Study Confirms the American Workplace Has Much Farther to Go to Achieve True Diversity. Black Enterprise, 36, 38. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011221717
Hicks, D.A. (2003). Religion and the Workplace: Pluralism, Spirituality, Leadership. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110647891
In this way, management should make an effort not only to understand the market within which they operate, but also the representation of this market in their employee base. Through making a conscious attempt to look beyond immediate personality preference, the manager can benefit the small or medium business by cultivating not only his own, but the rest of the employees' intercultural undersatnding and empathy.
To do this, it is suggested by HR Magazine (2005) to focus on the skills needed to do the job rather than a specific personality type to "fit in" with the company culture. If the company is to diversify and grow - issues that are important to the small or medium business - it is important to change paradigms and widen perceptions in terms of race, religion and culture.
The Quest for Equality (within organizations)
Equality is perhaps the greatest and most long-standing quest of…
Diverse Strategies, Inc. (2004). "Corporate Culture and Diversity." EthnicMajority.com
Hartenian, Linda S. (2000, Dec.). "Cultural Diversity in small business: implications for firm performance." Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship. Online Database: FindArticles.com
HR Magazine (2005, Feb.). "Making Diversity Work: 7 steps for defeating bias in the workplace." Online Database: FindArticles.com
Lockwood, Nancy R. (2005, Jun). "Workplace Diversity: Leveraging the power of difference for competitive advantage." HR Magazine. Online Database: FindArticles.com.
Women's history month calls attention to the contributions of women to military life in the United States. Similarly, National Disability Employment Awareness reminds all personnel that a person's disability does not define them, any more than a person's gender or ethnicity does. Women's History month, African-American History Month, and National Disability Employment Awareness remind military personnel about how some members of society had been systematically excluded and discriminated against until fairly recently. The observances ensure that discrimination is no longer tolerated in any place of employment.
The ethnic observances create an attitude of inclusion and acceptance, which is important for organizational culture. Cohesion in the military is especially important, which is why observing ethnic, cultural, gender, and other differences is important for the Department of Defense.
The military's diverse personnel and their different methods of communication and social interaction make the ethnic observances crucial. Observances should not be superficial. Instead,…
Deputy Chief of Staff, Equal Opportunity Branch. "Ethnic Observances." http://www.armyg1.army.mil/eo/ethnic.asp (Accessed Nov 12, 2009).
US Army IMCOM. http://www.drum.army.mil/sites/installation/eo-ethnic.asp (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).
What is Diversity?
The term diversity refers to the combination of ethnicities, cultures, genders and ages within a large or small group of individuals.
List and discuss the six areas that Cox and Blake proposed as reasons for valuing diversity. What other reasons for valuing diversity can be added to this list?
Cost -- The failure to effectively diversify an organization's human resources almost always comes with substantial costs. Most often, minorities are overlooked in the workplace and become highly dissatisfied in their positions; thus causing high turnover rates.
Resource Acquisition -- Knowing that members of cultural minorities represent growing segments of the labor force, it is important for firms to effective consider and subsequently acquire these valuable resources.
Marketing -- An organization's capacity to appreciate its diverse workforce will directly carry over into marketing efforts to diverse consumer groups.
Creativity and Problem Solving -- People from different cultural…
According to these authorities, "Workplace stressors often have detrimental effects on faculty job satisfaction and may lead to decisions to leave the institution or to leave higher education entirely. Although some degree of turnover is inevitable and perhaps desirable, high rates of faculty turnover can be costly to the reputation of an institution and to the quality of instruction" (p. 776). In many cases, the very faculty members that are adversely affected in this fashion are those the school district can least afford to lose, with a concomitant negative effect on those teachers who remain: "Too often the faculty who leave are those the institution would prefer to retain. Additional negative consequences of faculty turnover include costs for recruiting replacements, reduced integration within the academic department, disruption of course offerings, and diminished morale among those employees who remain in the organization" (Daly & Dee, p. 777).
In reality, the outcomes…
Aper, J.P. & Fry, J.E. (2003). Post-tenure review at graduate institutions in the United States: Recommendations and reality. Journal of Higher Education, 74(3), 241.
Becton, J.B. & Schraeder, M. (2004). Participant input into rater selection: Potential effects on the quality and acceptance of ratings in the context of 360-degree feedback. Public Personnel Management, 33(1), 23.
Broadnax, W.D. (2000). Diversity and affirmative action in public service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Brownell, M.T., Ross, D.D., Colon, E.P., & Mccallum, C.L. (2005). Critical features of special education teacher preparation: A comparison with general teacher education. Journal of Special Education, 38(4), 242.
Diversity and Inclusion: Learning Journal
Activity One: Bias and Judgment
The workplace is becoming increasingly diverse. Numerous laws have been enacted to curb discrimination and make the workplace more inclusive of minorities; however, prejudice and bias still remain a major problem in work settings. In fact, as O'Brien (2013) points out, most people do not even know that they are biased, and so, they do not do anything to correct the same. I took the IAT test for race and gender to determine my degree of bias towards people of different genders and races. The scores and their corresponding interpretations were as follows:
ace: Preference score 2 - I moderately prefer whites to blacks
Warmth Score 6 -- harbor more warmth for whites than blacks
Gender Preference score 1 -- I strongly prefer males to females
Warmth Score 9 -- harbor more warmth for males than females
I partly agree…
Alonso, M. (2012). Best Inclusion Practices: LGBT Diversity. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
Community Tool Box. (2014). Strategies and Activities for Reducing Racial Prejudice and Racism. Kaplan University. Retrieved 22 March 2015 from http://ctb.dept.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/culture/cultural-competence/reduce-prejudice-racism/main
O'Brien, R. (2013). Bodies in Revolt: Gender Disability and a Workplace Ethic of Care. New York, NY: Routledge
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2001). Affirmative Action. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 24 March 2015 from http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights101/affirmaction.html
We live in a world full of diverse people, and all these diverse people interact with each other. Most of the time, the differences between two people don't really matter much: it does not matter whether the person who checks out your groceries is gay or straight, black or white, male or female. However, in the classroom and the workplace, differences may complicate interactions some, leading to confusion or even arguments (Mendelson & Mendelson, 1998).
In the workplace, people tend to hold stereotypes regarding their co-workers based on all sorts of things: sexual identification, ethnicity, education, socio-economic status. While some of this may be prejudice, there are legitimate differences between groups of people. One easily spotted difference involves ethnicity. A person's ethnicity will affect personality. A person with strong Asian influence may resist answering know when someone makes a request. However, people should keep in mind that a wide…
Mendelson, Jack L., and Mendelson, C. Dianne. 1998. "An action plan to improve difficult communication (promoting diversity in the workplace)." HR Magazine, Oct.
National Apartment Association (NAA). 2004. "Diversity in the workplace: Equity Residential is on a mission." Units, Jan. 12.
Neale, Margaret A. 1999. "Why Differences Make a Difference: A Field Study of Diversity, Conflict, and Performance in Workgroups." Administrative Science Quarterly, Dec.
Timmons (1994) in his study presents a three-dimensional model of practical application of a good idea:
Comprehensive evaluation of the opportunity;
Comprehensive evaluation of one's own expertise and inclination; and Comprehensive evaluation of the resources gathering process to maintain the launch of business venture.
Long and McMullan (1984) propose that application of a good idea depends on two processes; namely, elaboration and evaluation. Singh (1998) found that those entrepreneurs who spend more time studying the pros and cons of an idea before embarking on its application tend to set up fewer businesses than those who spend less time in the elaboration and evaluation phase. However, Singh (1998) points out that higher majority of successful entrepreneurs are those who spend more time in elaboration and evaluation.
1.4 Traits of entrepreneurs
Wright et al. (1997a) studied motivational drivers of entrepreneurs and found that entrepreneurs are primarily driven by either one or both…
Adler, P. & Kwon, S. (2000). Social capital: The good, the bad and the ugly. In E. Lesser (Ed.), Knowledge and social capital: Foundations and applications (pp. 80-115). Boston: Butterworth-Heineman.
Aldrich, H. & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In D. Sexton and R. Smilor (Eds), the art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 3-23). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
Aldrich, H., Rosen, B., and Woodward, W. (1987) "The impact of social networks on business foundings and profit: a longitudinal study," in Churchill, N.C., Hornaday, J.A., Kirchoff, B.A. et al. (eds) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Welles-ley, MA: Babson College.
Amabile, T.M. (1988) "A model of creativity and innovation in organizations," in Staw, B. And Cummings, L.L. (eds) Research in Organizational Behavior, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
This helps individuals to feel as if they do not have to choose between being good parents or good employees. It gives them personal places to connect with their families and areas to de-stress and reinvigorate their minds and body over the course of the workday. Also, incorporating education about different cultures and attitudes is another effective strategy for management. This can increase the ability for work not to simply seem like work, but to be invigorating for the individual's mind and life development. On a macro level, workplace education helps the corporate organization create better employees and better teams, and also may even help with their global strategy. For example, a Japanese-American woman who can discuss, during a sensitivity training session, her parent's different attitudes to aging, health, and medicine, and gender relations might give ideas to an advertising team later on how to pitch a new product to…
One of the greatest challenges in education today is the fact that the basic demographic of the average student body has changed significantly over the last decades. This poses challenges not only in terms of cultural programs and inclusion, but also in terms of intellectual abilities and background. This is particularly the case in tertiary education. In most cases today, students come from many different backgrounds in terms of schooling and level of education. This poses challenges in terms of preparing students for the rigors of tertiary academic work. In addition to this and the great variety of cultural backgrounds represented on United States campuses today, there is also the challenge of preparing students for the world of work. Most workplaces today require some level of tertiary education. It is simply impossible to handle the rapid developments in terms of technology today without some sort of post-secondary qualification.…
ACPA and NASPA (2010, Jul. 24). Professional Competency Areas for Student Affairs Practitioners. Retrieved from: http://www.naspa.org/images/uploads/main/Professional_Competencies.pdf
Prescott, B.T. (2012, Oct. 4). What Demographic Changes Mean for Colleges and Counselors. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from: http://chronicle.com/blogs/headcount/what-demographic-changes-mean-for-colleges-and-counselors/31958
The school aims to recruit students that will balance the spectrum of diversity. Before this can be accomplished however, existing and future employees of the university will need to be prepared. "Diversity is about encouraging and enabling all employees to draw on their talents, skills, and experience for the benefit of the business." (Bruno, 2004) Schools that are diversity sensitive will more often be prepared for the competitive recruitment markets and thus attract higher potential students and employees. The school has implemented the necessary training that will bring the entire student recruitment process together.
No matter what the level of need, a good diversity training program will maintain the most important aspects of the school's initiative. Diversity training has been proven to reduce the potential for misunderstandings, conflict and litigation which is often related to basic differences in communications and expectations. "All of the admissions staff has been…
Bruno, Jeanne-Marie (2004). "Implementing Diversity in a Meaningful Way." American Works Association Journal, Vol. 96(10), 47.
Lehigh University (2005). Lehigh University Home Page. Retrieved on 8 February 2005, from http://www3.lehigh.edu/path/visitors.asp .
Lehigh President's Speech. (n.d.) "Diversity Speech."
Diversity in the Workplace
The increase in globalization has resulted in greater levels of interaction of individuals from diverse cultures and beliefs than ever before in the history of the world. As noted in the work of Green, Lopez, Wysocki and Kepner (2002) "People no longer live and work in an insular marketplace; they are now part of a worldwide economy with competition coming from nearly every continent." (p.1) Diversity is defined as "The variety of experiences and perspective which arise from differences in race, culture, religion, mental or physical abilities, heritage, age, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, and other characteristics." (University of California, San Francisco, 2012, p.1)
Challenges, arriers, and enefits to Workplace Diversity
The Multicultural Advantage website reports that there are specific barriers and challenges to workplace diversity and that these are inclusive of: (1) communication; (2) resistance to change; (3) Implementation of diversity in the workplace policies;…
1. A Diverse Workforce Is Integral to a Strong Economy. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/labor/news/2012/07/12/11900/the-top-10-economic-facts-of-diversity-in-the-workplace/
2. Andrade, R. And Rivera, A. (2012) Developing a Diversity-Patent Workforce: The UA Libraries' Experience. Journal of Library Administration. 51:7-8, 692-727
3. Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity (2010) U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved from: http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/library/workforce-diversity.pdf
4. DuPont, K. (1999) Handling Diversity in the Workplace; Communication is the Key. American Media, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/ad_hoc/54400000NewEmployeeResources/Handling%20Diversity%20in%20the%20Workplace.pdf
When school leadership values diversity and demonstrates the value of diversity the school is more likely to be characterized by diversity in the classroom.
IV. Modeling Respect for Diversity
Harris (2006) states in the work entitled: "RAVO Principals" published by Education World that school principals "model respect for diversity when they engage their faculties in addressing issues of identity so that children have successful role models that represent all ethnic groups. Diversity can be integrated across the curriculum by encouraging faculty to seek out guest speakers who represent different ethnicities and to incorporate literature by authors of Hispanic, African-American, American Indian, Middle Eastern, and other origins. Another way to ensure a curriculum that reflects the student body is to involve faculty in evaluating texts; do they include a broad range of historic events, not just those that are Eurocentric?" (Harris, 2006)
According to Harris (2006) that which is often the…
Diversity (2009) Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diversity
Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards (2009) Educational Leadership. Online available at: http://www.uni.edu/coe/elcpe/edleadership/professionaldevelopment/isllc_standards.shtml
Harris, Sandra (2006) BRAVO Principals Celebrate Diversity. Education World. Online available at: http://www.education-world.com/a_admin/columnists/BRAVO/BRAVO008.shtml
Sanchez, Jafeth, Thornton, Bill and Usinger, Janet (2008) Promoting Diversity in Public Education Leadership. Connexionational Council of Professors of Educational Administration on Dec 4, 2008 12:03 PM U.S./Central.
Companies will need to look at regional and national differences, and draw on the similarities between countries to enhance their competitive advantages (Powell, 2005). It is clear that as company, like WTI grows globally, they will benefit from a multicultural workforce. They must put managerial, educational, and cultural proactiveness in place, which will not only improve their opportunities for greater worldwide competition, but by bringing establishing a multicultural workforce, they also improve the interrelationships between their employees. Employees who do this, learn to communicate and other points-of-view and opinions. By doing this WTI, and other large companies, poise themselves to become successful in the emerging globalize culture of the 21st century.
Using Innovative Human Resource Techniques to Manage Diversity - Human resource management, whether specifically titles or not, has been a part of any organization's management since groups banded together for specific tasks. Ancient armies, projects, and even educational and…
Figure 2 -- Simple life cycle utilizing eHRM for employee (Armstron, 2006; Boudreau).
Thus, this simple figure shows that starting with the potential employee's entry of their resume into the electronic system, how the data begins to manage itself and becomes available to those who need it most. Employees and managers all have access to the data, and the employee can update the resume when new skills are acquired, apply for internal jobs by simply sending a note to the manager, manage their payroll, sick-leave, vacation, and retirement data, and work with their own professionals to plan and execute their career.
For managers, the system focuses on skill management and the ability for individual managers to do skill-based strategic planning and what if scenarios without the need to access hundreds of man-hours of time from another department. The manager can quickly see both who within the organization, and on resumes on file, might have a particular desire or skill set which the company is in need of. For the employee
Thus it is important that diversity initiatives focus on these differences and help individuals understand one another's perspectives in order to maximize understanding and facilitate positive interactions in the workplace.
There are also many stereotypes that exist with regard to gender. There are those for example that believe that men are 'natural leaders' because they are more likely to exhibit traits including aggression and assertiveness. However most of these traits may be attributed more to gender stereotyping rather than the actual ability of a man or a woman to be an effective leader (Essed & Gircour, 1996).
It is vital that a diversity program incorporate a wide range of training mechanisms that help individuals overcome the gender roles that they might feel they are 'assigned' so that there true 'colors' may come out and they can excel as much as possible on a personal and a professional level.
Barrick, M.R., Higgins, C.A., Judge, T.A. & Thoresen, C.J. (1999). "The big five personality traits, general mental ability and career success across the life span." Personnel Psychology, 52(3): 621
Essed, P. & Gircour, R. (1996). "Diversity: Gender, color and culture." Amherst:
James, E.H. & Murrell, a.J. (2001). "Gender and diversity in organizations: Past, present and future directions." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research
Klimely, a. (1997). "Diversity programs: Coming of age." Black Enterprise, 27(12):115
Diversity as Strategy: IBM
There are some companies that are more committed to diversity than others. IBM is one of those companies. In 1995, IBM created task forces specifically designed to work with diverse individuals and to help the company relate to different kinds of customers - and to its own workforce. The eight IBM task forces created represented the following constituencies: Native Americans, blacks, women, white men, people with disabilities, Asian, GLBT, and Hispanics (Canas & Sondak, 2011). Each task force was asked to work together and give advice and information to IBM about what the company could do better internally and externally to retain customers and employees.
The task forces were to report back six months later (Canas & Sondak, 2011). Even though they were only required to be active for that six-month time frame, they are still in existence today because they worked so well and they…
Canas, K.A. & Sondak, H. (2011). Case study: Diversity as strategy. Chapter 3: Diversity management as systemic. Part 1: Uncovering the complexities of workplace diversity. Opportunities and Challenges of Workplace Diversity (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall
Walck, C.L. (1995). Editor's introduction: Diverse approaches to managing diversity. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, (31), 119-123.
7) Ensure that appropriate accommodations are made for disabled applicants. 8) Know your own biases, including what stereotypes you have of people from different groups and how well they may perform on the job, what communication styles you prefer, and acknowledge that what one may consider to be appropriate or desirable qualities in a candidate may reflect more about personal preferences than about the skills needed to perform the job (UCSF, NDI).
In order to facilitate tolerance in the workplace organizations should institute programs related to diversity training for both employees and managers. These programs should focus on raising awareness of the current demographics in the organization as well as the community and the industry. Sometimes it may be necessary to institute a policy of affirmative action. Affirmative action focuses on specific groups of historical discrimination and emphasizes legal necessity and social responsibility. Organizations face enormous responsibilities for helping women,…
Bear, J.B., & Woolley, a.W. (2011, June). The role of gender in team collaboration and performance. Interdisciplanary science reviews. Vol. 36, Issue 2, 146-153. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=aa10aca0-9710-4ddf-82ca-36d1d2518fd5%40sessionmgr10&vid=4&hid=12
Jonas, M. (2007, August 5) the downside of diversity. The New York times. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/05/world/americas/05iht-diversity.1.6986248.html?pagewanted=all
Kurtz, D.L. (2010). Contemporary business. 13th Ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
UCSF. (NDI) Chapter 12: Managing diversity in the workplace. Guide to managing human resources. University of California, San Fransico. Retrieved February 26, 2012, from http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/index.php/pubs/hrguidearticle/chapter-12-managing-diversity-in-the-workplace/
Ethnic Conflicts in Kosovo and Afghanistan: Why a "One-Size-Fits-All" Analytical Approach Will Not Work
Today, Kosovo is recovering from decades of ethnic violence, and the same came be said of Afghanistan to some extent as well as the American military presence continues to draw down. Although both countries have experienced their fair share of such ethnic-based violence over the years, there is no "one-size-fits-all" analytical approach to examining the multifaceted problems that are being experienced by these countries because of the fundamental differences that exist between them and these issues are discussed further below.
As can be seen from the breakdown of Kosovo and Afghanistan language, population and ethnic groups, Kosovo is populated mostly by Serbians (92%) with two official languages (Albanian and Serbian) and one main religion (Islam) while Afghanistan is comprised of several primary ethnic groups and dozens of others, all with their own languages. Furthermore, the populations…
Archer, S.E. (2003). Kosovo present and future. Military Review, 83(6), 31-33.
CIA world factbook. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ .
Jalali, A.A. (2009). Winning in Afghanistan. Parameters, 39(1), 5-7.
Diversity in the United States
Diversity has contributed to America's culture ever since the country was founded. In the beginning, the country consisted of various immigrant groups who brought their individual beliefs, religious practices, unique craftsmanship and inventiveness from all over the world. The United States was considered a melting pot because of its inherent diversity due to the vast immigrations from all over the world. However, even despite the vast amount of immigration and the concept of the melting pot, the country has always had to struggle to appreciate the advantages that diversity has provided for the country. Inequality and racism has been a persistent issues with the American society.
Today the country is still struggling with similar problems despite the fact that major struggles for equality have manifested. Diversity in the United States today includes many more different types of groups who are still struggling for their acceptance…
Keita, G. (2007, April). U.S. diversity breakthroughs and challenges. Retrieved from American Psychological Assoication: http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr07/itpi.aspx
Leweling, V. (1997, May). Official English and English Plus: An Update. Retrieved from Center for Applied Linguistics: http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/lewell01.html
United States Census Bureau. (2008, August 14). An Older and More Diverse Nation by Midcentury. Retrieved from United States Census Bureau: https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb08-123.html
In the case of the aby oomers, they represent 76 million people. (Reeves, 2005) For many organizations, this is troubling, as they have no way of being able to replace the loss of talent that they are facing. When the workforce is more diverse, these kinds of effects are not as big of an issue, as the company can be able to hire new employees to replace those who are retiring. This will allow the business to be able to adapt, to the different challenges from the retirement of aby oomer employees. As those organizations that embrace diversity, will continue to innovate when many of their key competitors, are losing talented employees to retirement.
Clearly, those companies that can be able to embrace diversity in the workplace will be able to respond to various changes that are taking place, because of globalization. Where, the competitive pressures have become so extreme…
Diversity. (2010). Coca Cola. Retrieved from: http://www.thecocacolacompany.com/citizenship/diversity.html
Mason, A. (2009). The Future of Jobs in America. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/01/05/eveningnews/main6059551.shtml
Reeves, S. (2005). An Aging Workforce Effects. Forbes. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/2005/09/28/career-babyboomer-work-cx_sr_0929bizbasics.html
Yet its democracy has passed the test of time.
The main reason for this is the rise of a pluralist nationalism in the country. In reaction to the colonialism of the time, the anti-colonial Indian National Congress was founded as representative of all cultures in the country unified against colonialism. This paradigm remained as an essential cornerstone of the compromises that had to be made to legitimize the pluralist paradigm of democracy in India. This is a significant concept in both emerging and existing democracies. As the world is becoming more integrated, the ideal of pluralist nationalism is becoming increasingly viable.
merging democracies can then learn from India in terms of creating a pluralist democracy, where no single group takes precedent or power over any other. Instead, it is a collective national effort towards the success of the truly democratic principle.
Kesavan, Mukul. India's Model Democracy. BBC News, 15…
Emerging democracies can then learn from India in terms of creating a pluralist democracy, where no single group takes precedent or power over any other. Instead, it is a collective national effort towards the success of the truly democratic principle.
Kesavan, Mukul. India's Model Democracy. BBC News, 15 Aug. 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/6943598.stm
Living in both China and the U.S. has been a transformative experience not least in experiencing different kinds and levels of diversity across cultures. This experience will enhance my understanding of patients I see in my professional work, and as a citizen of both my nations on either side of the Pacific. Working as an intern at Weifang Hospital, then at Blanchard Valley Hospital Rehabilitation Findlay Campus, and participating in social organizations outside of school and work have convinced me that despite differences across and within my own multinational experience, we are all more alike than different in the majority of ways. Regardless of demographic characteristics, if the job of therapist is to heal, reduce and prevent pain and disability, then since all peoples share the capacity to experience pain and disability, the therapist has to treat the person, not the class or the gender or ethnicity, even…
Diversity and Ethics Reporting Systems
Diversity Management and Discrimination Issues at Work
Enhanced globalization and immigration, which occurs for economic and socio-political reasons, has led to the development of multicultural societies across the globe. Today, many nations and workplaces have employees from diverse backgrounds. More often than not, cultural differences as well as other inherent differences such as gender often lead to stereotyping, categorization, and labeling; which set precedence for discrimination at the workplace (Appleby, 2007). In basic terms, workplace discrimination denotes unfair differential or unequal treatment of employees based on their differences in gender, nationality, religion, age, sexual orientation, ethnicity, or disability (Collins, 2012).
Gender discrimination issues are part of the discriminatory issues that arise out of gender differences or special gender-related issues such as pregnancy. It denotes the unequal treatment of employees based on their gender. Examples of issues that often arise in relation to this form of…
Diversity in Organizations
The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) provides a tool to assess the attitudes and expectations of individuals in relation gender stereotypes and to generate a quantifiable score measuring the degree of latent gender hostility based on those scores. More specifically, there are two measures generated by this instrument: the first is a score of hostile sexism that corresponds to negative feelings toward women; the send is benevolent sexism that corresponds to those aspects of attitudes about gender that could be considered positive. The meaning of the hostile sexism measure is obvious and straightforward; however, benevolent sexism is also related to hostility simply because it is a product of differential expectations based on gender. Therefore, even ostensibly positive aspects of gender-oriented attitudinal difference correspond to hostility, especially in connection with deviations from gender-based roles and expectations.
Naturally, ASI scores are likely to vary considerably from culture to culture…
Healey, J.F. (2009). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group
Conflict and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
Henslin, J.M. (2008). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:
Knowledge of avenues for community support as well as for physical aid such as shelter and food are vital to providing help, both immediate and long-term, to discriminated populations. I have confidence that between my studies and real-life experiences such as internships and work, that I can gain this knowledge and disperse it amongst clientele.
The fourth role a therapist ought to play is as a "consultant helping clients (and others in their life) find ways to work toward reducing discriminatory practices in the community" (Atkinson, et.al., 1993, pp. 264-270, cited in Cooper and Lesser, 2005, p. 67). This role dovetails with the second role above of being an advocate oneself.
If one is successfully filling the role of advocate, then sharing information on how to participate in the local community, to contact one's officials, and to agitate for change is not a large step. Teaching clients how to successfully…
Atkinson, D.R., Thompson, C.E. And Grant, S.K. 1993. "A three-dimensional model for counseling racial/ethnic minorities," in The Counseling Psychologist, 21(2), 257-277.
Babakan, H. And Gopalkrishan, N. "Posttraumatic experiences of refugee women," in Rabin, C. ed., Understanding Gender and Culture in the Helping Process. Sydney, Thomson Wadsworth.
Banks, J. 2004. "Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform," in Banks,.J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Banks, J. 2004. "Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals," in Banks, J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
The following table covers the websites:
National Women's Law Center
This org works to make changes in the legal environment concerning women and girls.
Human ights Campaign
LGBT rights org. Civil rights org, raises awareness, launches campaigns, highlights issues
Fighting for LGBT rights, especially at the legal level
The status of women in the United States for most of its history has been quite poor, with respect to rights and opportunity. For most of the country's history, women were excluded from participation in the democratic process. To this day, no woman has ever held the highest office, while even repressive countries like Pakistan have had female leaders. For women, the fight for rights and equality is an ongoing battle. After being granted the right to vote, the next major advancements for the rights of women came in the 1960s with things like the…
ACLU. (2013). Reproductive freedom. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved November 24, 2013 from https://www.aclu.org/reproductive-freedom
Graydon, S. & Verrall, E. (2013). Gender issues in the media. Elementary Teacher's Federation of Ontario. Retrieved November 24, 2013 from http://www.etfo.ca/Resources/ForTeachers/Documents/Gender%20Issues%20in%20The%20Media.aspx
Hooghe, M., Claes, E., Harell, A., Quintelier, E. & Dejaeghere, Y. (2010). Anti-gay sentiments among adolescents in Belgium and Canada. Journal of Homosexuality. Vol. 57 (3) 384-400.
Ivy, C. & Jove, R. (2013). The portrayal of men in the media. Undergraduate Research Committee Journal. Retrieved November 24, 2013 from http://kon.org/urc/v9/jove.html
Diversity as a Barrier to Group Psychotherapy
According to the Center for Collegiate Mental Health, the psychopathology of college students, and their demand for counseling services in university college centers (UCCs) has risen substantially over the last decade (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). Well, there are number of reasons why this is so. The most significant of these perhaps is that the modern-day college student faces significant psychological concerns in the form of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and history of hospitalization resulting from lifestyle factors. It is reported, for instance, that between 15 and 20% of college students today suffer from depressive symptoms, compared to between 5 and 6% ten years ago (Center for Collegiate Mental Health, 2014). For this reason, most UCCs have adopted and expanded the use of group psychotherapy platforms as an alternative to the traditional individual psychotherapy in a bid to address the…
Lee, J. (2014). Asian International Students' Barriers to Joining Group Counseling. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 64(4), 444-464.
Perez, S.M., Yang, K.Y., Edelman, M.W. & Jones, J.M. (2014). South-East Asian-American Children: Not the Model Minority. Children of Immigrant Families, 14(2), 121-137.
Peters, S. (2015). Barriers to Group Psychotherapy for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual College Students. Professional Dissertation (Wright State University). Retrieved July 14, 2015 from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=wsupsych1434388016&disposition=inline
Riva, M. (2013). Emphasizing Training and Supervision. The Group Psychologist, 23(1), 1-24.
" (Kanani, 2006)
If this can be the case for one city it is evident that by taking up such an ambitious education program nationwide, it is possible to bring about a better understanding in all police forces. The success of the Chicago and the New York police has egged the other states to create such training and induction into their own forces. There are training academies that impart diversity training to its officers. Austin Police Department in Texas has a "Cadet Community Immersion" program which helps officers deal with diverse Austin communities (Kanani, 2006) the greatest effort on record is probably from New York. The department has a strength of 35,000and is the country's largest police force. It has become diverse. The enlisted officers came from various backgrounds from Burma, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Venezuela, and Albania. Earlier the officers were of German, Irish, and Italian backgrounds. (Hays, 2007)
Hemphill, Hellen; Haines, Ray. (1997) "Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now" Quorum Books. Westport, CT.
Kenney, Dennis Jay; McNamara, Robert P. (1999) "Police and Policing: Contemporary
Issues" Praeger. Westport, CT.
National Research Council; Research on Police Committee to Review. (2004) "Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence" National Academy Press.
Review of Van Ausdale's "The First R: How Children Learn Race and Racism"
As sociologist Debra Van Ausdale discovered during her study of urban nursery school children, racism and racial awareness are learned concepts of the larger society. Challenging conventional theories on how and when children develop racial-ethnic identities, Van Ausdale concluded that young children have a more complex understanding of the social world than previously believed, and this learned development takes a period of time for children to assimilate to develop a consciousness of racial-ethnic statuses. Everyday social interactions with other children involve exploration and experimentation. When racial and ethnic issues are included in those interactions, children's reactions may range from learning social power plays to survival, thus identifying the leaders and the subordinates to the whole group and passing these racial identities from one child to another, as also occurs from adults to children.
Van Ausdale's insight…
ecause the secularization of society has tended to cause erosion to religious identities and to bring about a change in terms of intergenerational value the result is laden with many new issues that:
"…cut across establish party cleavages; the impact of social and geographic mobility weakening community social networks; the rise of television broadcasting replacing older channels of political communications through partisan newspapers, personal discussion and party campaign organizations; growing multiculturalism resulting from migration, which was generating cross-cutting social cleavages based on racial and ethnic identities; and the increased complexity of newer issues on the policy agenda, such as globalization, environmentalism, sexuality, and international terrorism, that do not comfortably fit into older patterns of party competition16. As a result of these processes, identities based on social class and religious denomination no longer seem as capable of generating unwavering and habitual party loyalties in many postindustrial societies as they were in…
Smith, Bill; Miller, Ann W.; Archer, Thomas; and Hague, Carla (nd) Working with Diverse Cultures. Ohio State University Fact Sheet. Online available at: http://ohioline.osu.edu/bc-fact/0014.html
Religious Parties and Electoral Behavioral (2003) Sacred and Secular. Chapter 9. Online available at: http://www.hks.harvard.edu/fs/pnorris/Acrobat/Sacred_and_Secular/Chapter%209.pdf
Brazzel, Michael. "Building a Culture of Diversity in the Cooperative Extension System: A Paper to Foster Dialogue and Discussion About Pluralism in Extension." ECOP and ES-USDA National Diversity Strategic Planning Conference, Denver, Colorado, September, 1991.
The benefits of this study will be both to adult learners and to their educators. The benefits to the students should be obvious; though it will take time and further research to evaluate and implement the suggestions made by this study on a large scale, the needs of the students in a multicultural setting will be better met by educators who better understand the diversity of needs and styles that multiculturalism helps to propagate and condense in the classroom.
4) the theoretical frameworks of multiculturalism and teaching theories are best suited to the study proposed. The varying degrees of assimilation and resistance to it need to be both respected and understood for effective teaching to take place, as well as an understanding of specific practices and behaviors of other cultures. Multiculturalism, though now a disputed framework, still provides the clearest and most readily applicable insights into these areas, and will…
Though respondents would be marked as anonymous, each respondent would be distinguished by the notation of several demographic basics beyond identification of the respondent's campus. In addition, notation would be made of the racial or ethnic traits of the subject according to the respondent's own report. Age of the respondent would also be considered here. Additionally, respondents would be asked to note the years of professional experience garnered at the campus in question and would be marked according to the discipline in which each provides instruction. No specific requirements will be used to select these demographics beyond their connection to the respective campuses, but notation of the above-noted demographic traits will help to refine the value of qualitative findings and make these findings subject to greater analytical flexibility.
The sampling frame would be constituted of first responding personnel in place at each school. Perhaps the most distinct advantage to conducting…