Ethnic Identity Essays (Examples)

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Ethnic Conflict in Xinjiang An

Words: 3057 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29028426

In this sense, "During the 1950s and 1960s, especially after the falling-out between hina and the former Soviet Union, the hinese government actively relocated Han hinese to frontier provinces such as Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Heilongjiang, in order to consolidate the border in light of possible military threat from the Soviets"

. Therefore, the decision to intervene in the ethnic composition of the region was not only a choice related to the national identity of the country but also to geostrategic aspects.

After the end of the old War, the region remained of importance for hina form the perspective of the national identity as well as crucial natural resources, which include oil reserves. From this perspective, massive investments have been conducted in the region, stating the official reason to be the reduction of the disparities between the regions of hina. In this sense, "Rich in natural gas, oil, and warm…… [Read More]

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Identity Development Is a Topic That Has

Words: 2568 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75817954

Identity development is a topic that has been studied for some time. There are two main ways to address it: as young children who are just developing an identity and as adults who are changing or developing an identity they never created or did not like as a child. Each person, as he or she grows, develops a distinct and separate identity from other people (Willemsen & Waterman, 1991). While an individual may change over time, there is a part of that person's identity that generally remains the same as it was when it was first developed. The creation of an identity helps to define a person to others, but it also works to define an individual to himself or herself. Everyone has likely heard people say that they need to "find themselves," and that is part of the development and exploration of identity. The identity of a person can…… [Read More]

References

Grotevant, H.D. (1997). Family processes, identity development, and behavioral outcomes for adopted adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12(1), 139.

Goossens, L. (2008). Dynamics of perceived parenting and identity formation in late adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 31(2), 165-184.

Steinberg, L. (2008). Adolescence. Boston: McGraw Hill.

Willemsen, E., & Waterman, K. (1991). Dynamics of perceived parenting and identity formation in late adolescence. Psychological Reports, 66, 1203-1212.
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Ethnic Conflict Why Is Nationalism

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72277979

For example, the conflict in former Yugoslavia is often studied as a case of ethnic conflict, and the Serbian atrocities against Bosnians is usually described as "ethnic cleansing." But Serbs, Croatians, and Bosnians "are all South Slavs, sharing a common ethnic origin and speaking basically the same language: Serbocroatian" (Perlmutter). Serbs and Croatians share the same religion as well (with different denominations), while Bosnians, with the exception of their Muslim identity, have experienced a shared history with the other two. And all three are former Communists. Nevertheless, all three groups have identified themselves as different ethnicities during the conflict in the 1990s.

Dominique Moisi (2007) argues that, in addition to the problem of clash of civilizations, the world today faces a clash of emotions. There is a culture of fear, displayed by the est, of foreign nationals, of losing the identity in a complex world, of losing their economic power,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Moisi, Dominique. "The Clash of Emotions." Foreign Affairs 81.6 (2007).

Psalidas-Perlmutter, Foulie. "The Interplay of Myths and Realities." Orbis 44.2 (2000): 237.
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Identity Losing and Finding a

Words: 2337 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6207478

The book is not attempting to explain the details of a biographical life in the way it is traditionally perceived in either the East or the est, but rather is an emotive rather than an intellectual rendering of identity fragmented by a meeting of multiple cultures. This paces it firmly in the postcolonial tradition, where identity is almost entirely based on a negotiation of traditional ethnic identities with esternized stereotypes and perceptions of these identities.

At the same time, the construction of the text itself -- its multiple voices and times without any solid reference points, the fragmented sentences, and perhaps most of all the inconsistent yet regular use of the second person which demands a knowledge or understanding of the reader that the reader simply doesn't possess -- all mark the book as a work shaped largely by postmodern tendencies and attitudes (Spahr). In this context, the very concept…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cha, Theresa Hak Kyung. Dictee. Berkeley: The University of California Press, 2001.

Cheng, Annie. "Memory and Anti-Documentary Desire in Theresa Hak Kyung Cha's Dictee." MELUS, Vol. 23, No. 4, (Winter, 1998), pp. 119-133. Accessed via JSTOR:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/467831 

Fachinger, Petra. "Cultural and Culinary Ambivalence in Sara Chin, Evelina Galang, and Yoko Tawada." Modern Language Studies, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Spring, 2005), pp. 38-48. Accessed via JSTOR:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/30039806 

Spahr, Juliana. "Postmodernism, Readers, and Theresa Hak Kyung Cha's Dictee." College Literature, Vol. 23, No. 3 (Oct., 1996), pp. 23-43. Accessed via JSTOR:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/25112272
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Ethnic Religion Identity Politics Nigeria

Words: 2304 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83778985

This of course is easier said than done as currently most ethnic and sub-ethnic groups are simply seeking recognition and voice of their own identity, one that was subverted by the British colonial dictates of an organized and orderly nation, able to be easily run from just a few regional seats.

Higazi notes that in central Nigeria another example of an age old social and political tradition previously serving to ensure the safety of the people from crime, especially in rural areas has now shifted its focus to ethnic and religious difference as a source of vigilante and militia behavior. Though the vigilante and militia forces in central Nigeria have historically served a fundamentally useful purpose of keeping people safe they are now seen to be factionalizing (since about 2001) to deal with issues traditionally not in their area of interest.

In some places, forms of surveillance changed as vigilante…… [Read More]

Reference List

Aihiokhai, Simonmary Asese. 2010. "Penticostalism and Poltical Empowerment: The Nigerian Phenomenon." Journal of Ecumenical Studies 45, no. 2: 249-264. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 23, 2011).

Akanji, Olajide O. 2009. "Group Rights and Conflicts in Africa: A Critical Reflection on Ife-Modakeke, Nigeria." International Journal on Minority & Group Rights 16, no. 1: 31-51. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 23, 2011).

Casey, Conerly. 2008. "Marginal Muslims": Politics and the Perceptual Bounds of Islamic Authenticity in Northern Nigeria." Africa Today 54, no. 3: 67. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 23, 2011).

Higazi, Adam. 2008. "Social Mobilization and Collective Violence: Vigilantes and Militias in the Lowlands of Plateau State, Central Nigeria." Africa 78, no. 1: 107-135. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 23, 2011).
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Identity Development Among Ethnic Minority

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40446836



Especially in major centers, the majority of at-risk adolescents are Latino and African-American youth (Yanvey, 1992). Yancey (1992) examined identity development among ethnic minority adolescents in the foster care system. This researcher explained how the occurrence of societal problems, such as unintentional pregnancy, childbearing, substance abuse, underachievement, discontinuation of education at an early point, homelessness, and dependency on social service and mental health resources was disproportionately pronounced among ethnic minorities. In regards to ethnic minority youth in the foster care system, Yancey (1992; p.819) "postulated that their social maladaptation is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial socialization." This statement expresses the profound influence that society's attitudes can have on the identity development of ethnic adolescents, and indicates a direction in which interventions could improve the racial socialization practices among parents.

The effect…… [Read More]

Reference

Allison, B. (2001). Interpersonal identity formation during early adolescence. Adolescence, 36, 509-23.

Greig, R. (2003). Ethnic identity development: implications for mental health in African-American and Hispanic adolescents. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 24(3), 317-31.

Hughes, D. (2003). Correlates of African-American and Latino parents' messages to children about ethnicity and race: a comparative study of racial socialization. American Journal of community Psychology, 31(1-2), 15-33.

James, W., Kim, G., Armijo, E. (2000). The influence of ethnic identityon drug use among ethnic minority adolescents. Journal of Drug Education, 30(3), 265-80.
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Ethnic Self Identity

Words: 2394 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23316597

Introduction

According to Phinney and Alipuria (1987), ethnic self-identity is the sense of self that an individual feels; being a member of an ethnic group, along with the behavior and attitudes with that feeling (p. 36). The authors point out that the development of ethnic identity is an evolution from the point of an ethnic identity that is not examined through an exploration period, so as to resonate with a specified and attained ethnic identity (p. 38).

Ethnic identity refers to a feeling, attitude and identification of one with the behavior and character of people of a specified culture and cultural ethos. They often have a common origin, values, beliefs, practices, customs and other commonalities. Therefore, as opposed to the race concept in which the physical traits are the main controlling factor, ethnicity relates to the common values, beliefs and concepts help by a group of people (Yeh & Huang,…… [Read More]

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Ethnic Social Groups Issues Related to Ethnic

Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29754163

Ethnic Social Groups.

Issues elated to Ethnic Social Groups

In this paper we have discussed the issues African-Americans face in terms of employment, social stability and their identity as a separate ethnic community in the United States.

Sociological studies suggest that "black people" or "African-Americans" have always had little choice in the racial label given to them. esearch and literature on this subject states that unlike some racial/ethnic identities, the "black identity" is conveniently assigned rather than asserted; "blacks have few options when it comes to choosing a racial label" (waters 1990). However, it is a possibility that African-Americans have a choice to select how relevant this racial identity is and how they choose to attach themselves with it. This choice can lead to specific political point-of-views, how it affects ones social relationships, how it affects ones employment chances. It's an identity that is very seldom considered.

During the latter…… [Read More]

References

Hudson, J.B., & Hines-Hudson, B.M. (1999). A Study of the Contemporary Racial Attitudes of Whites and African-Americans. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 23(1), 22.

Buser, J.K. (2009). Treatment-Seeking Disparity between African-Americans and Whites: Attitudes toward Treatment, Coping Resources, and Racism. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 37(2), 94+.

Alston, R.J., & Bell, T.J. (1996). Cultural Mistrust and the Rehabilitation Enigma for African-Americans. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 62(2), 16+.

Savage, C.J. (2002). Cultural Capital and African-American Agency: The Economic Struggle for Effective Education for African-Americans in Franklin, Tennessee, 1890-1967. 206+.
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Ethnic Diversity in Democratic States

Words: 2937 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60953889



Ethnic minorities that were previously discriminated were provided with more chances of experiencing success in integrating the French society as a result of this measure. "The president also proposed requiring 100 large companies to experiment with recruitment based on anonymous CVs, to combat rampant discrimination against names revealing an immigrant origin" (Galliot, 2008). Even with the fact that Sarkozy appears to be determined about creating equal opportunities for ethnic minorities, conditions in France are critical because the president's set of programs are ineffective and particular groups are still discriminated on a daily basis. Considering that there was only one black individual in the French National Assembly in 2008, it is obvious that France was not prepared to deal with one of its main values-equality-at the time. "France officially has no minorities-everyone is by definition equal. The law prohibits statistics based on race or religion" (Harriss 2006). Although the general public…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Azouz Begag, Ethnicity and Equality: France in the Balance trans. Alec G. Hargreaves, (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007).

2. Esapzai, Samar. "True democracy or pseudo-democracy?" Retrieved December 5, 2010, from the Online Journal Website: http://onlinejournal.com/artman/publish/article_6125.shtml

3. Galliot, Lorena. "Promoting ethnic diversity through social criteria." Retrieved December 5, 2010, from the france24 Website: http://www.france24.com/en/20081218-promoting-ethnic-diversity-through-social-criteria-france-sarkozy-yazid-sabeg

4. Harriss, Joseph a. "Riots? What Riots?," the American Spectator, February 2006.
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Ethnic Cultures' Experience of Art

Words: 2675 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56733059



For example, the ethnic client who paints a huge red heart with an arrow piercing its center is communicating a universally understood message: I have been affected by love/passion/emotion.

Natalie Rogers, founder of the Person Centered Expressive Therapy Institute is a strong proponent of expressive art. In this form of art therapy, the ethnic client is encouraged to "express inner thoughts by creating outer forms."

When treating a client with art therapy, Ms. Rogers uses many techniques of expressive art: drawing, coloring, dancing, musical demonstrations, and the like.

Once these exercises are completed, the participants are encouraged to explore the nuances involved in the interaction: did communication occur? Was it a pleasant experience? Were boundaries an issue? Who led? Who followed?

Despite the fact that this work is not done solely with ethnically displaced clients, the premise remains the same; through expressive creativity, one's self may be realized, recognized, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Art Therapy, a Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: Brunner/Mazel,

Inc.

Burt, H. (1993). Issues in art therapy with the culturally displaced American Indian youth. Arts in Psychotherapy. 20: 143-151.

Cohen, B., Barnes, M., & Rankin, a. (1995). Managing Traumatic Stress Through Art. Maryland: Sidran Press.
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Ethnic Music Humanities A Origin and Development

Words: 3389 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49648099

Ethnic Music Humanities

a) Origin and Development of Traditional and Contemporary Ethnic Music

My personal experience in learning this subtopic reveals to me that music is a global cultural practice found in every known culture, both in the past and present, but with a wide variation with regards to time and place of practicing it. Since every ethnic group around the world, including some of the most secluded tribal groups, depicts their own forms of musical practices, I conclude that music might have been present among the ancestral populations prior to the dispersion of human populations around the world. This confirms that music must have been existing and evolving into different forms for over 50,000 years, and the first music might had been invented in Africa, which is regarded as the cradle of humankind. Then the music evolved through diverse parts of the world during human dispersion to become the…… [Read More]

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Ethnic Future of America the Evolution of

Words: 508 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16106886

Ethnic Future of America

The evolution of the United States has seen many changes in the racial and ethnic composition of its parts. It appears certain that the race will continue to meld, change and expand into new and interesting combinations that will fuse culture and traditions into new forms of society. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the cultural blending that will occur as an outcome of the changing ethnic and racial composition of the United States. This essay will discuss some specific outcomes that appear likely and contrast them to how today's world operates in this cultural evaluation.

Kenneth Prewitt, former director of the U.S. Census Bureau, has said of the United States that "we're on our way to becoming the first country in history that is literally made up of every part of the world." This suggest something special about America's time and place and…… [Read More]

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Identity in America Child of

Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76166705

The poet explains that it is very difficult for a multicultural individual to find his or her place in the world, as they are constantly attracted by cultural values present in a variety of civilizations. All of these cultures are present in her mind and she accepts them by becoming a part of a unique community encompassing a wide variety of ideas. Because she does not feel comfortable looking in the past for a cultural identity, she wants to live in the present. This makes it possible for her to identify with a single culture that recognizes her character and that promotes the belief that it is perfectly normal for an individual to live in accordance with customs present in a series of cultures.

Morales considers that culture is more important than race when it comes to the factors that influence a particular individual. A multicultural individual behaves different from…… [Read More]

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Ethnic Conflict II How Does

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83959174

Through policies of systematic discrimination and persecution of national minorities, Serb nationalists indirectly strengthened the radical wing of Albanian nationalist movements. The wing was represented by KSA (Kosovo Liberation Army). Most of the KSA leadership, Hedges writes, has formerly been imprisoned for separatist activities, and many were imprisoned by the Tito's communist government. The KSA's ideological base, Hedges writes, comes from a bizarre mixture of fascist and communist factions. Later in the 1990s, KSA began to receive financial and logistical support from Islamist radical groups in the Gulf States as well.

Hedges argues that KSA initially did not have the support of the majority. The radical group began to garner support after the policies pursued by Ibrahim Rugova have allegedly failed. The continuing mistreatment of Kosovo Albanians by the Serbian state and the inability of the international community to resolve the issue (for example, the European Union's recognition of Yugoslavia…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hedges, Chris. "Kosovo's Next Masters?" Foreign Affairs 78.3 (1999): 24-42.

Mertus, Julie. "Slobodan Milosevic: Myth and Responsibility." OpenDemocracy (16 March 2006).
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Ethnic Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship Studies

Words: 9953 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86285779

Timmons (1994) in his study presents a three-dimensional model of practical application of a good idea:

Comprehensive evaluation of the opportunity;

Comprehensive evaluation of one's own expertise and inclination; and Comprehensive evaluation of the resources gathering process to maintain the launch of business venture.

Long and McMullan (1984) propose that application of a good idea depends on two processes; namely, elaboration and evaluation. Singh (1998) found that those entrepreneurs who spend more time studying the pros and cons of an idea before embarking on its application tend to set up fewer businesses than those who spend less time in the elaboration and evaluation phase. However, Singh (1998) points out that higher majority of successful entrepreneurs are those who spend more time in elaboration and evaluation.

1.4 Traits of entrepreneurs

Wright et al. (1997a) studied motivational drivers of entrepreneurs and found that entrepreneurs are primarily driven by either one or both…… [Read More]

References

Adler, P. & Kwon, S. (2000). Social capital: The good, the bad and the ugly. In E. Lesser (Ed.), Knowledge and social capital: Foundations and applications (pp. 80-115). Boston: Butterworth-Heineman.

Aldrich, H. & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In D. Sexton and R. Smilor (Eds), the art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 3-23). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Aldrich, H., Rosen, B., and Woodward, W. (1987) "The impact of social networks on business foundings and profit: a longitudinal study," in Churchill, N.C., Hornaday, J.A., Kirchoff, B.A. et al. (eds) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Welles-ley, MA: Babson College.

Amabile, T.M. (1988) "A model of creativity and innovation in organizations," in Staw, B. And Cummings, L.L. (eds) Research in Organizational Behavior, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
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Identity Conflict Based on Social

Words: 3196 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70724004

In other words, the question that needs to be answered is, how did psycho-social identity differences create such deep rifts in a society that was in fact closely related by intermarriage and years of living closely together. This leads to the conclusion that there are other social and political factors that need to be taken into account in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the events, as well as how they impacted on the meaning of identity. .

Social Dominance and other theories

As noted above, the discussion and analysis of the causative features of this conflict and the concomitant effect of this analysis on possible resolution scenarios is largely dependent of the ability of the particular theoretical model to take into account the many variables of this conflict. In order to achieve a more holistic view of the conflict one has to take into account the fact…… [Read More]

References

Bigagaza J. et al. Land Scarcity, Distribution and Conflict in Rwanda. Retrieved from http://www.iss.co.za/PUBS/BOOKS/Scarcity+Surfeit/Chapter2.pdf.

Bird C. ( 2004) Status, Identity, and Respect. Political Theory, 32 ( 2).

Huddy L. ( 2001) From Social to Political Identity: A Critical Examination of Social Identity Theory. Political Psychology, 22 ( 1).

Identification. Retrieved from http://www.thefederationonline.org/events/Briefings/2006_SPSP_DHS/SPSP_Moreland_Sum.pdf
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Ethnic Cleansing Among African Tribes Ethnic Cleansing

Words: 3232 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31941427

Ethnic Cleansing Among African Tribes

Ethnic Cleansing

Can past and present campaigns for ethnic cleansing among some African tribes be attributed to illiteracy? While empirical evidence exists supporting some evidence that illiteracy may contribute a small amount to ethnic cleansing, it is not the primary impetus behind mass genocide. esearch shows that campaigns for ethnic cleansing among certain African tribes cannot be entirely prevented with only the eradication of illiteracy because of territorial conflicts, historical grievances and religious intolerance. Shaw (2003) notes that historically, territorial grievances and religious intolerance are among the top reasons for ethnic cleansing throughout the world. Consider the case of Hitler, where mass ethnic cleansing reached its peak, primarily for reasons including religious intolerance, with secondary factors including history and territorial imperialism. It is critical to gather qualitative evidence supporting this theory to attempt to salvage what little hope there is left for African nations that…… [Read More]

References:

Abdul-Jalil, M.A. (2006). "The dynamics of customary land tenure and natural resource management in Darfur," Land Reform, 2: 9-23 FAO.

A review of African past and historical troubles, including immense suffering in Darfur; study of conflicts between civil, government and religious institutions, and how these have resulted in calamity and ethnic cleansing.

Chua, A. (2004). World on fire: How exporting free market democracy breeds ethnic hatred and global instability. New York: Anchor Books.

Argues and analyzes how "market dominant" ethnic minority groups are often the primary targets for violence from poor majority, especially when opportunities arise from wealthy minority arise as in during elections to remove poor minority or eradicate poor minority from influence.
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Ethnic Chinese the Ethnic Differences

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14492694

Hundreds of Chinese people had been murdered and Chinese women had been raped and insulted in the streets in front of crowds of Indonesians. Some of the Chinese that escaped the massacre had taken refuge in the nearest countries.

The Indonesians have adopted an anti-Chinese nature in the recent decades and most Chinese are denied several human rights. On of the reasons for why Indonesians might hate Chinese people would be their wealth. In reality, the number of poor Chinese-Indonesians is far greater than that of the wealthy Chinese-Indonesians with most of them owning small businesses or having low-skilled jobs.

As a method of making Chinese leave the country, Indonesians have adopted a series of laws restricting Chinese people from following their customs and traditions in public display. Furthermore, names of Chinese origin had been forbidden, Chinese people being forced to choose Indonesian names.

According to Hoon Chang Yau, after…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harsono, Andreas. "Indonesian Chinese Fear Economic Discrimination." 2004. 5 Dec. 2008. http://andreasharsono.blogspot.com/2004/11/indonesian-chinese-fears-economic.html

Chinese Identity in Post-Suharto Indonesia: CY Hoon's New Book." Knowledge SMU. 4 Nov. 2008. 5 Dec. 2008. http://knowledge.smu.edu.sg/article.cfm?articleid=1173

The Chinese dilemma." BBC News. 1 Jun. 1999.
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Identity Formation as Multidimensional Concept

Words: 2625 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8259079



The practices significantly support the development of the immigrant children. The research indicates of the children experiencing interactions that are complex. This is with the respective peers when engaging in creative activities inclusive of gross motor and language arts (Donald et al., 2007). The creative activities reflect on open-ended aspects with the resultant stratification in shaping the initial academic progress of the immigrant children possibility. The application of the developmentally suitable practices in the primary setting of the immigrant children society positively influences the outcomes of the children (Donald et al., 2007).

The challenge faced in defining the developmentally fit strategies emphasizes on the child-centered approaches. The approaches relate to the developmental theory with the society directed instructions originating from the behaviorist perspective of the immigrant children. As a result of the theoretical course from which the child-centered practices derives, they reflects on the synonymous view with the appropriate practices.…… [Read More]

References

Bornstein, Marc H. And Cote, Linda R. (2004). Mothers' Parenting Cognitions in Cultures of Origin, Acculturating Cultures, and Cultures of Destination. Child Development,

January/February 2004, Volume 75, Number 1, Pages 221 -- 235. Retrieved from  http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/01650254.html 

Capps, R., Kenny, G., & Fix, M. (2003). Health insurance coverage of children in mixedstatus immigrant families (Snapshots of America's Children, No. 12).

Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
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Is a Private Identity a Curse or a Blessing

Words: 1314 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25702428

acial Identity: Blessing or Curse?

Today, in the United States, cultural and ethnic and racial sensitivity are all approached from the perspective of inclusiveness and equality. In that sort of social climate, the notion of racial identity has more positive connotations than negative ones, as everyone is encouraged to celebrate his or her heritage and to respect and value those of others. In that respect, racial identity is a positive thing that allows all of us to maintain a psychological familial connection to our ancestors and to our heritage in a positive way that adds value to our lives. However, racial identity is only beneficial when it is something of our own choosing and when we live in a society that values all people equally in that respect. It is quite another thing entirely when our racial identity is something that is foisted upon us, as members of a racial…… [Read More]

References

Hurston, Zora. (1928). "How It Feels To Be Colored Me." Retrieved Online:

 http://www.mrisakson.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/How_It_Feels_to_be_Colored_Me.pdf 

Rodriquez, Richard "Aria: A Memoir of A Bilingual Childhood." Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay. Eds. Robert DiYanni & Pat C. Hoy II. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, 2007. 501-508. Print.
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American Ethnic Literature Analyzing the Nature of

Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 351419

American Ethnic Literature

Analyzing the Nature of American Ethnic Literature

America has a distinct history: like ancient ome, its inhabitants have come from all over and few of them can truly say to be natives of the place. This fact alone makes American Literature a compelling label: what makes American Literature American? This paper will attempt to answer the question by showing how many ethnicities have converged in one nation allowing various writers with different ethnic, social, political, economical, and social perspectives to define and/or illustrate a time and place.

As Morris Dickstein states, "When America was merely a remote province of world culture, its educated elites were Anglophile, Francophile, or broadly cosmopolitan. Education was grounded in classical learning, a respect for the ancients over the moderns, and a deeply ingrained respect for old Europe's artistic heritage" (p. 155). This type of background made American letters similar to European. What…… [Read More]

Reference List

African-American Literature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 1-11.

Asian-American Lliterature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 2-12.

Casey, J.G. (n.d.). Canon Issues and Class Contexts. Radical Teacher 86, pp. 18-27.

Dickstein, M. (n.d.). Going Native. The American Scholar.
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Self Identity

Words: 1304 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34366673

Cheesman (2002) conducted a study on Karen identity in the Union of Myanmar with regards to historical and social conditions. The study found that Karen identity is a relatively difficult identity because individuals from this ethnic background do not have a common language, material attributes, religion and culture. While most of the existing assessments of this ethnic identity have been carried out in Thailand, it is largely influenced by historical and social conditions in the Union of Myanmar. Based on a review of contemporary Myanmar, people of Karen identity are seemingly virtuous, illiterate (uneducated), and oppressed. Many aspects relating to this identity appear to emphasize inferiority and subordination mostly because of mythology and modifications by the elite. Similar to the Union of Myanmar, Karen identity was brought by political dynamics and created by elite groups in the society.

The information provided in the article is accurate with regards to the…… [Read More]

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American Ethnic Literature There Are'so Many

Words: 2099 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52693344

American Ethnic Literature

There are so many different voices within the context of the United States. This country is one which is built on cultural differences. Yet, for generations the only voices expressed in literature or from the white majority. Contemporary American ethnic literature is important in that it reflects the multifaceted nature of life in the United States. It is not pressured by the white majority anymore, but is rather influenced by the extremely varying experiences of vastly different individuals, as seen in the works of alph Ellison's Invisible Man, Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," and Cathy Song's poem "Lost Sister." American ethnic literature speaks for minority voices, which have long been excluded in earlier generations of American society.

American ethnic literature has developed enormously over the last few centuries, and especially within the context of just the last few decades. In today's literary world, it…… [Read More]

References

Anzaldua, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." Borderland / La Frontera. Web.  http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/calabj/282/how%20to%20tame%20wild%20tongue.pdf 

Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Vintage International. 1995.

Franco, Dean J. Ethnic American Literature: Comparing Chicano, Jewish, and African-American Writing. University of Virginia Press. 2006.

Lee, Robert A. Multicultural American Literature: Comparative Black, Native, Latino/a and Asian-American Fictions. University Press of Mississippi. 2003.
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Female Identity Formation in New

Words: 6659 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18095462



It is for this reason that one could reasonably argue that Precious' entire life, and particularly the trials and tribulations she must endure, including her violent family life, her poverty, and her illiteracy, all ultimately stem from her racial and ethnic background, because the pervasive, institutional racial inequalities that still exist in America served to structure her entire life. Even before she began she was already disadvantaged by being born a black woman in the United States, because the United States maintains a system of social, economic, and political inequality that disproportionately impoverishes the black population. Thus, in broad strokes, one can say that all of the major events in Precious' life are a result of her ethnic background and the meaning American society places on that category of difference.

Perhaps more than any of the novels discussed here, Push manages to make the idea of difference as a form…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chattalas, Michael, and Holly Harper. "Navigating a Hybrid Cultural Identity: Hispanic

Teenagers' Fashion Consumption Influences." The Journal of Consumer Marketing 24.6

(2007): 351-.

Chodorow, Nancy. Feminism and psychoanalytic theory. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University
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Muslim Youth Identity in biculturalism america

Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51982004

Identity and Identity Construction

Identity is socially constructed, a process that begins at an early age. Child rearing practices at home and school and community socialization begin the process of identity construction (Rogoff, 2003). As the individual constructs his or her own identity, exogenous forces also shape that individual's identity such as reactions to the way a person's appearance. For visible minorities, belonging to closely-knit communities in small groups can greatly enhance the process of identity construction, particularly for minority youth (Bratt, 2015). This remains true throughout the young person's life, including the person's transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Adolescence remains the critical point of identity construction, holding "a special role in virtually all cultures as a time of transition between childhood and adulthood," (Cauce, Cruz, Corona, & Conger n.d., p. 14). Therefore, it makes sense to focus on adolescence and young adulthood when investigating biculturality among Muslim American…… [Read More]

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Chicano Identity in Literature Culture in My

Words: 1092 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72503356

Chicano Identity in Literature

Culture

In "My Name" by Sandra Cisneros, the principle character's name is Esperanza. Esperanza's problem, at first, seems only to be displeasure with her name. She is certainly displeased with her name. She is disappointed with the meaning of her name in her native tongue, Spanish. She is frustrated and perplexed with the persistent difficulty that Americans have pronouncing her Chicana name. Esperanza wishes she could be lucky, like her sister, who can come home and have a different name, a prettier name, an easier name than her proper first name.

As the story progresses, readers learn that Esperanza's central problem is greater than her name. Her problem is with the history and the legacy of her name. She was named after her grandmother. Esperanza is somewhat conflicted about her connection and her similarities with her grandmother. One on hand, she does not like her name,…… [Read More]

References:

Baugh, S.L. (ed) (2006) Mediating Chicana/o Culture: Multicultural American Vernacular. Cambridge Scholars Press: Cambridge, UK.

Bernal, D.D. (2002) Critical Race Theory, Latino Critical Theory, and Critical Raced-Gendered Epistemologies: Recognizing Students of Color as Holds and Creators of Knowledge. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 105 -- 126.

Cuadraz, G.H. (2005) Chicanas and Higher Education: Three Decades of Literature and Thought. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 4(3), 215 -- 234.

Deutsch, S. (1994) Gender, Labor History, and Chicano/a Ethnic Identity. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 14(2), 1 -- 22.
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Racial Identity Complexities and Potential in Cross-Cultural

Words: 3485 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15192106

acial Identity

Complexities and Potential in Cross-Cultural Counseling

In 1897 the French sociologist Emile Durkheim wrote about the influence of culture on suicide rates among different groups. He found that while suicide seems to be the most private and most individualistic choice that a person can make (what could be more private than the dialogue that an individual has with eternity, after all) cultural values still hold sway. His research has been criticized over the decades, but its central point remains valid. Culture seeps into every level of both our conscious and unconscious behaviors, and therefore must be attended to in every aspect of the therapeutic process. However, while at least most therapists as well as most of those individuals studying to become therapists are certainly aware of this fact, this awareness does not necessarily translate into sufficient care taken to minimize the harm that cross-cultural misunderstandings or blindnesses that…… [Read More]

References

Bimrose, J. (1996). Multiculturalism, in Bayne, R., Horton, I. & Bimrose, J. (Eds.) New directions in counseling. London: Routledge.

Fouad, N. et al. (2012). Qualitative study of the dislocated working class. Journal of career development 39, 287-310.

LaFromboise, T., Trimble, J., & Mohatt, G. (1990). Counseling intervention and American Indian tradition: An integrative approach.The counseling psychologist 18(4), 628-654.

Jones, A.C. (1985). Psychological functioning in black Americans: A conceptual guide for use in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy 22 (2), 363-369.
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Tame a Wild Tongue Language and Identity

Words: 1560 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68013749

Tame a Wild Tongue

Language and Identity in Anzaldua How to Tame a Wild Tongue

How to Tame a Wild Tongue is a fascinating internal expose of the evolution and development of language among immigrants of Spanish linguistic heritage. Gloria Anzaldua recognizes herself as a "blended" individual who speaks and contributes to a myriad of native and blended languages that are all varied and regionally expressive of both native Mexican and other "Chicano" immigrants as well as many of this heritage which were born in the U.S. To new immigrants or second generation immigrants to the U.S. Or even some who were isolated linguistically from their mother tongue by political borders. The work is powerful and expressive; it also lends itself to an internalized (externalized) idea of self. Anzaldua specifically discusses the cultural connections and disconnections that are created by language and its evolution and also addresses issues of internal…… [Read More]

References

Anzaldua, G. (1993). "How To Tame a Wild Tongue." Ways of Reading: An Anthology for Writers. Eds. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky. Boston: Bedford, 39-48. Print.

Fought, C. (2008). "On the borderlands of communities: Taking linguistic research to la frontera." Plenary talk at-New Ways of Analyzing Variation 37?(NWAV-37), 8 November, Houston, Texas. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from: http://nwav37.rice.edu/abstracts/Fought_Preston.pdf.

Lynch-Biniek, A. (Summer/Fall 2009) Filling in the blanks: They say, I say, and the persistence of formalism. The CEA Forum 38 (2) Retrieved December 10, 2010 from: http://www2.widener.edu/~cea/382lynchbiniek.htm.
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Hawaiian Ethnic Cultures When People Think About

Words: 2151 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24354739

Hawaiian Ethnic Cultures

When people think about Hawaii, they tend to think in terms of its island people. Polynesian or Asian perceptions often come to mind because of our familiarity with the influence of the Japanese, Chinese and Filipino peoples. But the fact is that Hawaii is very much flavored by other national and ethnic influences too, including the those of two distinct Hispanic groups, the Puerto icans and the Portuguese, whose impacts have been all but forgotten (Mira, 2008).

In the simplest of terms, the differing historical perceptions of these two groups arises from the fact that one (the Portuguese) was seen positively viewed before their initial influx occurred. The other, the Puerto icans, suffered more from the timing of their migration in regards to other non-Hispanic ethnicities and because of the degree of surprise that came from their more forced integration. The Portuguese were basically blessed with having…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Baker, Susan. Understanding Mainland Puerto Rican Poverty. Temple University, 2002.

Camacho Souza, Blase. Trabajo y Tristeza: "Work and Sorrow:" The Puerto Ricans of Hawaii, 1900-1902.

Lopez, Iris and David Forbes. Borinki identity in Hawai'i: present and future. Centro Journal, Vol. XIII, Num. 1, 2001, pp. 110-127. New York.

McDermott, John, F., Wen-Shing Tseng and Thomas Maretzki, People and cultures of Hawaii: A Psychocultural Perspective.pp. 100-110. (1980).
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Identity Class Has Been an

Words: 2473 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26782061

This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.

The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…… [Read More]

References

Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic

Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.

Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.

Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
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Identity Culture

Words: 1209 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42072383

cultures and identities in today's world. The author explores the different dimensions that influence individuals and identities and how it impacts the way society operates in the world. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

As the world continues to evolve, societal changes are taking place. Globalization contributes to the melting pot called earth and as societal barriers come down, people have a chance to learn about other cultures throughout the globe. Wars, religions, education aspirations and other elements of daily life are impacted by one's identity. Whether one wants to be a scientist, housewife, rabbi or actor their personal identity has an impact on that desire being developed. Another important factor in how identity develops is the culture in which one is raised. Cultural differences play a strong part in the development of identity. They are similar yet different as their individual elements overlap and separate to…… [Read More]

References

The reasons behind Iraq's rebellion; The Iraqis felt liberated, not defeated, and there is a powerful Muslim reluctance to be ruled by non-Muslims

Jewish Advocate, The; April 22, 2004; Pipes, Daniel

The Middle East: some new realities and old problems.

International Social Science Review; June 22, 2003; Bargeron, Carol L.
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Ethnic Racial and Religious Group Is Subject

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4659940

ethnic, racial, and religious group is subject to stereotyping from others. This means that there are terms and ideas prescribed to a group of people based on certain characteristics that makes assumptions on those individuals because of these assumed characteristics. Stereotypes are rarely if ever based upon true characteristics but upon archaic and prejudicial ideas. There are both positive and negative stereotypes, but even ones that seem to compliment the specific group are still offensive because they give all individuals in that group the same characteristics, denying the people their individuality. Stereotypes are some of the most prevalent and ingrained ideas within the society. Even people who understand the fallacy of stereotyping and do not believe in them are aware of the terms applied to certain groups and may find themselves buying into some of them on a subconscious level. This is because these ideas have become conditioned into the…… [Read More]

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Ethnic and Minority Relations 1960s

Words: 3997 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82429691

Wearin' of the Green

An Irish-American's Journey

Margaret-Mary clutched her daughter's tiny hand. Watched with pride as the five-year-old waved the little Irish Flag in her other hand. It was a cold, blustery day, but then it always was on St. Patrick's Day. Yet as Margaret-Mary braved the wind and the crowds, she didn't feel the least bit cold. Never did, but especially not today. It wasn't just that today she was sharing a special moment -- a communion if you will -- with all her Irish brothers and sisters the world over. No, it was more than that. This was a day long looked forward to, a day that had demanded special preparations like getting up at five in the morning, wrapping Colleen in the embracing warmth of a sweater of real Irish wool -- green of course --and rushing off into the frigid pre-dawn to wait for the…… [Read More]

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Race and Ethnic Relations History

Words: 2599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28621843

Sooner than expected, the place became populated with variation of races - natives and whites.

The place, now called as the New Brooklyn has the following characteristics (Hampson, 2003 pp 14):

Big area which can accommodate more or less 100,000 residents

The population is fast growing, with a 110% growth rate

The populace are racially and ethnically diverse

These characteristics of the area provided positive and negative impact to the people living in it. First, the hugeness of the face offers more housing and business spaces for the people. This would of course ensure that every family will have a place to own. In the same manner, this will also ensure that a number of employment opportunities will be opened to the public. However the hugeness of the place could also mean that there are more issues that people could fight about. The populace can fight about land ownership. Unhealthy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dakst, D. "New Americans Fresh off the Presses," the NY Times Washington Street Journal, Pp 3-11, Spring 2003.

Gonzales, D. "At 40-year Bronx Beach Party, Who Needs Sand?" NY Times, pp 17-19

Hampson, R. "New Brooklyn's Replace White Suburbs," USA Today, pp 14-16, 19 May 2003.

Kinzie S. "Conflicting Images of Amish Life," the Washington Post, pp 9-10, 28 July 2004.
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Egyptian Identity the Identity of

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6062032

They are about as related as say the Italians are to the Irish. The modern population of Egypt is largely composed of what anthropologists refer to as people of "Eastern-Hamitic Stock." This means that modern (as well as ancient) Egyptians are more closely related to the North African Berbers, Tuaregs, Fulas, and Tibbus than to Negroes. Egyptian Negroes live in the southern part of the country (which borders on ancient Nubia) and account for less than 1% of the modern population of Egypt.

This may seem a blow to the "out of Africa" advocates regarding the emergence of Western Civilization (so-called) but it really isn't. These Eastern-Hamitic people have their origins in Africa, so it doesn't really change anything, and yes, they are predominantly black. The ancient word the Egyptians used for their own country was KMT -- pronounced Kemet -- and it means "black land," and may refer to…… [Read More]

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Racial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts a

Words: 1999 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45324950

acial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts

A sociologist analyze racial ethnic differences national contexts. For, U.S., tend race a . In order develop skill, select analyze a society demonstrating ethnic stratification conflict, including evidence prejudice discrimination.

In sociology, the predominant line of thought has favored new prejudice interpretations, arguing for the continuing relevance of prejudice and discrimination in forming political opinions and in generating discrimination. New prejudice theories have argued that modern prejudice is multidimensional, combining racial and ostensibly nonracial beliefs. Little known to most sociologists, recent psychological research provides a new approach to understanding the sources of racial discrimination that compliments ideas from the new prejudice literature (Livingston, 2002).

esearch has demonstrated that implicit racial attitudes exist even for individuals who score low on measures of explicit racial prejudice and that these implicit beliefs influence judgments and perceptions. This literature provides one way to reconcile differences between continuing high…… [Read More]

References

Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. (2000). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 189-208.

Census Bureau U.S. (2001). (2001). The Hispanic population: 1990-2000 growth and change., . Washington DC:: Guzmin.

Feather, N.T. (2002). Values and value dilemmas in relation to judgments concerning outcomes of an industrial conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,, 28(2), 446-459.

Issacharoff, S., Karlan, P.S., & Pildes, R.H. (2002). The law of democracy: Legal structure of the political process (Rev. 2nd ed.). . New York: Foundation Press.
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Language and Identity

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99910380

Language/Identity

Language and Identity

A large part of culture has to do with the language that people speak. It is a unifying concept that allows a group of people to identify one another as belonging to the same group. It does matter how the group is bounded, usually more by geographical bounds than ethnic of racial, it matters more how the person related to the world through the spoken word. This paper looks at the culture of the Caribbean, especially those people who were brought to the region as slaves from the African continent, and how they have maintained their identity through the commonality of language.

Many examples exist in literature that solidify the notion that language and identity are very closely intertwined. As a matter of fact, one author states "Language and identity are inseparable. The quest for identity is another prevalent concern in Caribbean literature" (Dance 5). hy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bennett-Coverly, Louise. "Colonization in Reverse." 1966. Web.

Dance, Daryl Cumber. Fifty Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographic-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1986. Print.

Morris, Mervyn. "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously." Caribbean Quarterly 28.1/2 (1982): 44-56.

Narain, Denise DeCaires. Contemporary Caribbean women's Poetry: Making Style. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.
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Psychology of Multiculturalism Identity Gender and the Recognition of Minority Rights

Words: 3160 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61791660

Psychology of Multiculturalism: Identity, Gender, And the Recognition of Minority Rights

This paper looks at the issue of multiculturalism, its development, its use by society and the ways in which the field of psychology have reacted towards, and used, multiculturalism. Firstly, a brief history of the meaning of multiculturalism will be entered in to, next a brief discussion of the work of five authors (in particular Kymlicka, Taylor and Gerd) who have been influential in the development of research about multiculturalism will be presented, and then the psychology of multiculturalism will be discussed, from the viewpoint of how multiculturalism has been embraced by psychologists.

What exactly is multiculturalism? Everyone has a different idea of the meaning of this word in their minds, and consequently many different meanings of multiculturalism float around in the literature and in popular speak. Multiculturalism has gained particular significance in the United States, where there have…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gerd, B. (1999). The Multicultural Riddle: Rethinking National, Ethnic, and Reliogious Identities (Zones of Religion). Routledge.

Gordon, W and Newfield, W. (2000). Mapping Multiculturalism.

Kymlicka, Will. (1995). Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford University Press.

Kymlicka, W. And Norman, W. (2000). Citizenship in Diverse Societies. Oxford University Press.
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Emergence of an American Ethnic Pattern by Nathan Glazer

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19843900

Against the Emergence of an American Ethnic Pattern by Nathan Glazer

In the text, The Emergence of an American Ethnic Pattern by Nathan Glazer, the author argues that affirmative action is creating a 'tribal' America. Rather than a cohesive American identity, Glazer argues that Americans are becoming increasingly identified with their personal racial, religious and ethnic differences. Glazer states that this stands in defiance of the fact that "the United States has become the first great nation that defines itself not in terms of ethnic origin but in terms of adherence to common rules of citizenship." However, Glazer confuses this idealized view of American history with the realities of discrimination that have been perpetuated upon minorities, and which minorities continue to suffer in America. Glazer argues his case as if America were not a nation with a history marked by racial divisiveness, despite the goal of racial harmony advocated by…… [Read More]

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Exploring the Relationship of Identity to Diversity Beliefs and Values

Words: 2440 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5343268

Cook/Identity/Page Number

Of "Identity" to Diversity

Identity

Tyler Cook

Self-reflect on how your family affected your beliefs and values. Describe at least two specific examples from your memory. Also include reflections on how your family shaped your views, and how that affects your feelings about diversity-related issues.

Self-Reflections on Childhood, Family, and Family Attitudes about Diversity

In self-reflecting on how my family affected my present beliefs and values, and my current attitudes about diversity, my main recollections are of being from a relatively well-off family, but of also of being surrounded as a child by other families that were less well-off, and sometimes of diverse ethnic backgrounds. I am a Caucasian male, and was raised in a series of small Midwestern areas where there were many families with lower-than- average incomes, although my own family was fortunate enough to not be one of them. Still, I feel that based on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Child Development Institute. "Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers." Child Development Institute. Retrieved October 15, 2005, from:
erickson.shtml>.

Habke, Audrey, and Ron Sept. "Distinguishing Group and Cultural Influences in Inter-Ethnic Conflict: A Diagnostic Model." Canadian Journal of Communication (CJC). Vol. 18, No. 4 (1993). Retrieved October 15, 2005,

from: .
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Culture and Identity the Combined

Words: 4601 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89391251

A widely quoted and interesting functioning definition has been provided by Geert Hofstede who suggests that culture should be considered as software of a person's mind. He is reported to have said that each individual possesses certain patterns and forms of contemplation, emotions and possible acting that they have probably acquired during their life (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).

Most of these patterns have been obtained through their early childhood experiences as those are the time when an individual is most likely to acquire learning and build on it. Just the way a computer regards its "thought processes" and functioning as its software, the patterns or formations of thinking, experiencing and carrying out psychological processes in an individual can be referred to as the software program of the mind (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).

However, this does not imply, most definitely that individuals are supposed to function or behave as a computer…… [Read More]

Valentine, V. (1995). Opening up the Black Box: Switching the Paradigm of Qualitative Research. ESOMAR Seminar, Paris, 6-8th December, 25-47. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.

Waterman, a.S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review, 19, 591 -- 621. Taken from SETH, J.H., et al. (2010). The Relationships of Personal and Cultural Identity to Adaptive and Maladaptive Psychosocial Functioning in Emerging Adults. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(1), 1 -- 33

Williams, R. (1976), Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Fontana, London. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
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biculturalism and how to create multiple Identities

Words: 2014 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53421669

A number of studies have been done in recent years to explore the unique effects of a bicultural identity, how a bicultural identity is formed, and what forms a bicultural identity will take. Research integrates assimilation theories as well as social constructionism. The reasons for the emerging literature include improving psychological health and well-being, improving social and cultural health, and also reducing or eliminating racism and negative stereotyping. Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) point out "83% of Muslim individuals reported an increase in implicit racism and discrimination following September 11th," making the Muslim-American cultural, ethnic, and religious cohort one of the most important populations in America to understand through sociological data (Elashi, Mills & Grant, 2009, p. 379). Discrimination may be related to the dominant or white culture's fear of non-integration of existing or new immigrants and perceived threats to an imaginary cohesiveness of the dominant culture -- something that…… [Read More]

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Brazil Ethnic Issues

Words: 2371 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63735007

Brazilian Ethnic Issues

The racial / ethnic composition of Brazilians is quite different from the racial / ethnic make up of people in the United States, and unique in the world in many respects. How is the government dealing with ethnic and racial relations within their very large and culturally diverse country? This paper will review the literature on the dynamics (and history) of this multi-ethnic, multi-racial South American nation. And in addition some aspects of ethnicity and racial data in Brazil will be compared and contrasted with those data in the United States.

Racism is Learned, Justified, and Reinforced

According to author Benjamin P. Bowser, racism is "…a historic and cultural belief (in one race's inferiority and in another's superiority) that has been used by national elites" in order to continue a kind of "social stratification" that leans in their favor (Bowser, 1995, p. 285). Racism has been "very…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bowser, Benjamin P. (1995). Racism and Anti-Racism in World Perspective. Thousand Oaks,

CA: SAGE Publications.

Daniel, G. Reginald. (2010). Race and Multiraciality in Brazil and the United States:

Converging Paths? University Park, PA: Penn State Press.
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Immigrant Labor and Identity Politics

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56422578

Immigrant Labor and Identity Politics

This article discusses the passage of Proposition 187 by California voters, and the ramifications this clearly racial legislation has for the country, and for minorities in the country. The article talks about what Hispanics and other minorities could have lost with the legislation, and what types of people supported the Proposition. In addition, the author notes how politicians reacted to the legislation, and how it played into the hands of some racist politicians and organizations. In addition, the author notes how historically, minorities have suffered at the hands of white aggressors, and how this continues in the present day. The author notes that many ethnic groups are banding together to form cohesive units to fight oppression and racism. As the author writes, "Political struggle, social analysis, and social theory are mutually constitutive; each is better when linked to the other" (68). This article not only…… [Read More]

References

Immigrant Labor and Identity Politics."
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Culturally Bases Interview Identity Interview Amount to

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89520795

Culturally Bases Interview

Identity

Interview amount to stress at whatever point and wherever they take place. In one's own particular nation or society, it is less demanding to recognize what is in store and how to validate. Interview in a nation other than one's own can be a difficult experience. The way of life being referred to in this task is Mexican and takes unmistakable fascination on the individual's character. Along these lines, I decided to interview a Mexican. My thoughts, initially on this social component include: the capacity of the possibility to exhibit a capability to structure powerful work connections through a mix of individual and expert data; expect the contender to carry on as per his or her family's status in the social and financial values of importance; expect the possibility to utilize pleasantry, (for example, analogies and metaphors), humor, or cultural and/or historical references to show his…… [Read More]

References

Green, R. (2013, January 18). 4 Steps to Self-Actualization and Becoming the Best Version of You. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/r-kay-green/personal-development_b_2479253.html 

Multi-Cultural Counseling Competencies and Standards. (2012). Retrieved February 7, 2015, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/97110591/MultiCultural-Counseling-Competencies-and-Standards#scribd http://www.scribd.com/doc/97110591/MultiCultural-Counseling-Competencies-and-Standards

Neyer, A.K., & Harzing, A.W. (2008). The impact of culture on interactions: Five lessons learned from the European Commission. European Management Journal, 26(5), 325-334.

Ortiz, V., & Telles, E. (2012).Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican-Americans. Race and Social Problems, 4(1), 10.1007/s12552-012-9064-8.doi:10.1007/s12552-012-9064-8
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Race and Ethnic Inclusion and Exclusion

Words: 2122 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68686670

Race and Ethnic Inclusion and Exclusion

In Ira erlin's (1998) Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America, the author shows how groups in the U.S. struggled to exclude other groups. White people made a serious effort to exclude black people from anything other than the most menial jobs for a very long time (Davidson, 2005; Gasorek, 1998). The desire to exclude was based on skin color and race, but there was also an element of inclusion in that black people were included in one group based on their skin color, and were not seen as individuals who were unique people based on their own merits (Sherif, 1967; Tajfel & Turner, 1979).

lack people struggled to gain access to institutions and status as they developed their own identities in an area with which they were unfamiliar (erlin, 1998). They became soldiers and worked as artisans, along…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berlin, Ira. 1998. Many thousands gone: The first two centuries of slavery in North America. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Davison, K.N. (2005). The mixed race experiment: Treatment of racially categorized individuals under title VII. Law journal library, 12: 161-164.

Gasorek, Dory. 1998. Inclusion at Dun & Bradstreet: Building a high-performing company. The Diversity Factor 8(4).

Hyter, Michael C. & Turnock, Judith L. 2006. The power of inclusion: Unlock the potential and productivity of your workforce. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
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Jewish Identity or the Way

Words: 1461 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61663017



Jewish Identity in Modern Times: Jonathan Sacks, in an article Love, Hate and Jewish Identity appropriately sums up the dilemma of Jewish self-identity in modern times by stating: "Until the beginning of the 19th century, Jews defined themselves as the people loved by God. Since then most Jews...have defined themselves as the people hated by Gentiles." This is probably because in pre-modern times, the Jewish child felt no significant 'identity conflict' as he grew up into adulthood in isolated, self-contained Jewish communities. This state of relatively secure Jewish 'self-identity' was, however, severely disrupted by the advent of enlightenment in modern times, which forced the Jewish community to interact with the political, cultural, and economic forces outside their limited, self-contained Jewish society.

Jewish self-identity in modern times, however, is not as simplistic as stated by Sacks. According to Michael a. Meyer, apart from enlightenment (which is an ongoing process), the other…… [Read More]

References

History of the Jews." (n.d.) History World. Retrieved on April 5, 2007 at http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=413&HistoryID=aa42

Meyer, M.A. (1990). Jewish Identity in the Modern World. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Sacks, J. (1997, November). "Love, Hate and Jewish Identity." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 26+.

The negative Jewish identity also gave rise to Jewish self-hatred; Karl Marx, himself a Jew, once wrote that Judaism was not a religion or a peoplehood but the egoistic desire for gain, and the love of money. (Meyer, 40)
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Cultural Identity We Are All

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35389105

" Taking into consideration these three stages, I would position myself in the second stage - that of cultural identity search. I am aware of my cultural background and I always have been, but the fact that I live in the multicultural American society made it hard for me to fully embrace my cultural heritage. I am at a stage in my life when I feel the need to understand my culture in order to better understand who I am. The fact that I am aware of my cultural appurtenance does not mean that I completely embrace my cultural identity. Learning about my cultural heritage is the path towards better understanding who I am and identifying myself with the cultural group that I belong to.

ibliography

Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan;

Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;

Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.

Chapter 6, Cultural…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Culture of Pakistan, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Pakistan;

Sharmeen, Hassan, the Pakistani identity crisis, available at http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2004/oct04/08/04.html;

Chapter 4, Cultural Patterns andCcommunication: Foundations.

Chapter 6, Cultural Identity, Cultural Biases, and Intercultural Contact.
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Polisci American Political Identity Has

Words: 1937 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41363054

" Real Americans support the right of religious people to worship, and would never base legislation on a religious conviction rather than a conviction based on constitutional rights, constitutional law, and Enlightenment ethics.

American political identity is continually changing also because of the incredible ethnic and cultural diversity within the nation's borders. hen gender, sexual identity, socio-economic class, and other factors are also included in the mix, America's political philosophy is naturally heterogeneous. hen new immigrants enter the United States, they contribute to the common ideals of a nation founded on principles like universal liberty and justice. "Debates about immigration and national identity cut to the core of our national self-image as a nation of immigrants, and invariably includes allusions to the past -- real and idealized -- as a way of under- standing and coping with social and demographic changes today," (Segura 278). hite supremacist Americans are currently in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brooks, David "One Nation, Slightly Divisible." The Atlantic Monthly; Dec 2001; 288, 5; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 53

Hartz "The Concept of a Liberal Society"

Hooks, Bell. "Postmodern Blackness." 19 Apr 1994.

King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 16 April 1963.
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My Perceived Identity

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56240136

thinksI am primarily defined by my Asian identity. I am an immigrant from China, so naturally the first thing people think about me when they see me is that I am a Chinese-American. Of course, when I lived in China, this was not a part of my perceived identity. People just saw me as "normal" in respect to my ethnicity. But that does not mean that people did not prejudge me, even when I was the same race and culture as my fellow classmates.

I am very tall (5'9) so people would often ask me if I was a model. 5'9 is tall for any woman, but particularly in China. Because of my height, I always stood out. Worse, my growth spurt happened in middle school, so I looked very different from my classmates. I appeared to be much older than I actually was and people would often treat me…… [Read More]

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Tie Us Together Ethnic Literature

Words: 3110 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10083942

Both Tayo and Crowe begin their journeys wandering between two worlds. Both are aware of their wandering and are constantly searching for an identity that will allow them to find the world and identity in which they are most suitable for inclusion. Similarly, both Crowe and Tayo experience a traumatic event that leaves them haunted not only by their pasts, but also guilty about their own actions in the past and sure that these actions have caused others pain. Additionally, these hauntings result in both Tayo and Crowe pushing away the ones they love. For Crowe it is his wife and for Tayo, his family. The similarities between the characters of Tayo and Crowe, therefore, suggest the truth of Saez and insbro's claims. Ethnic writers Shyamalan and Silko certainly employ a common theme of exclusion and inclusion, a theme that is encompassed by the larger theme of the presence of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Sixth Sense. Dir. M.Night Shyamalan. Perf. Bruce Willis, Haley Joel Osment. 1999.

Vidocassette, 2000.

Santiago, Esmeralda. America's Dream. New York, Harper: 1997.

Saez, Barbara J. "Varieties of the Ethnic Experience: A Review" the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States. 27.4 (2002): 204-207.
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Race Ethnic Relations Book Comparison

Words: 1759 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38850394

In Kingston's more feminine rendering of identity, although she resists the ideals of silence and sexual repression, she accepts the idea that women have more permeable boundaries of selfhood and stronger ties to their family in the telling of her text.

Both works point to the inexorability of the past, especially for individuals of ethnic or racial minorities who consider themselves 'other.' Obama is 'other' because of his multiethnic heritage that alienates him from parents as well as friends, and because of the Americanness that separates him from his father. Kingston sees herself as Chinese, but female in a culture as well as a nation that mistrusts this aspect of a woman's self. Both make claims to how their lives speak for other lives -- Obama explicitly with his overly political narration, and his determination to use his struggle as fuel for success as an advocate of community enfranchisement, Kingston…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kingston, Hong Maxine. The Woman Warrior. Vintage, 1989

Obama, Barak. Dreams from my Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance.

Three Rivers Press, 2004.
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Diversity and Lesbian Gay Bisexual Identity

Words: 1990 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38736463

Diversity Issues for Lesbian, Homosexual and isexual People

The 21st Century has brought us new and greater understanding of issues surrounding diversity as it pertains to lesbian and bisexual issues. In the past it was assumed that homosexuality represented a deviant manifestation of some form of mental illness. It was not until the late 1950s (Hooker, 1957) that this idea began to be questioned as an absolute and the lifestyle brought into closer study. It is to be the purpose of this paper to review issues surrounding the homosexual, lesbian and bisexual lifestyle, to identify the general nature of the lifestyle as it exists today and to examine the state of diversity issues as they pertain to this group.

Introduction

As previously mentioned, for many years homosexuality and lesbianism, as well as bisexuality were classified as mental illness. Evelyn Hooker (1957) was one of the first to do in depth…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chan, C. (1992). Asian-American lesbians and gay men. In S. Dworkin and F. Gutierrez (Eds.), Counseling gay men and lesbians: Journey to the end of the rainbow (pp. 115-124). Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development.

Chan, C. (1995). Issues of sexual identity in an ethnic minority: The case of Chinese-American lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. In A. DiAugelli & C. Patterson (Eds.), Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the life span (pp. 87-101). New York: Oxford University Press.

Fox, R. (1996). Bisexuality in perspective: A review of theory and research. In B. Firestein (Ed.), Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp. 3-50). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Frost, J. (1997). Group psychotherapy with the gay male: Treatment of choice. Group, 21(3), 267-285.
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Hispanic vs Latino an Identity Debate

Words: 1205 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17549738

Hispanic vs. Latino

In these times of political correctness and cultural awareness and sensitivity, it is very important to know the right term when discussing a people or their culture. It is very easy to offend without intending to so or to cause emotional pain through ignorance. This is why it has become increasingly important to know the right cultural term for a given population. People with Mexican heritage have interchangeably been referred to by the terms Hispanic or Latino for many years. Lately, it has become necessary to create a single identifying term so that the group feels unified and no one feels at all slighted by a term they deem to be in any way offensive to themselves or their culture. Many cultural critics have argued that the term Hispanic is more offensive that Latino because it the term was created by the government and Latino was the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beretto, Holly." Cuts, by Budget. "Cultural Uniqueness: Hispanic vs. Latino | USARiseUp.

Cubias, Daniel. "Hispanic vs. Latino: What's in a Name?" Latino Like Me.

Granados, Christine. "Hispanic vs. Latino." Hispanic Magazine. Dec 2000.

Grech, Dan and Jose Maya. "Episode 4: Hispanic vs. Latino."
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Private and Public Identity

Words: 3093 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18487403

Clash of Identities

Is a private identity a curse or a blessing? Is it necessary or valid to hide who you really are? According to "Aria: Memoir of a bilingual childhood" by Richard Rodriguez and "How it feels to be colored me" by Zora Hurston, creating a private identity and leaving your public identity behind, may be necessary, especially living, growing or entering an environment where it is not that accepting to cultural differences, there is probably not other culture during these times such as the exchange students from the Islam culture from the Azerbaijan State that can relate. "You need to study abroad! In the United States!" are two sentences many high school seniors, that do not live in the United States, hear from their mothers, fathers and counselors. There is a current obsession for children to get educated in the United States. The Azerbaijan State has gone as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Author's last name, first name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year.

Author's last name, first name. "Title of Article." Title of Publication Date Published: Pages.

Author's last name, first name. "Title of Online Article." Title of Online Publication Version (Year Published): Pages. Date Accessed .

"Title of Article." Title of Media. CD-ROM. City: Publisher, Year.