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In seven weeks, I conducted seven separate field observations in two different gym settings. Amid the clanks of weights, metal on metal, and the grunts and groans of young men, I conducted detailed observations and compiled a series of field notes. My research focus was on differences between age, gender, and socio-economic class with regards to attitudes towards working out, gym culture, and the use of supplements including steroids. One of the research settings was Dean's Gym in Murrysville. The other gym was the Power Center at Duquesne University. At both places, my role was as active participant-observer. As a member of one of the gyms and a former member of the other, I had an in-group status but was also able to objectively seek information from demographic cohorts different from my own. Informants ranged from young to old, male to female.
One of the primary research questions I…
There is plenty of time to re-resent petty humiliations or wince over one's own stupidity or insensitivity. riting ethnography is a purgatory of pensees d'escalier (Metcalf)."
Part of Ethnology
As a whole, we are all part of ethnology. Everyone is a part of some type of culture, and this culture is open to interpretation by any ethnographer.
Our cultures are what shapes who we are, and how we react to a given circumstance. These cultures many times have beliefs and practices that are several centuries old, and have stood the test of time.
Ethnography is a method of sociology research which explores the ways of life of a culture. There are a number of different types of ethnography, and each sociologist must decide the method to employ in their research. hile there are many different cultures throughout the world, we all share the common thread that we are part…
Ethnographic Research. (accessed 18 November, 2004). ).
Lassiter, Luke Eric. "Authoritative Texts, Collaborative Ethnography, and Native American
Studies. The American Indian Quarterly. (2000): 22 September.
Metcalf, Peter. "A life in the day of: ethnography and biography." The Southern Review.
Le Petit Cafe in Brighton Beach is a Russian-owned pastry shop managed by my father Oleg Reyngach. ith a clientele that consists almost entirely of Russian immigrants living in the local community, Le Petit Cafe offers a wonderful opportunity for an ethnographic study. hat the patrons lack in terms of ethnic and linguistic diversity, they make up for in terms of socio-economic class and gender diversity. Blue collar and working class individuals commingle with white-collar young executives. The ratio of females to males is about equal, and age is also varied. hat makes Le Petit Cafe a rich ethnographic field study is the way the organization lends insight into the way globalization has affected the immigrant experience. Themes related to multiculturalism and hegemony also become clear, as the Russian community thrives by sticking together while at the same time enjoying the fruits of enculturation and assimilation. As a participant-observer…
"Culture and Power." Chapter 2
Guest, Kenneth J. "Anthropology in a Global Age." Intro to Cultural Anthropology. Chapter 1
"Mapping the block" Assignment.
"Migration" (Chapter 13).
The culture industry, which is centered in cities, thus robs the individual of their freedom to participate in the culture-at-large, forcing them into the role of pure consumer. The unity of style as it manifests itself in cultural products is an expression of social power. The greatest artists thus have a mistrust of style, as the hierarchies of power have constructed it; their greatness thus lies in their inherent flaws, which are truer to life. By suggesting that the forms of real life are fulfilled via their aesthetic derivatives, art and culture thus position themselves on the same platform as ideology. Those who fall victim to the ideology of the culture industry are inevitably the poor and working-class; and as the ideology of the culture industry is contingent on the capitalist myth of success and failure, it is those same individuals who are enslaved by such an ideology who subscribe…
Fischer, Claude S. To Dwell Among Friends: Personal Networks in Town and City. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1982.
"Qualitative studies, particularly ethnographic research, can explain in great detail the nuances of African-American family life and the parental activities and behaviors that may account for youth outcomes" (urton, Allison, & Obeidallah, 1996; Jarrett, 1995).
The results of the study indicated that the presence of uncles in the lives of African-American male youth identified as at risk, fostered successful transitions into young adulthood, positive adolescent development, and the informal social controls that served to keep youth violence and delinquency in check. The data the study generated, according to Richardson, may serve to provide an alternative approach and perspective in understanding the numerous forms of African-American fatherhood. ecause much of the sociological research on African-American families continues to be approached through a Westernized perspective, the multifaceted familial unit that is in many ways the African-American experience is continuously deemed deficient. Until such time as a genuine and unbiased view of the…
Burton, L., Allison, K., & Obeidallah, D. (1996). Ethnographic perspectives on social
context and adolescent development among inner city African-American teens.
In r. Jessor, A. Colby, & R. Shweder (Eds.), Essays on ethnography and human development, (395-418). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Coleman, J. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
The Young Republicans goup meets evey Thusday on campus, and they allow non-membes to attend meetings. Theefoe, fo the puposes of this study I chose to analyze the goup dynamics and pattens of this specific club. Although the club lists foty official membes, the political club meetings usually contain fewe than twenty people. About seventy pecent of the student membes ae Caucasian; the emainde ae East Asian and Afican-Ameican. Usually men outnumbe women about thee to one. The meetings ae patly social in natue, with food and beveages seved duing a chat time, afte which political issues ae fomally discussed. A few of the membes ae goup leades such as the pesident and secetaies. These leades guide the discussions and oganize goup activities outside the meetings. These activities include collective lette-witing and attendance of political allies and lectues in the aea. Geneally, the club is semi-fomal in natue with…
references to popular culture. During the formal portion of group meetings, order is maintained voluntarily; no rules are outwardly stated. However, on one occasion, a few members conversed amongst themselves while the main speaker delivered a speech. Several other members of the group glared at them to pressure them into silence.
In conclusion, the ethnographic research performed for the purposes of this study yielded pertinent information about the group dynamics of a politically-motivated campus club. As part of a large national organization, the Young Republicans have a strong sense of group identity and cohesiveness. There is a sense of "us-versus-them," as many of the Young Republicans feel outnumbered by liberal-minded students on campus. Therefore, a sense of camaraderie develops over this perceived group isolation. On several occasions I overheard members talking about their professors in a negative manner. The belief systems of the group members are similar, because of the nature of the club as a political organization. Members are from similar socio-economic backgrounds, and hold similar beliefs about public policy. The group is relatively non-diverse, with only a handful of minorities present at each group meeting. Women are underrepresented, but their position is not inferior to that of their male counterparts. In fact, gender equality is a salient group characteristic. An interpersonal interaction between group members varies greatly. Because some of the students are good friends outside of the meetings, while others do not associate at all, there is a wide range of communication methods. However, for the members who only see each other at meetings, interactions are slightly stiff but still informal. Peer pressure becomes evident in the lack of time spent on dissenting beliefs in group meetings and a focus on hierarchy within the group. The president and other group leaders lead the discussions and initiate activities more than other members do. Junior members generally keep quiet throughout the formal part of the meetings.
Having experienced firsthand the reprieve his profession offers, the barometer of his success is simple, if there was no pain and no lingering side effects, then there was success.
I was also able to interview the surgical technologist. She occupied many of the duties I had always believed were held by the head nurse. In fact the role of the surgical technologist entails not only having a detailed knowledge of the procedure in order to assist, but also an ability to anticipate a surgeon's need for different tools, set up the table of tools in precise order, and ensure that in the event of an emergency access to the necessary corrective instruments and supplies is as close to immediate as possible. After the insight I was provided with about the function of the surgical team I was excited to hear how she would explain the meaning in her…
More than one example would support the author's ability to make generalizations about gender related power struggles within the community.
Stack conducted a formal quantitative study in Appendix A (Stack, p. 130) to support that conclusions that were drawn in the qualitative portion of her survey. The statistics that she found through a study of 200 AFDC case studies supported the assumption that the families she portrayed did represent typical scenarios in the community. Stack addressed the stereotypical image that portrays the ghetto black as hopeless and powerless found in other literature. She defends her position that the image is incorrect. Both the quantitative and qualitative evidence supports her theory that the black family in ghetto urban areas has a formal support network. She debunks the myth that there is no way out through many examples that she found in her studies.
One of the key shortfalls that can be…
Borges, J. "Review of Steven Gregory, Black Corona: Race and the Politics of Place in an Urban Community, H-Urban, H-Net Reviews, February, 1999.
URL: http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=10009919459304 . Accessed May
Gregory, S. Black Corona: Race and the Politics of Place in an Urban
Community. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.
Reflection/Conclusion feel I learned a lot personally from this event. One thing I learned is that when tragedy strikes, people often react quickly. People offer support in any way then can, and demonstrate their support through various means, whether that is by wearing a t-shirt supporting a cause, by hugging another or sending money, or by sticking closer with friends and family to remind them of how much you love them. Conducting this research helped me connect better with my own feelings about culture and my own culture. Because I am from Korea, and I have my own background culture in Korea, I felt it useful to compare the cultural reaction of American and Korean people throughout this accident. I could not discern much difference between the two; most students, professors; faculty and administrators whether Korean or American felt equally how tragic this event was for all involved.
In contrast, the sales associates at Century 21 function as managers of 'crowd control,' particularly doing big sales days.
The reason for its apparent lack of care for its layout is because Century 21 is a discount store that is always crowed with bargains, versus a store that occasionally offers sales. Scoop lacks many bargain racks, no doubt because they would interfere with the store's cultivated image of exclusivity. Bargain racks would clutter up the layout of the store. Bargain racks tend to look unattractive because they contain a wide array of merchandise of assorted, rejected sizes and colors. This does not affirm the exclusive Scoop image. Consumers also tend to hover near bargain racks, creating a backlog of store traffic. Bargain racks draw consumer attention away from the areas of the store Scoop wants them to see, namely the more expensive items that are very trendy. ather than advertising…
Century 21. Official Website. Accessed on the World Wide Web at http://www.c21stores.com/about_us.html [April 5, 2011]
Miller, Daniel. "Thrift and treat" from Making Love in Super Markets. Ithaca: Cornell University
Daniel Miller, "Thrift and treat," from Making Love in Super Markets, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press), 45.
However, FGD is most vulnerable to external influences and participants have the tendency to be "swayed" by dominant participants. Thus, while it is more interactive and generates more information than in-depth interviews, FGD is susceptible to dominance of one or few participants, thereby resulting to information that is unreliable.
Lastly, ethnography provides a more detailed, objective, and authentic information about a phenomenon that is worth noting for purposes of research in marketing. Under ethnography, the researcher acts as the observer, objectively noting, describing, and analyzing recorded data from his/her observations of a particular group of individuals (e.g., consumers who are patrons of or defectors from a particular product or service). Through this method, the researcher "attempts to understand things that are otherwise foreign" (Littlejohn, 1999:211). Thus, ethnography brings into lucidity consumer culture, for the researcher to understand the consumers' sentiments and why a particular attitude is cultivated by consumers toward…
Churchill, G. (1995). Marketing. Illinois: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
Khermouch, G. (2001). "Consumers in the mist." Business Week Online. Available at http://www.businessweek.com/@@NgphZIYQd5ZxGw0A/archives/2001/b3721102.arc.htm .
Littlejohn, S. (1999). Theories of Human Communication. CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
ethnography of fictional individual who wanted to enter the medical field. The paper starts off with a 2-page assessment of a pseudo-interview that will form the structure of the entire ethnography. The interview and the analysis followed all exhibit the different social, ethnic and cultural aspects of the fictional character.
The fictional character constructed for this paper is Sara Bench. Sara is a foreigner who moved in from a European country with her family when she was 15, right after her grandmother's demise. She is a very strong and intelligent individual, one who is determined and dedicated to becoming a nurse and chooses to open and run an adult facility in later years when given the opportunity. She is a happy-go-lucky girl but one who is willing to work hard and long hours when it comes to her work. In the interview below, we see the personal and social…
Anker, R. (2001). Theories of occupational segregation by sex: An overview In: Martha Fetherolf Loutfi. (ed.) Women, Gender and Work, What is equality and how do we get there? ILO, Geneva.
Foster Care. (2008). Facts for Families. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13. Accessed March 10th, 2012 from: http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/foster_care
Grimshaw, D. (2001). The Gender Pay Gap: a research review Equal opportunities Commission.
Hakim, C. (2004). Key issues in women's work: female diversity and the polarisation of women's employment Glasshouse.
The rooster in the story is warning the dreamer of the dangers of focusing on the wrong things. In the story, the man is failing to concentrate on his physical needs, but the author's purpose in the passage is to point out that spiritual salvation is man's critical need. Furthermore, the passage utilizes providence by specifically stating that one who seeks the Kingdom of God will have his needs met.
Finally, the author concludes his passage with an argument in the form of a short epilogue, recapping what he has said throughout the rest of the passage. He warns the reader, "Therefore, do not be anxious about tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Sufficient for the day is its own evil" (Matt 6:34). In other words, he tells the reader that anxiety is not going to solve the problems. He makes a vague reference to the simple life,…
Aphthonius of Antioch. "Progymnasmata."
Dio Cocceianus of Prus, "Hunters of Euboea."
Diogenes and Crates. "Principal Representatives of Cynic Philosophy."
Epictetus. "A Stoic View of Divine Providence."
The author of this brief reflection has been asked to reflect on a recent assignment, how it went, how it was structured and so forth. To be specific, there was an ethnographic interview and observation and the author is to reflect on the structure and experiences that came along the way as part of that process. The resources that were present as part of the process will also inform what is said, why it is said and so forth. What happened during the Final Immersion Project experience was very useful and there is a lot to be said about it. While there are so many directions that the author could take when it comes to the experiences that were had, there are some in particular that could and should be aid.
If there is one thing that the author learned about the process of ethnography and its…
Archer, J. (2009). Intersecting Feminist Theory and Ethnography in the Context of Social Work Research. Qualitative Social Work: Research And Practice, 8(2), 143-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1473325009103372
Floersch, J., Longhofer, J., & Suskewicz, J. (2013). The use of ethnography in social work research. Qualitative Social Work: Research And Practice, 13(1), 3-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1473325013510985
Haight, W., Kayama, M., & Korang-Okrah, R. (2013). Ethnography in social work practice and
policy. Qualitative Social Work: Research And Practice, 13(1), 127-143.
Lukens drives home the idea that the problem of non-Islamic anthropologists trying to define and place boundaries on the faith to be able to compartmentalize it will always view it from a non-Islamic mindset, therefore will be unable to fully grasp or understand its origin or its current evolutionary processes.
Part of the answer to the anthropologist's question "What is Islam?" is conditioned by what she may or may not include in her definition of Islam. For instance, are local spirit beliefs, saint's shrines, and festivals Islamic? To deal with these issues more effectively it is necessary to take a step back from Islam. The problems encountered by anthropologists studying Islamic societies are also faced by anthropologists studying other monotheistic societies. John Bowen argues that the main impediment to the anthropological study of monotheisms is that these religions do not fit well in the normal ethnographic model. The texts and…
Lukens-Bull Roland, "Between text and practice: considerations in the anthropological study of Islam."
Dale F. Eickelman, "Mass Higher Education and the Religious Imagination in Contemporary Arab Societies." American Ethnologist, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 643-655.
Ethnography of Communication in High School Film
The EOC (ethnography of communication) is the analysis of communication within a culture, and practices of speech of a number of community. The EOC refers to the discourse analysis in linguistic drawing the anthropological field investigating the use of speech, their meaning or interpretation as being found in human groups or particular communities. The normative and cultural are two important concepts in the ethnographic communication analysis, which are used to analyze language, cultural norms, and situation context that influence communication among people.
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the concept ethnographic of communication using the film titled "High School" directed by Frederick Wiseman.
Part 1 of Project
The study uses the film titled "High School" to illustrate the concept ethnographic communication. High School is an American film directed by Frederick Wiseman in 1968. High School is an ethnographic film depicting Northeast…
Gudykunst, W. B. (2005), Theorizing about intercultural communication (pp. 55-68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Knippenberg, D. V. & Hogg M. A. (2004), Leadership and power: Identity processes in groups and organizations (pp. 210-223). London: Sage
Shimanoff, S. B. (1980). Communication rules: Theory and research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage
Qualitative research is conducted according to several different philosophical orientations, one of which is phenomenology. The science of phenomenology studies the consciousness of individuals according to a first-person point-of-view. Experience is structured by meaning and intentionality toward something or some object, and phenology is the effort to describe the meanings of the lived experiences of individuals. That is to say that, the first person accounts of individuals constitute meaningful, authentic qualitative data. Ethnography is a form of qualitative research in which the investigator becomes immersed in the context in which the inquiry is taking place (ouleau, et al., 2014).
An ethnographic researcher essentially indwells in order to obtain thick, rich data about individuals in a population and about the environment in which they live their lives (ouleau, et al., 2014). The field of ethnology requires the researcher to be at once acutely tuned-in to the individuals in the…
Rouleau, L., de Rond, M., Musca, G. (2014). From the ethnographic turn to new forms of organizational ethnography. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 3(1), 2-9. Retrieved http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=2046-6749&volume=3&issue=1&articleid=17109239&show=abstract doi: 10.1108/JOE-02-2014-006
Saka-Helmhout, A. (2007). Unravelling learning within multinational corporations. British Journal of Management, 18(3), 294-310. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN26260657).
This ethnographic observation comprises two separate visits to a NHL hockey game, during the regular season. Both of the observations took place at an evening game, which began at 7PM. There are several predispositions of how I believe people will look and behave in this setting. For example, I believed that men would outnumber women. I also believed that about half of the people at the hockey game would be with groups, and especially with families. I believed that roughly half of the attendants would be wearing a hockey team jersey, and that a quarter of the fans would have purchased beer from the stadium kiosks. Shouting and other signs of fan participation and enthusiasm was also expected. I have been to several NHL hockey games, as well as minor league games. This is why I have some expectations of the game but still tried to keep an open…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The three types of psychology research. Introduction to Research Methods. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/researchmethods/ss/expdesintro.htm
Munro, C.E.S. (2006). Sports fan culture & brand community: an ethnographic case study of the Vancouver Canucks Booster Club. University of British Columbia [Thesis].
Noto, C.S. (2008). The ethnography: What it is and how to write it. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/the-ethnography-write-it-1913940.html
"Writing an Ethnography," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.bethelcollege.edu/users/blowers/writing%20an%20ethnography.htm
On the other hand, this return to a people made largely more recognized by Turnbull's first ethnography does suggest something about the ethnography itself where anthropological purpose is concerned. Namely, the degree to which the people of the Mbuti tribes may have been exposed to the larger intersection with the modern world as a result of Turnbull's first work is illustrative of the way that research can actually interfere with and alter the course of its subject's experience.
To an extent, the ethnography may be a double-edged sword, with its apparent benefits through immersion taking on troubling implications where the researcher's immersion itself becomes a factor in shaping data and outcomes. In addition to distorting intended findings, this also calls into question various ethical concerns where scientific examination is concerned. It is conceivable to argue that an ethnography such as that crafted by Turnbull may have eschewed proper ethical considerations…
Garson, J. (2006). Ethnographic Research. North Carolina State University. Online at .
Turnbull, C. (1983). The Mbuti Pygmies: Change and Adaptation. Thomson Learning.
There is no such thing as a time machine. Ancient history can only be understood by modern peoples through the cultural documentation that was left behind. ritings from the period of the New Testament exist but they do not provide information into every aspect of everyday life. Consequently, historians and scholars must analyze the documents that are in existence in order to gain a greater understanding into the world's past. One technique that makes it possible for current populations to understand ancient texts is the use of literary ethnography. This procedure is the endeavor to use qualitative means to learn about and to better understand various cultural documentation and ideology which mirror that culture's society. Particularly of importance to ethnography is the ways and means of knowledge acquisition of a culture and also the system of meanings and which dictate that culture, such as language and the roles of…
Aphthonius of Antioch. "Progymnasmata."
Diogenes and Crates. "Principal Representatives of Cynic Philosophy."
Epictetus. "A Stoic View of Divine Providence."
Lucien of Samosata. "The Dream, or the Rooster."
Paul Atkinson hen it comes to the apparent pollution that has occurred hen it comes to the topic of auto-ethnography and the definition of the same. At the onset, Atkinson is lauding the ork of fello scholar Anderson and that person's critique of the "tendencies" and patterns that are occurring hen it comes to ho auto-ethnography is defined, encapsulated and analyzed. In particular, Atkinson ants to look through the lens of analytic ethnography and also esche the propensity of some people to engage in ethnography ork that is "subjective" and/or "evocative." While different scholars are certainly entitled to their on perspectives, there is something to be said for keeping different ork on the same subject ithin the same basic parameters so that terms and standards mean something (Atkinson, 2006).
As stated in the introduction, Atkinson gets to his point about ethnography and auto-ethnography up front. He feels, per this…
work cited by Atkinson is older rather than newer. The result is clearly that Atkinson wants to clarify and redefine the field in its modern context and he clearly disagrees with the opinions on the subject that others have (Atkinson, 2006).
The work is significant because the scholars of today do indeed define the direction that the field goes in. If people glom onto what Atkinson is saying, there will be a shift back to the definitions of more recent years. If they disagree more of the time, then the current shift will continue or things will at least remain the same. Only time will tell which of the two will prevail but at least some modicum of change and evolution is inevitable.
Atkinson, P. (2006). Rescuing auto-ethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35(4),
However, the Kolenda text is somewhat prescient in identifying some of the ways that Indian society has adjusted to change as modernization has become a matter of inevitability. Indeed, Kolenda denotes entering into the discussion that "the shape of India emerging will be different from the shape of modern estern societies. Caste in its new transformations will be an important contributing factor to determining that shape." (Kolenda, i) as Kolenda's is a text which was composed in 1985, this renders it a particularly insightful set of predictions on how the desire of traditionalists and the culturally elite to maintain ancient systems of class demarcation will find balance with the push of the global community to assume a more democratically driven strategy for socioeconomic organization.
Ultimately, one is left with the sense that a subject such as this would best be explored in a study with a more current context.…
Kolenda, P. (1985). Caste in Contemporary India. Waveland Press.
They may not be overtly trying to keep blacks down, but I have noticed they it is important in this company to keep whites at the top of the ladder.
For example, my manager, a Caucasian, has been with this company for 20 years, he earns a salary in six figures and has no college experience. It shows. In fact under his supervision our department is collapsing. There is a supervisor who is African-American who tries hard to cover up for his boss's errors of judgment and wrongheaded decisions. He should be the one running our department, but he hasn't been promoted or compensated -- or even given credit for the yeoman's work that he does. The black supervisor has been with the company as long as the white manager, and the black supervisor has two master's degrees, but he can't catch a break in the company pecking order. The…
My tolerance springs from my rootedness in the Los Angeles media culture and my experience as an actor, in my off-beat sense of creativity, and in my sociability. These qualities stood in particular contrast to New Yorkers' abruptness, skepticism and more frequent use of sarcasm. I came to realize that even simple things that I took for granted like my love of the beach, wide-open spaces, good tacos, and fast cars (well, when cars aren't backed upon the highway, of course in LA) all marked me as classically West Coast. Unlike my New York friends, the idea of spending most of my time on narrow city streets, breathing in fumes, or sitting in a tiny studio apartment is not my idea of a good life.
I was able to find beauty in Europe, staring at the monumental architectural structures from ages past. To strike another contrast between my perspective and…
Ethnographic Perspective: Guests of the Sheik
Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village -- analysis
Elizabeth Fernea's book "Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village" provides readers with a complex description of women in Iraqi village during the 1950s. The text is meant to enable people to abandon stereotypes they might have considered when coming across Iraqi women. The book should not necessarily be understood as a form of criticism with regard to society's understanding of this particular community, as it is actually meant to inform readers and to make it possible for them to employ more open-minded attitudes with regard to the group. The fact that the writer provides a personal account regarding Iraqi women during the 1950s contributes to the overall authenticity of the manuscript.
The book is based on Fernea's experiences in Iraq during her stay there with her husband, an…
Warnock Fernea, E. (2010). Guests of the Sheik: An Ethnography of an Iraqi Village. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
The provincial capital of Enga is Wabag. The two other main centers of population are Wapenamanda and Laiagam. Porgera, at the western edge of the province, is home to a gold mine operated by Barrick Gold.
Enga is unique among the provinces in Papua New Guinea in that it has only one major linguistic and ethnic group: Enga speakers. Although dialects of the Enga language vary greatly from Laiagam in the west to Wapenamanda in the east,
Engans' shared ethnic identity overshadows the existence of other ethnic groups in the province, such as Ipili speakers
(around Porgera) and Nete speakers.
Porgera, the giant gold and copper mine in the far west, has brought about rapid change for some, but most people still grow cash crops -- coffee, pyrethrum and cool-weather
European vegetables -- in their steep mountain gardens.
Porgera is all but spent, but other nearby mineral finds mean that…
Feil, D.K. (1978, May). Women and men in the Enga te. American Ethnologist, 5: 2: 263-279.
Meggitt, M.J. (1974). "Pigs are our hearts!" The te exchange cycle among the Mae Enga of New Guinea. Oceania, 44.3.
Waddell, Eric. (1975). How the Enga cope with frost: Responses to climatic perturbations in the central highlands of New Guinea. Human Ecology. 3.4:249-273
Baki, Gari. Speech by Mr. Gari Baki, OBE, O.St.J, DPS, Commisioner of Police. First Constable Martha Taian. PNG National Woman's Day. Hideaway Hotel, National Capital District. 23 March 2007.
I chose the LABB School because it seems so innovative. They have a preschool program designed for children with special needs, but they also enroll children with no difficulties. Because of this, preschoolers who attend The LABB School get both specialized services and the normality of attending preschool with children who have no disabilities. I was very curious to see how The LABB School makes this concept work.
When I went in I expected to see the children with disabilities separated in some way from the children without disabilities. I also wanted to know how well both groups progressed. I observed in detail and interviewed a teacher, an occupational therapist and a teacher aid to gather information. I did not ask to interview a parent.
The LABB School is spacious and set against woods. The rooms are airy and bright. They have a playground that is brightly colored…
The 1990's were the bubble years, the dot.com era, or whatever euphemism suits to describe the booming years of Silicon Valley, all Street and Internet businesses. They were years that created millionaires literally overnight. Businesses that began in basements and garages by college kids, suddenly appeared on the trading boards of the Stock Market Exchange. It seemed that anything to do with computers turned to gold. American life became high-tech. Suddenly everyone had cell phones, from professionals to soccer moms and teenagers. And personal computers became a fixture in American homes. The Information Superhighway was up and running and Americans were encouraged, not only by advertisers, but even by the government to travel it. It was "American" to log-on and surf the eb. The computer world was the darling of all Street and the express train to wealth and happiness for the American public. Moreover, it was an era…
Chait, Michael. Dot-com Era Start-Ups Still Feeling Woes. September 20, http://ecommerce.internet.com/news/news/article/0%2C%2C10375_1467101%2C00.html
Oberberck, Steven. Fidelity Executive Looks Back on Dot-Com Crash at Salt
Lake City Lecture. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News; 10/27/2001; Pp.
Kahn, Jeremy. What You Can Learn From the Dot-Com Crash.
Ethnography From an Artistic Point-of-View
One of the most intriguing things about art is that it pervaded all cultures, regardless of the conditions present in some communities. Values that seem absurd for some cultures can be especially appreciated by others and vice-versa, considering the complex nature of the contemporary society. Napoleon A. Chagnon's article "Doing Fieldwork among the Yanomamo" provides readers with a first person understanding of the Yanomamo tribe and with the opportunity to understand why the community's members take on attitudes that the masses might be inclined to criticize.
The writer emphasizes the extreme aggression present in the Yanomamo culture and the fact that these people actually consider this to be one of the most important values in their community. hat was even more surprising is that they seemed to be enthusiastic about it and that this induced feelings related to brutality and unfairness in Chagnon. As most…
Chagnon, Napoleon, A., "Ya-nomamo, the fierce people," (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977)
Loizos, Peter, "Innovation in Ethnographic Film: From Innocence to Self-Consciousness, 1955-85," (Manchester University Press ND, 1993)
Collecting Women's Knowledge through Ethnography
Siemens (1993) was interested in contrasting his findings from an ethnographic study of the Azande in Southern Sudan with those from a much earlier study that took place between 1927 and 1930. The earlier researcher limited his study of the Azande to what the men had to say about their beliefs and culture, whereas Siemens was interested in collecting this information from both men and women. In order to achieve this goal, Seimens conducted his field work very close to the location where the earlier study was conducted. Although Zande women were at first distrusting or indifferent, under the assumption that men have little interest in the roles and opinions of women, once they learned that Siemens was genuinely interested in what they had to say they had no problem discussing their lives and culture with him.
According to Siemens (1993), the main difference…
Siemens, S.D. (1993). Access to women's knowledge: The Azande experience. In M. Womack & J. Marti (Eds.) The Other Fifty Percent: Multicultural Perspectives on Gender Relations (pp. 91-98). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Little Odessa, the predominantly ussian-speaking enclave of South Brooklyn, has been a thriving community for decades that achieved political power on its own. The area comprising Brighton Beach and Coney Island had once been a "summer getaway for wealthy New Yorkers," but morphed into a working class ethnic enclave after World War Two (obinson & D'Onfro, 2014). Subsequent waves of refugees from ussian-speaking areas of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and ussia -- about 50 countries in total -- have poured in, lending the community a multi-ethnic and vibrant character. Since the 1970s, about 400,000 more refugees and immigrants from former Soviet republics have streamed into New York City and most have congregated in Brighton Beach (Miyares, 1998). In the 1980s, Soviet emigration policies started to become even more lax, enabling the inflight of more refugees from the Soviet Union, most of whom were Jewish. For a while now, Brighton…
Belenkaya, V. (2007). Little Odessa: A Russian mecca that smells just like home. NY Daily News. Dec 3, 2007. Retrieved online: http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/brooklyn/odessa-russian-mecca-smells-home-article-1.271332
DiNapoli, T.P. & Bleiwas, K.B. (2012). An economic snapshot of Coney Island and Brighton Beach. State of New York Comptroller. Retrieved online: http://www.osc.state.ny.us/osdc/rpt8-2012.pdf
"Little Odessa," (2011). Retrieved online: http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Little-Odessa-Brooklyn-NY.html
Litvinskaya, A.A. (2011). Linguistic landscape of 'Little Russia by the Sea.' Indiana University of Pennsylvania Master's Thesis. Retrieved online: http://dspace.iup.edu/handle/2069/297
Phenomenology, meanwhile, takes into account lived experiences as basis for analysis and interpretation of an event or phenomenon. It takes these experiences in a collective manner, and determines the nature and dynamics of the phenomenon through these collective experiences.
Grounded theory is theory development based on different stages of analysis, starting from the identification of data points which will become codes for the researcher. Codes will then be developed into concepts, and concepts would then be grouped and determined under different categories. From these categories, the researcher would be able to develop a theory that is responsive to the information generated from the even/phenomenon. Ethnography is the observation and/or documentation of everyday life based on the observations of the researcher, either through participant observation, interviews, or group discussions. This method takes note of everything about everyday life, from the mundane and trivial to the extraordinary and significant.
In determining which…
ethnography of the local Traditional Catholic community which practices at a nearby church. This group is very dissimilar in appearance and behavior from the surrounding neighborhood, even from the surrounding mainstream Catholic or "novus ordo" Catholic community, as the Traditional Catholic community calls it. This difference is rooted in the belief system that the community holds, which informs their practices, behaviors and modes of dress. Their main concern is with being "traditional" in all things. Thus, their appearance has a very dated look to it (a kind of 1950s style of dress among the men and women) and their worship is very Old World in terms of being in Latin and having lots of statuary in the church. However, they are easy to talk to and they seemed to have a sincere interest in converting me, which was flattering in a way. This paper discusses these people, their culture and…
Schensul, S., Schensul, J. (2013). Initiating Ethnographic Research: A Mixed Methods
Approach. UK: AltaMira Press.
customer's source] states that there are various types of qualitative approaches to research including the education filed approaches which includes the ecological psychology approach, the holistic ethnography approach, the cognitive anthropology approach, the ethnography of communication approach and symbolic interactionism. In the field of nursing, qualitative approaches to research are inclusive of phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and historical research. Also used in the field of education are anthropological perspectives, sociological perspectives, biological perspectives, case studies, personal accounts, cognitive studies and historical inquiries. In the field of sociology and nursing the grounded theory, ethnography, phenomenology, life histories, and conversational analysis are used. In the field of nursing used are phenomenology, ethnography, ethnoscience, and grounded theory. (Ibid, nd, p.7)
Research design that is qualitative is reported to begin with "philosophical assumptions that the inquirers make in deciding to undertake a qualitative study." (Ibid, nd, p.7) Researchers are reported to "bring their own…
Narrative research is considered rigorous because the focus is on the individual, particularly, the "story" or his/her experience of a specific phenomenon that the researcher is studying. Information generated is based on personal history and experience, and can therefore be as detailed as the researcher would want to (i.e., assuming appropriate methodologies and strategies are used to extract the information from the informant/interviewee). Case study, meanwhile, also displays the specificity that is evident in narrative research. While narrative research is purely exploratory and descriptive, case study can be useful in counterterrorism study in that it can provide also an analysis of a specific case, which could be an individual, group or entity described and later on analyzed for the reader's understanding of the specific phenomenon. In both cases, the reader of counterterrorism benefits from the details and wealth of information that both approaches provide.
On the opposite end of the…
ole of Theory in Qualitative esearch
Five Approaches and Theory
Compare and contrast the role of theory in the five main qualitative approaches:
Ethnography, case study, narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory
Although all five major approaches to qualitative research embrace theory to some degree or another, not all of them value the use of theory to the same degree. Broadly speaking, some cultural 'theory' is usually demonstrated within an ethnography, either through a comparative approach; an attempt to understand the culture on its own terms; a theory that seeks to understand the multiple layers of meaning within the culture in a symbolic fashion; or even a universalizing construct like feminist or Marxist theory. The extent to which this theoretical approach is emphasized will depend upon the anthropologist conducting the study. Some studies may mainly focus upon observations and detail unique aspects of a foreign culture while other studies might largely subsume…
Ethnography. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:
Grounded theory. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:
ethnological investigation and analysis, is centered on cultural and religious activity in a contemporary community situation. Essentially, the aim of this research was to observe various cultural and social behavior patterns as they pertain to religion and spirituality in society. Two faiths were observed over a period of time. A Western religious faith such as Catholicism was compared to an Eastern faith such as Buddhism.
This topic was chosen for a number of reasons. In the first instance religion is a central facet of all cultures and societies. The search for a larger and more existential meaning to life is a cultural trait that can be observed in every culture throughout human history. It is therefore a subject that is central to cultural life and which has enormous ramifications in terms of its influence on other dimensions of cultural activity.
However, religion per se is a very broad and somewhat…
EMIC AND ETIC PERSPECTIVES. Retrieved from http://www.uwec.edu/minkushk/anth%20161emic.htm
Ethnographic fieldwork. Retrieved from http://manual.recoup.educ.cam.ac.uk/wiki/index.php/Ethnographic_fieldwork
Hoey B. What is Ethnography? Retrieved from http://www.brianhoey.com/General%20Site/general_defn-ethnography.htm
Humanist profile: John Dewey (1859-1952) (2009) The Humanist, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-207350169.html
Social Construction of Aging in Nursing Homes
Aging is socially constructed. Using the perspective of symbolic-interactionism, it is possible to show the precise processes whereby the social construction of aging takes place inside specific institutional contexts, like the American nursing home. The American nursing home offers insight into the culturally constrained concept of aging, for attitudes towards aging bodies and aging as a philosophical concept are informed by cultural milieu, worldview, and value construction. Biological aging is not social aging. The positive aging movement and the harmonious aging movement offer counterpoints to traditionally antagonistic and negative views of aging. Especially as the population of the United States and other industrialized nations shifts towards the older end of the age spectrum, it becomes important to reconsider the biological, psychological, and social processes and functions of aging.
The nursing home offers the opportunity to examine aging from a multidisciplinary perspective, while using…
Bengtson, V.L. & Deliema, M. (2016). Theories of aging and social gerontology. In Gerontology: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions. ABC-CLIO.
Featherstone, M. & Hepworth, M. (1995). Images of positive aging. In Images of Aging. Taylor & Francis.
Gergen, K.J. & Gergen, M.M. (2000). The new aging. Social Structures and Aging. New York: Springer. Retrieved online: http://www.swarthmore.edu/sites/default/files/assets/documents/kenneth-gergen/The_New_Aging.pdf
Katz, S. (2005). Cultural Aging. Canadian Journal of Sociology Online, Jan-Feb 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.cjsonline.ca/pdf/culturalaging.pdf
This is perhaps another interesting aspect of Herodotus's objective level of discussion: his interests go beyond history and simple ethnography to give larger descriptions of additional themes such as geographical location. These can also help in determining and explaining the development of certain ethnography.
His objective approach can also be seen in the descriptive manner in which he goes into the people's traditions. One such example stands out in ook 1, paragraph 196, when he proceeds with an enumeration of the established customs, keen to show both religious and laical customs. His description is, again, very detailed.
One of Herodotus's clear interest on both subjective and objective levels is that for religious conceptions. However, from the way he minutely examines the different traditions, beliefs, and cults, one could point out that he simply objectively notes some of the ways that these cultures and people practice some of their religious beliefs.…
1. The Histories. Translated by G.C. Macaulay. Barnes and Nobles Classics. New York. 2004
Although every research setting will be unique in some fashion, there are some generalities involved in content analysis that can be followed by novice researchers. For example, according to Riffe, Lacy and Fico (2005), "Usually, but not always, content analysis involves drawing representative samples of content. The data collected in a quantitative content analysis are then usually analyzed to describe what are typical patterns or characteristics, or to identify important relationships among the variables measured" (p. 2).
Narrative analysis. This research methodology considers the narrative stories provided by narrators as representing their authentic social reality (Etherington, 2004). According to Etherington, "Narrative analysis views life as constructed and experienced through the telling and re-telling of the story, and the analysis is the creation of a coherent and resonant story" (2004, p. 81). Narrative analyses is not intended to identify commonalties or conceptual themes among narrative accounts, but rather relies on the…
Correlational research. This type of research identifies and evaluates the natural relationship that exists between different variables. According to Groat and Wang, "This characteristic means that it is particularly appropriate in circumstances when variables either cannot be manipulated for practical reasons or should not be manipulated for ethical reasons" (2003, p. 244).
Developmental designs. This type of research is used to measure changes that occur over lengthy periods of time (Developmental research, 2012). For example, a developmental design would be suitable for analyzing the differences in academic and social development in low-income vs. high-income neighborhoods. This research design is most common when working with children as subjects and can be undertaken using several methods: longitudinal, cross sectional, and cross sequential (Developmental research, 2012).
Survey research. Survey research collects data from a large number of respondents in an attempt to gain a better understanding about this sample as a whole (Grinnel & Unrau, 2005). According to Grinnel and Unrau, "It is essential, therefore, that survey research procedures produce data that is accurate, reliable, and representative so that findings can be generalized from a sample to the larger population or to different research situations" (p. 272). One of the main strengths of survey research concerns its flexibility for data-gathering purposes. De Vaus (2002) notes that, "A survey is not just a particular technique of collecting information: questionnaires are widely used but other techniques, such as structured and in-depth interviews, observation, content analysis and so forth, can also be used in survey research. The distinguishing features of surveys are the form of the data and the method of analysis" (p. 3). This main strength, though, is offset somewhat by the constraints that are inherent in the approach, but these constraints are frequently related to
nd their hypothesis made fully testable experimental predictions -- using a process that has previously shown to increase the degree of liking between strangers, how much does this process affect the number of complied-with requests vs. refusals?
The methods section should follow from the hypothesis, clearly laying out the exact tests, procedures, and participants used in the study. The methods section should not be lengthy, but should allow any reader to replicate the study if they seriously question the results. Most importantly, it should walk the reader through the study step-by-step, without getting too wrapped up in the details. Data on numbers of participants and demographic variables are important for controlling sampling errors between replications and reducing the chance that results will be overextended to all populations. ny instruments or manipulations borrowed from previous literature should be cited in the Methods section.
Burger, J., Soroka, S., Gonzago, K., Murphy, E.,…
As an illustration, consider this statement of the hypothesis in a study done by Burger et al. (2001): "[S]mall, ephemeral increases in liking toward a stranger will lead to an increased likelihood of complying to a request from that person." The preceding section of the article -- the introduction -- cited numerous examples that provide evidence that this hypothesis might be supported, such as findings that repeated exposure increases interpersonal liking, or that people are more likely to donate to a cause (e.g. comply with a request for money) if they are given a "free gift" (to increase liking). The authors were careful to draw attention to the negligible, marginal character of the degree of liking -- going so far as to call it a "mindless heuristic" -- suggesting that a null outcome for this study was perfectly conceivable, if in fact the increase in liking had no direct effect on compliance with a request. And their hypothesis made fully testable experimental predictions -- using a process that has previously shown to increase the degree of liking between strangers, how much does this process affect the number of complied-with requests vs. refusals?
The methods section should follow from the hypothesis, clearly laying out the exact tests, procedures, and participants used in the study. The methods section should not be lengthy, but should allow any reader to replicate the study if they seriously question the results. Most importantly, it should walk the reader through the study step-by-step, without getting too wrapped up in the details. Data on numbers of participants and demographic variables are important for controlling sampling errors between replications and reducing the chance that results will be overextended to all populations. Any instruments or manipulations borrowed from previous literature should be cited in the Methods section.
Burger, J., Soroka, S., Gonzago, K., Murphy, E., & Somervell, E. (2001). The Effect of Fleeting Attraction on Compliance to Requests. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27: 1578-86.
setting with a focus on one specific EMS unit that will participate in the CDP training program. This setting was selected because it offered a snapshot collection of data that could be valuable based on the outcome of the training provided by the CDP program. The researcher will conduct pre and post-interviews with the members of the EMS unit as they start and complete the program. One of the benefits of this style of approach is that it allows for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data.
A mixed research study design provides the researcher with hard, numerical data on feelings, thoughts, beliefs and perceptions. The organization benefits from this type of study because the organization can analyze through numerical data how its members actually perceive the training they receive. The data can help discover whether the training is effective or needs to be improved upon.
ATLAS.ti Retrieved http://www.atlasti.com/ .
Milley, J.E. (1979). An Investigation of case study as
Ethical Issues. Be sure that your paper includes an assessment of how you will deal with potential ethical issues that might arise in your study.
Palena Neale, P., Thapa, S., and Boyce, C. (2006, May). Monitoring and Evaluation -- 1
Under this approach, personal histories or experiences of more than one individual are collected to have a deeper and at the same time, expanded understanding of the phenomenon under study. The higher the number of sources of information, the higher the chances of the researcher of generating an insight that would truly provide a meaningful understanding of the event or phenomenon. Like narrative research, phenomenology is also interested in specific details of the phenomenon; however, in phenomenology, the specific details are highlighted as this approach seeks to answer the "what" and "how" of an event or phenomenon.
Ethnography involves an understanding the lived experiences of a homogenous group. It shares similarities with narrative research and phenomenology, but the homogenous group component in its approach sets it apart from the others. Since it studies a homogenous group, the researcher's data analysis is more concerned about identifying specific socio-cultural elements in the…
Over the last several years, the issue of human trafficking has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the industry is considered to be a major source of income for organized criminal gangs and other groups with it accounting for $31.6 billion in profits worldwide. Depending the region, these returns will vary with some having greater rewards from: socially acceptable practices, a lack of regulation and the ability of criminal groups to move with impunity in certain regions. The below table is showing, those areas with the highest returns and levels of human trafficking. ("An Introduction to Human Trafficking," 2008) ("Human Trafficking," 2013)
The Profit Margins and Amounts of Human Trafficking
Number of People
49% ($15.1 billion)
% ($9.7 billion)
Latin America and the Caribbean
4.1% ($1.3 billion)
Middle East and North Africa
4.7% ($1.5 billion)
An Introduction to Human Trafficking. (2008). UN. Retrieved from: http://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/An_Introduction_to_Human_Trafficking_-_Background_Paper.pdf
Human Trafficking. (2012). IOM. Retrieved from: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/shared/shared/mainsite/microsites/IDM/workshops/ensuring_protection_070909/human_trafficking_new_directions_for_research.pdf
Human Trafficking. (2013). UN Global Compact. Retrieved from: http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/labour/Forced_labour/HUMAN_TRAFFICKING_-_THE_FACTS_-_final.pdf
Bales, K. (2007). What Predicts Human Trafficking? International Journal of Criminal Justice, 31( 2), pp. 269 -- 279.
Only Pai survives, which might be seen as a sign of the girl's strength, but is instead interpreted by Koro as a kind of curse or at very least an unfortunate event for the Maori tribe's future. In the hospital room, while his son is still overcome by grief, Koro can only think of his public role in the tribe, as is typical from someone from older generation. His more modern, independent, and individualistic son is still too overcome, psychologically, with has transpired, to tolerate the older man's different generational perspective.
This conflict between individualism and collectivism is at the heart of Maori intergenerational conflict. Koro's granddaughter wishes to realize her own dream of becoming a leader, which she believes is her birthright. Her grandfather puts tradition ahead of such individualism, as can be seen in his schooling of all of the local boys in the same fashion, without regards…
Whale Rider." Starring Keisha Castle-Hughes and Rawiri Paratene. 2002.
Of course, Western culture often holds material consumer products in high regard as status symbols, such as homes, automobiles, elaborate clothing, and the like. In the case of the Nepalese, however, the case is vastly different. In the mountain villages, land is the primary commodity that is held in the highest regard as a symbol of status, wealth and power. This is so for very specific reasons, given the fact that land is in short supply in Nepal, land is vital in a mostly agrarian society such as that of the Nepalese villages, and the very simple way of life that the villagers lead makes many of the common Western status symbols unnecessary at best and outright ridiculous at the very least.
The status symbol of land in Nepal seems to be mostly centered on the males of the culture; for the females, who are generally prohibited from owning land,…
Childs, G. (2004). Tibetan Diary: From Birth to Death and beyond in a Himalayan Valley of Nepal. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Hitchcock, John T. (1980). Mountain Village in Nepal (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.
Palomar. (2006). Sex and Marriage. Retrieved July 27, 2006, from Cultural Anthropology Tutorials Web Site: http://anthro.palomar.edu/marriage
Palomar. (2006). The Nature of Kinship. Retrieved July 27, 2006, from Cultural Anthropology Tutorials Web Site: http://anthro.palomar.edu/kinship
Unmovable: The Mbuti of the Ituri Forest
For more than 2,000 years, the world has been aware of the Mbuti (Pygmy) hunter-gatherers that reside in the Ituri Forest of northern Zaire. References have been made to Pygmies that date as far back as Ancient Egypt, with mentions made by Herodotus, Aristotle and Homer (McDonald, 2004). Little however, was known about the daily lives of the Mbuti Pygmies until the 1950's. In an effort to find the values of goodness in the world post World War II, the public became interested in an isolated people who seemed far freer and more egalitarian than most self described "civilized societies (McDonald, 2004).The Mbuti are part of a larger group of forest dwellers referred to as the ambuti. According to the most recent statistics, there are reportedly less than 20,000 pure blood ambuti remaining in the world (Turnbull, 1998).
The Mbuti are described…
Adovasio, J., Soffer, O., & Klima, b. (1996). Upper Paleolithic fibre technology: Interlaced
Woven finds from Pavlov I, Czech Republic, c. 26,000 years ago, Antiquity 70,
Driver, J. (1990). Meat in due season: The timing of communal hunts. In L. Davis, and M. Reeves, (Eds.), Hunters of the recent past. London: Unwin Hyman.
Neighbors comment on how much safer they feel and how much less violence there is. Knowing that one does not have to constantly deal with facing the violence everyday will indeed bring more people to take care of themselves more as they do not fall into the mentality of lack of control about their surroundings. If they recognize that their neighborhoods are safer and therefore they feel that their fate is more in the control of their own hands, then they may be able to also accept the fact that being healthier is actually within their reach.
Aside from the violence that contributes to an urban health crisis, illegal drugs only add on to that notion (Bourgois 2008). However, it is the illegality of drugs that actually bring the greater health risk to the urban population (Straight and True 2004). A drug like marijuana that has no real documented proof…
Bourgois, P. 2008. The Mystery of Marjiuana: Science and the U.S. War on Drugs. Substance Use & Misuse. 43:581-583.
"Hamsterdam." The Wire. Episode 4, Season 3. Home Box Office. New York, New York. 10 Oct 2004.
"Homecoming." The Wire. Episode 6, Season 3. Home Box Office. New York, New York. 31 Oct 2004.
Kinenberg, E. 2001. Dying Alone: The Social Production of Urban Isolation. Ethnography. 2/4:499-529.
Cultural Observation of Dress
Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.
Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)
f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.
People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…
Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)
Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.
Miner's article is discussing the appearance
Intelligence, counterterrorism and protection, and subjects for investigation appear to be relevant, interesting and worthy of detailed examination. The research traditions allowed in mainstream educational systems provide different avenues of approach to examine these ideas. The purpose of this paper is to examine the ideas of terrorism through the lenses of the five research conditions: narrative, grounded theory, phenomenology, case study and ethnography. Additionally, I will propose three different topics for doctoral research and determine why each of these approaches warrant inquiry.
Before examining terrorism, it is a most important challenge to define the term. The defining of this word is perhaps the greatest source of confusion included in this type of research inquiry. How is terrorism related to intelligence and protection? While these are fashionable catchwords of the day, it seems important to link the phrases and terms with concrete and realistic symbols that can be understood by…
Women in Film Noir
Teaching is in many ways a solitary profession: A teacher in his or her own classroom spends hours in contact with students but often relatively little time talking to other teachers and educators. Administrators are also in many ways isolated from the teachers. Perhaps because of this fact, the administrators interviewed for this project emphasized the personal importance of collaboration with other members of the professional and the necessity of providing support for each other. This section summarizes the findings of this research concerning how education professionals defined and evaluated different aspects of cooperation within the profession.
Subject Population and Research Design
This study was conducted at a kindergarten through eighth grade school in the district where I am employed. I conducted six interviews with administrators who ranged in experience (in administration) from one to eight years. Five were women and five were former teachers in…
Female Substance Abusers and Addicts
Heroin is a highly addictive substance which is characterized by a rush of biophysiological symptoms such as a rush or feeling of euphoria, heaviness in one's extremities and a certain element of dry mouth (rehab-international.org). When it comes to heroin and gender, either gender can become addicted to it in a brief amount of time: "Addiction to heroin is characterized by the compulsion to use heroin despite an onset of negative consequences and despite the user's best attempts at stopping via willpower alone" (rehab-international.org). For women, one of the more common traits of heroin abuse is rather detrimental: the acquired tolerance means that greater doses of heroin have to be taken in order to get the original effects of the drug. When women are under the influence of the drug, they may engage in unsafe sexual activity, actions which can lead to STDs, unintended pregnancies…
Anderson, T. (2000). Drug Use and Gender . udel.edu, 286-292.
Beckerleg, S.'Women heroin users: Exploring the limitations of the structural violence approach,'
International Journal of Drug Policy, vol:16 2005, p183 -190
Cicero, T., Ellis, M., & Surratt, H. (2014). The Changing Face of Heroin Use in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 821-826.
A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations
This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…
Allred, K., Mallozzi, J., Matsui, F., Raia, C. (1997). The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70(3): 175-187.
Andonova, E., Taylor, H. (2012). Nodding in dis/agreement: a tale of two cultures.
Cognitive Process, 13(Suppl 1): S79-S82.
Aristotle. (1889). The Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle. (Trans R.W. Browne).
new ways of thinking about and conceiving the world. I have particularly appreciated the multidisciplinary approach, as all course readings have in some ways synthesized sociology, ethnography, anthropology, and psychology. e have learned to view the world through structuralist-functionalist approaches, as with many of the readings in the text Seeing and Thinking Sociologically, which refers to the "architecture of everyday life." The architecture of everyday life incudes blueprints of language/linguistics and related issues like semantics.
Moreover, social status and hierarchy is also constructed and has an architecture of its own. As Hutson describes in "The Power of the Hoodie-earing CEO," outward symbols of social status such as dress or clothing markers, cars, or visible signs of wealth are not the only means by which a person can convey and communicate social status and power. Mark Zuckerberg became famous for wearing a casual outfit to almost all of his presentations: a…
Deutscher, G. "Does your language shape how you think?" The New York Times Magazine. Aug 26, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/29/magazine/29language-t.html?_r=2&ref=magazine
Hutson, Matthew. "The Power of the Hoodie-Wearing CEO." The New Yorker. Dec 17, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.newyorker.com/currency-tag/the-power-of-the-hoodie-wearing-c-e-o?utm_source=tny&utm_campaign=generalsocial&utm_medium=tumblr&mobify=0
Newman, D. M. (2015). Seeing and Thinking Sociologically. In Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life (Brief Edition/4th Edition) (pp. 11-24). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
eflexivity: "How did the author come to write this text…Is there adequate self-awareness and self-exposure for the reader to make judgments about the point-of-view?"
This work is probably strongest on the issue of reflexivity because the author makes clear that she was embedded in the controversy, though she also offers and outsiders perspective, the experiences of the work were lived experiences. Her introduction material makes clear that she had both a journalistic and personal interest in the development of the human rights condition within the culture of Columbia. This could have created a challenge to objectivity but her scholarly skill obviously well contains the desire to be overly personal or sentimental, a problem that can be seen in some ethnographic works.
Impact: "Does this affect me? Emotionally? Intellectually?" Does it move me?
The work did impact me, emotionally and intellectually as it adequately demonstrated atrocities, though like I said previously…
Richardson, Laurel. "Evaluating ethnography." Qualitative Inquiry, 6, n. 2, (2000) 253-255.
Tate, Winifred. Counting the Dead: The Culture and Politics of Human Rights Activism in Columbia Berkeley CA: University of California Press, (2007).
University of California Press, "Books: Winifred Tate: Counting the Dead" http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/10703.php
University of California Press, "Books: Winifred Tate: Counting the Dead" http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/10703.php
NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (reneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).
The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JL Associates (2004).
Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…
Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.
Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.
Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.
Running Head: QUALITATIVE DOCTORAL BUSINESS RESEARCH ANALYSIS 1
QUALITATIVE DOCTORAL BUSINESS RESEARCH ANALYSIS 5
Analysis Role of Theory in Context of Qualitative Doctoral Business Research
Models and theories produce the basis upon which empirical inquiries are built. Empirical research is not only concerned with data variations (with respect to what is going on in the globe) but also with testing whether such data is in conformity with the theory or model (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). It is also our intention to progress existing theories or even come up with new ones on the basis of existing ones and on the basis of freshly acquired empirical evidence. Generally two strategies for carrying out quantitative research exist. The first strategy involves formulation of hypotheses by researchers based on previous research information and testing those hypotheses against available empirical data through a process called confirmatory research. Confirmatory research is used to…
In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.
The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…
references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x
Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526
Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.
Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978
Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.
The number of people incarcerated in the United States has been on the rise and women have greatly contributed to this trend. Through their increased numbers in jail it is estimated that their numbers grow annually by about 8%. Women from minority groups form the major part of this population. These are the women who come from low economic backgrounds and areas neglected politically. The women of color are the majority of those incarcerated. They come from neighborhoods that are typically poor, have little access to mental health facilities and receive little or minimal help from social services. These women make up the larger proportion of inmates at jails, prisons, and detention centers. Irwin (2009) and Jenness (2010) states that these women are in jail for committing non-violent offences related to poverty, drug abuse and being abused domestically.
This paper will focus on the ethnography of…
Castellano, Ursula. (2007). Becoming a Nonexpert and Other Strategies for Managing Fieldwork Dilemmas in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 36:704-730.
Comfort, Megan. (2008). Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Comfort, Megan. (2008). Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Crewe, Ben. (2009). The Prisoner Society: Power, Adaptation and Social Life in an English Prison. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ethnography and in-depth interviews are the methods that will be applied for the educators group, while ethnography, in-depth interviews, and experimental methods will be used for the students group. Meta-analysis would simply include an analysis of all quantitative studies conducted proposing new measures and tools that will help evaluate the effective of online and/or traditional learning approaches.
For the ethnography and in-depth interviews, thematic analysis will be used to dimensionalize the variables and concepts used in the study, specifically those relevant to describing the nature and dynamic of online and traditional learning. Multivariate analysis, meanwhile, will be applied in determining the effectiveness of the learning approaches in providing quality education among students.
Hughes, J. (2007). "Academic achievement and perceptions of the learning environment in virtual and traditional secondary mathematics classrooms." The American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 21, No. 4.
Keller, C. And J. Lindh. (2009). "The impact of…
Hughes, J. (2007). "Academic achievement and perceptions of the learning environment in virtual and traditional secondary mathematics classrooms." The American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 21, No. 4.
Keller, C. And J. Lindh. (2009). "The impact of national culture on e-learning implementation: a comparative study of Argentinean and a Swedish university." Educational Media International, Vol. 46, No.1.
Rossett, a. And J. Marshall. (2010). "e-Learning: What's old is new again." T+D.
Todd, S. And K. Schwartz. (2009). "Thinking through quality in field education: integrating alternative and traditional learning opportunities." Social Work Education, Vol. 28, No. 4.