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Ethnography Essays (Examples)

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Importance of research impartiality
Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66156212
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Ethnography Experience
The author of this brief reflection has been asked to reflect on a recent assignment, how it went, how it was structured and so forth. To be specific, there was an ethnographic interview and observation and the author is to reflect on the structure and experiences that came along the way as part of that process. The resources that were present as part of the process will also inform what is said, why it is said and so forth. What happened during the Final Immersion Project experience was very useful and there is a lot to be said about it. While there are so many directions that the author could take when it comes to the experiences that were had, there are some in particular that could and should be aid.
If there is one thing that the author learned about the process of ethnography and its…

Archer, J. (2009). Intersecting Feminist Theory and Ethnography in the Context of Social Work Research. Qualitative Social Work: Research And Practice, 8(2), 143-160.
Floersch, J., Longhofer, J., & Suskewicz, J. (2013). The use of ethnography in social work research. Qualitative Social Work: Research And Practice, 13(1), 3-7.
Haight, W., Kayama, M., & Korang-Okrah, R. (2013). Ethnography in social work practice and
policy. Qualitative Social Work: Research And Practice, 13(1), 127-143.

Journals Ethnographies and Ethnologies Must
Words: 2045 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 1455771
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The provincial capital of Enga is Wabag. The two other main centers of population are Wapenamanda and Laiagam. Porgera, at the western edge of the province, is home to a gold mine operated by Barrick Gold.

Enga is unique among the provinces in Papua New Guinea in that it has only one major linguistic and ethnic group: Enga speakers. Although dialects of the Enga language vary greatly from Laiagam in the west to Wapenamanda in the east,

Engans' shared ethnic identity overshadows the existence of other ethnic groups in the province, such as Ipili speakers

(around Porgera) and Nete speakers.

Porgera, the giant gold and copper mine in the far west, has brought about rapid change for some, but most people still grow cash crops -- coffee, pyrethrum and cool-weather

European vegetables -- in their steep mountain gardens.

Porgera is all but spent, but other nearby mineral finds mean that…


Feil, D.K. (1978, May). Women and men in the Enga te. American Ethnologist, 5: 2: 263-279.

Meggitt, M.J. (1974). "Pigs are our hearts!" The te exchange cycle among the Mae Enga of New Guinea. Oceania, 44.3.

Waddell, Eric. (1975). How the Enga cope with frost: Responses to climatic perturbations in the central highlands of New Guinea. Human Ecology. 3.4:249-273

Baki, Gari. Speech by Mr. Gari Baki, OBE, O.St.J, DPS, Commisioner of Police. First Constable Martha Taian. PNG National Woman's Day. Hideaway Hotel, National Capital District. 23 March 2007.

American Culture
Words: 2264 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17555088
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The 1990's were the bubble years, the era, or whatever euphemism suits to describe the booming years of Silicon Valley, all Street and Internet businesses. They were years that created millionaires literally overnight. Businesses that began in basements and garages by college kids, suddenly appeared on the trading boards of the Stock Market Exchange. It seemed that anything to do with computers turned to gold. American life became high-tech. Suddenly everyone had cell phones, from professionals to soccer moms and teenagers. And personal computers became a fixture in American homes. The Information Superhighway was up and running and Americans were encouraged, not only by advertisers, but even by the government to travel it. It was "American" to log-on and surf the eb. The computer world was the darling of all Street and the express train to wealth and happiness for the American public. Moreover, it was an era…

Works Cited

Chait, Michael. Dot-com Era Start-Ups Still Feeling Woes. September 20, 

Oberberck, Steven. Fidelity Executive Looks Back on Dot-Com Crash at Salt

Lake City Lecture. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News; 10/27/2001; Pp.

Kahn, Jeremy. What You Can Learn From the Dot-Com Crash.

Specific Opinion About This Two Anthropology Sources
Words: 1048 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85091447
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Ethnography From an Artistic Point-of-View

One of the most intriguing things about art is that it pervaded all cultures, regardless of the conditions present in some communities. Values that seem absurd for some cultures can be especially appreciated by others and vice-versa, considering the complex nature of the contemporary society. Napoleon A. Chagnon's article "Doing Fieldwork among the Yanomamo" provides readers with a first person understanding of the Yanomamo tribe and with the opportunity to understand why the community's members take on attitudes that the masses might be inclined to criticize.

The writer emphasizes the extreme aggression present in the Yanomamo culture and the fact that these people actually consider this to be one of the most important values in their community. hat was even more surprising is that they seemed to be enthusiastic about it and that this induced feelings related to brutality and unfairness in Chagnon. As most…

Works cited:

Chagnon, Napoleon, A., "Ya-nomamo, the fierce people," (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977)

Loizos, Peter, "Innovation in Ethnographic Film: From Innocence to Self-Consciousness, 1955-85," (Manchester University Press ND, 1993)

Roles of Zande Women
Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89714534
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Collecting Women's Knowledge through Ethnography

Siemens (1993) was interested in contrasting his findings from an ethnographic study of the Azande in Southern Sudan with those from a much earlier study that took place between 1927 and 1930. The earlier researcher limited his study of the Azande to what the men had to say about their beliefs and culture, whereas Siemens was interested in collecting this information from both men and women. In order to achieve this goal, Seimens conducted his field work very close to the location where the earlier study was conducted. Although Zande women were at first distrusting or indifferent, under the assumption that men have little interest in the roles and opinions of women, once they learned that Siemens was genuinely interested in what they had to say they had no problem discussing their lives and culture with him.

According to Siemens (1993), the main difference…


Siemens, S.D. (1993). Access to women's knowledge: The Azande experience. In M. Womack & J. Marti (Eds.) The Other Fifty Percent: Multicultural Perspectives on Gender Relations (pp. 91-98). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Little Odessa
Words: 1045 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57761070
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Little Odessa, the predominantly ussian-speaking enclave of South Brooklyn, has been a thriving community for decades that achieved political power on its own. The area comprising Brighton Beach and Coney Island had once been a "summer getaway for wealthy New Yorkers," but morphed into a working class ethnic enclave after World War Two (obinson & D'Onfro, 2014). Subsequent waves of refugees from ussian-speaking areas of Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and ussia -- about 50 countries in total -- have poured in, lending the community a multi-ethnic and vibrant character. Since the 1970s, about 400,000 more refugees and immigrants from former Soviet republics have streamed into New York City and most have congregated in Brighton Beach (Miyares, 1998). In the 1980s, Soviet emigration policies started to become even more lax, enabling the inflight of more refugees from the Soviet Union, most of whom were Jewish. For a while now, Brighton…


Belenkaya, V. (2007). Little Odessa: A Russian mecca that smells just like home. NY Daily News. Dec 3, 2007. Retrieved online: 

DiNapoli, T.P. & Bleiwas, K.B. (2012). An economic snapshot of Coney Island and Brighton Beach. State of New York Comptroller. Retrieved online: 

"Little Odessa," (2011). Retrieved online: 

Litvinskaya, A.A. (2011). Linguistic landscape of 'Little Russia by the Sea.' Indiana University of Pennsylvania Master's Thesis. Retrieved online:

Counterterrorism & Research Traditions Research
Words: 783 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15024789
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Phenomenology, meanwhile, takes into account lived experiences as basis for analysis and interpretation of an event or phenomenon. It takes these experiences in a collective manner, and determines the nature and dynamics of the phenomenon through these collective experiences.

Grounded theory is theory development based on different stages of analysis, starting from the identification of data points which will become codes for the researcher. Codes will then be developed into concepts, and concepts would then be grouped and determined under different categories. From these categories, the researcher would be able to develop a theory that is responsive to the information generated from the even/phenomenon. Ethnography is the observation and/or documentation of everyday life based on the observations of the researcher, either through participant observation, interviews, or group discussions. This method takes note of everything about everyday life, from the mundane and trivial to the extraordinary and significant.

In determining which…

How Traditional Catholics Differ From Novus Ordo Catholics
Words: 1951 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46877899
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ethnography of the local Traditional Catholic community which practices at a nearby church. This group is very dissimilar in appearance and behavior from the surrounding neighborhood, even from the surrounding mainstream Catholic or "novus ordo" Catholic community, as the Traditional Catholic community calls it. This difference is rooted in the belief system that the community holds, which informs their practices, behaviors and modes of dress. Their main concern is with being "traditional" in all things. Thus, their appearance has a very dated look to it (a kind of 1950s style of dress among the men and women) and their worship is very Old World in terms of being in Latin and having lots of statuary in the church. However, they are easy to talk to and they seemed to have a sincere interest in converting me, which was flattering in a way. This paper discusses these people, their culture and…


Schensul, S., Schensul, J. (2013). Initiating Ethnographic Research: A Mixed Methods

Approach. UK: AltaMira Press.

Customer's Source States That There Are Various
Words: 810 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41145682
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customer's source] states that there are various types of qualitative approaches to research including the education filed approaches which includes the ecological psychology approach, the holistic ethnography approach, the cognitive anthropology approach, the ethnography of communication approach and symbolic interactionism. In the field of nursing, qualitative approaches to research are inclusive of phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and historical research. Also used in the field of education are anthropological perspectives, sociological perspectives, biological perspectives, case studies, personal accounts, cognitive studies and historical inquiries. In the field of sociology and nursing the grounded theory, ethnography, phenomenology, life histories, and conversational analysis are used. In the field of nursing used are phenomenology, ethnography, ethnoscience, and grounded theory. (Ibid, nd, p.7)

Research design that is qualitative is reported to begin with "philosophical assumptions that the inquirers make in deciding to undertake a qualitative study." (Ibid, nd, p.7) Researchers are reported to "bring their own…

Counterterrorism Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry
Words: 803 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34040322
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Narrative research is considered rigorous because the focus is on the individual, particularly, the "story" or his/her experience of a specific phenomenon that the researcher is studying. Information generated is based on personal history and experience, and can therefore be as detailed as the researcher would want to (i.e., assuming appropriate methodologies and strategies are used to extract the information from the informant/interviewee). Case study, meanwhile, also displays the specificity that is evident in narrative research. While narrative research is purely exploratory and descriptive, case study can be useful in counterterrorism study in that it can provide also an analysis of a specific case, which could be an individual, group or entity described and later on analyzed for the reader's understanding of the specific phenomenon. In both cases, the reader of counterterrorism benefits from the details and wealth of information that both approaches provide.

On the opposite end of the…

Five Approaches and Theory
Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63575368
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ole of Theory in Qualitative esearch

Five Approaches and Theory

Compare and contrast the role of theory in the five main qualitative approaches:

Ethnography, case study, narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory

Although all five major approaches to qualitative research embrace theory to some degree or another, not all of them value the use of theory to the same degree. Broadly speaking, some cultural 'theory' is usually demonstrated within an ethnography, either through a comparative approach; an attempt to understand the culture on its own terms; a theory that seeks to understand the multiple layers of meaning within the culture in a symbolic fashion; or even a universalizing construct like feminist or Marxist theory. The extent to which this theoretical approach is emphasized will depend upon the anthropologist conducting the study. Some studies may mainly focus upon observations and detail unique aspects of a foreign culture while other studies might largely subsume…


Ethnography. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved: 

Grounded theory. (2013). Colorado State University Writing Guides. Retrieved:

Ethnological Investigation and Analysis Is Centered on
Words: 3087 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86733241
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ethnological investigation and analysis, is centered on cultural and religious activity in a contemporary community situation. Essentially, the aim of this research was to observe various cultural and social behavior patterns as they pertain to religion and spirituality in society. Two faiths were observed over a period of time. A Western religious faith such as Catholicism was compared to an Eastern faith such as Buddhism.

This topic was chosen for a number of reasons. In the first instance religion is a central facet of all cultures and societies. The search for a larger and more existential meaning to life is a cultural trait that can be observed in every culture throughout human history. It is therefore a subject that is central to cultural life and which has enormous ramifications in terms of its influence on other dimensions of cultural activity.

However, religion per se is a very broad and somewhat…



Ethnographic fieldwork. Retrieved from

Hoey B. What is Ethnography? Retrieved from 

Humanist profile: John Dewey (1859-1952) (2009) The Humanist, 2009. Retrieved from

nursing home anthropology of aging
Words: 2319 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45153596
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Social Construction of Aging in Nursing Homes

Aging is socially constructed. Using the perspective of symbolic-interactionism, it is possible to show the precise processes whereby the social construction of aging takes place inside specific institutional contexts, like the American nursing home. The American nursing home offers insight into the culturally constrained concept of aging, for attitudes towards aging bodies and aging as a philosophical concept are informed by cultural milieu, worldview, and value construction. Biological aging is not social aging. The positive aging movement and the harmonious aging movement offer counterpoints to traditionally antagonistic and negative views of aging. Especially as the population of the United States and other industrialized nations shifts towards the older end of the age spectrum, it becomes important to reconsider the biological, psychological, and social processes and functions of aging.

The nursing home offers the opportunity to examine aging from a multidisciplinary perspective, while using…


Bengtson, V.L. & Deliema, M. (2016). Theories of aging and social gerontology. In Gerontology: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions. ABC-CLIO.

Featherstone, M. & Hepworth, M. (1995). Images of positive aging. In Images of Aging. Taylor & Francis.

Gergen, K.J. & Gergen, M.M. (2000). The new aging. Social Structures and Aging. New York: Springer. Retrieved online: 

Katz, S. (2005). Cultural Aging. Canadian Journal of Sociology Online, Jan-Feb 2006. Retrieved online:

Herodotus's Work The Histories Is
Words: 809 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92381449
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This is perhaps another interesting aspect of Herodotus's objective level of discussion: his interests go beyond history and simple ethnography to give larger descriptions of additional themes such as geographical location. These can also help in determining and explaining the development of certain ethnography.

His objective approach can also be seen in the descriptive manner in which he goes into the people's traditions. One such example stands out in ook 1, paragraph 196, when he proceeds with an enumeration of the established customs, keen to show both religious and laical customs. His description is, again, very detailed.

One of Herodotus's clear interest on both subjective and objective levels is that for religious conceptions. However, from the way he minutely examines the different traditions, beliefs, and cults, one could point out that he simply objectively notes some of the ways that these cultures and people practice some of their religious beliefs.…


1. The Histories. Translated by G.C. Macaulay. Barnes and Nobles Classics. New York. 2004

Goals Although Quantitative Methodologies Are
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 94007992
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Although every research setting will be unique in some fashion, there are some generalities involved in content analysis that can be followed by novice researchers. For example, according to Riffe, Lacy and Fico (2005), "Usually, but not always, content analysis involves drawing representative samples of content. The data collected in a quantitative content analysis are then usually analyzed to describe what are typical patterns or characteristics, or to identify important relationships among the variables measured" (p. 2).

Narrative analysis. This research methodology considers the narrative stories provided by narrators as representing their authentic social reality (Etherington, 2004). According to Etherington, "Narrative analysis views life as constructed and experienced through the telling and re-telling of the story, and the analysis is the creation of a coherent and resonant story" (2004, p. 81). Narrative analyses is not intended to identify commonalties or conceptual themes among narrative accounts, but rather relies on the…

Correlational research. This type of research identifies and evaluates the natural relationship that exists between different variables. According to Groat and Wang, "This characteristic means that it is particularly appropriate in circumstances when variables either cannot be manipulated for practical reasons or should not be manipulated for ethical reasons" (2003, p. 244).

Developmental designs. This type of research is used to measure changes that occur over lengthy periods of time (Developmental research, 2012). For example, a developmental design would be suitable for analyzing the differences in academic and social development in low-income vs. high-income neighborhoods. This research design is most common when working with children as subjects and can be undertaken using several methods: longitudinal, cross sectional, and cross sequential (Developmental research, 2012).

Survey research. Survey research collects data from a large number of respondents in an attempt to gain a better understanding about this sample as a whole (Grinnel & Unrau, 2005). According to Grinnel and Unrau, "It is essential, therefore, that survey research procedures produce data that is accurate, reliable, and representative so that findings can be generalized from a sample to the larger population or to different research situations" (p. 272). One of the main strengths of survey research concerns its flexibility for data-gathering purposes. De Vaus (2002) notes that, "A survey is not just a particular technique of collecting information: questionnaires are widely used but other techniques, such as structured and in-depth interviews, observation, content analysis and so forth, can also be used in survey research. The distinguishing features of surveys are the form of the data and the method of analysis" (p. 3). This main strength, though, is offset somewhat by the constraints that are inherent in the approach, but these constraints are frequently related to

Democrats Independents and Republicans on
Words: 1502 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20318908
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nd their hypothesis made fully testable experimental predictions -- using a process that has previously shown to increase the degree of liking between strangers, how much does this process affect the number of complied-with requests vs. refusals?

The methods section should follow from the hypothesis, clearly laying out the exact tests, procedures, and participants used in the study. The methods section should not be lengthy, but should allow any reader to replicate the study if they seriously question the results. Most importantly, it should walk the reader through the study step-by-step, without getting too wrapped up in the details. Data on numbers of participants and demographic variables are important for controlling sampling errors between replications and reducing the chance that results will be overextended to all populations. ny instruments or manipulations borrowed from previous literature should be cited in the Methods section.

Burger, J., Soroka, S., Gonzago, K., Murphy, E.,…

As an illustration, consider this statement of the hypothesis in a study done by Burger et al. (2001): "[S]mall, ephemeral increases in liking toward a stranger will lead to an increased likelihood of complying to a request from that person." The preceding section of the article -- the introduction -- cited numerous examples that provide evidence that this hypothesis might be supported, such as findings that repeated exposure increases interpersonal liking, or that people are more likely to donate to a cause (e.g. comply with a request for money) if they are given a "free gift" (to increase liking). The authors were careful to draw attention to the negligible, marginal character of the degree of liking -- going so far as to call it a "mindless heuristic" -- suggesting that a null outcome for this study was perfectly conceivable, if in fact the increase in liking had no direct effect on compliance with a request. And their hypothesis made fully testable experimental predictions -- using a process that has previously shown to increase the degree of liking between strangers, how much does this process affect the number of complied-with requests vs. refusals?

The methods section should follow from the hypothesis, clearly laying out the exact tests, procedures, and participants used in the study. The methods section should not be lengthy, but should allow any reader to replicate the study if they seriously question the results. Most importantly, it should walk the reader through the study step-by-step, without getting too wrapped up in the details. Data on numbers of participants and demographic variables are important for controlling sampling errors between replications and reducing the chance that results will be overextended to all populations. Any instruments or manipulations borrowed from previous literature should be cited in the Methods section.

Burger, J., Soroka, S., Gonzago, K., Murphy, E., & Somervell, E. (2001). The Effect of Fleeting Attraction on Compliance to Requests. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27: 1578-86.

Setting With a Focus on One Specific
Words: 3574 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 32567229
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setting with a focus on one specific EMS unit that will participate in the CDP training program. This setting was selected because it offered a snapshot collection of data that could be valuable based on the outcome of the training provided by the CDP program. The researcher will conduct pre and post-interviews with the members of the EMS unit as they start and complete the program. One of the benefits of this style of approach is that it allows for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data.

A mixed research study design provides the researcher with hard, numerical data on feelings, thoughts, beliefs and perceptions. The organization benefits from this type of study because the organization can analyze through numerical data how its members actually perceive the training they receive. The data can help discover whether the training is effective or needs to be improved upon.

esearch Topic

This thesis…


ATLAS.ti Retrieved .

Milley, J.E. (1979). An Investigation of case study as

Ethical Issues. Be sure that your paper includes an assessment of how you will deal with potential ethical issues that might arise in your study.

Palena Neale, P., Thapa, S., and Boyce, C. (2006, May). Monitoring and Evaluation -- 1

Employed to Be Able to
Words: 792 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60410576
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Under this approach, personal histories or experiences of more than one individual are collected to have a deeper and at the same time, expanded understanding of the phenomenon under study. The higher the number of sources of information, the higher the chances of the researcher of generating an insight that would truly provide a meaningful understanding of the event or phenomenon. Like narrative research, phenomenology is also interested in specific details of the phenomenon; however, in phenomenology, the specific details are highlighted as this approach seeks to answer the "what" and "how" of an event or phenomenon.

Ethnography involves an understanding the lived experiences of a homogenous group. It shares similarities with narrative research and phenomenology, but the homogenous group component in its approach sets it apart from the others. Since it studies a homogenous group, the researcher's data analysis is more concerned about identifying specific socio-cultural elements in the…

Human Trafficking
Words: 4658 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58249404
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Human Trafficking

Opening Statement

Over the last several years, the issue of human trafficking has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the industry is considered to be a major source of income for organized criminal gangs and other groups with it accounting for $31.6 billion in profits worldwide. Depending the region, these returns will vary with some having greater rewards from: socially acceptable practices, a lack of regulation and the ability of criminal groups to move with impunity in certain regions. The below table is showing, those areas with the highest returns and levels of human trafficking. ("An Introduction to Human Trafficking," 2008) ("Human Trafficking," 2013)

The Profit Margins and Amounts of Human Trafficking



Number of People

Industrialized Countries

49% ($15.1 billion)


% ($9.7 billion)


Latin America and the Caribbean

4.1% ($1.3 billion)


Middle East and North Africa

4.7% ($1.5 billion)



An Introduction to Human Trafficking. (2008). UN. Retrieved from: 

Human Trafficking. (2012). IOM. Retrieved from: 

Human Trafficking. (2013). UN Global Compact. Retrieved from: 

Bales, K. (2007). What Predicts Human Trafficking? International Journal of Criminal Justice, 31( 2), pp. 269 -- 279.

Whale Rider 2002 An Intergenerational
Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30404042
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Only Pai survives, which might be seen as a sign of the girl's strength, but is instead interpreted by Koro as a kind of curse or at very least an unfortunate event for the Maori tribe's future. In the hospital room, while his son is still overcome by grief, Koro can only think of his public role in the tribe, as is typical from someone from older generation. His more modern, independent, and individualistic son is still too overcome, psychologically, with has transpired, to tolerate the older man's different generational perspective.

This conflict between individualism and collectivism is at the heart of Maori intergenerational conflict. Koro's granddaughter wishes to realize her own dream of becoming a leader, which she believes is her birthright. Her grandfather puts tradition ahead of such individualism, as can be seen in his schooling of all of the local boys in the same fashion, without regards…

Works Cited

Whale Rider." Starring Keisha Castle-Hughes and Rawiri Paratene. 2002.

Mountain Village in Nepal the
Words: 4108 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87968049
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Of course, Western culture often holds material consumer products in high regard as status symbols, such as homes, automobiles, elaborate clothing, and the like. In the case of the Nepalese, however, the case is vastly different. In the mountain villages, land is the primary commodity that is held in the highest regard as a symbol of status, wealth and power. This is so for very specific reasons, given the fact that land is in short supply in Nepal, land is vital in a mostly agrarian society such as that of the Nepalese villages, and the very simple way of life that the villagers lead makes many of the common Western status symbols unnecessary at best and outright ridiculous at the very least.

The status symbol of land in Nepal seems to be mostly centered on the males of the culture; for the females, who are generally prohibited from owning land,…


Childs, G. (2004). Tibetan Diary: From Birth to Death and beyond in a Himalayan Valley of Nepal. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Hitchcock, John T. (1980). Mountain Village in Nepal (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.

Palomar. (2006). Sex and Marriage. Retrieved July 27, 2006, from Cultural Anthropology Tutorials Web Site:

Palomar. (2006). The Nature of Kinship. Retrieved July 27, 2006, from Cultural Anthropology Tutorials Web Site:

Mbuti Unmovable The Mbuti of the Ituri
Words: 2436 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 58776139
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Unmovable: The Mbuti of the Ituri Forest

For more than 2,000 years, the world has been aware of the Mbuti (Pygmy) hunter-gatherers that reside in the Ituri Forest of northern Zaire. References have been made to Pygmies that date as far back as Ancient Egypt, with mentions made by Herodotus, Aristotle and Homer (McDonald, 2004). Little however, was known about the daily lives of the Mbuti Pygmies until the 1950's. In an effort to find the values of goodness in the world post World War II, the public became interested in an isolated people who seemed far freer and more egalitarian than most self described "civilized societies (McDonald, 2004).The Mbuti are part of a larger group of forest dwellers referred to as the ambuti. According to the most recent statistics, there are reportedly less than 20,000 pure blood ambuti remaining in the world (Turnbull, 1998).

The Mbuti are described…


Adovasio, J., Soffer, O., & Klima, b. (1996). Upper Paleolithic fibre technology: Interlaced

Woven finds from Pavlov I, Czech Republic, c. 26,000 years ago, Antiquity 70,


Driver, J. (1990). Meat in due season: The timing of communal hunts. In L. Davis, and M. Reeves, (Eds.), Hunters of the recent past. London: Unwin Hyman.

Urban Health Crisis the United
Words: 1166 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84204047
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Neighbors comment on how much safer they feel and how much less violence there is. Knowing that one does not have to constantly deal with facing the violence everyday will indeed bring more people to take care of themselves more as they do not fall into the mentality of lack of control about their surroundings. If they recognize that their neighborhoods are safer and therefore they feel that their fate is more in the control of their own hands, then they may be able to also accept the fact that being healthier is actually within their reach.

Aside from the violence that contributes to an urban health crisis, illegal drugs only add on to that notion (Bourgois 2008). However, it is the illegality of drugs that actually bring the greater health risk to the urban population (Straight and True 2004). A drug like marijuana that has no real documented proof…


Bourgois, P. 2008. The Mystery of Marjiuana: Science and the U.S. War on Drugs. Substance Use & Misuse. 43:581-583.

"Hamsterdam." The Wire. Episode 4, Season 3. Home Box Office. New York, New York. 10 Oct 2004.

"Homecoming." The Wire. Episode 6, Season 3. Home Box Office. New York, New York. 31 Oct 2004.

Kinenberg, E. 2001. Dying Alone: The Social Production of Urban Isolation. Ethnography. 2/4:499-529.

Cultural Observation of Dress
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 383010
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Cultural Observation of Dress

Why do all humans engage in the act of dressing the body? Consider how dress relates to both the physical and the social needs of the wearer.

Everyone dresses according to social factors and to make themselves more physically appealing to other. This helps them to be seen as hip and enhance their appearance. These variables ensure that the social and individual needs of the person are met. This is when they will have greater amounts of self-confidence. (Eicher, 2008)

f all humans dress themselves for the same basic reasons, why do we look so different from each other? Consider the influences of culture, age, gender, and other factors that distinguish people from one another.

People look different based upon their cultural background, age and gender. These elements are combined together to provide the person with a unique sense of style. This is used to make…

Inside a corporate atmosphere everyone is expected to dress in a suit and tie. This helps them to appear to be more professional. These cultural variations are different from what I wear in normal society. They require distinct ensembles and do not overlap into these areas. (Eicher, 2008)

Update Miner's article on Nacirema (Reading I.2), and describe a currently popular and familiar grooming or dressing activity using Miner's technical writing style. Avoid ordinary words -- that is, lay terminology -- where a more abstract or scientific word will more accurately describe the activity to someone who is totally unfamiliar with the activity. Next, read what you've written and write down your reactions to how this changes your perception of the dressing activity.

Miner's article is discussing the appearance

Terrorism Intelligence Counterterrorism and Protection and Subjects
Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51978375
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Intelligence, counterterrorism and protection, and subjects for investigation appear to be relevant, interesting and worthy of detailed examination. The research traditions allowed in mainstream educational systems provide different avenues of approach to examine these ideas. The purpose of this paper is to examine the ideas of terrorism through the lenses of the five research conditions: narrative, grounded theory, phenomenology, case study and ethnography. Additionally, I will propose three different topics for doctoral research and determine why each of these approaches warrant inquiry.

Before examining terrorism, it is a most important challenge to define the term. The defining of this word is perhaps the greatest source of confusion included in this type of research inquiry. How is terrorism related to intelligence and protection? While these are fashionable catchwords of the day, it seems important to link the phrases and terms with concrete and realistic symbols that can be understood by…

Influences of Professional Learning Communities on an Administrators Lived Experiences
Words: 7742 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12059296
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Women in Film Noir

Teaching is in many ways a solitary profession: A teacher in his or her own classroom spends hours in contact with students but often relatively little time talking to other teachers and educators. Administrators are also in many ways isolated from the teachers. Perhaps because of this fact, the administrators interviewed for this project emphasized the personal importance of collaboration with other members of the professional and the necessity of providing support for each other. This section summarizes the findings of this research concerning how education professionals defined and evaluated different aspects of cooperation within the profession.

Subject Population and Research Design

This study was conducted at a kindergarten through eighth grade school in the district where I am employed. I conducted six interviews with administrators who ranged in experience (in administration) from one to eight years. Five were women and five were former teachers in…

Women and Drugs
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Female Substance Abusers and Addicts

Heroin is a highly addictive substance which is characterized by a rush of biophysiological symptoms such as a rush or feeling of euphoria, heaviness in one's extremities and a certain element of dry mouth ( When it comes to heroin and gender, either gender can become addicted to it in a brief amount of time: "Addiction to heroin is characterized by the compulsion to use heroin despite an onset of negative consequences and despite the user's best attempts at stopping via willpower alone" ( For women, one of the more common traits of heroin abuse is rather detrimental: the acquired tolerance means that greater doses of heroin have to be taken in order to get the original effects of the drug. When women are under the influence of the drug, they may engage in unsafe sexual activity, actions which can lead to STDs, unintended pregnancies…


Anderson, T. (2000). Drug Use and Gender ., 286-292.

Beckerleg, S.'Women heroin users: Exploring the limitations of the structural violence approach,'

International Journal of Drug Policy, vol:16 2005, p183 -190

Cicero, T., Ellis, M., & Surratt, H. (2014). The Changing Face of Heroin Use in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 821-826.

Does the Fisher Ury Model Work
Words: 29882 Length: 120 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 38724917
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Negotiation Skills

A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations

This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…


Allred, K., Mallozzi, J., Matsui, F., Raia, C. (1997). The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70(3): 175-187.

Andonova, E., Taylor, H. (2012). Nodding in dis/agreement: a tale of two cultures.

Cognitive Process, 13(Suppl 1): S79-S82.

Aristotle. (1889). The Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle. (Trans R.W. Browne).

Journals on Different Articles on Sociology
Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55051860
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new ways of thinking about and conceiving the world. I have particularly appreciated the multidisciplinary approach, as all course readings have in some ways synthesized sociology, ethnography, anthropology, and psychology. e have learned to view the world through structuralist-functionalist approaches, as with many of the readings in the text Seeing and Thinking Sociologically, which refers to the "architecture of everyday life." The architecture of everyday life incudes blueprints of language/linguistics and related issues like semantics.

Moreover, social status and hierarchy is also constructed and has an architecture of its own. As Hutson describes in "The Power of the Hoodie-earing CEO," outward symbols of social status such as dress or clothing markers, cars, or visible signs of wealth are not the only means by which a person can convey and communicate social status and power. Mark Zuckerberg became famous for wearing a casual outfit to almost all of his presentations: a…

Works Cited

Deutscher, G. "Does your language shape how you think?" The New York Times Magazine. Aug 26, 2010. Retrieved online: 

Hutson, Matthew. "The Power of the Hoodie-Wearing CEO." The New Yorker. Dec 17, 2013. Retrieved online: 

Newman, D. M. (2015). Seeing and Thinking Sociologically. In Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life (Brief Edition/4th Edition) (pp. 11-24). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

Counting the Dead the Work
Words: 2152 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76882450
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eflexivity: "How did the author come to write this text…Is there adequate self-awareness and self-exposure for the reader to make judgments about the point-of-view?"

This work is probably strongest on the issue of reflexivity because the author makes clear that she was embedded in the controversy, though she also offers and outsiders perspective, the experiences of the work were lived experiences. Her introduction material makes clear that she had both a journalistic and personal interest in the development of the human rights condition within the culture of Columbia. This could have created a challenge to objectivity but her scholarly skill obviously well contains the desire to be overly personal or sentimental, a problem that can be seen in some ethnographic works.

Impact: "Does this affect me? Emotionally? Intellectually?" Does it move me?

The work did impact me, emotionally and intellectually as it adequately demonstrated atrocities, though like I said previously…


Richardson, Laurel. "Evaluating ethnography." Qualitative Inquiry, 6, n. 2, (2000) 253-255.

Tate, Winifred. Counting the Dead: The Culture and Politics of Human Rights Activism in Columbia Berkeley CA: University of California Press, (2007).

University of California Press, "Books: Winifred Tate: Counting the Dead"

University of California Press, "Books: Winifred Tate: Counting the Dead"

For-Profit Education vs Non-Profit Education
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NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (reneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).

The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JL Associates (2004).

Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…


Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.

Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.

Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.

Qualitative Doctoral Business Research Role of Theory
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Analysis Role of Theory in Context of Qualitative Doctoral Business Research
Models and theories produce the basis upon which empirical inquiries are built. Empirical research is not only concerned with data variations (with respect to what is going on in the globe) but also with testing whether such data is in conformity with the theory or model (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). It is also our intention to progress existing theories or even come up with new ones on the basis of existing ones and on the basis of freshly acquired empirical evidence. Generally two strategies for carrying out quantitative research exist. The first strategy involves formulation of hypotheses by researchers based on previous research information and testing those hypotheses against available empirical data through a process called confirmatory research. Confirmatory research is used to…

Culture Refers to the Accumulated
Words: 4685 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87152746
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In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.

The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…

references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x

Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526

Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.

Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978

Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.

Analyzing the Women Prisoners
Words: 3397 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38077254
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Incarcerated Women

The number of people incarcerated in the United States has been on the rise and women have greatly contributed to this trend. Through their increased numbers in jail it is estimated that their numbers grow annually by about 8%. Women from minority groups form the major part of this population. These are the women who come from low economic backgrounds and areas neglected politically. The women of color are the majority of those incarcerated. They come from neighborhoods that are typically poor, have little access to mental health facilities and receive little or minimal help from social services. These women make up the larger proportion of inmates at jails, prisons, and detention centers. Irwin (2009) and Jenness (2010) states that these women are in jail for committing non-violent offences related to poverty, drug abuse and being abused domestically.

Thesis Statement

This paper will focus on the ethnography of…


Castellano, Ursula. (2007). Becoming a Nonexpert and Other Strategies for Managing Fieldwork Dilemmas in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 36:704-730.

Comfort, Megan. (2008). Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Comfort, Megan. (2008). Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Crewe, Ben. (2009). The Prisoner Society: Power, Adaptation and Social Life in an English Prison. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

E-Learning vs F2f Traditional Learning the
Words: 1770 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 3197314
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Ethnography and in-depth interviews are the methods that will be applied for the educators group, while ethnography, in-depth interviews, and experimental methods will be used for the students group. Meta-analysis would simply include an analysis of all quantitative studies conducted proposing new measures and tools that will help evaluate the effective of online and/or traditional learning approaches.

For the ethnography and in-depth interviews, thematic analysis will be used to dimensionalize the variables and concepts used in the study, specifically those relevant to describing the nature and dynamic of online and traditional learning. Multivariate analysis, meanwhile, will be applied in determining the effectiveness of the learning approaches in providing quality education among students.


Hughes, J. (2007). "Academic achievement and perceptions of the learning environment in virtual and traditional secondary mathematics classrooms." The American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 21, No. 4.

Keller, C. And J. Lindh. (2009). "The impact of…


Hughes, J. (2007). "Academic achievement and perceptions of the learning environment in virtual and traditional secondary mathematics classrooms." The American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 21, No. 4.

Keller, C. And J. Lindh. (2009). "The impact of national culture on e-learning implementation: a comparative study of Argentinean and a Swedish university." Educational Media International, Vol. 46, No.1.

Rossett, a. And J. Marshall. (2010). "e-Learning: What's old is new again." T+D.

Todd, S. And K. Schwartz. (2009). "Thinking through quality in field education: integrating alternative and traditional learning opportunities." Social Work Education, Vol. 28, No. 4.