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Definition of Community
Words: 1912 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46267914
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Etymology of a "Community"u

Community is a group of people that share similar values and interests, work towards similar goals and support each other. There are many different types or groups of people that qualify as a "community." A community does not have to be a particular size to qualify as a "community" although generally most communities consist of a group of people that is roughly a dozen or more (Smith, 2001). The neighborhood most people live in and work in is generally considered a community.

Smith (2001) quotes Hoggett (1997) in stating that since the late 19th century, the "use of the term community has remained to some extent associated with the hope and the wish of reviving once more the closer, warmer, more harmonious type of bonds between people vaguely attributed to past ages" (p. 5). Most people consider the term community a "positive" term, meaning they…


Cohen, A.P. (ed). 1982. Belonging. Identity and social organization in British rural cultures,

Manchester: University of Manchester Press. u

Lindeman, E.C. 1921. The Community. An introduction to the study of community leadership and organization. New York: Association Press.

Putnam, R.D. 2000. Bowling alone. The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Beowulf as a Hero Lesson
Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 85213791
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Those with issues to overcome are always more heroic. Hector also becomes a hero when, after at first running from Achilles, he eventually stands up to him and dies a heroic death.

The Iliad is primarily a war epic. In your opinion, is the Iliad condemnation of the it could easily be argued that the Illiad glorifies war, as much of the poem is spent portraying the warriors as brave and courageous, even as they go on killing rampages. Warriors are describes as "masters of the battle cry" and "warlike" in glowing epithets. When Achilles originally refused to fight, he is roundly condemned for it by all of the other Greek characters. Even the weapons of war, such as Achilles impenetrable shield, are glorified. But homer is more complicated than simple -- war also brings death, which he describes in great detail. Hector's death is perhaps the most graphic of…

Beowulf as a Hero Lesson
Words: 8817 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 81934961
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Your answer should be at least five sentences long.

The Legend of Arthur

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty

1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.

2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences

Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.

* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.

* Be sure to…

Language Change the Evolution of
Words: 2281 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23780013
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The attendant rules for the words may, or may not be carried to the new language. For example, many French words carry their plurals into English, while some more recent additions adopt English rules for pluralization

So we create new words or meanings as needed, and we drop old ones as they become obsolete or lose their usefulness. Another way language changes is by attitude. Cultural influences make certain words taboo, so we develop euphemisms to replace the taboo word. When the euphemism becomes widely known, we change it. One example in English is the word for toilet: water closet->loo->lavatory->ladies' room-> rest room ad infinitum until finally, we stopped thinking of this particular place as taboo in western society, so now we use many of the previous euphemisms as our personal taste dictates, and most people understand us.

Language is so basically part of our culture that culture is probably…

MacNeil, Robert and McCrum, Robert 1986 "The Story of English" (1986) (mini)

Public Television miniseries. 

See Language in Thought and Action, Dr. S.I. Hayakawa, 1935 for more on this topic.

Revelation Our Senses Are'so
Words: 3209 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 14493544
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Calvin also taught that another way God begins to deal with a person to make him/her restless is knowledge.

Under the influence of the Spirit of God, a person is borne upward; traveling upward toward the knowledge of God. Conscience, as far as human understanding reaches, is a source which constitutes the unconditional starting point for the beginning of knowledge of God; for the revelation of Jesus Christ.

For Calvin, "revelation is not immediately revelation of Jesus Christ. But revelation of the harsh judgment of God, although this is certainly finally oriented to Christ."

Basically, Calvin did not have any revelation problem as the center of his theology. He began with the reality that a person is alienated from God, but that God seeks the individual out and entices him/her to a way in which community with God may be discovered again. Calvin argued sin has damaged human reason; that…

F' Word the Objective of
Words: 1583 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63434582
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The information reviewed during the course of this study has clearly illustrated that the precise meaning of the 'F' word is subject to great fluctuation and shift in applied meaning over a period of time and that meanings may experience the affect of cultural shifts in terms of the applied meaning of words such as the 'F' word. The literature reviewed in this study clearly demonstrated that the basic roots of the 'F' word can be found across a range of linguistic derivations being accredited by some to the Germanic Areal linguistics by other to the Viking heritage or Indo-European roots. While this word is one of the three hundred most often used words in the English language, it wasn't until recent decades that this word has been published in reference books and dictionaries in the actual spelled out form of the 'F' word attributed to the lack of ease…


Wilton, David (2004) Word Myths - Oxford University Press, United States, 2004. Online Google Scholar Books available at *****

The Roots of English: A Reader's Handbook of Word Origin" (Times, 1989) in Dictionary of Word Origin (1990) Ayto, John - New York: Arcade Publishing 1990.

Wajnryb, Ruth (2005) Expletive Deleted: A Good Look at Bad Language - Simon and Schuster. Language Arts & Disciplines/Linguistics. 2005.

O'Donnell, Brendan (2001) the Anatomy of a Four Letter Word 2001 Mar 21. In Wickerham, Josh: This Postmodern World - the Michigan Daily.

Person Develops as the Results of a
Words: 2342 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65368800
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person develops as the results of a multitude of factors including those that are inherited and those that are environmental. The nature-nurture controversy is that nature's heredity is the most important factor in one's life, while others hypothesize that the environment imposes the crucial influence. The objective is to reflect on your experiences and evaluate your character.

Your answers to the following questions can provide greater insight to who you are.

hat is your name **KURT**? hat is the meaning or significance of your name ***Reference***?

My name is Kurt. The meaning or significance of the name "Kurt," is, according to the web article "Behind the Name: The Etymology and History of First Names," one of Germanic origin, and in fact a German contracted version of another, less common (at least in America) name, "Conrad." The name "Conrad" itself is, according to that web article:

derived from the Germanic elements…

Works Cited

Kurt." Behind the Name: The Etymology and History of First Names. Retrieved July 27, 2005, from: Conrad.htm>.

What Is Swagger
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92804492
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Swagger: Verb: To walk or conduct oneself with an insolent or arrogant air; strut. (Barrow, 2010)

'Swagger' may actually not even be as new as we think it to be. William Shakespeare invented an incredible 1,7000 new English words many of which we still use today -- and one of these was swagger, first used in A Midsummer Night's Dream (1590). (Others include bump, first used in omeo and Juliet, obscene, first used in Love's Labor's lost, and luggage, first used in King Henry IV, Part I) (The Atlantic 'Swagger' and Other Everyday Words Invented by Famous Authors). The etymology of 'swagger' although mostly connected nowadays to walk actually originates form the term 'swag' which means to brag or boast. The noun of 'swag' is dated to 1725 (Online Etymology Dictionary)

'Swagger' was used for a long time. It circulated in rap in the 1990s when Sadat X of Brand…


Barrow, J (2010), SLANG EDITORIAL: The Death Of "Swagger" 

The Atlantic 'Swagger' and Other Everyday Words Invented by Famous Authors 

Online Etymology Dictionary

Understanding depression
Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25909750
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Depression is a term that has multiple meanings. In an economic context, it can mean a continued, long-term decline in economic activity in one or several economies. Depression can also mean a landform that is depressed or sunken below the adjacent area. This definition is for geology and can be used to describe sinkholes. However, the focus of the meaning of the term depression will be examined through the psychological perspective. As defined in psychology, depression is a mood disorder causing an ongoing feeling of loss of interest and sadness. Depression can affect how one feels emotionally and physically, often requiring long-term treatment. This report aims to understand the word depression, its roots, and why it is being used today to categorize a mood disorder.

The word depression has been used for quite some time. When examined as a noun, is was first seen in the late 14th century from…

Ecological Crisis -- Historical Roots
Words: 380 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 93979868
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Consequently, man has now become the exploiter of nature (1205).

Christianity. The victory of Christianity over paganism which is animist in nature (veneration of nature) further strengthened the very notion of the "exploiter man." Christianity believes that man is created after God's image and that man shares God's transcendence over nature. Hence, nature is understood to have existed for man's benefit. It is upon God's will that man exploits nature to serve his purpose. With paganism now destroyed, Christianity made it possible that man exploit nature with indifference to the feelings of natural objects (1205-1206).

Believing that what we can do about ecology rests on our idea of man-nature relationship, White closes his article with an alternative Christian view which he saw in the example of St. Francis of Assisi. St. Francis embodied the virtue of humility, especially for man as a species. He tried to depart from the notion…


White, Lynn Jr. "The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis." American Association for the Advancement of Science. 155(3767): 1203-1207.

Language Cognitive Psychology Language Is
Words: 1095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 27483814
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It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics (Grammar, n.d.).

Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated; it is the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; and an utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic (Pragmatics, n.d.).

The ole of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology

Jean Piaget, the founder of cognitive development, was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre oyaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he had a discussion about his opinion with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin (McKinney, & Parker, 1999). Piaget discussed that his cognitive constructivism has two main parts: an "ages and stages" component which foretells what children can and cannot understand at different…


Language. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia: .

Lexicon (2001). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Online Etymology Dictionary:


Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice True Psychology
Words: 19429 Length: 71 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 78576075
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Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"

Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…


American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.

Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.

Underground Directed by Emir Kusturica
Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77356803
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All of the chapters in the book relate to various events in Levi's life, as well as to his passion for chemistry. Surprisingly (when considering the suffering he went through in Auschwitz) Levi only associates a small chapter in the book with his experiences in the death camp. The story is nonetheless sad, and can be regarded as being the most impressive account in the book. All in all, "The Periodic Table" is more of an autobiography than a nonfiction account involving the Holocaust.

In "Vanadium," Levi shortly depicts a series of occurrences speaking about Auschwitz. The author apparently wants to go over the topic as fast as possible, only to return to the beautiful world of chemistry. He does not succeed in doing that however, since the subject slowly but surely grabs hold of him and forces him to go deeper and depict one of the most influential chapters…

Works cited:

1. Levi, Primo. The Periodic Table. Michael Joseph Ltd., 1985.

Accountability for Finances One of
Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 50027416
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We must "establish expectations for the outcomes that the agency will achieve, the consequences that it will create, or the impact that it will have" (p.10). But unlike accountability for finances and accountability for fairness, the authors write that it is impossible to establish these expectations with rules, procedures, and standards. Instead, specifying the quality of performance expected from a public agency necessitates a performance benchmark -- a transparent, objective goal or target. Further, we must have a clear tool that can be used to establish how well the agency has performed to our expectations -- how well it has lived up to the expectations it's been held to. Tools such as rules, procedures, and standards have no function, in this case -- "accountability for performance requires something qualitatively different" (p. 10). Instead, to create a basis for performance accountability, citizens simply need to specify the results it expects from…


Barnhart, Robert K, ed. (1998). The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology. City, State H.H.


Dubnick, First name. (YEAR). "Clarifying Accountability." Journal, Issue, pages.

Kelman, Steven. (1990). Procurement and Public Management: The Fear of Discretion and the Quality of Government Performance. City, State: AEI Press.

Capital Punishment in Texas Look
Words: 1189 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86600087
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2. Discuss and examine public education in Texas. What is the purpose and function of an I.S.D. What are the purposes of the SOE and the TEA? In your opinion, is the TAKS

test good for educating students in Texas? If the Legislature eliminates the TAKS test, then what should it be replaced with?

Texas education, much like the education in the United States as a whole, faces a crisis in meeting the requirements of a global community. The United States is being far surpassed by competing international educational systems. A study was conduct by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) which looked at the educational systems in developed countries across the planet. The educational system in the U.S. ranked surprisingly low when compared against other countries.

The PISA studies fifteen-year-old students across the globe on three different subjects. The test given is similar to the Texas TAKS test…


Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed. . (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Pro-Death Penalty:

Texas Department of Criminal Justice. (2010, May 27). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Executed Offenders: 

(Texas Department of Criminal Justice, 2010)

(Execute the Guilty. Honor the Innocent. Educate the Uniformed., 2010)

Exegesis of the Book of
Words: 2360 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33685255
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For the early Christians, the Holy Spirit was experienced as a real power in their lives

. The Holy Spirit empowered them to continue the work of Jesus. When a person received the Holy Spirit, they experienced a difference in their lives -- and others noticed it. That is still true today.Although all Christians receive the Holy Spirit through Baptism, God's Spirit works in many

ways in the world, in both Christians and non-Christians. Yet the experience of being 'baptised in the Spirit' is a time of entering a deeper spiritual dimension.Those who experience this deeper infilling, or new outpouring, of God's Spirit usually begin to discover new spiritual gifts

. The gift of prophesy or that of speaking tongues given to the reborn disciples imparts them with the ability to sense what God is saying to a group or an individual, and to pass on that message. This…


Bruce, F.F. Commentary on the Book of Acts. NICNT. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids, MI:

Eerdmans, 1988.

Theological Questions in Christianity Is
Words: 3520 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 50172586
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One of these was the nature of the Trinity.

A fundamental point that connected all those who embraced the concept of the Holy Trinity in the way that we now understand the term (or close to it) argued that the multiplicity of councils in this century and the next that addressed the nature of the Trinity did not create doctrine or orthodoxy (or even uncover them). Rather Trinitarians supported the importance of the range of councils as the proper method to respond to the heresies that they believed were rumbling through the church and threatening to drown the voices of the orthodox. Many of the heresies (to the Trinitarians, of course) of the time revolved around the nature of God as the Trinity (illiams 23-5).

One of the most important of these heresies was that of Arianism, which roiled the church between the Council of Nicaea (in 325) until the…

Works Cited

Arendzen, J.P. Understanding The Trinity. London: Sophia Institute Press, 2004.

Erickson, Millard. Making Sense of the Trinity: Three Crucial Questions. Los Angeles: Baker P, 2000.

Letham, Robert. The Holy Trinity: In Scripture, History, Theology And Worship. New York: P. And E. Publishing, 2005.

Williams, Rowan. Arius: Heresy and Tradition. New York: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2002.

Lawyer by Johnson & Duffett
Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 26032218
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The last two findings justified the need for these things to ensure the safety of the children. It was mentioned in the article that while "the ramifications of the 'legalization' of education are distasteful and sometimes disturbing," nevertheless "lawsuits and procedures are the price [to be paid] for protecting children" and that they are willing to pay this price rather than risk the safety and well-being of their students. Children are building blocks of our future. This is why I personally believe that children must be nurtured and protected at all costs. Hence, I think that the profession of teaching is one of the most noble and important professions in this world albeit one that can oftentimes be too sensitive.

According to a study by Jonah E. ockoff, "school administrators, parents and students themselves widely support the notion that teacher quality is vital to student achievement" (ockoff, 2004). By experience,…


Farkas, S., Johnson J., Duffet, A., Wilson, L. And Vine, J. (2002). A Lot Easier Said Than Done: Parents Talk About Raising Children in Today's America. Public Agenda. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from .

Field, T. (2001). Touch. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Harper, D. (2001). Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from .

McEvoy, A. (2005). Teachers Who Bully Students: Patterns and Policy Implications. Wittenberg University.

Edmund Spenser the Social Critique
Words: 5349 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 62051431
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Still, his union with a woman also of common birth leaves us to reflect that in all likelihood, Spenser himself would enter the court after an upbringing of modestly. This denotes the distinction of Spenser as a critique of reigning structures of authority in his time and place. This also helps to introduce our discussion to the historical context into which he deposited his first important work of poetry.


The choice of language in the poem is a curious one, at least insofar as it can be regarded as somewhat misleading of the work's time of origin. Its composition in 1579 and the poet's declared affection for and indebtedness to the works of Geoffrey Chaucer are facts submerged beneath the linguistic affectations which Spenser felt were necessary to carry the pastoral form. (Bear, 1) Indeed, the prologue which is composed by an otherwise anonymous writer signing as E.K., provides…

Works Cited:

Bear, R.S. (2006). Introduction to Edmund Spenser's the Shephearde's Calendar. The University of Oregon.

Hales, J.W. (2004). The Project Gutenberg EBook of a Biography of Edmund Spenser. Project Gutenberg.

Hamilton, a.C. (1990). The Spenser Encyclopedia. University of Toronto Press.

NNDB. (2008). Edmund Spenser. Soylent Communications. Online at

Southwestern Pennsylvania Ca 1800 the
Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 85267062
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The agricultural and animal breeding activities gave birth to fairs and agricultural societies that were established in the county. The first fair for cattle and ship took place in 1979; the first agricultural society in the county will appear almost twenty years later. (idem).

egarding the subject of faith, the first settlers in the Washington County were Presbyterian and since they first came into the land the number of those of the same faith increased very quickly. "A constant stream of immigration flowed into the country, and of this inflowing population Scotch-Irish Presbyterians constituted a principal part " (Crumrine, 1882, pg. 398).

The Washington County is also known for its enthusiastic participation in the raising of troops for the war between the United States and Great Britain, between 1812 and 1815. "The result of the order and call for volunteers appears in a communication oublishe in the Washington eporter of…


Crumrine, B., ed.(1882) History of Washington County, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: L.H. Everts and Co., 1882. Retrieved: Oct. 12, 2008. Ailailable at;cc=pitttext;idno=00hc17099m;node=00hc17099m%3A43;frm=frameset;view=toc 

Powell, a. Southwestern Pennsylvania Genealogy 101. Retrieved: 13 Oct, 2008. Available at 

List of Pennsylvania county name etymologies. Retrieved: 13 Oct, 2008. Available at

Lady Justice Themis Themis Also
Words: 877 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12171546
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Of course, this is a supreme being who was authorized by a greater power to represent law, order, equity and custom and was not only the wife of Zeus, but also his counselor. In pre-Hellenic times wiser women made the most important decisions. Perhaps a woman brings more balance into life, in every person. In ancient times, women had the best judgmental capacity and were the most important in taking decisions.

It is universally acknowledged that the earliest appearance of justice in ancient Greek civilization is as a Goddess, whose function is to judge humans by punishing or rewarding their conduct in relation to the Divine Principle. The oldest record of justice dating from ancient Greece is to be found in Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, where Themis is mentioned for the first time, being depicted as the personification of the social and moral order of human affairs. Mention should also…


1. Kernbach, Victor. Dictionary of General Mythology. Bucharest: Albatros, 1983.

2. Ferrari, Anna. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Mythology. Torino: Unione, 2000..

3. Parada, Carlos. "Greek Mythology Link" copyright © Carlos Parada & Maicar Frlag 1997. Retrieved: Nov. 12, 2006

Bad & Good and The
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56407589
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What is intrinsic regarding this definition of evil is the value that ressentiment has upon it. Ressentiment is a term widely used by Nietzsche and other philosophers (such as Kierkegaard) to refer to the notion of resentment -- which can take many forms including jealousy and other forms of subjugation -- influencing a particular moral perception. Because the weak were oppressed by and opposed to the depredation of the strong, aristocratic nobles, they classified all they did and all that described them as being morally incorrect of evil.

This concept of ressentiment as applied to the terminology of good and evil that was originally used by the impotent masses (according to Nietzsche), would go on to play a prime role in the development and facilitation of the Christian religion, which the philosopher also believed has had a fundamental influence on the morality of the western world. As denoted earlier, the…

Marketing and How They Helped Define My
Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40071386
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marketing and how they helped define my definition of marketing.

The field of marketing is huge and devolves around various aspects. Analysis of the whole can provide a succinct definition of marketing.

It seems to me that marketing hinges on the customer and, therefore, the entire process centers around discovering the products and services that are of greatest value to the customer and around strategies and means of attracting the customer to buy them. In this sense, too, marketing is a competitive business since similar services / products try to persuade the customer to buy their particular service rather than go for another one. educibly, though, although marketing is allegedly customer-oriented, the entire enterprise is self-centered since the marketing agent / operator wishes the consumer to buy his/her product in order that he/she will receive a gain, usually in the form of monetary compensation. As per the wider picture, therefore,…


"About Us > History > Notable Cases."  

Red Dog Culture Exists in
Words: 2235 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85560096
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But this does not mean that this family cannot be understood as a political constellation. The family members relate to the world with violence, trying to make others conform to their desires with guns and drugs, a path that leads finally to a terrible action. This action transforms the novel from a type of ethnography and the characters from symbols of a certain kind of cultural actors into themselves, into individuals who believe they can no longer hide in the shadows of their culture and their history. The characters step out in front of the landscape, step out of the shadows of generalities, of being movers in a Great Canadian Novel.

Essential to understanding the novel and its characters is to trace the history of the family as it moves from America to Canada, from one geographical and historical site of colonization to another. In their home in British Columbia,…


Gilbert, H. & Tompkins, J. (1996). Post-colonial drama: Theory, practice, politics. New York: Routledge.

hooks, b. (1990). Yearning: Race, gender and cultural politics. Boston: South End.

Lane, P. (2006). Red dog. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.

Special Education Word Power People With Disabilities
Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59539322
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Special Education

Word Power

People with disabilities comprise a large portion of contemporary society's population base. As such, it would greatly behoove people today to give more consideration to a host of factors that affect those that are disabled, such as the creation and implementation of proper facilities, courteous treatment, and even the language that is used to refer to them. The terminology used to refer to people who happen to have disabilities is examined in a pair of essays authored by Kathie Snow, which are entitled "The Case Against "Special Needs" and "People Language First." The author believes that by changing the language that is used to describe the disabled and the peculiarities that they need, such people will substantially benefit in virtually all aspects of their lives.

The principle thesis that exists in both essays is that the language used to categorize people with disabilities and the specific…


Snow, K. (2012). "People First Language." Retrieved from 

Snow, K. (2012). "The Case Against "Special Needs." Retrieved from

Professions for Women in Which
Words: 4067 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73981604
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hen conducting an ideological critique, the researcher must be concerned with the way ideology is evidenced (or repressed) in the artifact, and a useful concept for identifying these "traces of ideology" is the notion of the ideograph, or the "political language which manifests ideology," which, according to Michael McGee, is "characterized by slogans" (Foss 248, McGee 5). McGee argues "that ideology in practice is a political language, preserved in rhetorical documents," and as such, can be identified in rhetorical artifacts via the "vocabulary of ideographs" frequently deployed in speech. Here it is important to note the importance of context, because in general McGee identifies ideographs as particular words, but one need not view these specific words as eternally and always ideographs; that is to say, these specific words may be identified as ideographs "by the usage of such terms in specifically rhetorical discourse, for such usage constitute excuses for specific…

Works Cited

Condit, Celeste Michelle. "In Praise of Eloquent Diversity: Gender and Rhetoric as Public

Persuasion." Womens Studies in Communication 20.2 (1997): 91-116.

Fernald, Anne E. "A Feminist Public Sphere? Virginia Woolfs Revisions of the Eighteenth

Century." Feminist Studies 31.1 (2005): 158-82.

African Athena Everyone Who Has
Words: 1934 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80468431
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Therefore, the beliefs of ancient writers cannot be taken as evidence in the same way as the finding of archaeological evidence can. If Egyptians or Phoenicians had permanently colonized Greece, it is likely that someone would have found the remnants of Egyptian or Phoenician buildings, as well as Egyptian writing, tombs, and other physical evidence of their colonization activities. One would expect that if there was an Egyptian influence in the origins of Greek civilization, the Greeks may have built in the Egyptian style, instead of creating a completely unique style of architecture. There has been no evidence discovered that would indicate a large scale, permanent Egyptian or Phoenician colonization.

Martin Bernal does a very good job of analyzing the sociological forces that influenced the creation of the "Aryan" model, however, the fact that the Aryan model has been misused is not evidence that disputes the idea that Greek civilization…

Works Cited

Berlinerblau, Jacques. Heresy in the University: The Black Athena Controversy

and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers

UP, 1999. Print.

Bernal, Martin and David Chioni Moore. Black Athena Writes Back:

Nietzsche and Nihilism Nihilism Was the Term
Words: 2070 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8952586
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Nietzsche and Nihilism

"Nihilism" was the term used by Friederich Nietzsche to describe what he considered the devaluation of the highest values posited by the ascetic ideal. The age in which he lived was viewed by the German philosopher as one of passive nihilism, which he defined as the unawareness of the fact that the religious and philosophical absolutes had dissolved in the emergence of the 19th century Positivism. Since traditional morality collapsed, along with its metaphysical and theological foundations, the only thing that remained was a sense of meaningless and purposelessness.

The triumph of meaninglessness coincides with the triumph of nihilism, under the slogan "God is dead." Nietzsche believed that people would start seeking absoluteness in nationalism, just as they previously did it in philosophy and religion, a conception which later lead to catastrophically consequences.

Nihilism is most often associated with Nietzsche. The philosopher felt that there is no…


1. Elbe, S, European Nihilism and Annihilation in the Twentieth Century. Totalitarian Movements & Political Religions, Winter2000, Vol. 1 Issue 3, p43

2.Ramos, A., Triumph of the will. Review of Politics, Winter96, Vol. 58 Issue 1, p181

3. Berges, S. Plato's Defence of Justice:Socrates contra Nietzsche University of Leeds

4. Encyclopedia Briatannica 1997 edition -- Articles on Nietzsche

Origins of Scalping Revealed the
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The history of Indian and European scalping)

Another factor that should be considered in the discussion of the origins of European scalping traditions is the evidence in etymology. There is evidence of the prior knowledge and use of scalping in the original usage and understanding of the word ' scalping'.

The noun "scalp" (from a Scandinavian root) existed in English long before the seventeenth century. It had two meanings of different ages. The older meaning was "the top or crown of the head; the skull or cranium," and the more recent one was the skin covering that upper part of the head, "usually covered with hair." ut in 1601, Holland's edition of Pliny added a third meaning from a literary acquaintance with the "Anthropophagi" (Scythians) near the North Pole, who wore their enemies' "scalpes haire and al, instead of mandellions or stomachers before their breasts."

Axtell 29)

Researchers have also…


Ancient Evidence Similar to Indian Scalping Found in China's Hinterland. May 19, 2005. 

Axtell, James. The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America. Vol. 12. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Binder, a. Early development of arrest as a concept and process ERCES Journal. May 19, 2005.

Brooke, Christopher. The Saxon & Norman Kings. London: B.T. Batsford, 1963.

Street Dance and Hip Hop
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Lastly, the paper concludes by summarizing the findings of the paper.

Limitations of the Study

It is imperative to analytically assess the outcome and the entire thesis. This is because this thesis has some limitations that should be observed when taking into consideration the importance of the thesis and its assistance. This thesis has concentrated on a subject that has been an extremely large and leading one, that is, the development and influence of hip hop dance: the cultural, sociological, and dance style evolution of street dance. Undoubtedly, this characterizes an extremely difficult assignment for research in spite of the more precise interests that the thesis might have. This wide-ranging and difficult subject has been analyzed from a somewhat limited experimental perception. The choice of the single thesis design obviously draws out numerous limitations in so far as the simplification of the outcome of the thesis is involved. Consequently, the…


1) Hip Hop. Taken at 

2) Efrem Smith. Hip-Hop as Culture. Youth worker journal. July/Aug 2004. Taken at 

3) Carl S. Taylor and Virgil Taylor. Hip-Hop and Youth Culture: Contemplations of an Emerging Cultural Phenomenon. Reclaiming Children and Youth. Volume: 12. Issue: 4. 2004.

4) Paul Butler. Much Respect: Toward a Hip-Hop Theory of Punishment. Stanford Law Review. Volume: 56. Issue: 5. 2004.

Managers Spend Approximately 25 of
Words: 1815 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43712632
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e. telling someone that you think he is still discontent), paraphrasing the emotion that the other expresses, and encouraging emotional perspective taking (with questions like "how would you feel about this in the future?" Or attempting to convey the emotion of the other party). In short, emphasis on emotion should be placed forefront in the mediation session and the underlying emotions should be uncovered and dealt with in order that one can then proceed to a conflict-free resolution.

There are, in short, two ways -- as Schnurman (2011) observes -- to handling workplace conflicts. Firstly, one can seek to minimize them by generating a healthy, communicative work environment. Secondly, one can skillfully resolve and defuse the issues once they arise. Arguments are a part of every workplace. How one deal with them determines the results -- and the results can be positive if dealt with in a constructive manner. Focusing…


American Institute of Stress Workplace Stress 

CCR Int. About Workplace Conflict

Special Education & Early Childhood Special Education
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Special Education

Tasks in Special Education and Early Childhood

Defining Intellectual Disability and Degrees Thereof

Language is a powerful tool or a powerful weapon. The language used to described non-normative populations is often accompanied by a vigorous and often difficult discussion regarding what kinds of words are academically, professionally, and medically describing abnormal populations. One such term with an interesting history is the term "mental retardation." Within the recent years of the 21st century, there has been a shift away from the term mental retardation and more toward the phrase intellectual disability. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) has been an influential party with respect to this linguistic, conceptual, and social shift. Dunlap (2009) elaborates upon the definition of mental retardation that the AAIDD proposes, stating that it is "a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive…


Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. NJ: Pearson.

Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2007). The Renaming of Mental Retardation: Understanding the Change to the Term Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2), 116 -- 124.

Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2008). The Intellectual Disability Construct and Its relation to Human Functioning. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46(4), 311 -- 318.

Clostridium Perfringens
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Clostridium perfringens or as it is more commonly called C. perfringens, formerly known as C. welchii , is a bacterium which is part of the genus Clostridium. It is a common bacterium which occurs naturally and is subsequently

found all over the world (Ryan). Like many bacteria, it is most often found in decaying matter such as dead plants, animals, and insects. It can also be found in living matter, such as the intestines of infected human beings. In addition, the bacteria can survive in environments with very little oxygen present. Infection from C. perfringens can be very dangerous to people who contract it. It is defined as, "Clostridium perfringens is a pathogenic species of Clostridium that causes a wide range of disease in humans -- from a limited gastroenteritis to a myonecrosis termed gas gangrene" (Nanney). C. perfringens is most often found in ill-cooked food matter or in fecal…

Works Cited

Borland, Sophie & Sinmaz, Emine. "They Sent Her Home and She Lay in My Arms Dying:

Husband's Anger at Hospital and Pub After his Wife Dies from Suspected Christmas Day Food Poisoning." Daily Mail. UK: Associated Newspapers, 2013. Print.

CDC. "CDC Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States." Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

"Clostridium Perfringens." U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. N.p., 2013. 6 April.

Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease
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Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease

The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.

Literature eview: Cognitive Effects

The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…


Aaro, Jonsson C., Smedler, AC., Leis, Ljungmark M., & Emanuelson, I (2009). Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury: ISSN: 1362-301X, Vol. 23 (13-14), pp. 1008-16. doi:10.3109/02699050903379354

Cozzarelli, Tara A. (2010). Evaluation and Treatment of Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. LCDR USPHS. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 10, Edition 39-42. Retrieved from: 

Howard, RS., Holmes, PA & Koutroumanidis, MA. (2011). Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Practical Neurology [Pract Neurol], ISSN: 1474-7766, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 4-18; PMID: 21239649. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.235218

Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria., Greenwood, Richard., Powell, Jane Hilary., Leech, Robert., Hawkins, Peter Charlie., Bonnelle, Valerie., Patel, Maneesh Chandrakan., Counsell, Serena Jane., and Sharp, David James (2011). White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. Brain A Journal Of Neurology. 134; 449 -- 463. doi:10.1093/brain/awq347

Nietzsche's Statement Sartre
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Explain Nietzsche's statement in the section on "The Will to Power" that Christianity is an "impious lie" and that "we ought to declare open war against it"?

The Holy Bible teaches that one should love thy enemies. However, Nietzsche finds this to be a major problem. In addition, He believes that by saying that one should love their enemies like they love their friends, is a big lie. This is true because this is something that my parents told me growing up, though now at an older age, I see it as something stupid. Why should I love or care for someone who has done me wrong. I see it as if someone did me wrong, then forget them and let them live their lives away from me. As long as they get away from me and do not ever get near me I will not try to get…

Stuart Hall Revised According to Stuart Hall Culture
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Stuart Hall/EVISED

According to Stuart Hall, culture is about shared meanings; language is the medium through which meaning is produced and exchanged (Hall, 2003, p. 1). In linking language to identity and culture, Hall uses the word "culture" in an anthropological sense, meaning to distinguish groups of people, whether they belong to a community, nation or social group, by their shared values. The shared values are manifest in literature, art, music and philosophy of the culture. The shared values shape customs and the very fabric of human life, ultimately influencing everything people do. Some shared values are seen in different cultures, while there are a few groups, often in relatively isolated regions of the globe, that have unique values unto themselves, producing customs, practices and beliefs that seem strange to the rest of the world. As Hall puts it, saying that two people belong to the same culture is to…


Benmoktar, A 2009, 'More than Words: Arab Body Language', Love Habibi, [blog] July 2, 2009,

Available at: / [Accessed: March 17, 2012]

Hall, S, ed. 2003. Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices.

Sage Publications, London.

Rationality Predictive Theories Are Better or Not
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ationality: Predictive Theories are Better or Not?


Carl Gustav Hempel is a leader of the logical positivist movement. Logical positivism, also known as logical empiricism or logical neopostivism, rose as a movement in Hempel's home of Germany in the early to mid 20th century. Logical positivism's primary concern lies in the critical analysis of scientific knowledge and natural sciences with definite meaning. Logical positivism and thus Hempel argue for the exploration and clarification of amorphous or ambiguous concepts to make them the exact antithesis -- precise and exactly articulated. Karl Popper, a self-titled "critical rationalist" is a philosophical exemplar of thinkers who directly influence science and technical matters. Popper's theories combine matters of philosophy, the social realm, politics, and science comprehensively and succinctly. Thus, the paper addresses the question of the topic with this context in mind: is it rational to give more credence to theories that predict or…


Flynn, Tom (ed). (2007) The New Encyclopedia of Disbelief. Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY.

Thornton, S. (2009) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University Metaphysics Lab. Available from

Aristophanes Fragments
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Aristophanic invective against a rival dramatist: the fragment from the lost Lemnian omen included in Henderson's edition as number 382, attested to in two separate ancient sources (suggesting it was considered a particularly choice joke):

Because it is a pun made on the name of the tragedian Dorillus or Dorilaos -- we are not sure of the spelling, since none of his work survives and the pun in Aristophanes' fragment is the chief testimony to his work -- Henderson finds a novel solution for translating this untranslatable joke: "the women fence off their pussy shelleys" (Henderson 291). As a hint to the plot of the lost Lemnian women, the sense of sexual pleasure being deliberately withheld, as in Lysistrata, seems to adhere to this particular fragment: but indeed Martin (1987), in an important article on the use of the mythology of Lemnos and Lemnian women within Lysistrata, indicates that the…

Works Cited

Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes.

Aeschylus, Suppliant Women.

Alciphron. Letters.

Aristophanes, Ekklesiazusai.

Gender in the Collector and the Comfort of Strangers
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Gender in Fowles and McEwan

[oman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute -- she is the Other. -- Simone de Beauvoir.

Simone de Beauvoir's influential analysis of gender difference as somehow implying gender deference -- that the mere fact of defining male in opposition to female somehow implies placing one in an inferior or subaltern position -- becomes especially interesting when examining how fiction by male authors approaches questions of gender. I propose to examine in detail two British novels of the post-war period -- The Collector by John Fowles, published in 1963, and The Comfort of Strangers by Ian McEwan, published in 1981 -- and hope to demonstrate that, in point of fact, the existence of the feminist movement has managed to shift the portrayal of…

Works Cited

Cooper, Pamela. The Fictions of John Fowles: Power, Creativity, Femininity. Canada: University of Ottowa Press, 1991. Print.

Dwelle, Josh. "Ian McEwan." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.

Fowles, John. The Collector. London: Jonathan Cape, 1963. Print.

Gindin, James. "John Fowles." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.

Morphology Personal Name Truncations
Words: 7828 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10167536
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A large range of the academic literature centering on the sociological as well as the cultural and linguistic properties of nicknaming can be found. This literature mostly focuses on only sociological and/or cultural properties and/or the linguistic properties but mostly with varying working definitions of the term nickname. For example, some researchers (e.g., Slater and Feinman 1985) notice the structural and sociological commonalities among both the formal and the nicknames whereas, according to some (e.g., Alford 1988) only the descriptive forms are the nicknames. The definition of the term nickname used in this paper may overlap with some of the categories however; there should be no surprise at the commonalities found between the informal and the formal names. As Pulgram (1954, 11-14) has said; the nicknames are the antecedents of many formal names.

Social meaning of nicknaming

The social meaning and function a nickname basically depends on the society…


Aceto, M. 2002. Ethnic Personal Names and Multiple Identities in Anglo phone Caribbean Speech Communities in Latin America. Language in Society 31: 577 -- 608.

Alford, R.D. 1988. Naming and Identity: A Cross-cultural Study of Personal Naming Practices. New Haven, Conn.: HRAF Press.

Aronoff, M. And Fudeman, K. 2010. What is Morphology (Fundamentals of Linguistics). Wiley-Blackwell

Benua, L. 1995. Identity Effects in Morphological Truncation. In Papers in Opti mality Theor y, ed. Jill N. Beckman, Laura Walsh Dickey, and Suzanne Urbanczyk, 77 -- 136. Amherst: Graduate Student Linguistic Assoc., Univ. Of Massachusetts.

Kierkegaard Soccio Reports That at the Funeral
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Soccio reports that at the funeral of Soren Kierkegaard in 1855, his brother Peter (a clergyman) delivered a conventional Christian eulogy but that "upset with the way the institution had violated the spirit of its great critic, his nephew caused a scene at the graveside." (397). his anecdote appealed to me particularly, because Kierkegaard's own critique of Christianity seems to me particularly persuasive and appealing. In the debased climate of Christianity in America today, it strikes me that Kierkegaard's view of religion is more relevant than ever.

In fact, the majority of religious believers today strike me as needing a good dose of Kierkegaard. Soccio quotes an amusing anecdote from Either/Or in which one of Kierkegaard's many fictional personae reports a scientific study of Christians, and follows one around taking notes on his behavior, only to conclude "But he does just what I do!" (401). Well, of course on…

The irony is that, of course, nowadays most practicing Christians are little more than Pharisees themselves. In the 2000 U.S. Presidential debates, apparently George W. Bush was asked who his favorite philosopher was, and he replied: "Jesus, because he changed my heart." If one could take a time machine and go back to that debate, then it would be wonderful to ask Bush for his interpretations of various statements by his favorite philosopher -- such as "blessed are the peacemakers," or "you cannot serve both God and Mammon" or "it is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of heaven." I am being ironic, of course, but I think Kierkegaard would have appreciated the irony.

George W. Bush illustrates for me personally the central critique that Kierkegaard would make of the average Christian -- Soccio describes it as a process whereby someone "attempts to be 'a Christian' or 'a lawyer' based on some collective abstraction, some image or idea" or in other words "attempts to conform to a pattern." (404). I agree with Kierkegaard that this is not a religion -- instead it makes Christianity into a vast form of social control and enforced conformity. When Bush claimed Jesus as his "favorite philosopher," evangelical Christians across America thought "He is one of us," in other words, they recognized the signs of conformism and approved them. They did not think "How can he justify his tax policies in light of Matthew 22:15-22?"

It does not matter for the purposes of this argument whether I myself am a Christian or not. One way or the other, Kierkegaard's "leap of faith" makes any kind of religious belief ultimately an act of radical solitude and uncertainty. To encounter Kierkegaard after having grown up in a climate of contemporary American Christianity makes religious belief suddenly seem like a more respectable enterprise -- there is no solitude and uncertainty whatsoever in a "Moral Majority." But even if religion is a consoling fiction offered to cope with mortality, it is worth recalling that death, too, is an act of radical solitude and uncertainty. Kierkegaard's view of religion is the first I have encountered which seems to acknowledge this -- he not only makes religion a more respectable thing in my eyes, but he does so by exposing the vast majority of contemporary religious believers to a sharp critique that I think is undeniable.

Primary Source Analysis
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Primary Source Analysis

The Aztec chronicler who wrote the account of the Spanish conquest notes that, from the start, the Spaniards had come to make war, but does not give much account of Motecuhzoma's psychological motivations for approaching them. He describes in great detail how Motecuhzoma greeted the Spanish while adorned in all his finery, and presented them with gifts both lavish and delicate: necklaces of gold and garlands of flowers (Graebner 24). It is possible that this was a diplomatic attempt to forestall bloodshed, but more likely that Aztec warfare involved a ritualized and formal gesture before it commenced. Certainly the description here sounds more like the ritual described later, in which two captives are "painted with chalk" and then have their hearts ripped out ritually while Motecuhzoma watches, and then their blood is sprinkled on the messengers who have brought Motecuhzoma and account of the Spanish armaments and…

Hispanic vs Latino an Identity Debate
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Hispanic vs. Latino

In these times of political correctness and cultural awareness and sensitivity, it is very important to know the right term when discussing a people or their culture. It is very easy to offend without intending to so or to cause emotional pain through ignorance. This is why it has become increasingly important to know the right cultural term for a given population. People with Mexican heritage have interchangeably been referred to by the terms Hispanic or Latino for many years. Lately, it has become necessary to create a single identifying term so that the group feels unified and no one feels at all slighted by a term they deem to be in any way offensive to themselves or their culture. Many cultural critics have argued that the term Hispanic is more offensive that Latino because it the term was created by the government and Latino was the…

Works Cited

Beretto, Holly." Cuts, by Budget. "Cultural Uniqueness: Hispanic vs. Latino | USARiseUp.

Cubias, Daniel. "Hispanic vs. Latino: What's in a Name?" Latino Like Me.

Granados, Christine. "Hispanic vs. Latino." Hispanic Magazine. Dec 2000.

Grech, Dan and Jose Maya. "Episode 4: Hispanic vs. Latino."

Social Cultural Effects Money Use Concrete Examples
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social cultural effects money. Use concrete examples readings; addition

The social and cultural effects of money are quite considerable. However, they must be viewed within the proper sociological and, indeed, anthropological context for their effects to truly be appreciated. Money, regardless of the denomination or type of currency, is a capital means of procuring essential needs. Its value is strictly related to its ability to procure essential goods which are those pertaining to the basic elements that humans need to exist such as food, clothing and shelter. Therefore, the social and cultural effects of money are more accurately described as those relating to the things that money can afford or provide. Viewed from this perspective, there are several discernible ramifications that money engenders within contemporary and previous societies, all of which are related to the provisioning of essential elements of human existence.

Elucidated within the point-of-view of the preceding thesis,…

How Bible Came to Were it Is Today
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To many people The Bible is the word of God and its status as the word of God means that it is infallible and its origins should not be questioned. However, such an approach to the Bible ignores facts that are known about its history and how it is written. A better, more informed approach examines the history of the Bible, when it was written, how it was written, the original books in the Bible, and how modern books have been selected or omitted. Furthermore, one also has to consider that there are actually multiple versions of the modern Bible, so that it is virtually impossible for any person to say what the contents of the Bible are. This fact should be enough to demonstrate the fact that the Bible is a living document, which has changed throughout time, and will continue to change as Christianity continues to develop…

Flapper Movement the Effect of the Flappers
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Flapper Movement

The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women

The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.

Evolution of the Flapper

Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…


Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:

Harper and Row.

Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.

Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.

Medieval Knights
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knight was "a mounted warrior in the service of his liege-lord." Knights were professional soldiers. They were higher in rank in the cavalry. They wore coat of arms that bore the names of their heritage. They carried the colors of their Lords. (Hopkins, 1990) Their job was protecting the lands that belonged to their Lords and by extension the domain of the king. The rise of knights was associated with a martial meritocracy and an eventual aristo-meritocracy. Those knights who won battles for their masters rose through the hierarchical ranks. They were accorded greater power, lands and servants. The raison d' tre for knights was martial supremacy. Fighting was an often occurrence, because the common person could not defend themselves against an invading foe. In time of danger the people fled to the castle. When not engaged in combat, knights would participate in tournaments to win favors, power, and money.…


Bacon, Leonard. The Song of Roland, Dover Thrift Editions. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2002.

Brault, Gerard J. Early Blazon: Heraldic Terminology in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, with Special Reference to Arthurian Literature. Oxford,: Clarendon Press, 1972.

Gies, Frances. The Knight in History. London: R. Hale, 1986.

Hopkins, Andrea. Knights. 1st American ed. New York: Artabras, 1990.

Words: 2856 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27916028
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Scrimshaw: As History and Currency of a Bygone Era

The art of Scrimshaw is an art of idle hands. Scrimshaw, as we know it today dates back to the early part of the nineteenth century. Sailors on long idle whaling expeditions would use the leavings of the hunt to create art. haling required many more crew than was actually needed to man the ship, as the animal required many men to finish the kill once it was injured and also many to ground it, bring it on board or on shore and hundreds sometimes to quickly finish the butchering and harvest. (Paszkiewicz 1)

haling was even seen as a punishment for young evil doers and in that way

Scrimshaw could be compared at least somewhat to prison art, probably its closest folk art neighbor. "haling, after all, was better than most systems of peonage that flourish to-day, for it released…

Works Cited

Dunkelman, Mark H. Gettysburg's Unknown Soldier: The Life, Death, and Celebrity of Amos Humiston. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999.

This is the biographical interpretation of the life of the famous civil war soldier

Amos Humiston. The importance of the work for this application is in regard to Humiston's life aboard the whaling ship Harrison prior to his service in the civil war. It chronicles the life of a novice whaler and also the fascinating history of a Gettysburg celebrity.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860. Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1921.

Comparing the Works of William Gibson
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William Gibson

orn in 1948 in South Carolina, William Gibson was to become one of the most prolific representative of science fiction and an exponent of what is to referred to as the cyberpunk genre in science fiction. Even if he did not actually defined the termed (it has been used previously, see below), William Gibson became the most recognized writer of cyberpunk and he created and defined the term cyberspace, a term with which we are becoming more and more familiar today. His book Neuromancer, written in 1984, won him international fame and recognition, as well as the Hugo Award, the Nebula Award and the Philipp K. Dick Award.

Of course, discussing William Gibson means discussing, however briefly, the concept of cyberpunk. Gibson did not actually invent the term: it was first used by ruce ethke somewhere in the 1980s as a title for one of his short stories.…


Nietzsche Freud Morrison
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Life: Purpose

The meaning for life has illusively evaded humans for centuries. Theories abound, yet the hunger remains as mankind seeks to identify a purpose for their existence. The question of our purpose is often unknowingly based on two other unanswered queries. While some seems to construct on a meaning of life from their accomplishments, basing personal value, purpose, meaning on what he or she builds to leave behind after his death is a huge assumption. Constructivists believe that because a reality outside of this life does not exist, the construction one's own personal reality, and meaning for life is the only example. This assumption is particularly American in understanding, having evolved out of the prosperity of the West in combination with the trend of distancing ourselves from religious traditions. However, if the discussion is the meaning of life, our conclusions must be more universally applicable than to a nation…


Freud, S. Civilization and its discontents. Accessed 29 April 2004. Website: 

Morrison, T. The Song of Solomon. Western Washington University. Accessed 29 April 2004.

Nietzsche, F. On the Genealogy of Morals. 1887. Translated by Ian Johnston Malaspina University-College Nanaimo, BC. Accessed 29 April 2004. Website:

Warren, Rick. The Purpose Driven Life. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing Company. 1999.

Fibromyalgia One Might Consider Fibromyalgia to Be
Words: 6457 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37868620
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One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.

Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…


Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655

Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326

Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645

Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web:

Characteristics of Pain
Words: 3205 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 75487730
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Perception of Pain

Uses of Pain in nursing

Definitions of Pain from Dictionaries

Uses of Pain in psychology

Defining attributes

Model case

elated Case

Contrary Case

Antecedents and Consequences


The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the perception of pain. The researcher purpose to clarify describe the characteristics of pain and recognize antecedents that effect the idea of pain and the likely outcomes of pain by utilizing Avant's and Walker (2005) theory of study. Also, a model case shows how pain is connected to these serious characteristics contrary case and a borderline case are shown to distinguish the perception of pain from other notions. Empirical referents show the current point-of-view of the perception of pain. (Akyol & Salmond, 2009)

Concept Analysis of Characteristics of Pain


The goal of this paper is to expand the understanding of the concept of…


Akyol, O., Karayurt, O., & Salmond, S. (2009). Experiences of pain and satisfaction with pain management in patients undergoing total knee replacement. Orthopedic Nursing, 28(2), 79-85.

Chan, S., Hadjistavropoulos, T., Carleton, R.N., & Hadjistavropoulos, H. (2012). Predicting adjustment to chronic pain in older adults. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 44(3), 192-199.

Eggermont, L.H.P., Bean, J.F., Guralnik, J.M., & Leveille, S.G. (2009). Comparing pain severity vs. pain location in the MOBILIZE Boston study: Chronic pain and lower extremity function*. The Journals of Gerontology, 64A (7), 763-70.

Gelinas, C., Fortier, M., Viens, C., Fillion, L., & Puntillo, K. (2004). PAIN ASSESSMENT AND Management IN CRITICALLY ILL INTUBATED PATIENTS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY. American Journal of Critical Care, 13(2), 126-35.

James 2 8-11 Prior to Examining the
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James 2: 8-11

Prior to examining the meaning of the text in James 2: 8-11, it is necessary for one to gain an astute understanding of the specific words employed within this passage. Doing so will add substantial value to an explication and exegesis of this passage. Additionally, a word analysis will indicate to the reader what some of the most important concepts in this passage are. Therefore, a word analysis will be conducted in order to further the overall comprehension of this particular text, both within the context of the book of James as well as within the Bible itself. Doing so proves that this passage functions as a warning.

In James 2: 8, the most important words are "royal law," and "Scripture." In James 2: 9, the best words to analyze include "favoritism," "sin," and "lawbreakers." In verse 10 of this passage the most important words are "stumbles,"…

References Available [online] at: 

retrieved March 23, 2014.

Guralnik, D.B. (1968). Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Languages. New York: World Publishing.

Nordstrom and Performance Goals
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Nordstrom -- Performance Goals

Nordstrom: Performance Goals

Because of the performance goals at Nordstrom, and the way in which the company promotes such an open atmosphere, there are both positive and negative impacts. The openness of the atmosphere includes the sales figures of every associate, which are posted twice each month for all associates to see. This encourages competition, but yet the company also wants the employees to work together as a team (Chance, 2003). On the surface, the idea of both competition and working together seem like they would be counterintuitive, and that they would not make a good match (Chance, 2003). Nordstrom is working to change that. However, it does not seem that this is the best type of reinforcement schedule for everyone. The top-performing employees are rewarded, while those who do not perform well can experience guilt, shame, jealousy, anger, and other emotions that go along with…


Chance, P. (2003) Learning and behavior, (5th ed.). NY: Thomson-Wadsworth.

Dinsmoor, J.A. (2004) "The etymology of basic concepts in the experimental analysis of behavior." Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 82(3): 311 -- 6.

Harter, J.K., Shmidt, F.L., & Keyes, C.L. (2002). Well-Being in the Workplace and its Relationship to Business Outcomes: A Review of the Gallup Studies. In C.L. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: The Positive Person and the Good Life (pp. 205-224). Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Marketing in the 21st Century
Words: 494 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 49909401
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Target Marketing

The author of this report has been asked to select and review an article on target marketing. According to the website, there are several important facets and parts of targeting marketing that make it a very viable and effective to market products and services. The author of this response will explain what the etymology of the term is and how it all works. While target marketing may seem dull to many people, the method is extremely current and modern and pays major dividends when done correctly.

As the name would imply, targeting marketing is based on identifying and exploiting a target market. Some of the questions that someone should ask when doing this would include whether target customers are male or female, how old they are, where they live, what they do for a living, how much money they earn in a year and what other aspects…

References (2016). Target Market. Entrepreneur. Retrieved 27 January 2016, from

Looking Into Social Cognitivism
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Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis

Literature eview on Social Cognitivism

Social Cognitivism

Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura

The core of the social cognitive theory is that through observation, learning occurs. This theory has several premises forming its foundation. Human beings are seen to learn when they participate in the observation process. A person who is a model, demonstrates a behaviour while the observer picks up this behaviour or learns it by seeing the model doing it. Albert Bandura, in his Social Cognitive Theory on personality, which is now known as the Social Learning Theory, states that there are many interactions of various elements such as people, the environment and behaviours when learning is taking place. Thus it takes place within a social setting (Bandura, 1999).

Purpose of the study

Bandura pursued various aims in this study. He looked at the behaviour of groups and individuals and…


Bandura A. (1989) Social Cognitive Theory. IN: Annals of Child Development (Vol 6, p1

60. (Vasta R, ed). Greenwich, CT: Jai Press LTD.

Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Latin Kings and Young Lords
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Puerto Rican Gangs in Chicago

The history of Puerto Rican gangs in Chicago is indelibly linked to politics. Many gang members of today might forget that fact, but the origins of those gangs and some of the more fundamental aspects of their formations were related to politics. Additionally, the racial situation in the United States contributed a lot to those early gangs. The reality was that as each new immigrant group came to the country, it found a land diversified by nationality and ethnicity. The two most prominent Puerto Rican gangs in Chicago -- the Young Lords and Latin Kings -- were based upon those lines of segregation and ultimately came to reflect it from a Puerto Rican perspective.

Although there are stories that Puerto Rican gangs existed as far back as the earliest part of the 20th century and the 1930's, they did not truly emerge to prominence until…

Drinking With Younger Jews
Words: 24280 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 42632920
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Paenting Style Influence on Excess Alcohol Intake Among Jewish Youth


Maste of Science, Mental Health Counseling, College, Januay, 2008

Clinical Psychology

Anticipated; Decembe, 2016

The health hazads that ae associated with adolescent alcohol use ae well documented, and thee is gowing ecognition among policymakes and clinicians alike that moe needs to be done to addess this public health theat. The pupose of this study will be to examine the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish college students in the United States. The study daws on attachment theoy, social leaning theoy, and a paenting style model as the main theoetical famewoks to evaluate the effects of diffeent paenting styles on alcohol consumption levels among Jewish adolescents to develop infomed answes to the study's thee guiding eseach questions concening the elationship between peceived paenting style and excess alcohol use of male, Jewish, college students aged 18-26…

references to gender.

Scoring: The PAQ is scored easily by summing the individual items to comprise the subscale scores. Scores on each subscale range from 10 to 50.

Author: Dr. John R. Buri, Department of Psychology, University of St. Thomas, 2115

Summit Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55105.

Source: Buri, J.R. (1991). Parental Authority Questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Assessment, 57, 110-119