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Europe is, to a large extent, the crucible of world development. Certainly, Asia and the regions of the Middle East are significant too, but Europe is the birth of a Western culture that has spread throughout the globe and affected the world in numerous ways. For this reason, European studies are central to any academic curriculum program. As specific to the U.., Europe is particularly important since not only has Europe birthed the U.. But many of its citizens stem from there, the cultures are closely linked, and the U.. conducts a large part of its trade with Europe. For these reasons and more, it seems to be important that Europe and its development should be the first region addressed in a World Regional Geography course.
The following essay elaborates on the significance of European contributions to world development by tracing key points of European history through feudalism to globalization…
Eckhard Polzer (2000) The Contribution of Europe to Globalization.
Harvey, David (2005), A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
History World. HISTORY OF FEUDALISM. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/plaintexthistories.asp?historyid=ac35
Europe After World War II
Historical Development Unification
Historical Development of Unification Ideas in Europe after World War II
Europe was torn to shreds by the ugly forms of national and ethnic hatred after World War II (1939-1945). Europe is geographically situated in middle of such a global power system, where failing of peace means global annihilation. After World War II, the Europeans established such a framework that can allow peace and regional cooperation to be fostered. They wanted to establish a "Common Market," that got established by 1957. The purpose of writing this essay is to highlight the historical development of Unification ideas in Europe after World War II.
Historical Development of Unification Ideas in Europe after World War II
Europe suffered both economical and political crises after World War II. The creation of European Union took place, various treaties were signed and some effective movements came in to…
Figure from Key Trends in Globalization. (2010, February 19). Retrieved May 8, 2012, from http://ablog.typepad.com/keytrendsinglobalisation/2010/02/china-and-india-economic-growth-and-the-fight-with-inflation.html
Haas, E.B. (1968). The Uniting of Europe: Political, Social and Economic Forces, 1950 -- 1957. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Lindberg, L. (1963). The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration. London: Oxford University Press.
Milward, A.S. (1984). The Reconstruction of Western Europe 1945-51. London: SAGE Publications.
Europe's success can in part be attributed to its geography. In particular, abundant rainfall enabled it to grow ample food, and the cold climate protected it from significant invasion from warmer climates. With food supplies relatively easy to come by in most years, Europeans were able to focus their efforts elsewhere. They created art and they waged war. That their climate was also often uncomfortable convinced many to explore the world. People in hot, dry places like Africa or Arabia simply did not have these advantages. They developed entirely different ways of life, ones that Europeans may need to adapt to if the climate of Europe were to change.
The basic pattern of life revolves around food production, and when food production is easy if frees up time and energy for other pursuits. Though there are times of war and times of famine, Europe's history was generally shaped by agricultural…
Europe and Africa
Understanding the Emergence of 'Ethnicity' and the Nation-State
The historical emergence of ethnicities and nation-states in Europe and in Africa is continually questioned and re-interpreted by historians, sociologists, anthropologists, and mass media. Depending on the perspective of the author and the intention of the narrative, ethnicity can be seen as a colonial construct or as an inherent cultural identity through which more similarities with other ethnicities may be noted than differences. However, because of political persuasion and imperialistic practices, especially in the modern era, ethnic emergence has been viewed as something disparate from nationhood. Bruce J. Berman, for example, quotes Samora Machel, "leader of one of the most radically modernist African regimes," as asserting, "For the nation to live, the tribe must die'" (Berman 306). This paper will analyze the play between ethnicity and nationhood, and ultimately show how we can compare the historical emergence of ethnicities…
A final European product is Dijon mustard (from Dijon), which is made by Unilever, a multinational that handles its own distribution. I know a lot of these are foods, but there are not that many non-comestibles that are from Europe, and the notebook isn't sold here, I brought it back myself.
Yugoslavia: The former Yugoslavia was always a fake country, a set of ethnic regions glorped together into a nation-state, so with the fall of Communism and the breakup of the U.S.S.., the disintegration of Yugoslavia was inevitable. Slobodan Milosevic was president of Serbia during the breakup, and exploited Serbian nationalism to create conflict during this breakup. With Slovenia, Croatia and BiH all declaring independence, and Milosevic seeking to fan the flames of conflict, the situation in Yugoslavia became a crisis. Serbian minorities in both Croatia and BiH agitated for independence or reunion with Serbian, fearing negative treatment as minorities.…
University of Oslo (2011). The Svalbard Treaty. Retrieved May 5, 2014 from http://www.jus.uio.no/english/services/library/treaties/01/1-11/svalbard-treaty.xml
Doughty, G. (2014). The Chunnel under siege. The Daily Mail. Retrieved May 4, 2014 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-70041/The-Chunnel-siege.html
The Economist. (2014). Beyond the river. The Economist . Retrieved May 5, 2014 from http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21601314-recent-events-have-revived-interest-tiny-pro-russian-territory-moldova-beyond-river?zid=307&ah=5e80419d1bc9821ebe173f4f0f060a07
Maltezou, R. & Papadimas, L. (2013). Thousands of Greeks rally in anti-austerity strike. Reuters Retrieved May 5, 2014 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/02/20/us-greece-strike-idUSBRE91I1D520130220
hat are the top two or three reasons why Europe is facing a mid-life crisis?
The NPR story by Eleanor Beardsley -- published in 2010 -- begins by pointing to the extraordinary benefits that citizens in Denmark and France are entitled to. The author says that healthcare is free in many EU countries, and education is also free, and if a couple has a child there are stipends in that eventuality as well. But is this "welfare system" sustainable? The government of France is borrowing to be able to continue to pay for the social programs that all citizens enjoy, but in France, Germany and Spain -- and elsewhere -- the money is just not there to continue shelling out benefits for healthcare, education, unemployment and other social needs.
Reason #1: One of the top reasons why Europe is facing a mid-life crisis: social spending simply cannot be sustained…
Beardsley, E. (2010). Can The European Welfare State Survive? NPR. Retrieved January
21, 2014, from http://www.npr.org .
Gifford, R. (2010). In Europe, Obstacles To A More Perfect Union. NPR. Retrieved January
21, 2014, from
Moreover, without instituting the plan, without the United States putting its currency where its rhetoric was, it is unlikely that Europe would have accepted the so-called Truman Doctrine later on as willingly as it did, or the status of NATO and the United Nations as anti-communist and peacekeeping forces dominated by the United States. The Truman Doctrine began with Greece, but was later invoked in the Berlin Airlift and other interventionist and anti-communist activities on the part of the United States. "The very existence of the Greek state is today threatened by the terrorist activities of several thousand armed men, led by Communists, who defy the government's authority at a number of points, particularly along the northern boundaries," declared Truman in 1947, advocating his famous doctrine for the first time. (the Truman Doctrine, 1947)
The Marshall Plan was not simply adopted for humanitarian reasons. At the time, the United States…
The Marshall Plan: 1947. The Congressional Record 20 Jun 1947. http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/57.htm
The Truman Doctrine. 1947. The Avalon Project. 1997. Yale School of Law. Last Modified 21 Jul 2005. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/trudoc.htm
The United States offered up to $20 billion for relief, but only if the European nations could unite and draw up a rational plan on how they would use the aid (Marshall1 pp). For the first time in history, they would have to cooperate with each other and act as a single economic unit (Marshall1 pp). Although Marshall also offered aid to the Soviet Union and its allies in Eastern Europe, Stalin denounced the programs as a trick and refused to participate, however the Russian rejection probably made the passage of the measure through Congress possible (Marshall1 pp).
It should be noted that the Marshall Plan also benefited the American economy, because the money would be used to buy goods from the United States that had to be shipped across the Atlantic on American merchant vessels (Marshall1 pp). The Marshall Plan worked and by 1953, the United States had pumped…
The Marshall1 Plan (1947). Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/57.htm
The Marshall Plan. Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Plan
Truman Doctrine. Retrieved July 28, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truman_Doctrine
till the results of these revolutions were quite contradictive: France gained political freedoms for a short period of time, Italy was unified by monarchy was established, Austria-Hungary held political reforms against feudalism survivals, but in fact the very purposes were not realized. But their ideological role was vital, as their results led to the popularization of nationalist ideas in Europe, cultural unification of oppressed nations and further struggle for freedoms.
ince the mile of the nineteenth century European community had understood that nation could develop only under the ideas of nationalism, liberties and independence within the state, where people live, and where their interests and aspirations are reflected in current legislature. At the same time, nationalism in different European states gained radical features, such as expansion, superiority over other nations and struggle for new territories, markets and zones of economical and political interest. From one side these were colonial interests…
Since the mile of the nineteenth century European community had understood that nation could develop only under the ideas of nationalism, liberties and independence within the state, where people live, and where their interests and aspirations are reflected in current legislature. At the same time, nationalism in different European states gained radical features, such as expansion, superiority over other nations and struggle for new territories, markets and zones of economical and political interest. From one side these were colonial interests of European superpowers, with liberal governments as France and Great Britain, who were entering the new age in their development called imperialism and from the other side there were "old-fashioned" monarchies who saw the only way to prosperity in conquest and colonialism. The first case that brought these contradictions to surface was a Crimean War, when Russian and declining Ottoman Empire with allies in the face of Britain and France fought for domination in Black sea, then it was Berlin congress, which finished Russo-Turkish war of 1876-1878.
But by the means of repartitioning Europe, changing maps and establishing new states, imperial interests of major European superpowers could not be solved, as they dream about the whole repartition of colonial world. But they met the counter force in the face of nationalism of oppressed nations, who as well wanted to fight for independence and were not satisfied by territorial ambitions of European major powers.
All these contradictions (imperial and nationalistic) brought Europe and global community to WW1, which had to solve burning problems of European geopolitics by means of blood, cruelty and gunpowder. In order to see the most objective solution to of the problem it's important to refer to Woodrow Wilson's "14 points," who being an independent observe proposed the most reasonable solution to further conflicts at least on the territory of Europe: "to refuse from any colonial claims on European continent and to give the right to self-determination and establishing governments to every nation."
The $13.3 billion provided by the United States definitely contributed to European recovery (Introduction pp).
orld ar II had devastated much of the continent, leaving the local economies in ruin and millions homeless (Marshall pp). Moreover, the destruction of agriculture had led to conditions of starvation in many areas of the continent (Marshall pp). Many of the greatest cities were in ruins, others were severely damaged, and of particular concern was the damage to the transportation industry, such as railways, bridges, roads, and the number of merchant shipping boats that had been sunk (Marshall pp).
Due to the Marshall Plan, the four years following the ar saw the fastest period of growth in European history (Marshall pp). ithout the Marshall Plan, Europe would have had a very slow recovery, with many areas struggling for decades, and others falling to communism. It is very likely that ten years after the ar…
Introduction: The Marshall Plan. Retrieved July 21, 2005 at http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/marshall/mars0.html
The Marshall Plan. Retrieved July 21, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Plan
Truman Doctrine. Retrieved July 21, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truman_Doctrine
"I grant you the sacred charge of propagating our order under any and all conditions, because it is sure to have a lasting effect on posterity. As I've told you many times, the Priory de Zion has been the guiding force behind the Knights Templars, the French faction which has been our military might and the possessor of the holy grail which Mary Magdalene took into this country after the crucifixion of Jesus."
"That cup symbolizes the bloodline of our order as being descended from a divinity which has been passed down through the Merovingian ancestry and to which we are the rightful heirs. You must carefully preserve this knowledge I'm telling you and contain it only within our order, which strives to reassert our rights to the throne of the world."
"I will Jean. Wouldn't it be great if we were able to safeguard such a secret so that…
Baigent, M. Leigh, R. Lincoln, H. (1982). Holy Blood, Holy Grail. New York: Dell Publishing. p. 131
Loyd, L. (1975). The Origins of Anglo-Norman Families. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co. p. 45.
" However, despite legal change meant to reach all corners of European office and family life, former Italian Equal Opportunity minister said, "Laws are very far from reality." To achieve any real power in the civic realm, the law has to mimic the driving forces for social change in a manner accessible to the layman; equality has to be felt, and forced, on both sides. While British women are able to see their husband and rime Minister home with newborn babies, they also need to be able to pursue their jobs in such a manner that they do not lose out for the sake of family.
However, the struggle between family and work remains important for both sexes. France and Britain are at opposite ends of the European sphere, old rivals again facing new arguments as they aim to decipher the call for equality heard internationally. In 2001, the Genisson…
Power, Carla. "Women of the New Century; for European Women, Globalization May be Messy. But it's Bringing Fresh Opportunities for a Grou pof Dynamic, Young Entrepreneurs. The Workplace will Never be the Same Again." Newsweek. January 8, 2001. p. 14.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. "Gender Equality Plans at the Workplace." Eiro. May 2004. p. 3.
Should Tony Take a Break?" BBC News. March 23, 2000.
For Conrad and Coppola, colonialism and imperialism destroys the psyches of both the oppressor and the oppressed. In Heart of Darkness and in Apocalypse Now, the protagonists struggle between their sense of duty, loyalty, and obligation with their sense of compassion and sheer disgust. Marlow and illard both signify the probable state of mind of many American soldiers during the war in Vietnam, and of many European traders during the colonial era. Their illusions shattered by what they encounter in the jungle, Marlow and illard can nevertheless not completely wrest themselves from their origin and cultural identity. One of the reasons Kurtz is such a legendary figure in both stories is that the man attempted to traverse the worlds. Both Kurtzes suffer immensely as a result, and both come across as being egomaniacal and completely deluded. The Kurtzes simultaneously despise the native peoples and love them, but their love is…
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness.
Coppola, Francis Ford. Apocalypse Now Redux. 1979 feature film.
Class notes and lectures: "Introduction to Heart of Darkness," and "European Imperialism in Africa."
Cesaire portrays France's less intrusive but still stridently nationalistic colonization of Africa is as a creating void of national identity, rather than as an imposition and a source of cultural clash and conflict, as chronicled in India by Smith.
It is important to remember of the earlier document of Cesaire that the author spoke to a populace still attempting to define itself anew, linguistically as well, as a nation after the legacy of French involvement, as embodied in the film "The Battle of Algiers." Cesaire thus gave more emphasis to national and collective psychological healing than healing personal guilt and interfamily conflict, given his own historical vantage point and his own cultural context in a less stridently self-examining world than Smith's Great Britain, and a nation less immediately comfortable with its personal identity. Also, unlike India, Algeria was a more religiously and linguistically unified society and had a more coherent…
Apocalypse Now Redux. Directed by Francis Ford Coppola.
The Battle of Algiers." 1967.
Cesaire, Aime. "Discourse on Colonialism." 1955. Class handout.
Smith, Zadie. White Teeth. New York: Random House, 2000.
Europe faced after WWII and the fall of communism in 1991: How has Europe managed the transition away from communism?
After World War II, Europe was devastated physically and economically from the conflict in a manner far different from the United States. The U.S. had not seen war on its soil. ritain, in contrast, had been razed by the blitz, and its far-flung empire was crumbling. France had likewise been torn apart, and Germany had been bombed into submission. There was also the looming specter of communism on the Eastern horizon. Stalin was determined to use Eastern Europe as a 'buffer zone' against Western European encroachment. Soon, the West and East were polarized into two different alliance systems, that of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. All efforts of Eastern Europe to extricate itself from the Warsaw Pact were met with swift suppression by Moscow, as manifested during the brief Czechoslovak…
Amsden, Alice. "Beyond Shock Therapy." The America Prospect. 19 Dec 2001.
http://prospect.org/article/beyond-shock-therapy-why-eastern-europes-recovery-starts-washington [30 Apr 2012]
Brager, Bruce L. "Yalta." From The Iron Curtain: The Cold War in Europe.
Reprinted at http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/wwii/articles/yalta.aspx [30 Apr 2012]
The British and French empires of the time used their settlement colonies for their natural resources, which represent the engine for the empire development and growth. Commerce was the way people earned a living, and famous mercantilist economists elaborated specific scientific documents- like Adam Smith - 'The Wealth of Nations'- in 1776. The invisible hand represents the way a market assures.
The Protestant Reformation occurred in the 16th century as a way to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. Many ordinary citizens in those countries considered the church doctrine to be false and duplicitary, often recurring to teaching and selling of indulgences (which were a temporarily 'remission of temporal punishment due to sins which have already been forgiven' the Catholic Encyclopaedia - W.H. Kent). Religious leaders of the time, like Luther and John Calvin enabled reforms that criticize purgatory, the authority of the church, and mostly the pope, to…
EU banks oversee localized financial institutions, and have the legal authority to enact localized changes in order to keep currency balanced. here are also branches of the EU that focus on legal and foreign policy issues, which sometimes blend into the economic realities of globalism.
hus, Europe at the beginning of the Cold War was divided, economically unsound, politically vulnerable, and had little or no viable infrastructure. At the end of the Cold War, the EU focuses on cooperation, economic growth, and a secondary government that is much more than a simple economic modifier.
Part 3 -- the unification of Italy and Germany was, to some, the precursor to World War II because of the creation of alliances, the build-up of arms, the competition for colonies, and the need for economic and cultural expansion. In Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi organized Italian partisans in 1848 and again in 1859. By 1861, so…
The results of both unifications were resurgence in militarism, nationalism, economic imperialism, xenophobia, and the need to find scapegoats to blame for economic hardships. This would lead to the conflicts in World War I, and then eventually the rise of German Nazism and Italian Fascism, and thus World War II.
Part 4- the map of Europe looked quite different before and after the revolutions of 1848. This year witnessed a series of political upheavals in Europe, which history now tells us was one of the most widespread revolutionary movements in European History. However, the time was just not right for this new thinking, and within a year most of the revolutions collapsed. However, the revolutionary wave began in France, spread to most of Europe and Latin America, and affected over 50 countries with no real coordination or cooperation. The common theme was a widespread dissatisfaction with the political leadership at the time; the people, now more literate and vocal, wanted more participation in government, saw the United States and its principles of democratic government as important to emulate, and focused on the increasing divide between the owners and the workers due to the Industrial Revolution.
The consequences of the revolution we rather slow to mature, but had the effect of convincing some of the governments and revolutionaries (nationalists and liberals) to cooperate for political and social change. This caused the second half of the 19th century to be a Europe that was dominated by a small number of powerful nation-states; and not the ones that had reshaped Europe after Napoleon's defeat and the Congress of Vienna. However, many scholars note that the creation of two new nation states (Italy and Germany), economic and colonial imperialism, the growth of the military machine, and the formation of hostile alliances eventually resulted in the powder key that would become World War I. In addition, one could argue that the revolutions of 1848 directly led to the unification of Germany and Italy; the growth of animosity between Britain and Germany, and the economic climate that would lead to war. As well, exporting of the revolution finally resulted in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which forever changed European history.
A comparison of their revenues shows that Citigroup outpaces HSBC with a revenue of 84.84 billion dollars. However, this does not mean that Citigroup is significantly better than HSBC, because they have different market shares. Citigroup competes with HSBC on the global market; they are especially strong competitors in investment banking, commercial banking and securities. One of the growing areas of competition is within their personal financial services division and their wealth management division. HSBC has seen this sector grow by 13% in the last year, due to the infusion of resources they have invested into this division; however Citigroup is still comfortably atop this category with 9.2 billion dollars in total revenue from financial services, compared to HSBC's 5.9 billion.
Other than these two primary competitors, HSBC faces a slew of emerging banks. Bank of America, also one of the world's largest banks is in the fray for many…
Church and State in the Middle Ages
As Vidmar (2005) makes plain, a vigorous "spiritual energy" had taken over Europe, which had "come of age" so to speak by the time of the Middle Ages, 11th century AD (p. 119). This spiritual energy was directed not only at art, architecture, science and music but also in way in which the state viewed the Church and vice versa. Since Charlemagne had been crowned Holy oman Emperor on Christmas day in 800 AD by Pope Leo, after protecting the Pope and ome from the marauding Lombards, a special relationship had developed between the head of Christendom and Europe's most prominent Christian defender. As the faith spread, so too did the sense among statesmen that the heads of state owed a duty to the head of their spiritual faith -- and while this came by way of cultural consent, it was, as the…
Vidmar, J. (2005). The Catholic Church through the Ages. NJ: Paulist Press.
(Woyke, 2002, p. 27) From a Turkish perspective membership would allow Turkey fundamentally stronger trade rights and privileges and waiting much longer could allow her to slip into a non-competitive role in the region. The EU is so strong that the development of the region depends on support from ember states. Isolationist arguments on the part of the EU would seem illogical given the nature of the union as well as the diplomatic manner in which it has accepted members and formed cohesive networks. Turkey will likely be accepted into the union at some point, in the near future, and yet it may take a monumental fight for it to occur. The strategic advantages will have to be weighed against monumental opposition to creating an EU that is to vast and diverse to control.
Clarke, K. (2006). Crossing over? Turkey and the European Union. Harvard International eview, 27(4), 13.…
Clarke, K. (2006). Crossing over? Turkey and the European Union. Harvard International Review, 27(4), 13.
Bache I. And George S., (2006), Politics in the European Union (2nd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press
Nugent N., (2003) (5th ed.), the Government and Politics of the European Union, Houndmils, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan
Peterson J., (1999), Decision-Making in the European Union, London: The MacMillan Press.
The European Historical Perspective, Social Issues and Educational Issues
The European historical perspective has changed from era to era. Europe, which is often called The West, had its foundations laid by the classical philosophers—Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle—who defined the concept of the Transcendentals and gave future generations the ideas of what it meant to live a good and happy life. These philosophers were Greek, but many nations for centuries after their deaths pondered their thoughts on education, on social issues and on life itself. The Romans, the Jews, the Christians (who later led Europe for more than a millennium) all incorporated aspects of the classical philosophy into their own sense of education.
The West—or Europe as we know it today—was defined as a result of numerous factors coming together to form their social perspective. In the centuries before Constantine came to the throne in the Roman Empire, the realm was…
Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…
Burns, Michael. France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History. Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999.
Schorske, Carl E. Fin-de-Siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture. NY: Vintage Books, 1981.
Economic Depression of Europe
An economic depression is more severe than a recession due to the fact that a depression involves drastic decline in a national or international economy, characterized by decreasing business activity, falling prices, and high levels of unemployment.
There were economic depressions in Europe that were experienced before and after the 1870 but with a remarkable difference, being that those that were experienced before the 1870s were less costly in terms of life and resources and took relatively lesser period. Indeed it was a commonplace that every part of Europe experienced one sort of economic depression or the other.
One such economic situation before 1870 was the "little ice age" which began in the late 16th century till around 1950s as indicated by Big Site of History (2011). This was a time when a severe cold that could not be withstood by most crops set in most…
Big Site of History (2011). Social Trends in 17th Century Europe: The Problem of Divine-Right
Monarchy. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://bigsiteofhistory.com/social-trends-in-17th-century-europe-the-problem-of-divine-right-monarchy
Historic UK, (2011). The Great Plague 1665. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.historic-
The ideological implications are more than obvious. The third level is the international one. The Atlantic community is now united by the same patterns of consumer behaviour and by the same need for security which contributes to the diminishment of conflict risks.
What the author does in order to bring further support for the importance of the changes which were taking place at that time is mention how the terms from the military language, such as launch day, Dday or mobilization passed into the language used by people dealing with marketing. From a war zone they passed into daily life proving that a new war was going on, that is consumption on a daily basis.
And indeed de Grazia brings into discussion the so called Detergent wars. America is the place where the first PR and advertising agencies were born. This fact was naturally a consequence of the economic realities…
Germany West East
In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…
Adebahr, Cornelius. The Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management in a Concerted Weimar
Effort. Genshagen: Genshagen Foundation, 2011. 1-18.
"Berlin's European Recession." German-foreign-policy.. German-foreign-policy., 16 March 2012. Web.
22 Mar 2012.
Population Implosion in Europe
Roughly thirty years ago, a global think tank declared that population pressures would devastate the world by the mid-1990's, however, they did not foresee that women in the developed world would be producing fewer children (Specter 1998).
ith life expectancy rising as the fertility rate drops, most developed countries may find themselves with lopsided societies, a large number of elderly and not enough young people working to support them (Specter 1998). Thus, every program that requires public funds, such as health care, education, pensions and military spending will be affected (Specter 1998).
Due to prosperity and freedom, millions of women are staying in school longer, putting more emphasis on work and marrying later, resulting in a rapid birth rate decline in many countries (Specter 1998). In Italy, women produce on average fewer than 1.2 children, the lowest figure every recorded among humans (Specter 1998). It is…
Specter, Michael. "Population Implosion Worries a Graying Europe." New York
Times. July 10, 1998.
Eberstadt, Nicholas. "The Population Implosion.(demographic trends toward decreasing birthrates and declining life spans)(Statistical Data Included)."
Foreign Policy. March 01, 2001.
On the other hand, the socialists were opposed to the concentration of powers in the hands of the capitalist bourgeoisie and demanded the nationalization of major institutions such as the banks and major industries. The ideology of 'nationalism' had gained momentum during the Napoleonic ars and most nationalists were dissatisfied with the carving of borders in the Vienna Congress without regard to nationalities. The philosophy of communism was still in its infancy but advocated a complete restructuring of the socio-economic order through a revolution of the proletariat (Tankard -- "The 1848 Revolutions in Europe"). Most of all, the French Revolution had ignited the liberating forces of democracy and freedom, which were hard to wish away and could only be suppressed temporarily by the forces of reaction. (Ibid., "France, from 1789 to 1848")
The economic conditions in the post-Napoleonic period also contributed in no small measure to the political climate of…
Congress of Vienna." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05. June 1, 2007. http://www.bartleby.com/65/vi/Vienna-C.html
Tankard, Dr. Keith. "Society in Post-Napoleonic Europe" Knowledge for Africa. 2006. June 1, 2007. http://www.knowledge4africa.co.za/worldhistory/revolution02.htm
The 1848 Revolutions in Europe." Knowledge for Africa. 2006. June 1, 2007. http://www.knowledge4africa.co.za/worldhistory/revolution03.htm
For example, the Hadsburg (Austrian) Empire consisted of Germans, Magyars, Czechs, and Slavs among other nationalities, while Prussia consisted of Germans, Poles, and Slavs
Between 1618 and 1648, there was an outbreak of war which was mainly caused by the struggle between a militant Calvinism and a militant Catholicism in fact it was referred to as the "last of the religious wars." Furthermore, prior to, all through, and after this three decades war, a sequence of civil wars and rebellions hit Europe. All this events and problems greatly affected Europe economically, socially, and even politically and actually qualify to be categorized as crises.
For the period of the 16th and 17th centuries, the European society did not respect women at all since they considered them inferior to men both mentally and morally thus were directly linked to witchcraft during the witchcraft craze. To make it worse was the fact that these low estimates were not just held by the witch hunter but also by the elites such as lawyers, theologians, and philosophers.…
Cook, et al. (1980). British Historical Facts 1760-1830. London: Macmillan.
Europe in crisis: Social disintegration, war, and revolution (1560-1650). Retrieved in March 1,
2010 from .
Political Science in Western Europe
Lipset and Rokkam's freezing hypothesis, published in the 1967, approached the political spectrum from their experiential paradigm. The party system in Europe, and indeed most of the western world, had evolved through a homogeneous process which had experiences little in the way of social upheaval. The economies of the West were based on societal evolutions form agriculture to industry which had smoothly transitioned, and formed the basis for social prosperity and order.
However, in the late 60's and 70's, the cradle of prosperity gave birth to other forces by which citizens wanted to identify themselves. Social caused, and religious ethics, which had been somewhat ignored by secular social system became important to the individual. Lipset and Rokkan based their theory on the assumption that if men were given equal right to vote, then a level of social freezing would take place, limiting the emergence of…
Seymour M. Lipset and Stein Rokkan, "Cleavage Structures, Party Systems, and Voter Alignments: An Introduction," in Lipset and Rokkan, 50.
Bartolini and Peter Mair, especially chapter 2. See also Peter Mair, "Continuity, Change and the Vulnerability of Party," in Peter Mair and Gordon Smith, eds., Understanding Party System Change in Western Europe (London: Frank Cass, 1990), 169-87
ROSE, Richard, and URWIN, Derek W.: -- Persistence and Change in Western Party Systems Since 1945 --, Political Studies 18/1970, p. 287-319.
DALTON, Russell J., FLANAGAN, Scott P. And ALLEN BECK, Paul (eds.): Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies: Realignment or Dealignment? Princenton, Princenton University Press, 1984.
Power was juggled in different areas based on victories and loses of the two competing empires.
After the initial wave of crusaders, Europe had regained the area formerly known as the Christian Byzantine Empire, including Jerusalem and other parts of Israel. After fighting off the Islamic nations who held the area, Christianity ruled over Jerusalem until the late eleventh century. This formed a new Christian state within an Islamic context, but only heightened tensions between the two regions. Then in 1187, the Turkish Kingdom ruled by Saladin who ruled over Egypt and Syria, (Lewis, 134). For the next century, several other unsuccessful crusades were launched to once again recapture the Holy Land.
It was not only war which distanced the two regions. It was also a lack of social understanding which occurred through normal and commercial contact between the modern day enemies. Many Islamic traders and the Northern European markets…
Attar, Samar. "Conflicting Accounts on the Fear of Strangers: Muslim and Arab
Perceptions of Europeans in Medieval Geographical Literature. Arab Studies Quarterly. 27. 2005. pp. 17-35.
Lewis, Bernard. From Babel to Dragomans: Interpreting the Middle East. Oxford University Press. 2004.
Industrialization in Europe increased the development of machines, production of goods and new energy resources of other societies. However, it had many positive and negative effects to the society. The building of new empires enabled Europe to gain access to their armies, exports, finances and strategic locations. The paper will analyze how Industrialization in Europe led to imperialist conquest of other societies and what made the European Armies so effective against native resistance.
There are various reasons why industrialization in Europe led to imperialist conquest of other societies. The first reason was the availability of larger consumer markets. Industrialization in Europe allowed other countries in spreading their influence to weaker countries. Because of the spread, the industrialized countries managed to create markets for the manufactured products along with producing some specific products to be sold in these markets. The second reason was the availability of raw materials that was used…
European Imperialism and Reactions. (1914) China, Ottoman Empire, and Japan; effects of European imperialism
The British Empire. (2003). The British Empire. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://www.britishempire.co.uk/
The West in the Age of Industrialization and Imperialism. (2001). Wake Forest Student, Faculty and Staff Web Pages. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://users.wfu.edu/watts/w04_industr.html
Ryanair: Europe's Largest Low Fares Airline
Ryanair is a European bases low fare airline that connects 160 destinations in its global operations. The airline has 44 bases covering 1100 route over 27 nations. Tony Ryan established the airline in 1985. He introduced low fare operations following successful models used by southwest airlines in 1995 under the supervision of a new management team. Some of the policies implemented by the airline include the adaptation of a single aircraft, low fares, direct booking and no frills. These policies allowed the company to benefit from an increase in its customer base since 1991. The company plans to replace the current aircraft used with a ooing Dreamliner to cater for the targeted customer growth to 80 million passengers. The airline also plans to invest in technology to enjoy the benefits associated with e-business. The use of technology such as the internet enables the organization…
Brassington, F., & Pettitt, S. (2006). Principles of marketing. Harlow [u.a.], Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
Capon, N., & Hulbert, J.M. (2007). Managing marketing in the 21st century: developing and implementing the market strategy. Bronxville, N.Y., Wessex Inc.
Doole, I., & Lowe, R. (2008). International marketing strategy: analysis, development and implementation. [London etc.], South Western Cengage Learning.
Doyle, P. (2008). Value-based marketing strategies for corporate growth and shareholder value. Chichester, England, John Wiley & Sons.
Minorities in Europe
Europe is a multicultural, multi-ethnic continent that is experiencing significant growth of its immigrant and minority communities. Countries that have not had to contemplate the status of minorities, are now faced with the issue on how to incorporate successfully incorporate them into society. This paper examines two countries, Estonia and Germany, and their approach to minorities and their inclusion into their respective societies.
Estonia is an interesting case because its minorities are Russian; a group that while always small was the dominant political and economic force. The change in status occurred after the fall of the Soviet Union, Estonia once a satellite country, wanted to assert its independence by shedding its Soviet past. Ethnic Russians, on the other hand, did not feel included in Estonia's revival. The issue, according to Greene (2010), is about a people who want to protect their culture and forget its Soviet past…
Greene, David. "Russian Minority Struggles In Post-Soviet Estonia." NPR. NPR, 23 Aug. 2010. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. .
Turton, David, and Julia Gonza-lez. Cultural identities and ethnic minorities in Europe. Bilbao: University of Deusto, 1999. Print.
Nevertheless, at the same time when Churchill took his place as leader of the ritish armed forces, the Germans had dealt an impressive blow by invading and eventually conquering elgium, France, and the Netherlands. Standing as one of the greatest powers in the world at the time, France had only managed to hold off its oppressors for a month and a half before signing an armistice with the Axis forces and allowing the German and Italian troops to occupy its territory.
eing excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade ritain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the ritish had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to ritain, they backed the ritish by agreeing to a trade…
Being excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade Britain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the British had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to Britain, they backed the British by agreeing to a trade of destroyers meant to strengthen the British naval forces.
Japan, Italy, and Germany had signed a Tripartite Act in September 1940, stating that any country that would attack the Axis powers would be required to go at war against the three. Romania, Slovakia, and Hungary joined the Tripartite Act in November, influencing the Germans in wanting to attack the Soviet Union. The Germans advanced into Greece consequent to Bulgaria signing the Tripartite Act. The Germans did not hesitate to unleash a surprise attack on the Soviets with operation Barbarossa on 22 June, 1941, once again proving that the German armed forces could easily brake through defense lines, regardless of their strength (the Soviets had been preparing defensive campaigns even before the start of the war).
The Axis advance in the east had come to a halt near Moscow, thus marking the moment when the German could no longer continue the Blitzkrieg and had to engage in traditional warfare.
Borders of New Europe and the U.S. - Mexico border
A line that is drawn in various ways, a border acts as a mark where adjacent jurisdictions meet. A combination of conjunction and the separation of the national laws and customs lead to the creation of an area where there is regulation, examination, discussion and hiding of the movement of people and goods .The Mexico-United States border is an international border that runs from mperial Beach, California and Tijuana. This border that separates Mexico and the United States from each other has traversed a wide variety of terrain that ranges from urban areas as well as inhospitable deserts. The external borders of New Europe are borders that define the separation of countries that are making it into the European community most especially the EU. There are various similarities and difference between the external borders of the new Europe and the…
Intellectual Property (IP) theft
Intellectual property is a legal concept that refers to the exclusive rights of recognition that are accorded to ones creations of the mind. Under the intellectual property law, a person is granted exclusive rights to various intangible assets such as literacy, music, artistic work, inventions and discoveries, words, phrases, designs as well as symbols. There are various types of intellectual property rights these include patents, trademarks, copyright, industrial design rights, trade dress as well as some trade secrets in some jurisdictions. Intellectual property theft is therefore robbing people their ideas, inventions as well as creative expressions or in a nutshell their intellectual property. Intellectual property theft is a growing threat especially with the rise of digital technology as well as the use of internet file sharing networks. The intellectual property theft is very costly and many businesses register losses a lot of money through this ( Baines, 2012).
Due to the fact that intellectual property theft costs businesses a lot of money then there is need for the organizations to come up with ways through which they can make these risks minimal. Intellectual property infringement involves the violation of intellectual property rights and if not looked into then it can lead to numerous losses by the business. There are various ways through which IP violations can take place, these include patent infringement, copyright infringement as well as trademark infringement. All these practices can be rendered undesirable or unprofitable through making reports incase these IP rights are violated so that people are afraid of making
This is because congestion has become a problem and they want to discourage them from utilizing this form of transportation. Over the long-term, this will create a change in habits by making public transportation and other alternatives economically viable. (Davenport) (osenthal)
In the U.S., vehicles are a center of private transportation. This is because many cities were designed to accommodate cars. If there was a dramatic shift, these challenges could have an adverse impact on the auto industry, parts producers / suppliers and dealers. This would lead to a slowdown and possibly create a recession from a change in policies. (Davenport) (osenthal)
Moreover, the U.S. has not ratified and withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol. This means that they do not have to meet the same standards as Europe. To adjust for the increased amounts of traffic flow, there is a focus on using stop lights to effectively accommodate vehicles. (Davenport)…
Davenport, John. The Ecology of Transportation. New York: Springer, 2006. Print.
Rosenthal, Elisabeth. "Across Europe." NY Times, 2011. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
Constantly updated information as to goods' and materials' whereabouts can also lead to more effective decisions by suppliers, consumers, and transportation firms alike, and the use of the Internet and other telecommunications systems will lead to exactly this ability to update.
Other applications for modern container tracking devices will continue to emerge as the technology becomes more refined. Tracking individual units is already possible, though expensive, but for sensitive and high-priced items this might already make fiscal sense. Security and efficiency will both continue to be improved by greater tracking abilities.
Video Intro: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5VBd7PB3rhk
This video provides an excellent yet brief version of the development of the railway, and specifically of the standardization of railway gauges, as it developed in England in the seventeenth century. This is something that is touched on only briefly in Chapter Three, towards the beginning of the section on railways, and it might seem to…
Executive-Legislative relations in Post-Communist Europe
There are two main methods for appointing the executive, the one used in parliamentary systems, the other one in presidential systems. According to the parliamentary method the people first elects the legislature, which, in turn, appoints the executive. In a pure parliamentary system the executive, furthermore, can remain in office only as long as it enjoys the support, or confidence, of a majority in the legislature. This requirement is often referred to as the parliamentary principle. According to the presidential method separate popular elections are held for appointing a president and, thereby, the rest of the executive. In a presidential country, there are thus two main types of popular elections, those for electing the executive and those for electing the legislature.
As for methods for appointing the members of the legislature there are, again, essentially two types of methods. First there are the majoritarian methods…
1) McCauley, M., Directory of Russian MPs (1992)
2) Jamestown Foundation Monitor www.jamestown.org
3) www.moscowtimes.ru ( Moscow Times)
4) www.insideworld.com ( Reuters)
Although permitting access to key corporate information by all employees could generate an insider trading nightmare (Fishman & Hagerty 110).
Possible solutions to the conflict
One question that everyone is asking is; how can this conflict be resolved? A palpable, simple, and stout approach would be returning the choice of insider trading regulation to individual firms. It is difficult to make out an externality that would validate putting this decision into the hand of a regulator. The most reasonable story that can be imagined is that board directors might disregard what is excellent for stakeholders and do just what fits the insiders. If this story was not found to be reasonable then firms could just be allowed to decide how to weigh any costs from daunting investment through unfavourable selection alongside any gains of using prediction markets to advance corporate information and coordination efficiency. This resolution, however coercing, seems politically…
Brandenburger, a. & B. Polak. "When managers cover their posteriors: Making the Hanson, R. "Decision markets." IEEE Intelligent Systems 14(3) (1999):16 -- 19.
Hatter, a. And E. Trapasso. Managers say the majority of information obtained for their work is useless, Accenture survey finds. 2007. 11 March, 2010. .
Huddart, S.J., et al. Pre-announcement of insiders' trades. 28 June, 2004. 11 March, 2010.
World War Turning Point Europe, Significant Change Occurred Emergence Legitimate evolutionary egimes
Self-Determination in Cuba
There are few who would dispute the fact that following the conclusion of World War II and prior to its revolution (which began in 1953 and concluded on January 1 of 1959) Cuba was a prosperous region of the world that was certainly worth fighting for. The country's leader prior to the ascendancy of Fidel Castro, Fulgencio Batista, had cleverly manipulated the assistance of a number of external forces, primarily that of the United States, to assist the country in achieving a degree of economic gain and modernity the likes of which were comparable to, if not surpassing, those of other parts of the world.
Its economic prowess may be demonstrated from the following quotation. "Cuba in 1958, prior to the government of the Communist Fidel Castro, paid its employees an average of $3.00 per…
Epperson, R.A. (1985). The Unseen Hand. Arizona: Publius.
Guevara, C. (2005). Cuba: Historical Exception or Vanguard in the Colonial Struggle? Retrieved from http://www.marxists.org/archive/guevara/1961/04/09.htm
Kapur, T., Smith, A. (2002). "Housing Policy In Castro's Cuba." Retrieved from http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/education/oustanding_student_papers/kapur_smith_cuba_02.pdf
Jones, L. (1966). Home. New York: William Morrow and Co.
Each base their stories in the excluded diversity of first-generation immigrants - Samad and Jess's parents - but it is the younger characters' exploration of and affiliation with the exterior society that allows for a most accurate reflection of cultural mores.
Jess, whose natural talent and skill remind the viewer of the recent star Aman Dosaj of Manchester United, is torn apart by her love and respect for her family and culture and desire to take part in the greater world surrounding her. Yet, while she plays football and becomes friends with female athletes and romantically involved with men, her sister rejects the newer world around her in its extremities. Instead, she mollifies her own frustrations with the ethnic community with the insertion of cell phones, designer clothes, and expensive accessories; in the wedding scene, the younger girls stand in staunch visual opposition to the older women around them, whose…
Its heavy industrial development occurred under absolute state control of the economy during the Maoist period, but by the late 1970s, Maoism had become an economic disaster, leading to a fundamental change in strategy under Deng Xiaoping. For most of the 1980s, Deng's reforms focused on internal marketization, however a major reorientation in strategy occurred in 1988, when Beijing decided to emulate the export booms of other Asian countries by producing labor-intensive goods for markets in advanced industrial societies (Jung)."
This resulted in a relaxation of regulations by China regarding "joint ventures with foreign firms and discouraging low-tech investments (Jung)." The increased capital from other countries, particularly those with companies who could no longer pay its employees low wages to produce products, rose significantly and resulted in a "rapid rise in export, with light industrial goods and products by multinational corporations prominent in this export surge (Jung)."
Jung, Changhoon. "The resurrection of East Asian dynamism: a call to look beyond the orthodoxies in development studies." Asian Affairs: An American Review.
2004): 22 September.
The World Fact Book-China. (accessed 20 April 2005). www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ch.html).
Leisure May Be the Death of Europe
Time to Kill
In his article, Time to Kill - Europe and the Politics of Leisure, Steven Muller examines the efforts of Europe to reconstitute itself in the aftermath of the Cold War. By analyzing such factors as economics, politics, social functions, labor and unemployment, the author concludes that, in contrast to the prevailing sense of optimism, Western Europe is in fact facing a period of, "acute economic stagnation, the undermining rather than the expansion of democracy, and serious social upheaval" (Muller, 26). The primary cause of this crisis, according to Muller, is Europe's inability to rapidly or effectively deal with revolutionary changes in the human condition, which will result in a decreasing number of individuals enjoying the privilege of employment, and an increasing amount of leisure and idleness. I agree with the author that, unlike the other technologically advanced nations such…
Muller, S. (1997, Summer). Time to Kill - Europe and the Politics of Leisure. National Interest, 26-37.
The economic pragmatism that the Marshall Plan demonstrates for the United States is not necessarily as clearly observable form a basic look at history as is the containment of communism. The decades following World War II and the implementation of the Marshall Plan were definitely economically successful fro Europe and for the United States, but how this relates directly to the Marshall Plan and not simply to the end of the war can be difficult to discern. Looking at how the economic growth and development that occurred following the Marshall Plan actually came to be makes its effects and intentions quite clear, however.
American industry had grown hugely during the war, as factories and raw materials in the United States supplied much of what was needed to engage in warfare for the Allied forces, including everything from artillery to textiles (WiseGeek 2010; InfoPlease 2010). Following the war, it was still…
InfoPlease. (2010). Marshall Plan. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0831964.html
LOC. (2010). Marshall announces his plan. Library of Congress. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/marshall/mars1.html
NARA. (2010). The Marshall Plan. National Archives and Records Adminsitration. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/marshall_plan/
Spartacus. (2010). Marshall Plan. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAmarshallP.htm
Immigration in Europe
The issue of immigration in Europe has become one of the pressing subject matters especially for governments within the European Union. In contrast to the United States which has experienced immigration for centuries, for Europe this issue is of a recent demographic inclination since the past five decades or so. There are several migrants who make an attempt to move into Europe and settle there. This particular paper will seek to discuss three immigrant groups that form the majority of the immigrants who seek to enter the EU borders. These three immigrant groups include Syrians, Afghans and Eritreans.
Immigrant Groups and their Push and Pull Factors
There are numerous physical, social and economic reasons and factors that play a great role in the reason as to why people migrate to different nations or expanses and these factors can be normally categorized as 'push' and 'pull' factors. In…
BBC News. "Why is EU struggling with migrants and asylum? September 2015. Retrieved online from: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-24583286
Collett, Elizabeth. "Immigrant integration in Europe in a time of austerity." Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute, 2011.
Eliott, Sarah. "The push and pull of the world's most dangerous migration route -- what's really behind the flock of thousands to Europe these days?" Politics Inspires, 2015.
Giovagnoli, Mary., Yale, Samantha. "New Study on Immigrant Integration Compares and Ranks the United States, Canada, and Europe" American Immigration Council, 2011.
Moreover, ending the cold war enabled the formation of international alliances that help and support members, and also fight together against common enemies.
Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007
Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & rothers, 1947
Cold War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 24, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
Proxy War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 21, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991, History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1999, https://www.cia.gov/csi/books/19335/art-1.html#rtoc7,last accessed on February 27, 2007
Peter Nolan, China's Rise, Russia's Fall. Macmillan Press, 1995. pp. 17-18
Christopher Reeves, Western Europe during the Cold War and eyond, Jagiellonian University of Krakow, Center for European Studies
Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007
Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & Brothers, 1947
Cold War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 24, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
European Monarchy is one of the highly held positions and culture indeed within Europe. The Monarchy is watched by many across the world and the happenings and events around the royal family is a great interest to the entire world if the attention that the events like the marriage of Prince William and Kate as well as the attention the Diamond Jubilee received across the globe.
Europe has used the Monarchy not only as a royalty family but as a symbol of preservation of ther unique culture that has been in existence for decades upon decades. It is one of the strong cultures that are constitutionally enshrined within Europe and has helped it transcend time. It has its guide lines like the religion that the lady that the Prince marries must be from the Church of England and not a Jew, Muslim or Catholic. This has however raised political questions…
Conradi P. (2012). Long Live the Queens and Kings. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/02/opinion/long-live-the-queens-and-kings.html
Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind. More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.
The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…
" He was a writer and one of those who struggled with the dichotomy of their upbringing during the II and the new upsurges in consumerism that filled the world at that time. Perec's book, a runaway best-seller in France, which, in 1965 was awarded the Prix Renaudot, Le Choses (Things) brought him into the limelight and he became a writer.
The young people of the day, introduced to a bit of wealth, were quickly caught up in earning and spending. Perec was one of the ambiguous ones who wanted to both be a dreamer and a consumer. His writings reflect this and in the book, Things: A Story of the Sixties & A Man Asleep, he writes a story of a young couple who get caught up in desiring consumer goods and Things in the story called Things: A Story of the Sixties (Perec, 2002).
Money, sometimes, consumed them…
Monnet, Jean. "Joint Meeting of the Members of the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe and of the Members of the Common Assembly of the European Community of Coal and Steel." Official Report of the Debate, Strasbourg, 22 June 1953. 8-12, 118, 120-23
Perec, Georges. Things: A story of the sixties and a Man Asleep. New York: David Godine Publisher, 2002.
lack Death and Religion in Western Europe
The lack Death is perhaps considered as the most devastating pandemic that has happened to humanity in the previous to the present century. The disease was transmitted from Asia into and through Europe. The disease set feet in Europe by the sea in October of 1347 when trading ships belonging to Genoese set their dock at the Silician Port of Messina when it had covered a long journey through the sea. It was not business as usual because the people who had gathered to receive the ship were met with drilling surprise. The sailors, almost all of them, who were on the ship, were dead. Those who were not yet dead were suffering in ill pain. They have a somewhat strong fever that had overcome them and could not do anything because of the pain. What was notable is that the bodies of…
Bulliet, Richard W. 2014. The Earth And Its Peoples: A Global History. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Byrne, Joseph Patrick. 2012. Encyclopedia of the Black Death. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
Cantor, Norman F. In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World it Made. Simon and Schuster, 2001. Print
Hecht, Richard D., and Vincent F. Biondo. 2010. Religion and Everyday Life and Culture. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Prior to the 18th century, crops were rotated in a three-year cycle. During the 18th century, a four-year rotation cycle was introduced. The potato and the turnip became some of the most important crops during the 18th century agricultural revolution, because the potato could feed large amounts of people and the turnip could also be used for animal fodder. The greater amount of animal fodder increased farm animal yields. Farm technologies also improved: such as the mechanized seed drill.
The consequences of the 18th century agricultural revolution were tremendous and coincided with the social, political, and economic changes taking places concurrently. Population explosions that fueled the agricultural revolution continued to alter the demographics of Europe and enable larger-scale grassroots movements. Populism gradually began replacing the centuries-long feudal aristocracies and monarchies were toppling. These political changes significantly altered land use policies. Moreover, the population explosion occurred alongside urbanization. Not only did…
Rosner, Lilsa & Theibault, John. A Short History of Europe 1600-1815. M.E. Sharpe, 2000
Whited, Tamara L. Northern Europe. ABC-CLIO, 2005
Given that the workers, even the women and children, were working long extended hours everyday, resulted to limited family communication with the merely instance that they are all at home was when they went home to rest and sleep after working very hard. There were also instances when several families would need to share lodging with other families that promoted the division of the family as one unit. Consequently, the children were given minimal amount of education, child labor also resulted to make the children experience underdeveloped in height as well as weak and always ill. Children have grown to become rather emotionally unstable, for they were never learned how to behave the right manner. The living conditions were really awful; as mentioned earlier, the working families would often reside in slums with little or no sanitation. On the other hand, there were also positive transformation in Europe during the…
By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3. Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last-
3. Hayes & Faissler p.444 minute scramble saved the British from capture, at the port city of Dunkirk, where the British used thousands of ships, boats, and dinghies to rescue them all and ferry…
Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)
Hayes, C., Faissler, M. Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present (1966)
Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)
Lukacs, J. The Last European War (1976)
History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C
This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.
Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…
Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners
Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.
Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Security and Co-Operation in Europe
The topics before the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE) are: Combating Human Trafficking; Supporting Post-Conflict Stabilization and Institution- Building in Kyrgyzstan; and Energy Supply as a Factor of Instability. Greece is dedicated to assisting the OCSE to combat human trafficking, to supporting OCSE initiatives to stabilize and build democratic institutions in Kyrgyzstan, and I. Combating Human Trafficking
As a committed member of the United Nations and the European Union, Greece supports the objectives outlined by both organizations to combat human trafficking. . Accordingly in an effort to combat human trafficking, Greece has increased its efforts to disrupt major human smuggling rings and arrest the individuals involved, and coordinated these efforts with similar efforts by both the European Union and the United Nations. The delegation from Greece signals that its enforcement has been stepped up, which is reflected in the increased number of…
And for good reason: it's still one of the most effective, affordable and trusted products in agriculture today.
The company points out that this herbicide is 'safe' and that it is essential for increased crop production at a time of critical demand in the United States and the world. Syngenta also refers to the fact that in 2006 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency "…re-registered atrazine in 2006, based on the overwhelming evidence of safety from nearly 6,000 studies" (Syngenta).
While the main reason for the EU ban on this product was the indication of contaminated drinking water supplies, Syngenta denies this claim. It supports this view by referring to a 2008 study in which 122 Community Water Systems monitored in 10 states were monitored. This study found that the federal standards set for Atrazine were not exceeded in any of the states.
One should however bear in mind that…
Ackerman F. ( 2007)the Economics of Atrazin. Retrieved from http://ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/EconAtrazine.pdf
Ackerman F. ( 2010) With weed killer atrazine, the benefits are small, the risks are huge. Retrieved from http://www.kansascity.com/2010/09/14/2224213/with-weed-killer-atrazine-the.html
A Field of Nightmares Updated: Atrazine, Corn, and Frogs. Retrieved from http://frogsaregreen.com/tag/effect-of-atrazine-on-frogs/
Atrazine. Retrieved from http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/Actives/atrazine.htm
But he failed and started cooperating with real leaders - owners of huge industrial monopolies. To get rid of small businessmen organization (SA) Hitler murdered their leader Ernst Rem and some other leaders.
That's why fascists changed their political program.
Any national property was controlled by state, but in fact - rich monopolists. Hitler created extremely effective General department of property (head - Krupp and Siemens).
The largest corporation in the country belonged to German Gering. It was that huge because it received Jews' property and later - property which was captured in states- victims of German foreign policy. German leaders started regulating prices as it was in USSR or USA during New Line.
Agriculture was also controlled by the state. Agricultural production was controlled and every farmer had to sell it to the state (by the way, prices were also regulated by state).
So, all German private property got…
6. Georgi Zhukov From Moscow to Berlin: Marshall Zhukov's Greatest Battles Noontide Pr 1991.
7. Montefiore, Simon Sebag Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar Dixie 1993
8. J.Simon, M. Miller. World Economics WestPrint 1988
In the eighteenth century, the concept of pleasure gardens flourished in Britain, a trend that could be traced partly to the relatively stable democratic government coupled with the international trade that thrived at that time in London. Vauxhall Gardens was perhaps the most famous pleasure garden according to the lectures. Founded in 1661, it reached the peak of popularity during the early years of the nineteenth century. It became a model for several other pleasure gardens in Europe, like the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. Historians believed it was arguably the first modern amusement park. Some of the most popular entertainments offered in Vauxhall were firework displays, theatre shows, theatrical entertainments as well as dancing floors and drinking booths. Both Vauxhall and Tivoli Gardens were so popular that they became generic names for all pleasure gardens in both Europe and the United States (UoS 2015). According to the course,…
Aelarsen. A Royal Affair: Enlightenment and Adultery in 18th Century Denmark. June 2014. https://aelarsen.wordpress.com/2014/06/30/a-royal-affair-enlightenment-and-adultery-in-18th-century-denmark / (accessed December 13, 2015).
"Age of Enlightenment." Pedia Press, 2011.
Curtius, Quintus. Speaking Out Against Injustice: The Case Of Jean Calas. October 12, 2015. http://www.returnofkings.com/72129/speaking-out-against-injustice-the-case-of-jean-calas (accessed December 12, 2015).
Halsall, Paul. Medieval Sourcebook: Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527): Republics and Monarchies, Excerpt from Discourses I, 55. October 1998. (accessed December 14, 2015).
In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…
Cunningham, Lawrence, and Reich, John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. London: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Foster, William, Lockhart, Melissa, and Lockhart Darrell. Culture and Customs of Argentina. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Qingxue, Liu "Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West," 2003. Web.10/06/2012, < http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~inveling/pdf/liu_quingxue_inve9.pdf
Shivji, Issa, & Kapinga, Wilbert. Maasai rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Nairobi; Longhorn Publishers. 1998.
Article Analysis in Relation to the Nature of the Book Trade between Europe and China
Written by T.P. Yang, The New Book Trade in Shanghai, is an amazing article that attempts to define the roots and growth of the new book trade establishments in China. Appearing in The China Weekly Review, the article not only highlights the factors that contributed towards the said growth, but also the reasons for the depression in sales during the previous year (1930), and the various approaches that merchants adopted in an attempt to remedy the situation.
In relation to the factors that contributed towards the growth of the new establishments, the author highlights five key points. These include; the growing demand from the reading public, the opening of outfits keen on spreading propaganda, the profit potential of the sector, the need to offer an alternative to the rigid processes of earlier entities, and the…