European Union Essays (Examples)

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European Security and Defence Identity

Words: 1398 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88353350

The European military policy is based on the activities taking place within military of United States i.e. merger-mania of U.S. defense firms.

But there are three other factors pushing the Europeans for taking concrete measures for pursuing the ESDI. The measures are must to overcome the delays and constraints the Union experiences. The first of the blockade is with reference to the defense spending of European countries. The new NATO Secretary-General estimated that, 'total military spending of European countries is around 60% of the U.S. total, and yields only 10% of the capabilities'. Secondly, European firms are becoming increasingly angry that the U.S. while procuring new weapons and equipment refuses to "buy European military products." Thirdly, European governments are not satisfied with U.S. restrictions 'on the transfer of technology even though the Europeans are investing money in the development of new U.S. built weapons such as the Joint Strike Fighter'…… [Read More]

References

Lawrence Freedman, "The Coming War on Terrorism" in Lawrence Freedman, ed., Super terrorism (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).

Julian Lindley-French, Terms of Engagement. The paradox of American power and the trans-Atlantic dilemma post-11 September (Paris: EU-ISS, 2002)

Gordon Adams, "Fortress America in a changing trans-Atlantic defense market," in Burkard Schmitt, ed., Between Cooperation and Competition: The Trans-Atlantic Defense Market (Paris, WEU-ISS, 2001)

George Parker, "France and UK call for new force at top of EU," Financial Times, 15 May 2002.
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European Debt Crisis Is Sliding

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78142630



Yet, such measures ignore not only debt, but the impact on economic growth, with rescue measures tied to austerity and tax increases. While Adam Davidson's The Other eason Europe is Going Broke attempts to place Europe's economic crises into a debt component and an economic growth component; the reality is that they are one and the same. European economic growth has lagged the U.S. considerably since the early 1970's largely due to government involvement in the European economic model. Heavy spending on the entitlement state, financed by higher tax rates has sapped economic strength from Europe. For the U.S., the sovereign debt crisis in the EU highlights the dangers of an expanding entitlement state, which weakens economic growth through ever increasing drains on the private sector.

Conclusion

The U.S. economic future will be one of slow growth, as with Japan and Europe, as the U.S. debt to GDP ratio increases.…… [Read More]

References

Davidson, Adam. "The Other Reason Europe is Going Broke." The New

York Times. The New York Times, January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/08/magazine/the-other-reason-europe-is-going-broke.html?pagewanted=all

Fingleton, Eamonn. "The Myth of Japan's Failure." The New York

Times. The New York Times, January 4, 2012. Retrieved January 11. 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/08/opinion/sunday/the-true-story-of-japans-economic-success.html
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European Common Market Benefits of

Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14942885

While the government may have initial setup costs to bring legislation and services into line with other member states, there are a large variety of benefits in the long-term. These include benefits to the government itself, with increased stability in the economy and overall prosperity. There are also numerous benefits to the individuals within the country, such as the freedom to travel and work within the different countries within the market. There are further benefits to companies as they benefit from increased access to consumers, also benefiting consumers by increasing quality of goods while at the same time lowering prices. It does appear from the information available on the common market at present that while there are likely to be benefits to all in joining it is the poorer members who benefit the most. This is largely due to these countries having the most to gain from the benefits which…… [Read More]

References

Europe on the Move." European Commission. November 2005. 19 November 2007. .

Kenen, Peter B. The International Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Prodi, Romano. "A Wider Europe: A proximity policy as the key to stability." Sixth ECSA World Conference. 5 December 2002. European Commission. 19 November 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/news/prodi/sp02_619.htm.

Schimmelfenig, Frank, Stefan Engert and Heiko Knobel. The Europeanization of Central and Eastern Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.
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European Federalism the Two Films

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84064358



In Italy, Mussolini exploited the state of confusion and malaise to seize power. From this cradle, Fascism emerged into the world. In Germany, it morphed into Nazism, a more virulent and transformed fascism feeding upon race mysticism as well as extreme nationalism and dictatorship. Both countries took this highway to the Hell of World War II. During this second installment of Great War, European countries groaned under the Fascist boot heel and fought back under native partisan movements in the underground resistance.

Ironically, the European Federal movement was midwifed by Italian political theorist Alberto Spineless. After the Second World War, the people of Europe wanted human rights, an end to despotism against both and human freedom and dignity.

he Union of European Federalists was formed in December of 1946. In the wake of two world wars, theorists such as Spineless were convinced that Federalism in Europe would save Europe by…… [Read More]

The Union of European Federalists was formed in December of 1946. In the wake of two world wars, theorists such as Spineless were convinced that Federalism in Europe would save Europe by transcending nationalism much as the multinational Resistance had in World War II. In this movement, Communists, Socialists, and Christian Democrats resisted Fascisim in a united front. Spinelli and contemporary E. Rossi wrote the Ventone Manifesto, encouraging a federation of European States to make way for the European Union body. Union of European Federalist concluded that the existing political system could not creatre the new Europe. Federalist advocates thought that Europe integration was a process of building for the politics of a new Europe.

After achieving freedom from the Nazi tyranny, the people of Western Europe developed a consensus that a united Europe was the best way to bring peace and prosperity. Opposition forces like Resistance movement veterans thought they should overcome nationalism. Uniting Europe was the first task in its post war recovery. Federalism provided the theoretical basis of these for this movement. As the result, Federalism plans appeared as a blueprint to prevent future European wars.

The federal ideas were first concretely represented in the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951 in the Treaty of Paris. The ECSC paved the way for the integration of Europe, followed by the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957 and the European Union (EU) of 1993 based upon the Matriarchs Treaty. Transnational organizations now are paving the way for a Europe that will be one state.
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European Parliament and the European

Words: 3708 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81210362

For example, the EP has the right to bring an action for failure to act, and can also take action to have the ECJ review acts of the Council or the Commission.

Despite those protections, the ECJ determined that the legal remedies provided for in the Euratom Treaty and EEC treaty might be ineffective or uncertain.

For example, an action for failure to act cannot be used to challenge a measure that has already been adopted.

In addition, though the EP has the right to seek a preliminary ruling on the validity of such an action, such a ruling does not mean that anyone will actually bring an action for annulment.

In fact, even though the Commission is required to respect the EP's prerogatives, it is not obliged to adopt the EP's positions as its own.

As a result, the ECJ concluded that the legal remedies available to the EP…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Article 230." Treaty of Nice. 2000. University College Cork. 25 Aug. 2009

.

Case 70/88, European Parliament v. Council of Ministers, Judgment of the ECJ of 22 March

1990, European Court Reports 1990, p. I-2041.
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European Market With a Chilean

Words: 2837 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66979132

Thus, despite the high per-capita incomes in Scandinavia, consumers are value-conscious. Unlike Germany, Scandinavians are willing to pay more for wine, and recognize quality differences.

Netherlands

Like Scandinavia, the Netherlands is open to wine imports. With historical connections to Spain and Portugal, and without alliances with Italy or France, Dutch wine drinkers are friendly to imports and to the Spanish character found in Chilean wines. Like Scandinavians, the Dutch have high per-capita incomes are willing to spend for super-premium wines. They are unwilling to 'overpay' for quality, however, and are likely to compare the quality of an 8 pound Chilean wine to similarly-priced products from Australia, the U.S. And other major wine exporting countries.

Chilean Wine Promotion in Europe

Chile is not alone in wanting to increase wine exports to Europe. Australia and the United States have developed significant market share and see growing exports to European markets. The Wine…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alcyon. "China and Chile Sign Wine Agreement." Wine Marketing. 2007. http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:Tk-70Aey3zEJ:winemarketing.blogs.com/wine_marketing/veille/page/2/+chile+wine+marketing+europe&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us (Accessed November 24, 2007).

Anderson, K. The World's Wine Markets: Globalization at Work. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2004.

Anderson, K. "Wine's New World." Foreign Policy, 2003: 47-59.

BeverageDaily. "World wine sales go from strength to strength." Beverage Daily, March 13, 2003: n.p.
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European Market Has Been an

Words: 1316 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31150727

" During the third and final stage, the European Central bank would be in operation. According to the agreement, this was to occur no later than 1999 and for three years thereafter Euro coins and banknotes would be issued (Eichengreen and Frieden).

By 2002, the Euro had been implemented as the single currency for member states. However, the implementation and consequent use of the Euro appeared to be a bit rocky. According to an article found in the journal Challenge, the value of the Euro had fallen slightly. The author blamed this fall on the central bank and its efforts to shore up the Euro (Bibow). The author contends that this unrelenting support stifled economic growth. According to the article

Between the start of 1999 and October 2000 the euro lost some 20% of its initial external value (even 30% vis-a-vis the U.S. dollar). After a brief rebound toward the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000762932

Bibow, Jorg. "The Euro: Market Failure or Central Bank Failure?." Challenge 45.3 (2002): 83+. Questia. 12 Oct. 2004 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=86000865

Eichengreen, Barry. "1 the Political Economy of European Monetary Unification an Analytical Introduction." The Political Economy of European Monetary Unification. Eds. Eichengreen, Barry and Jeffry a. Frieden. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001. 1-22. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8922274

Fratianni, Michele, and Jeurgen Von Hagen. The European Monetary System and European Monetary Union. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000680555
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European Economic and Monetary Union Emu and

Words: 2189 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92320203

European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the euro. Included is a critical assessment of the sources used.

All of the sources used for this report were well written, concise, and understandable. The European Union and the Euro are difficult topics to understand on a first reading, but the authors had a real understanding of their topics, and explained the issues clearly.

For example, Taylor gives the background that makes the forming of the European Union more understandable. "This Summit produced a communique which supported the idea of European Union by 1980, and proposed a great push towards a European Great Society, illustrated by the efforts made to push the European social programme forward at that time, which no member government opposed" (Taylor 10).

The subject could be considered dry, but Taylor gives it life, making his book interesting to read, and right to the point. He writes with authority,…… [Read More]

References

Barclays Capital. "Barclays Capital says new Poll Showing Depth of Opposition to Euro Suggests Gilts to Decouple from European Bonds." 30 Nov. 2001. 6 Dec. 2001. http://www.barcap.com/cgi-bin/pressreleases/public/newsView2.pl?item=2001113001

Bartlett, Patrick. "Problems' Threaten Euro Launch." BBC News. 4 Dec. 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_1691000/1691635.stm

Euro Web Site. "Questions & Answers on the Euro and European Economic and Monetary Union." 9 Sept. 1998. 5 Dec. 2001. http://europa.eu.int/euro/quest/

Europe Yes, Euro No! "Opposition to Euro Remains at Record Levels - Six Cut of Ten Labour Voters Say No." 3 Sept. 2000. 6 Dec. 2001. http://www.no-euro.com/release.cfm?IDNO=8Feld,Werner J. The Integration of the European Union and Domestic Political Issues. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.
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Federal Plans for Post War European Order Within Anti-Fascist Movements During World War Two

Words: 3766 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2276224

European Federalism: Historical Analysis

Fascism is considered to be a political belief and concept, which is based on the principle that social, economic and cultural and traditional beliefs of a country must be used in order to increase nationalism. In Europe, fascist movements had emerged in twentieth century. The goal of these fascist movements was to promote fundamentalist and fanatic beliefs in order to deal with the social and political turmoil that occurred in the European region after the end of World War I. Federalism is considered to be the theory, which is based on the principles of federation, which seeks to create a balance of power by dividing it among the member of the same institution. The aim of this paper is to historically analyze the rise of European Union from 1918 to the end of World War II in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Boka Eva (2005): The Democratic European Idea in Central Europe, 1849-1945 (Federalism contra Nationalism) Specimina Nova, University of Pecs,2005. 7-24

2. Boka Eva (2006): In Search of European federalism. Society and Economy (The Journal of the Corvinus University of Budapest), 28. 2006. 3. 309-331.

3. Levi, Lucio (ed.) (1990): Altiero Spinelli and Federalism in Europe and in the World. Franco Angeli, Milan

4. Lindberg, Leon (1963): The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration. Stanford University Press
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Union Labor Disputes Canada Wal-Mart

Words: 6077 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74391495

But when it just recently occurred in 2004 at a store in Jonquiere, British Columbia, the reader must appreciate that a real battle had been won. The original efforts of that particular store for example had the local labor Commission reject certification by a margin of 74 to 65. When the union announced that it won the coveted certification at Quebec, it was quite a blow to the retailer. The Quebec Labour elations Commission issued the order certifying the United Food and Commercial Workers Union (UFCW) as the bargaining agent of employees in Wal-Mart's store in Jonquiere. As noted, the reason a victory of this magnitude is huge is because of the policies and tactics used by Wal-Mart. The retailer works diligently to prevent its workforce from engaging in any collective action and they have consistently shown that they are willing to cross the line to guarantee their position.

Wal-Mart…… [Read More]

References

Baek, Seung Wook. (2000.) "The Changing Trade Unions in China." Journal of Contemporary Asia: March.

Budd, John W. (1994). "The Effect of Multinational Institutions on Strike Activity in Canada." Industrial and Labor Relations Review.

Corbett, Brian (2002). "Southern hospitality." Ward's Auto World, August.

Delsohn, Gary. (1997.) "UPS Strike May Revive American Labor Movement." Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News: Sept.
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European in Both the Spanish

Words: 1999 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23852597

After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.

When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:

EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.

However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, Paul, "Why Did the Spanish Civil War Start in July 1936?" History Review 48(2004), 36-40.

Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Revolution: The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Kousoulas, Dimitrios G. The Price of Freedom: Greece in World Affairs, 1939?1953. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1953.

Smith, Howard K. The State of Europe. New York: Knopf, 1949.
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Kyoto Protocol and the European

Words: 2950 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89195659

The Court recognized the practical effect of having certain nations applying the Union standard in regard to an environmental protection and others not applying them. This recognition resulted in the Court's developing a principle to by-pass this discrepancy. This principle known as "the direct effect" has been applied by the Court in cases where the provisions of the directive are (i) sufficiently precise and clear, (ii) the alleged rights are unconditional, (iii) the provisions thoroughly define the legal relationship (implementation and application requirements), and, (iv) the time allowed to a Member State for implementation of the directive has expired. The practical effect of this application by the Court is to afford parties to any litigation the full legal rights set forth in the Union directive even though the specific nation involved has not enacted the directive as controlling law. Unfortunately, the Court of Justice has used the "direct effect" rule…… [Read More]

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Neo-Functionalism the European Model the Concept of

Words: 2350 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9610378

Neo-Functionalism the European Model

The concept of neo-functionalism originated in the 1950s after the Second World War. During that time, the world was witnessing an emerging pattern of regional integration that saw countries especially in Europe and Latin America eliminate trade barriers in a bid to form regional economic blocks. Neo-functionalism, widely considered as a theory, is synonymous with western European integration. It is thought that the proponents of European integration adopted this theory as their main integration strategy. According to Rosamond (2000), neo-functionalism was triggered by the interactive activity among the original six member states (p. 10). On the other hand, Eilstrup-Sangiovanni (2006), asserts that neo-functionalism was as a result of the behaviorist turn in American social science that were centered on institutional forms, behavior and the integration process (p. 89). He however notes that neo-functionalism failed to describe the integration process during the 1965 empty chair crisis because…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cini, M., & Perez-Solorzano Borragan, N. (2004). European Union Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Commission of the European Communities. (1983). Treaties Establishing the European Communities. uxembourg: Office of Official Publications of the European Community.

Eilstrup-Sangiovanni, M. (2006). Debates on European Integration. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.

Goldstein, W. (1993). Europe After Maastricht. Foreign Affairs, 117-32.
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Forming an Economic Union There

Words: 3452 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93765938

This is exactly the case with the European Union; a European-Union-Member-State that fails to pay on its public arrears will cause weakening of capital amidst its financers. The danger that this financial catastrophe will extend towards the remaining Euro-Area would position the ECB under immense stress to help and rescue the dissolute Member-State, despite the fact that this move may undermine Euro-Area value in the progression (Eichengreen and Wyplosz, 1998). As long as private agents consider that ECB would give way to this stress and as long as Member States keep the right to act in a dissolute way, the central bank will eventually require reliability. Once more, most of this reasoning is also relevant to numerous supply-side procedures; for instance, the viewpoint of inflationary earnings settlements. Salaries negotiating that drive the curve externally will, perhaps, produce pressures for the central bank to assist the ensuing inflation to keep away…… [Read More]

References

Agell J., Calmfors, L. And Jonsson, G. (1996), 'Fiscal policy when monetary policy is tied to the mast', European Economic Review, 40, pp. 1413-40.

Aizenman, J. (1994), 'On the need for fiscal discipline in an union', National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper W4656.

Alesina, a., Blanchard, O., Gali, J., Giavazzi, F. And Uhlig, H. (2001) Defining a Macroeconomic Framework for the Euro Area: Monitoring the European Central Bank 3, London, CEPR.

Allsopp, C. And Vines, D. (1996), 'Fiscal policy and EMU', National Institute Economic Review, 158, pp. 91-107.
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American and European Values How

Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38007083

To wit, "half of Americans deem religion very important in their lives; fewer than a quarter in Spain (22%) feel this way, and in Germany (21%), Britain (17%) and France (13%), even fewer say religion is "very important" to their lives (PE).

Fifty-three percent of Americans are more apt to agree that it is vital to believe in God prior to having good morals and values while just 33% of Germans, 20% of the British, 19% of Spaniards and 15% of those in France agree with that statement. omen and the elderly are more apt to agree that God is indeed the "necessary foundation for morality and good values" (PE). Fifty-nine percent of American women say religion is "very important" to them but only 41% of American men agree with that statement (PE).

Meanwhile, in the Journal of Beliefs and Values (illiams, et al., 2009) the authors point out that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, James, and Ezrow, Lawrence. (2009). Who Do European Parties Represent? How

Western European Parties Represent the Policy Preferences of Opinion Leaders. The Journal

of Politics, 71(1), 206-223.

Bernstein, Elizabeth, and Jakobsen, Janet R. (2010). Sex, Secularism and Religious Influence
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Euro Monetary Union the Admission

Words: 2701 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6287832

The eurozone package is politically more complicated. it's designed to show that 16 nations sharing the euro currency will stand united behind the debts of member nations to stave off a potential crisis of confidence that could damage them all." (Trumbull, 1)

This complexity is underscored by the inherently questionable imperatives of the European Monetary Union. Indeed, one of the core challenges of free trade, globalization and the establishment of intra-continental unions is the inherent difficulty in facing up the inherent incongruity of the aligning markets. The European Union has served as a prime example of this, matching a widely varied set of nations in a single economic pact. The result is that in many contexts, visible distinctions remain even as economic policy is set with the collective in consideration. These distinctions are not necessarily irreconcilable, but under the current structure of the European Monetary Union, they most certainly are.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Baetz, J. (2010). Merkel: $1 Trillion Rescue Package Only Buys Time. Atlanta Journal -- Constitution. Online at http://www.ajc.com/business/merkel-1-trillion-rescue-528257.html

Bilefsky, D. (2010). Greece's Stumble Follows a Headlong Rush Into the Euro. The New York Times.

Brouwer, K. (2010). Is it the Euro or the Yugo? MarketWatch.

Greek Embassy. (2007). Greece in the E.U. Embassy of Greece; Washington, D.C.
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New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination European

Words: 7020 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96921841

New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination: European Perspective

The beginning of the European Union was with the coalition of six nations (namely France, Germany, Italia, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) who entered into a treaty back in the year 1951 to determine the ECU Coal and Steel Community. The next signed treaty was in the year 1957 to determine the ECU Economic Community. The Coal and Steel Community were also built with a firmer incentive to improve political stance as oppoed to the economic goals: to attain a peace settlement mainly between the countries of France and Germany. The treaty creating the ECU Economic Community was more motivated towards the achievement of the economic objectives, on the other hand, but had strong political stance as well. It basically aimed to determine a typical or single market by which goods, capital, services, amongst other things could move freely inside the European…… [Read More]

References

Begg, Iain et al., 2001, Social Exclusion and Social Protection in the European Union: Policy Issues and Proposals for the Future Role of the EU, South Bank University Working Paper, http://www.sbu.ac.uk/euroinst/policyreport.pdf

Ben-Gera, M. (2009). Coordination at the centre of government for better policy making. Conference Paper for Conference on Public Administration Reform and European Integration. SIGMA.

Biagi, Marco, 2000: -- The Impact of European Employement Strategy on the Role of Labour Law and Industrial Relations --, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 16, No. 2, Summer 2000, 155-73

Browne, Matthew, 2003: -- La methode ouverte de coordination et la Strategie europeenne pour l'emploi: Modele ou faux-semblant ? -- in Renaud Dehousse (ed.), L'Europe sans Bruxelles ? (forthcoming)
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Benefits Role and Criticisms of Labor Unions

Words: 3319 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16689905

Role of Labor Unions in Industrial Relations

In their definition, labor unions have always been known as organizations that have always aimed at getting their members both financial and non-financial benefits. The role of labor unions is however bigger than that and they have been known to aid in helping employers improve the productivity and discipline of their workers. Labor unions respond to issues differently. This is explained by the differences in industrial relations contexts and also policies of different states as well as strategies of the various employers around the country.

Employees come together to form a labor union to achieve a common goal. Labor unions have several goals. Some of the goals include agitating for higher retirement benefits as well as other benefits for its members. They also seek to increase the number of workers assigned for specific job tasks. They ensure that employees work under good and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baglioni, G. And C. Crouch (eds.) (1990) European Industrial Relations. The Challenge of Flexibility (London: Sage).

Barrow, C. (2013). Industrial Relations Law. New York: Routledge.

Blanpain, R. (2007). Decentralizing Industrial Relations and the Role of Labor Unions and Employee Representatives. New York: Kluwer Law International.

Blanpain, R., & Baker, J. (2010).Comparative Labor Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. New York: Kluwer Law International.
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Cold War on Europe European

Words: 1657 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72728694

Moreover, ending the cold war enabled the formation of international alliances that help and support members, and also fight together against common enemies.

ibliography

Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006

http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007

Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & rothers, 1947

Cold War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 24, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007

Proxy War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 21, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007

At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991, History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1999, https://www.cia.gov/csi/books/19335/art-1.html#rtoc7,last accessed on February 27, 2007

Peter Nolan, China's Rise, Russia's Fall. Macmillan Press, 1995. pp. 17-18

Christopher Reeves, Western Europe during the Cold War and eyond, Jagiellonian University of Krakow, Center for European Studies

http://www.ces.uj.edu.pl/reeves/beyond.htm, last…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006

http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007

Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & Brothers, 1947

Cold War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 24, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
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Chinese and European Development Programs

Words: 3684 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8396070

The analysis provided is thorough and bias at the same time. However, Armstrong provides a valuable background and policy analysis.

In terms of the relations between Ghana and its major donors, China and the EU, Giles Mohan writes a comprehensive overview of the relations Ghana has with China and the potential political and economic interests that may drive China to indeed become a crucial donor for Ghana. More precisely, the author connects the new found Chinese desire to invest in the African country to the new found oil reserves in Ghana. Furthermore, he contents that given the past nature of the relations between China and the rest of the world (such as the EU for instance), the presence of China in Ghana is also geopolitically related and not necessarily humanitarian and development related. The perspective is valuable because the author points out potential political linkages between the resources found in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boafo-Arthur, K & Essuman-Johnson, a 1993, Ghana, Some Foreign Aid issues, Institute of South Africa, Pretoria.

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). 2010. Ghana. CIDA. viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/acdi-cida/ACDI-CIDA.nsf/Eng/JUD-124141510-QL7

Chachage, C.S.L., 1987, Towards a critique of development theories in Africa. Vol. l9 No J / 987.

Crawford, G 2004. "The European Union and Democracy Promotion in Africa: The Case of Ghana" POLIS Working Paper Number 10 viewed on 18 January 2011  http://www.polis.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/research/working-papers/wp10crawford.pdf
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East-Asian Union Emerge in the

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7880282

In this regard, Francis adds that, "The determining factor will be ASEAN's ability to provide the leadership necessary to create a strong, independent East Asian Union" (Francis, p. 77). In addition, Bowles (2002) notes that the ongoing efforts to create improved Asia/Pacific regional cooperation are fundamentally efforts intended to balance the influence of the United States on the region and the world in general.

4. What are the main hypotheses of the work?

The guiding hypotheses of the proposed study are as follows:

H1: Encouraging China to participate in as a coalition leader in an East Asian Union in the future would serve to ensure that the price it would have to pay in terms of loss of trade and investment if it acts against the interests of the union's other members would be prohibitively high.

H2: Former Cold War alliances will be replaced by new ones in the future…… [Read More]

References

Bowles, Paul. 2002. "Asia's post-crisis regionalism: Bringing the state back in, keeping the (United) States out," in Review of International Political Economy (London) 9(2): 244- 270.

Francis, N. 2006. For an East Asian Union: Rethinking Asia's Cold War alliances. Harvard International Review 28(3): 76-77.

Gowan, P. 2003, July-August. "U.S. Hegemony Today." Monthly Review 55(3): 30-31.

Gratton, C., & Jones, Ian. 2003. Research Methods for Sport Studies. New York: Routledge.
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Obesity and the European Food

Words: 2136 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55851162

' (EurActiv 2008)

'The traffic light Scheme was shown to be the most effective of by the FSA. hat they also discovered was that consumers wanted product labeling; they liked separate information on 4 key nutrients that include fats, carbohydrates, proteins and salts and sugars.' (EurActiv, 2010) Consumers found traffic color coding easy to understand and use. As a result they wanted numerical information on amount of nutrients in a serving. However they found GDA percentage rather confusing. Also the importance of making nutrition and ingredient labeling mandatory on wines, beers and spirits and having a consistent mandatory labeling system with color codes was emphasized by the NGOs representing different areas of health at the hearing. These products could not be eliminated from the labeling because they were part of the foods that contributed to obesity.

At the public hearing on efficient food, (Public Hearing on Efficient foods, 2011) Mr.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

DN Sanco, (2011) European Vegetarian and Animal News Alliance (EVANA): Renewed Commitment of stakeholders to Combat Overweight and Obesity Related Health Issues Brussels, Belgium

European Public Health Alliance, (2011) putting citizens' health at the heart of Europe, Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from www.epha.org/a/3107

EurActiv, (2008) European Food Safety Authority: Food industry, food labeling Retrieved from http://www.euractiv.com/en/cap/smes-hit-cost-eu-food-labelling-proposals/article-174970

EurActiv, (2011) Europe Urged to recognize Chronic Obesity Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from http: / www / euractiv.com.en/health / Europe
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U S and European Jury Systems

Words: 1984 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56241685



Reform from within the EU does not seem possible, either. It is so structured as to prevent changes in member states' minority status and other modifications from becoming attainable. Attempts by any government to amend the Community laws are considered doomed to failure, because Parliament has almost no part in European law-making (Andrews).

Conclusion

Common and civil law systems are inherently opposed, although their shared goal is to conduct a just, speedy and most inexpensive settling of conflicts (Messitte 1999). American courts have increasingly acknowledged the need to continuously evaluate and modify their processes and altogether improve the quality of justice. Efforts cover many other aspects of court activity, ranging from dispute resolution mechanisms, such as arbitration and mediation, to procedures, such as default and summary judgment used I the early stage of a trial without needing to proceed to a formal trial (Messitte).

Jury trial has disappeared in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, James, ed. The Jury Enigma. Court Management Observer, 2003. http://www.cmobs.com/editorial403.htm

Andrews, D. Freedom in Jeopardy. Freedom Central, 2004. http://www.freedom.central.net/euandbritain.html

Kotz, Hein. Civil Justice Systems in Europe and the United States. Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, Special Issue, 2003. http://www.law.duke.edu/shell/cite.pl?13+Duke+j.+Comp+8+Int'l+L.061

Massitte, Peter J. Common Law vs. Civil Law Systems. United States Information Systems, 1999. http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itdhr/0999/ijdc/messitte.htm