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Describe how the EU is governed, i.e., its institutions
The European Union (EU) is a unique cooperation of 27 states which is in the form of economic and political partnership. This came as a result of a series of treaties and commitment of member states in integration through the harmonization of laws and adoption of common policies on quite a number of issues. The sovereignty of the member states have been pooled in most economic and social issues and the quality of decision making is supranational. Decision making with regard to some areas such as foreign policy necessitate consensus of the member states. There are common institutions that are used in the setting and promotion of the collective interests of the EU, a total of seven institutions have been set up for this, including: European Commission, Council of the European Union (Council of Ministers), European Parliament, European Council,…
Hoskyns, C. & Michael, N. (2000). Democratizing the European Union: Issues for the twenty-first Century (Perspectives on Democratization. Manchester University Press.
Nees, Greg, (2010). Germany: Unraveling an enigma, Intercultural press.
Sear, S. (2011). Managing the impact of the Euro, Hampshire: Gower publishing
These reasons and the opposition met in the public opinion must be taken into consideration by the governments of each members state and so there is a great impact over the admission of new members, such as Croatia.
The date of the accession of Croatia in the European Union seems to provide great debate, not only because the country is not considered ready to join the Union, but most importantly because the EU is divided by conflicting opinions regarding the necessity or the benefit of further enlargement. The debate about Croatia's admission is not centered on the accomplishments of the country, but on the necessity of the EU to be even further enlarged.
Admitting Croatia into the European Union can represent a very important step forward for this country and an example for other alkan nations that development can be achieved and that EU admission is desirable and worth working…
Accession of Croatia to the European Union, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accession_of_Croatia_to_the_European_Union ;
Archick, K., V.L. Morelli, "European Union enlargement," CRS Report for Congress, updated October 25, 2006, available at http://italy.usembassy.gov/pdf/other/RS21344.pdf;
Avery, G., and J. Batt, "Balkans in Europe: why, when and how?," Policy Brief, March 2007, available at http://www.epc.eu/TEWN/pdf/Balkans%20in%20Europe.pdf ;
Enlargement strategy and main challenges," Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament, Brussels, November 2007, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/06_11_07_eu_enlargement.pdf ;
Secondly, a more fundamental reimagining of the public sphere as a concept will undoubtedly help to dismantle some of the destructive and disruptive assumptions governing the Commission's response to public dissatisfaction. By focusing on "debate" as the central tenet of a healthy public sphere, the European Union's leadership is able to avoid facing any real public criticism, because that criticism may be treated as an illegitimate and uninformed debate position by the ruling authority. Thus, a "change in perspective from the 'public sphere' to, respectively, 'public discourse'" forces both ruled and rulers to discuss the formulation of policy on equal footing, because one side is not able to dictate what does and does not constitute a reasonable position (Steeg, 2002, p. 508). As can be seen in the Commission's discussion of its communication policy, the concept of "debate" in the public sphere functions as a kind of distraction from the…
Calhoun, C. (2002). Dictionary of the social sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Commission of the European Communities, (2007). Communicating europe in partnership.
Brussels: Retrieved from http://eur-
National economic planning was extensively accepted in postwar Europe with the French indicative planning fostering a much accepted model of the government and the private sector joining hands in the modernizing the economy. Several European economists considered that the public policy and public money could be combined to shape a greater rational and a more reasonable economic system. (Springer, 1994, p. 72)
The significance of the European public policy for the EU member states has gone up in the last fifteen years. Especially, the association between the national and sub-national government has undergone change a great deal. The coming of the "Europe of the egions" is no more a buzzword, but rather a vital reality in the EU. Of course, the European Commission found in the regional governments a crucial supporter in fostering the Single European Market -- SEM and in doing so; it lessened the resistance of a lot…
Balchin, Paul; Sykora, Ludek; Bull, Gregory. 1999. The Regional Policy and Planning in Europe. Routledge.
Bouvet, Florence. 2006. European Union Regional Policy: Allocation Determinants and Effects on Regional Economic Growth. Department of Economics, University of California. [Online]. Available:
http://www.econ.ucdavis.edu/graduate/fbouvet/job_market.pdf [25 December 2007].
Magone, Jose. M. 2003. Regional Institutions and Governance in the European Union.
European Union's Policy Towards The Conflict In The Middle East
The Palestinian-Israeli conflict has always been of major concern to Europe because of the importance of this festering issue that has defied all attempts at a satisfactory solution for the last half-century and because of Europe's proximity of the Middle East. Prior to 1973, the EU member countries had differing policies with the Gaullist France displaying a pro-Arab bias and countries like Germany and Netherlands having very close relations with Israel. Since that time, and especially since the Oslo accord of 1993, the European Union has tried to follow a unified and consistent policy with regard to the Middle East conflict. In this paper we shall review the background and general development of the policy; the problems that the policy has faced, and the current status of the policy. The paper also includes a general assessment of the EU's Middle…
The European Union." (n.d.) Middle East: The Faultline. Le Monde, diplomatique. Mondediplo.com. Retrieved on April 10, 2003 at http://mondediplo.com/focus/mideast/r1276
The EU & the Middle East: Position & background FAQs." (May, 2002). The EU and the Middle East Process. European Union in the World: External Relations. Retrieved on April 10, 2003 at http://europa.eu .int/comm/external_relations/mepp/faq/index.htm
European Commission welcomes Quartet's presentation of the Middle East Road Map." (April 30, 2003) The EU and the Middle East Process. European Union in the World: External Relations.
EUropean Union Enlargement
When ten countries recently joined the 15 existing European Union (EU) member-states, the event represented the largest enlargement of the European Union in its history (Golino, 2003). One of the major perceived benefits of this union is that the countries formed an economic, political and military coalition with a combined population of 450 million people and an economy that produces approximately one-quarter of the world's annual output.
The new members include eight Central European countries -- the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia -- plus Malta and the southern Greek-Cypriot part of Cyprus (Golino, 2003). Their inclusion is expected to further shape the future character of the EU, how it governs itself, and the global role it pursues. It is also seen as an affirmation of European identity and of a break from Europe's communist past.
The Eastern European and Mediterranean countries have…
EU considers future expansion. (February 15, 2000). BBC News.
EU Enlargement into Eastern Europe & the Mediterranean - Enhanced Market Access for Hong Kong Exporters. (December, 17, 2002). World Tariff Online Database. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.tdctrade.com/econforum/tdc/tdc021203.htm .
Europe, America face a 'depth integration' (April 29, 2004). People's Daily, p. 7.
Golino, L. (August21, 2003). EU expansion reshapes future of Europe. Washington Times.
In 1957, the Treaty of ome led to the creation of the European Atomic Energy Community (EUATOM) and the European Economic Community (EEC), which would become better known as the European Community. These early federations were direct predecessors of the European Union, which was formally established through the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992. The Maastricht treaty strengthened the powers of the intra-national federation and created cooperative realms of defense, agriculture, environmental law, transportation, human rights, and international trade. The single market and the single currency, the Euro, were also established after the Treaty of Maastricht.
Membership into the European Community and European Union has expanded consistently over the past several decades and continues. In 1973, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Denmark joined. Greece became a member in 1981, and in 1986 Spain and Portugal became members. In 1995, Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined. In 2004, ten countries, many of which…
The History of the European Union." Europa. Online at http://europa.eu .int/abc/history/index_en.htm.
History of the European Union." Wikipedia. Online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_European_Union .
1). Prior to market introduction of a GMO for commercial use in any part of the EU, notification must be sent to the competent member state authority where the GMO will be released (Council Directive 90/220/EEC, art. 11 (1)). Notification must include a risk assessment with information necessary for evaluating the foreseeable risks posed by the GMO to human health or the environment, to which the competent authority will evaluate and provide written consent as a prerequisite release. In addition, a Proposal for Labeling and Packaging must accompany the notification (Council Directive 90/220/EEC, art. 11).
In cases of successful applications, the Commission adopts the measures, whereas noncomplying proposals are forwarded to the Council for decision (See Council Directive 90/220/EEC, art. 21). GMOs approved by either the Commission or Council may be used without prohibition, restriction, or impediment in any member state.
Council Regulation 258/97: Novel Foods Regulation
Aimed at providing…
Alteri, M. 1999. 'The Environmental Risks of Transgenic Crops: An Agroecological Assessment, in Biotechnology and Biosafety: Proceedings of an Associated Event of the Fifth Annual World Bank Conference on Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development' 33 Ismail Serageldin
Wanda Collins eds.
Brough, D. 2000. 'Euro Grain-GM Feed Labels Needed to Ease Fears', Reuters
English News Service, Mar. 1, 2000.
European Union and Euro Currency Crisis
One of the major long-term issues that have damaged the euro is the fear about whether the governments in Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain, and Italy will honor their $4.2 trillion debts (Burgen, 2012). Failure to honor these debts has far reaching consequences on European banks which own these countries debts. Struggling banks are likely to suffer investors' confidence and credit. Countries that are beneficiaries of credit from these banks have come up with austerity measures that have been synonymous with recession (The Economist, 2011). This has further deepened the fears that governments would be less likely to honor their debts. This has further weakened the banks. In spite of the fact that the euro zone has the capacity to run on its banks and governments bearing in mind that it has the backing of the European Central Bank (ECB), it has blatantly failed to…
Burgen, S. (July 2, 2012). Spain fails to match Euro 2012 successes with opportunities for its youth. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/jul/02/spain-euro-2012 -
The Economist (Jan 1, 2014). Taking Europe's Pulse: Interactive Overview of European GDP,
Debts, and Jobs. The Economist. http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2010/12/europes_economies
European Union egulations
EU law is used as a source of law to member states of the union. Article 288 of the (TFEU) states that, regulations expressed to have 'general application' means that it creates binding obligations to legal practitioners within the jurisdiction of the union. They create general law with the potential of affecting anyone who is within the reach. The EU law takes the nature of direct effect, which means it creates rights for individual persons without further implementation. In politi sis vs. ministry of finance, it was held that under the paragraph two of article 189; regulations shall have general applications and shall be directly applicable in all member states. Therefore, due to their nature, function and sources from community law they have a direct effect to the people; capable of creating individual rights, which should be protected by courts (Moens & Trone, 2011, p 372).Van Gend…
Breuer, C. 2011. The Regional Puzzle. Chicago: Lit Verlang Munster.
Fieldman, D. 2010. English Public Law. New York: Oxford University Press.
Moens, G.J. 2011. Commercial Law Of European Union. Atlanta: Springer.
"Lingering concern persists about the incorporation of 10 mostly East European countries last year, which some feared would dilute EU prosperity" (Rice-Oxley 2005). hen Turkey desired to join the EU, member nations questioned its ability to be integrated into the common culture of the other member nations (Rice-Oxley 2005). Turkey's human rights record made it controversial as did its: "striking difference from the European norm in terms of economics, demography, culture, religion, and even basic geography," although some member nations argued that its incorporation would encourage its government to embark upon a positive course of reforms (Rice-Oxley 2005). Going back to the reasons that the union was created in the first place, the supporters of Turkey's admission argued as thus: do we want Turkey to "live under European norms and laws or tell it go off and imitate the worst performances of its neighbors" in the Middle East (Rice Oxley…
Browne, Anthony & Nicola Smith. (14 Dec 2005). "How French farmers make themselves rich through EU." The Times. Retrieved 14 Jan 2008 at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,13509-1927728,00.html
Burke, Albert. (2001). "Sweden and the European Union." A Doubtful Referendum. Retrieved 14 Jan 2008 at http://www.nnn.se/n-model/eu/vote1.htm
De Rossa, Proinsias. (2005). "How the European Parliament works." Guide to the European Parliament. Retrieved 14 Jan 2008 at http://www.derossa.com/asp/guideEPworks.asp
The history of the European Union." (2008). EUROPA. Retrieved 14 Jan 2008 at http://europa.eu /abc/history/index_en.htm
Eight more countries join the EU in May, 2004 (Czech Republic; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Hungary; Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia); soon after, Malta and Cyprus are welcomed into the EU. In 2007, Bulgaria and Romania were welcomed as members of the EU.
In October, 2004, the now twenty-five EU countries sign a "Treaty Establishing a European Constitution" which is "designed to streamline democratic decision-making and management" of the EU (http://europa.eu). The constitution states that the EU is "open to any European country that fulfills the democratic, political and economic criteria for membership"; when a new member asks to join, that member must be approved unanimously by the other 27 states.
Currently there are several countries that are being considered as potential members of the EU; they are Turkey (that is now a member of NATO), Croatia, Albania, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, and the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (http://europa.eu). The "Copenhagen Criteria"…
Europa. "Europe in 12 Lessons / the History of the European Union / Key Facts and Figures
About Europe and the Europeans." Retrieved Dec. 28, 2010, from http://europa.eu .
Jahn, George. "Hungary's tough new laws worry other EU countries." The Washington Post.
Retrieved Dec. 28, 2010, from http://www.washingtonpost.com . (2010): 1-3.
Increased regulations could take even this advantage away from the industry.
Eventually, even the EU airline industry, despite its relative health in comparison to the United States, may chafe at the additional economic burdens it is being forced to suffer at the hands of the regulatory commission. Recently, French President Jacque Chirac proposed to tax air travel for all member states as a way to finance development aid. Although this fortunately would not affect the United States, this mania for increased, homogenizing regulation that favor more powerful EU member states and harm poorer nations and the disregard for more international representative bodies that govern industries with worldwide clientele like the airline industry could be a troubling trend. As the EU consolidates its power, and as there is no real international court of appeal to deflect the regulations that affect only the EU, technically, although not in actual practice, the EU's…
As bankruptcy looms, airlines face new regulation." EurActive. Updated September 20, 2006, [Oct 14, 2006] http://www.euractiv.com/en/transport/bankruptcy-looms-airlines-face-new-regulation/article-144588
Stier, Ken. "The Not-So Friendly Skies of Europe." Fortune Magazine. May 25-2006. [Oct
14, 2006] http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2006/05/15/8376910/index.htm
Study Says Airline Service Worsens," CNN.com, April 3, 2006, [Oct 14, 2006] http://money.cnn.com/2006/04/03/news/companies/airline_quality/index.htm
S. have two different approaches. While the EU represents the "soft power" the United States is the proponent of the "hard power" (Kagan, 2003). However, it is considered that the issue of soft power is representative for the way in which states would later on develop their foreign policy and their strategic coordinates. However, in the case of Iraq and Iran it can be said that the current hard power approach cannot be used to the maximum because the U.S. In particular does not take into consideration the actual implications of culture, for instance. On the other hand however, the soft power of the EU could make better use of the influence and position of Turkey in the attempt to deal with issues such as terrorism,
However, one of the most important aspects of the geopolitical position of Turkey is its closeness to Iraq and Iran. Since the 9/11 attacks…
Barkey, H.J. And P.H. Gordon."Cyprus: The predictable crisis." The National Interest. 2001. Accessed 7 May 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2751/is_2001_Winter/ai_81765319/pg_6
Calvocoressi, P. World politics since 1945. Budapest: Open Society Institute, 1996.
Cook, S.A., Douglas Dillon. "Turkey's Problematic Middle East Role." Council on Foreign Relations. 2008. Accessed 7 May 2008, at http://www.cfr.org/publication/16057/turkeys_problematic_middle_east_role.html
Jung, S., and S. Kubacek. (2005) "Economic Aspects of Turkey's Accession to the EU - How Turkey's Membership Is Challenging the EU." Student Economic Review, Vol. 19.
European Union External Relations Law
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union among 28 European nations that spans most of the continent. Created following the end of World War II, the EU was initially focused on promoting free trade between member states in order to improve their standards of living and reduce the likelihood of future conflicts. As a result, the European Economic Community (EEC) was created pursuant to the 1957 Rome Treaty in 1958 to facilitate trade between the organization’s founding members (Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands). The EEC’s name was changed in 1993 to the European Union to reflect the expanded focus of the organization beyond trade to include legal, environmental and human rights issues. Despite the recent withdrawal of Great Britain from the EU, the organization remains stable and enjoys an enormous market for its goods and services.[footnoteRef:2] This paper reviews…
Amadeo, Kimberly (2017, July 18). “The world’s largest economies.” The Balance. [online] available: https://www.thebalance.com/world-s-largest-economy-3306044
“A Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe” (2004). European Union. [online] available: https://europa.eu/european-union/sites/europaeu/files/docs/body/treaty_establishing _a_constitution _for_europe_en.pdf.
Communication from the Commission, Europe in the World – Some Practical Proposals for Greater Coherence, Effectiveness and Visibility, Brussels (2006).
Dinu, Gheorghe and Dinu, Diana (2012, January 1). “The Procedure before European Court of Justice.” Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 205-209.
Eeckhout, Piet (2011). EU External Relations Law. Oxford: Oxford European Union Law Library.
“Foreign Affairs Council” (2017). European Union. [online] available: http://www.consilium. europa.eu/en/council-eu/configurations/fac/.
“Foreign and Security Policy.” (2017). European Union. [online] available: https://europa.eu/european-union/topics/foreign-security-policy_en .
Nadirsyah Hosen (2017). “EU external relations: Law and policy.” Monash University. [online] available: https://www.monash.edu/pubs/2017handbooks/units/LAW4683.html .
Six Reasons the European Union Will Not Last
The European Union (EU) is the heart and soul of modern Europe, yet it is not without its challenges. Whether it comes to trade issues, member states failing to follow regulations, or immigration issues, the EU has no end of problems that arise from year to year. This paper will describe a few of the challenges and show why the larger issue of representative government in modern Europe is now coming face to face with an increasing wave of nationalism and a push by some member states to exert more sovereignty over their own affairs without respect to what the EU has to say about it. After looking at issues such as 1) Brexit, 2) the immigration crisis, 3) the open borders policy, 4) the problem of NATO, 5) the ultra-high and potentially catastrophic levels of debt that the European Central…
How has the relationship between the economy and European governments changed in the past 20 years? Has Eastern Europe become more like the western part of the Continent?
Overall, thanks to the European Union (EU), greater cohesion has been achieved over the past 20 years between the major European powers. There has been a facilitation of the flood of both human and monetary capital between the member nations, as well as trade, and a number of its members have fought long and hard to ensure their general stability within the EU and continue their membership within the union. The European Union has also had some notable economic successes as a collective unit, such as a recent trade deal with Japan, and enacting anti-trust and privacy regulation of the American technology industry (including Google) that America has refused to enact (Belin & Reinert, 2019). The ability to engage in collective measures is…
European Union has adopted an aggressive position relative to the area of employment law. Although the primary goal of the Union is to promote the economic relationship between member states, there is a social dimension to the Union activities that demands that it involve itself in collateral matters that might impact on this goal (Sparrow, 2009). Employment law is one of those collateral matters and the goal is to maintain a high level of employment throughout the Union and to improve the living conditions of all workers. The hope of the Union was that the working conditions of the workers would be enhanced in the process (Kenner, 2002).
The approach taken by the Union was to adopt legislation that would be enforceable throughout its member states. This legislation would establish minimum standards governing working and employment conditions. As one of the basic social rights of the European Union was to…
Besson, S. (2008). Gender Discrimination under EU and ECHR Law: Never Shall the Twain Meet. Human Rights Law Review, 647-682.
European Commission. (2011, June 6). Emploiyment, Social Affairs and Inclusion. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from European Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=157
Jacobsen, L. (2006). Finding your way in the European union health and safety policy. Brussels: ETUI.
Kenner, J. (2002). EU Employment Law: Form Rome to Amsterdam and Beyond. Oxford, UK: Hart Publishing.
One of the phenomenal things about the European Union is its extraordinary capacity to be able to work both as a unified entity, in which all 27 voices act as one, and as a federation, in fact, of its member states. In order to be able to function in this manner, the European Union also needs functional institutions. John McCormick is keen in this part of the book to describe both how all these European institutions operate internally (the European Commission, the Council of Ministers, the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice and the European Council and Specialized Agencies) and, additionally, how they are able to work with one another in a functional manner. Each of these institutions is allocated a separate chapter, with generally the same structure that includes the institution's structure, its evolution, functionality and the way it works etc.
The final part of the book deals…
1. McCormick, John. The European Union: Politics and Policies. Westview Press; Fourth Edition (December 24, 2007)
To achieve these various purposes, NATO embarked on a series of interlocking efforts during the 1990s that were intended to provide some aspect of an overall concept of security. A series of initiatives resulted in NATO accepting new members with the possibility of still further additions in the future, crafted the Partnership for Peace and created the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council; entered into a Founding Act with ussia and a Charter with Ukraine; revised its command arrangements; and, simultaneously, became increasingly aware that developing a new relationship with the Western European Union was clearly in its best interests (Hunter, 2003).
In this regard, Dannreuther (2004) maintains that the EU's engagement with its immediate periphery represents a highly important, and potentially the most important, post-Cold War geopolitical challenge for its foreign and security policy; the nature of these obstacles can be considered to have three major dimensions, as follows:
There has been…
Cohen, L.J., Moens, a., & Sens, a.G. (2003). NATO and European security: Alliance politics from the end of the Cold War to the age of terrorism. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Dannreuther, R. (2004). European Union foreign and security policy: Towards a neighbourhood strategy. New York: Routledge.
Dunn, DH, & Zaborowski, M. (2003). Poland: A new power in transatlantic security. London: Frank Cass.
A rtner, H., Hyde-Price, a., & Reiter, E. (2001). Europe's new security challenges. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
GDP went down due to weak domestic demand, which went further down after a decline. Somehow, it again rose by 0.1% in the first quarter and appeared to have pulled the economy out of recession. ut Portugal retained big trouble. In the last quarter of 2002, its GDP plummeted.8% from the third quarter and in the last quarter, it contracted by 1.3% from the previous year until the.3% in the third quarter of 2002. The economy continued to sag until the ank of Portugal itself observed the fall of business confidence to its lowest recorded level since the 1993 recession. Official unemployment rate increased to a high 49.6%, rising by 26.3% from 2001 (O'Flynn).
Unemployment was 6.7% in 2003, compared with 4.3% in 2002 (O'Flynn 2003). Labor unions in Portugal claimed it was more than 7.6% as against the 5% ceiling set by the EU, despite the fact that the…
Clapp, D. (2005). Spain's Economy is Vibrating and Growing. Group Communications, Inc. http://www.facilitycity.com/busfac/bf_04_03_global1.asp
Development Assistance Committee (2001). Portugal Development Cooperation Review. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/document/31/0,2340.en_2649_201185_1883871_1_1_1_1,00.html
Giomo, C. And Jimenez, M. (2001). Economic Survey of Spain. Building Partnership for Progress. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/document/36/0.2340.en_2649_201185_1912676_1_1_1_1.00.html
Internal Study Programs (2004). Portugal. http://www.studyprograms.com/focus_portugal.htm
In fact, it is some of these same benefits that have these Europeans bothered. Some argue that it is an attempt to erase a sense of national identity. Open borders, free trade, and a single-currency do serve to blur the distinction between different countries, and the reduction of nationalism was in fact a part of the intention of the EU. It was hoped that diplomatic relations, which necessitate a better understanding of each other's culture, would replace the destructive warfare that was often the result of nationalism.
Other objections to the EU are more pragmatic. he financial redistribution that makes the single-currency and free trade systems fair for everyone also mean that some of the wealthier nations are providing more assistance and receiving less of the benefits. his argument, to, has some merits, although the benefits are supposed to remain invisible --…
The concept of a unified and less nationalistic Europe began to gain attention in the nineteenth century, and after World War II it was seen by many as an essential goal if Europe wished to remain viable and intact. One of the first steps towards creating this international union came in 1951, when several major European powers signed a treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and again in 1957 with the establishment of he European Economic and Atomic Energy Communities. Denmark, Great Britain and Ireland refused to join these Communities at first, but did so in 1973, and in 1979 the first European Parliament was formed from full elections. In 1993, the European Union was officially established with major economic incentives such as free trade for member countries, and the EU continues to add member countries today.
Despite the economic and travel benefits that the EU provides, such as open borders, international citizenship, and a single currency, many Europeans feel that the European Union and their country's involvement in it is not a good thing. In fact, it is some of these same benefits that have these Europeans bothered. Some argue that it is an attempt to erase a sense of national identity. Open borders, free trade, and a single-currency do serve to blur the distinction between different countries, and the reduction of nationalism was in fact a part of the intention of the EU. It was hoped that diplomatic relations, which necessitate a better understanding of each other's culture, would replace the destructive warfare that was often the result of nationalism.
Other objections to the EU are more pragmatic. The financial redistribution that makes the single-currency and free trade systems fair for everyone also mean that some of the wealthier nations are providing more assistance and receiving less of the benefits. This argument, to, has some merits, although the benefits are supposed to remain invisible -- peace is not as tangible as war.
' hile in theory this may seem defensible, in practice it is more questionable to carefully watch every second an employee spends online -- if the employee does a bit of Christmas-shopping online, but is otherwise productive, should this be used against the employee? And cannot such objectionable sites be blocked, without violating employee privacy? hat if the employee uses his or her work email to send one or two brief personal emails -- the time 'theft' is quite minimal, yet so easy to do companies are falling prey to this temptation. And the issues of time theft blurs as employees do more work on their home computers for work -- work is taking over the home and ' private time' already. Yet this also means employees can store secret work-related items that they could store and share, if left unmonitored. Finally, RFID (radio-frequency IDs) in the workplace, which track…
EU data privacy directive. (2009). Privacilla. Retrieved September 17, 2009 at http://www.privacilla.org/business/eudirective.html
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
(Jordans, 2008) "Europe's unilateral approach will only lead to legal battles and trade wars," Bisignani also stressed. (Jordans, 2008) a hint of this contention occurring in the future was evidenced recently when 27 nations, including the U.S., China and 25 other countries, registered opposition to the EU's attempt to include commercial airlines in its cap-and-trade program by supporting an ICAO-run program. This signal confirmed united opposition to the European Union's intentions to develop a separate, regional emissions trading system. U.S. officials warn that the inclusion of U.S. And other non-European airlines in the EU cap-and-trade program "may break international aviation and trade laws." (Jordans, 2008) Although reasons differ, along with official warnings, scientists raise questions regarding the European program. Airlines, experts basically agree, contribute approximately 2% of man-made emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas reportedly contributing to global warming. Perceptions, nevertheless, differ regarding the impact of other gases aircraft emit,…
Aircraft emissions capped to tackle climate change." European Commission, 20 Dec. 2006. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://ec.europa.eu/news/environment/061220_1_en.htm .
Aviation and the Environment." Finance Wire, May 7, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2005, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1474988211.html .
EPA to Revise Aircraft Engine Emission Standards." IHS, 30 Nov. 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/2005/epa-aircraft-engine-emissionsstandards.htm .
FAQ on Aviation Emissions and Climate Change." HIS, 2 Jan. 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/eu-en-airplane-emissions-faq-1-07.htm .
These new goods and services will be marketed across national lines and cultural differences. Unlike before, Germany is now a stabilizing factor and sets the standard for the integration of the continent, unlike its radical past. It is the opinion of this author that the future can be considered bright (save with conservative optimism). With true irony, the solution to the German problem has been to unleash their accountants and not their soldiers. The accountants seem to be producing a truly revolutionary, if peaceful economic miracle that continues well into the 21st century. Entrepreneurship will thrive, intellectual property protection will foster the development of new goods and services and their unique multinational partnerships between companies that has been developed and will continue to be the hallmark of the EU. These new goods and services will be marketed across national lines and cultural differences.
Beesley, a June 29, 2010 "EU…
Beesley, a June 29, 2010 "EU can be agent of change - but only if its members pull together," Irish Times.com, Retrieved June 29, 2010,
Coy, P Feb. 10, 2010 "Greece risks debt trap of market's siren song," Bloomberg
Businessweek, Retrieved June 28, 2010, http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-02-10/greece-risks-debt-trap-of-market-s-siren-song-peter-coy.html .
This development approach, by the European Union, is similar to the Bretton Woods institutions' 'Washington consensus', which was developed in the latter half of the 1980s, following "several severe balance of payments crises of developing countries" (Nienhaus, 2002, p. 55). The European Union does not favor indiscriminate opening of markets, but rather it looks for more liberal trade arrangements with developing countries and the European Union solely. This policy has been repeatedly criticized by the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and World Bank.
The basic philosophy behind this position is that market forces are better able to foster economic development, compared to state intervention. If a developing country has prices which reflect the relative scarcity of goods and services, as well as indicate comparative advantages, these countries will be able to attract foreign investment. This investment will result in a transfer of both capital and technology. As Nienhaus…
Darby., J. (2009). French antipathy to Turkey's EU candidacy. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 30(3). Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Academic Search Compete database.
European Union. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: http://www.search.eb.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/eb/article-9033265
Hunter, R. & Ryan, L. (2009). Poland, the European Union, and the Euro. Global Economy Journal, 9(2). Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Business Source Complete database.
Maastricht Treaty. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: http://www.search.eb.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/eb/article-9001460
European Union a state, or what else distinguishes it from other International Organizations
The primary question concerning global organizations as a medium of global governance relates towards the quantity and excellence of this governance within an era where we now have an overdeveloped global economy as well as an under-developed global polity (Ougaard and Higgott, 2002). There's a powerful disconnect amid governance, being an efficient and effective collective solution-seeking process within a given problem-area, and governance being the democratic legitimacy of policy formation. It has made possible the debate regarding 'legitimacy shortfalls' in main global organizations. Furthermore, governance has turned into a hosting analogy determining non-traditional performers (non-condition performers for example NGOs and their local and international associations) that participate as portable agents extending and expanding policy understanding, which is far more advanced and sophisticated than the traditional, elitist, government activities. The interest in global (as well as the regional)…
Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. ( 1996) Introduction: dilemmas, contradictions and the future of European democracy, in: Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. (eds.) The European Union: how democratic is it?, London: Sage, 1-11.
Aziz, M (2006) 'Chinese whispers: the citizen, the law and the constitution', Chapter 10 in D. Castiglione et al.: The Convention Moment: An Experiment in European Constitutional Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan, forthcoming.
Aziz, M. (2004) 'Mainstreaming the Duty of clarity and Transparency as part of Good Administrative Practice in the EU', European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 282-95.
Bacchus, James (2005). A Few Thoughts on Legitimacy, Democracy, and the WTO: in Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (ed.), Reforming the World Trading System. Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 429-436.
When the European Union grew in size to encompass twenty-five member countries in the month of May 2004, it was a historic and significant moment in history. It not only symbolized the unification of Europe after more than fifty years of fighting and divisions, but it also succeeded in the establishment of a new political order in the history of the world, that is based on a total set of common values and an intense desire on the part of the leaders to create a sense of security and peace among the people of the world. Also known as the 'Fifth Enlargement', the event is acknowledged as one of the largest events in the European Union, and continues after May 1, 2004 to include Bulgarian as well as Roman accessions, that will supposedly take place in the year 2007. The European Council will address the question of whether…
Turkey Join the European Union
The accession of Turkey to the European Union has long been a subject of contention. The route of Turkey's membership to the European Union has been in process since 1959, but the consideration of Turkey being a part of the European Union is still an unresolved issue. A clear difference of point-of-view, regarding Turkish accession to the European Union prevails among the entire world, but Turkey is now in a suitable position to depict its manifesto as an independently developing Muslim majority country that owns all the necessary resources to survive at par with its competitors.
The European Union regards its self as a secular organization of European countries, which is reflected in there slogan "United in Diversity" (Dinan, 2004)? The slogan draws a clear picture that the European Union intends to unite the diversities from across the cultures, religions and traditions in order to…
L Baracani, E. (2007). Pre-accession and Neighbourhood. The European Union's Democratic Conditionality in Turkey and Morocco, 335-350.
Baracani, E. (2007). Pre-accession and Neighbourhood. The European Union's Democratic Conditionality in Turkey and Morocco, 240-245.
Benedict, P. (1974). Turkey: geographic and social perspectives. Netherland: Begium.
Dinan, D. (2004). Europe Recast: A History of European Union. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
The less negative situation encountered in the zech Republic could be explained by the fact that since 1990 the expenditure on health services per capita has been permanently increasing despite the restrictions of social expenditure imposed on the zech economy (data from EORG research Health are System in entral Europe: December 2004).
onclusions. A survey conducted by the EORG in November 2004, 5 months after the accession of the four entral European countries (data from EORG research EU Membership: November 2004) illustrates the positive feelings of Hungarian, zech, Slovakian and Polish citizens regarding the European Union membership of their countries. The rate of agreement with EU membership was generally very high - over 75% in all the four countries - with variations among age groups, gender and occupation, and ranges from 81, 6% in Slovakia to 74, 7% in Hungary of the total number of respondents agreeing with EU membership…
Central European Opinion Research Group. "Personal Trust in Different Categories of Social Institutions. http://www.ceorg-europe.org/
Central European Opinion Research Group. "EU Membership. http://www.ceorg-europe.org/
Gallup International. "Voice of the People 2005: Trends in democracy. www.voice-of-thepeople.net/ContentFiles/files/VoP2005/VOP2005_Democracy%20FINAL.pdf
A reduction in farm subsidies is stated to be necessary in order to improve access to market along with Common Agricultural Policy reforms, which should be "de-linked from production." Finally, stated as a requirement is that of a commitment for a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which may be achieved "through market mechanisms..." (OECD, 2007) the OECD additionally states that structural reforms are required in addressing the challenges that the EU faces and while there is an improvement in terms of the economic prospects of the EU, "there is no room for complacency." (OECD, 2007) the OECD survey relates that the EU has the potential to play a critical role in the provision of solid conditional framework and the ongoing enhancement of the internal market in the EU.
The provision of the single market includes the wider range of goods access for consumers as well as a wider range…
Economic Survey of the European Union (2007) OECD Policy Brief. Sep 2007. Online available at www.oecd.org.
The European Union (2008) Environmental Aspects of Regional Trade Agreements. (2000) United Nations Environment Programme. International Institute for Sustainable Development. Online available at http://www.iisd.org/trade/handbook/7_2.htm
Cini, Michelle (2007) European Union Politics. 2007. Oxford University Press. Online Google Scholar Books at http://books.google.com/books?id=ZZf1839nw0gC&dq=European+Union:+Organizational+impact+on+market+and+trade&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
Organizational Review of European Union
Brexit: The Causes of the British Vote to Leave the European Union
Brexit was the referendum vote that saw the United Kingdom pull out of the European Union. The European Union (EU) is a 29-member state egional Trade Agreement bringing together various European nations. The formation of the union saw the elimination of most barriers to the movement of labor, capital and goods between the member states. It harmonized the laws, rules and standards regarding trade amongst member nations. Most of the member states use the Euro as their currency except for Britain (ies, 2016).
The Brexit referendum had been organized on 23rd June 2016, and the issue in question was whether or not the UK ought to leave the EU. 17.41 of the voters voted for Leave while 16.41 voted for emain. There was a political design to the referendum where the then Prime Minister, David Cameron, hoped that…
Aspaker, A., Denver, D., Garnett, M., Runcimann, D., Barber, S., Lord., C., Wright, N., Todd, J., O'Hara, G., Hertner, I., & Harvey, M. (2016). The Brexit drama and the dawn of a new era. Journal of the British Politics Society, Norway, 11(3), 1-24. Retrieved from http://www.britishpoliticssociety.no/British%20Politics%20Review%2003_2016.pdf
Chu, B. (2016, June 26). Why did people really vote for Brexit? If we don't face the psychological reasons, we'll never bring Britain together. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from Independent: http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/brexit-eu-referendum-why-did-people-vote-leave-immigration-nhs-a7104071.html
Cutts, D. (2016, June 29). Brexit! The Result and Its Implications. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from E-International Relations: http://www.e-ir.info/2016/06/29/brexit-the-result-and-its-implications/
Offe, C. (2016, December 9). Brexit and the Weaknesses of Referenda. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from Global Policy Journal: http://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/09/12/2016/brexit-and-weaknesses-referenda
egional Economy within MECOSU and the European Union
The world has been changing very fast and is having no borders in terms of economies. This is helping people as development in one area is helping people in all areas. This is putting to an end to the belief prevalent in the 19th century that when the interests of individual states were looked after, then the entire society will progress. This is now expected to be covered through mutual cooperation. This quality of mutualism can be seen clearly when the state owned enterprises are being privatized, the streamlining of business is taking place and there being many mergers and acquisitions. The joining up of businesses makes it clear that competition is now a choice that the companies indulge in as and when they desire. The companies are not in a position purely on competition to set the prices that they would…
Diao, Xinshen; Roe, Terry; Somwaru, Agapi. (Spring, 1999) "Which Came First: Growth in Trade or Trade Arrangements?" Retrieved from http://www.extension.umn.edu/newsletters/ageconomist/components/ag237-696b.html Accessed on 7 June, 2005
'EU-Mercosur relations and negotiations" Retrieved from http://europa.eu .int/comm/trade/issues/bilateral/regions/mercosur/index_en.htm
Accessed on 7 June, 2005
"First Meeting of the EU-Mercosur biregional negotiations committee" (6-7 April 2000) Buenos
2010, about the survival of the European Union, the critical issue being the currency crisis with the Union's primary currency, the euro, which has been adopted by many of its members. The crisis manifested in several countries within the Union facing debt crises, largely because of recession, the one exception being Greece which actually managed to spend its way into debt all on its own. These crises were putting pressure on the wealthier countries in the Eurozone -- Germany in particular, to provide financing assistance. While smaller countries like Greece, Ireland and Portugal were struggling, the real fear was that these debt crises would spawn a contagion that would bring own a much larger nation like Spain or Italy, nations that are probably beyond Germany's capability of rescuing (Waterfield & Winnett, 2010).
The financial crisis, especially in Greece, has lurched onward since that point, including the implosion of the Cypriot…
Waterfield, B. & Winnett, R. (2010). EU locked in survival crisis over debt. The Telegraph. Retrieved November 25, 2013 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/ireland/8138586/EU-locked-in-survival-crisis-over-debt.html
egional Integration in European Union
egional integration can be defined as association between states in common geographical area emerging from the need for better economic growth, higher security and other shared interests. While much can be said for the downside of regional integration, it must be understood that regional integration does have its benefits and European Union is seen as the biggest and most successful regional bloc. European Union is the name of on-going regional integration that began in 1952 with six original states choosing to form forces to grow in strength both in economic terms as well as military strength and security (Mattli, 1992). egional integration is believed to emerge only when two conditions are present i.e. demand and supply. It is felt that countries that have something to gain and something to give would want to join a bloc and so far there is hardly any state that…
Walter Mattli, The Logic of Regional Integration: Europe and beyond, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999)
Jaime de Melo and Arvind Panagariya [MP], eds. 1993, New Dimensions in Regional Integration, Cambridge University Press;
It also seems that a regionally integrated market can increase foreign direct investments (FDIs), mainly due to the fact that this will appear as a better regulated market and as a market offering more opportunities than a smaller market. For example, in EU's case, we are talking about a market with almost half a billion consumers and coordinated with unified economic policies from russels. A highly stable market and with good growth potential, this will attract foreign investors. So, as a regionally integrated market, the EU also offers the advantage of a regulated market, with practical approaches that make the market successful.
Other advantages of regional economic integration are particular to specific countries. In the EU, this is the case of less developed countries, such as Greece, Portugal and Spain (at the moment of their adherence) or the countries of Eastern Europe (in the present). The fact that these countries…
1. Regional Integration: Concepts, Advantages, Disadvantages and Lessons of Experience. May 2005. On the Internet at http://www.sarpn.org.za/documents/d0001249/P1416-RI-concepts_May2005.pdf/.Last retrieved on September 15, 2007
2. Bangladesh Country Note. Promoting Regional Integration in South Asia: A Private Sector Perspective. October 2004. The World Bank/International Monetary Fund 2004 Annual Meetings. Washington DC. On the Internet at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTSOUTHASIA/Resources/Bangladesh-Final.pdf.Last retrieved on September 15, 2007
Regional Integration: Concepts, Advantages, Disadvantages and Lessons of Experience. May 2005. On the Internet at http://www.sarpn.org.za/documents/d0001249/P1416-RI-concepts_May2005.pdf/.Last retrieved on September 15, 2007
Bangladesh Country Note. Promoting Regional Integration in South Asia: A Private Sector Perspective. October 2004. The World Bank/International Monetary Fund 2004 Annual Meetings. Washington DC. On the Internet at
Former Soviet Satellites and the European Union
Recent decades have been decades of great change for the nations and peoples of Europe. The est has witnessed the gradual demise of interstate rivalries, the former system of wholly independent states being replaced by an increasingly close union of partner nations. Meanwhile, in the East, these same years saw nearly the whole of Europe from the Baltic to the Black Sea fall under the domination of the Soviet Union. However, with the collapse of communism in the early 1990s, these former Soviet satellites were transformed, almost overnight, into a collection of fledgling democracies. And though the nations of Eastern Europe, at least ostensibly, now share the same political values as their neighbors to the est, their transformation has not been without its problems. Years of Communist rule, has left these countries economically backward and underdeveloped. Yet each of these former Communist nations…
Grabbe, Heather. "Enlargement, Ready or Not?" Guardian Unlimited. 8 December 2002. URL: http://politics.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,9115,855941,00.html .
Gorobets, Alexander. "Russia Wants to See Ukraine Rich and Prosperous - President Putin." Pravda. Trans. Dmitry Sudakov. 14 December 2001. URL: http://english.pravda.ru/cis/2001/12/14/23674.html .
Patten, Chris. "EU's Relations with Ukraine: Overview." Europa, European Commission, European Union in the World. Directorate of International Relations: January, 2002. URL: http://europa.eu .int/comm/external_relations/ukraine/intro/index.htm#top.
Prodi, Romano. "The Final Lap." Commission Press Room, European Parliament. Brussels, 9 October 2002. URL:
However, since its independence in 1905, Norway has worked towards building a strong economic base for its economy, although farmers and farming, too, continue to be strong identities in the nationalistic perception of Norwegians, its fishing industry, oil production and other natural resources. Norway's fishing industry is strong, although the country has some concerns about pollution and environmental issues, they're not strong or serious enough to adversely impact Norway's fishing economy.
First Attempts to Join the EC
At its inception, in 1948, the European Union was known as has the European Community, the EC; that a fully integrated Norway would mean economic enlargement for the EU. It offered attractive benefits to the European nations, and initially those benefits were comprised of a unified security system and economic incentives. One of the most appealing benefits for Norway, certainly appealing to Norway's farmers, is a subsidized farm plan that would generate income…
One of the greatest blows to the European Union has been the vote of one of the Union’s key members, Great Britain, to exit the EU in a measure known as Brexit. The resolution was passed by only a slim majority of the British public. Concerns about the stability of the Union as the United Kingdom begins to make its slow break from the fold were heighted recently, according to John Cassidy’s 2018 article in the New Yorker: “Boris Johnson’s Resignation Can’t Disguise the Harsh Reality of Brexit.” Two critical negotiators for Britain, David Davis, the Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union and Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson, resigned from Prime Minister Theresa May’s cabinet, accusing her of allowing for too many concessions. There are concerns within Britain’s Conservative Party of embarking upon a so-called “soft” Brexit that does not sufficiently extricate Britain from its responsibilities to the European…
The European military policy is based on the activities taking place within military of United States i.e. merger-mania of U.S. defense firms.
But there are three other factors pushing the Europeans for taking concrete measures for pursuing the ESDI. The measures are must to overcome the delays and constraints the Union experiences. The first of the blockade is with reference to the defense spending of European countries. The new NATO Secretary-General estimated that, 'total military spending of European countries is around 60% of the U.S. total, and yields only 10% of the capabilities'. Secondly, European firms are becoming increasingly angry that the U.S. while procuring new weapons and equipment refuses to "buy European military products." Thirdly, European governments are not satisfied with U.S. restrictions 'on the transfer of technology even though the Europeans are investing money in the development of new U.S. built weapons such as the Joint Strike Fighter'…
Lawrence Freedman, "The Coming War on Terrorism" in Lawrence Freedman, ed., Super terrorism (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).
Julian Lindley-French, Terms of Engagement. The paradox of American power and the trans-Atlantic dilemma post-11 September (Paris: EU-ISS, 2002)
Gordon Adams, "Fortress America in a changing trans-Atlantic defense market," in Burkard Schmitt, ed., Between Cooperation and Competition: The Trans-Atlantic Defense Market (Paris, WEU-ISS, 2001)
George Parker, "France and UK call for new force at top of EU," Financial Times, 15 May 2002.
Yet, such measures ignore not only debt, but the impact on economic growth, with rescue measures tied to austerity and tax increases. While Adam Davidson's The Other eason Europe is Going Broke attempts to place Europe's economic crises into a debt component and an economic growth component; the reality is that they are one and the same. European economic growth has lagged the U.S. considerably since the early 1970's largely due to government involvement in the European economic model. Heavy spending on the entitlement state, financed by higher tax rates has sapped economic strength from Europe. For the U.S., the sovereign debt crisis in the EU highlights the dangers of an expanding entitlement state, which weakens economic growth through ever increasing drains on the private sector.
The U.S. economic future will be one of slow growth, as with Japan and Europe, as the U.S. debt to GDP ratio increases.…
Davidson, Adam. "The Other Reason Europe is Going Broke." The New
York Times. The New York Times, January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/08/magazine/the-other-reason-europe-is-going-broke.html?pagewanted=all
Fingleton, Eamonn. "The Myth of Japan's Failure." The New York
Times. The New York Times, January 4, 2012. Retrieved January 11. 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/08/opinion/sunday/the-true-story-of-japans-economic-success.html
In Italy, Mussolini exploited the state of confusion and malaise to seize power. From this cradle, Fascism emerged into the world. In Germany, it morphed into Nazism, a more virulent and transformed fascism feeding upon race mysticism as well as extreme nationalism and dictatorship. Both countries took this highway to the Hell of World War II. During this second installment of Great War, European countries groaned under the Fascist boot heel and fought back under native partisan movements in the underground resistance.
Ironically, the European Federal movement was midwifed by Italian political theorist Alberto Spineless. After the Second World War, the people of Europe wanted human rights, an end to despotism against both and human freedom and dignity.
he Union of European Federalists was formed in December of 1946. In the wake of two world wars, theorists such as Spineless were convinced that Federalism in Europe would save Europe by…
The Union of European Federalists was formed in December of 1946. In the wake of two world wars, theorists such as Spineless were convinced that Federalism in Europe would save Europe by transcending nationalism much as the multinational Resistance had in World War II. In this movement, Communists, Socialists, and Christian Democrats resisted Fascisim in a united front. Spinelli and contemporary E. Rossi wrote the Ventone Manifesto, encouraging a federation of European States to make way for the European Union body. Union of European Federalist concluded that the existing political system could not creatre the new Europe. Federalist advocates thought that Europe integration was a process of building for the politics of a new Europe.
After achieving freedom from the Nazi tyranny, the people of Western Europe developed a consensus that a united Europe was the best way to bring peace and prosperity. Opposition forces like Resistance movement veterans thought they should overcome nationalism. Uniting Europe was the first task in its post war recovery. Federalism provided the theoretical basis of these for this movement. As the result, Federalism plans appeared as a blueprint to prevent future European wars.
The federal ideas were first concretely represented in the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951 in the Treaty of Paris. The ECSC paved the way for the integration of Europe, followed by the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957 and the European Union (EU) of 1993 based upon the Matriarchs Treaty. Transnational organizations now are paving the way for a Europe that will be one state.
While the government may have initial setup costs to bring legislation and services into line with other member states, there are a large variety of benefits in the long-term. These include benefits to the government itself, with increased stability in the economy and overall prosperity. There are also numerous benefits to the individuals within the country, such as the freedom to travel and work within the different countries within the market. There are further benefits to companies as they benefit from increased access to consumers, also benefiting consumers by increasing quality of goods while at the same time lowering prices. It does appear from the information available on the common market at present that while there are likely to be benefits to all in joining it is the poorer members who benefit the most. This is largely due to these countries having the most to gain from the benefits which…
Europe on the Move." European Commission. November 2005. 19 November 2007. .
Kenen, Peter B. The International Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Prodi, Romano. "A Wider Europe: A proximity policy as the key to stability." Sixth ECSA World Conference. 5 December 2002. European Commission. 19 November 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/news/prodi/sp02_619.htm .
Schimmelfenig, Frank, Stefan Engert and Heiko Knobel. The Europeanization of Central and Eastern Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.
For example, the EP has the right to bring an action for failure to act, and can also take action to have the ECJ review acts of the Council or the Commission.
Despite those protections, the ECJ determined that the legal remedies provided for in the Euratom Treaty and EEC treaty might be ineffective or uncertain.
For example, an action for failure to act cannot be used to challenge a measure that has already been adopted.
In addition, though the EP has the right to seek a preliminary ruling on the validity of such an action, such a ruling does not mean that anyone will actually bring an action for annulment.
In fact, even though the Commission is required to respect the EP's prerogatives, it is not obliged to adopt the EP's positions as its own.
As a result, the ECJ concluded that the legal remedies available to the EP…
"Article 230." Treaty of Nice. 2000. University College Cork. 25 Aug. 2009
Case 70/88, European Parliament v. Council of Ministers, Judgment of the ECJ of 22 March
1990, European Court Reports 1990, p. I-2041.
Thus, despite the high per-capita incomes in Scandinavia, consumers are value-conscious. Unlike Germany, Scandinavians are willing to pay more for wine, and recognize quality differences.
Like Scandinavia, the Netherlands is open to wine imports. With historical connections to Spain and Portugal, and without alliances with Italy or France, Dutch wine drinkers are friendly to imports and to the Spanish character found in Chilean wines. Like Scandinavians, the Dutch have high per-capita incomes are willing to spend for super-premium wines. They are unwilling to 'overpay' for quality, however, and are likely to compare the quality of an 8 pound Chilean wine to similarly-priced products from Australia, the U.S. And other major wine exporting countries.
Chilean Wine Promotion in Europe
Chile is not alone in wanting to increase wine exports to Europe. Australia and the United States have developed significant market share and see growing exports to European markets. The Wine…
Alcyon. "China and Chile Sign Wine Agreement." Wine Marketing. 2007. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:Tk-70Aey3zEJ:winemarketing.blogs.com/wine_marketing/veille/page/2/+chile+wine+marketing+europe&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us (Accessed November 24, 2007).
Anderson, K. The World's Wine Markets: Globalization at Work. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2004.
Anderson, K. "Wine's New World." Foreign Policy, 2003: 47-59.
BeverageDaily. "World wine sales go from strength to strength." Beverage Daily, March 13, 2003: n.p.
" During the third and final stage, the European Central bank would be in operation. According to the agreement, this was to occur no later than 1999 and for three years thereafter Euro coins and banknotes would be issued (Eichengreen and Frieden).
By 2002, the Euro had been implemented as the single currency for member states. However, the implementation and consequent use of the Euro appeared to be a bit rocky. According to an article found in the journal Challenge, the value of the Euro had fallen slightly. The author blamed this fall on the central bank and its efforts to shore up the Euro (Bibow). The author contends that this unrelenting support stifled economic growth. According to the article
Between the start of 1999 and October 2000 the euro lost some 20% of its initial external value (even 30% vis-a-vis the U.S. dollar). After a brief rebound toward the…
European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the euro. Included is a critical assessment of the sources used.
All of the sources used for this report were well written, concise, and understandable. The European Union and the Euro are difficult topics to understand on a first reading, but the authors had a real understanding of their topics, and explained the issues clearly.
For example, Taylor gives the background that makes the forming of the European Union more understandable. "This Summit produced a communique which supported the idea of European Union by 1980, and proposed a great push towards a European Great Society, illustrated by the efforts made to push the European social programme forward at that time, which no member government opposed" (Taylor 10).
The subject could be considered dry, but Taylor gives it life, making his book interesting to read, and right to the point. He writes with authority,…
Barclays Capital. "Barclays Capital says new Poll Showing Depth of Opposition to Euro Suggests Gilts to Decouple from European Bonds." 30 Nov. 2001. 6 Dec. 2001. http://www.barcap.com/cgi-bin/pressreleases/public/newsView2.pl?item=2001113001
Bartlett, Patrick. "Problems' Threaten Euro Launch." BBC News. 4 Dec. 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_1691000/1691635.stm
Euro Web Site. "Questions & Answers on the Euro and European Economic and Monetary Union." 9 Sept. 1998. 5 Dec. 2001. http://europa.eu .int/euro/quest/
Europe Yes, Euro No! "Opposition to Euro Remains at Record Levels - Six Cut of Ten Labour Voters Say No." 3 Sept. 2000. 6 Dec. 2001. http://www.no-euro.com/release.cfm?IDNO=8Feld,Werner J. The Integration of the European Union and Domestic Political Issues. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.
European Federalism: Historical Analysis
Fascism is considered to be a political belief and concept, which is based on the principle that social, economic and cultural and traditional beliefs of a country must be used in order to increase nationalism. In Europe, fascist movements had emerged in twentieth century. The goal of these fascist movements was to promote fundamentalist and fanatic beliefs in order to deal with the social and political turmoil that occurred in the European region after the end of World War I. Federalism is considered to be the theory, which is based on the principles of federation, which seeks to create a balance of power by dividing it among the member of the same institution. The aim of this paper is to historically analyze the rise of European Union from 1918 to the end of World War II in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore,…
1. Boka Eva (2005): The Democratic European Idea in Central Europe, 1849-1945 (Federalism contra Nationalism) Specimina Nova, University of Pecs,2005. 7-24
2. Boka Eva (2006): In Search of European federalism. Society and Economy (The Journal of the Corvinus University of Budapest), 28. 2006. 3. 309-331.
3. Levi, Lucio (ed.) (1990): Altiero Spinelli and Federalism in Europe and in the World. Franco Angeli, Milan
4. Lindberg, Leon (1963): The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration. Stanford University Press
European Parliament, Democratic Legitimacy and the EU
The EU has three legislative aspects—the supranational aspect (the Commission), the intergovernmental aspect (the European Council and the Council of the EU), and the parliamentary aspects (the EP). Yet, only one of these bodies is directly elected in a democratic fashion (the EP), which means that the overwhelming majority of the EU’s legislative totality is specifically non-democratic in character. In other words, the only way the people of Europe can directly and democratically influence the shaping of EU policy is through the EP. This is undoubtedly why, as Ronald Holzhacker points out, “scholars, politicians and the public have bemoaned a lack of democratic legitimacy in the European Union (EU) for decades.”[footnoteRef:2] [2: Ronald Holzhacker, "Democratic legitimacy and the European Union." European Integration 29, no. 3 (2007), 257.]
The Central Question
The question this essay aims to answer is: To what extent does the…
Would a united police or military force for the EU be an effective tool for combating terrorism?
Terrorism continues to be a highly pervasive threat to only the developed economies, but to the world overall. For one, as technology continues to advance, the ability for terrorists to procure and utilize deadly weapons also increases? In addition, the diverse array of terrorism has grown in recent years as chemical weapons and cyber security becomes more prevalent. Finally, the ability to detect attacks has become much more difficult as culprits can now attack from anywhere in the world due to technology innovations. All of these elements create a horrifying future for those looking to guard against terrorist attacks. One way to effectively do so, is through collaboration. By united various forces within the developed world the ability to detect terrorist activity is greatly increased. This is primarily attributable to much more data,…
1. Ackerman, Gary A, and Lauren E. Pinson. “An Army of One: Assessing CBRN Pursuit and Use by Lone Wolves and Autonomous Cells.” Terrorism and Political Violence 26, no. 1 (January-March 2014): 226-245. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2014.849945
2. Antinori, Arije. “From the Islamic State to the ‘Islamic State of Mind’: The Evolution of the ‘Jihadisphere’ and the Rise of the Lone Jihad.” European Police Science and Research Bulletin Issue 16 (Summer 2017): 47-55 https://bulletin.cepol.europa.eu/index.php/bulletin/article/view/241/206
Organized Crime: A Contested Concept
The presence of organized crime in modern society is not as a cut and dry concept as most people would intuitively think. Take for example the existence of prostitution in virtually every society that has existed throughout the course of humanity. Although it is clear that this practice falls outside the realm of what is considered to be acceptable by the majority, many of the practitioners of this trade are actually grateful that they have the opportunity, the clients are obviously satisfied or else the demand for such services would not exist in the first place, and there is, in most cases, no one that is actually harmed in the process (at least directly). Therefore, whether organized or not, where does the actual criminality for such practices come into play? Is it because some people and/or groups believe it fall outside their limits of moral…
But when it just recently occurred in 2004 at a store in Jonquiere, British Columbia, the reader must appreciate that a real battle had been won. The original efforts of that particular store for example had the local labor Commission reject certification by a margin of 74 to 65. When the union announced that it won the coveted certification at Quebec, it was quite a blow to the retailer. The Quebec Labour elations Commission issued the order certifying the United Food and Commercial Workers Union (UFCW) as the bargaining agent of employees in Wal-Mart's store in Jonquiere. As noted, the reason a victory of this magnitude is huge is because of the policies and tactics used by Wal-Mart. The retailer works diligently to prevent its workforce from engaging in any collective action and they have consistently shown that they are willing to cross the line to guarantee their position.
Baek, Seung Wook. (2000.) "The Changing Trade Unions in China." Journal of Contemporary Asia: March.
Budd, John W. (1994). "The Effect of Multinational Institutions on Strike Activity in Canada." Industrial and Labor Relations Review.
Corbett, Brian (2002). "Southern hospitality." Ward's Auto World, August.
Delsohn, Gary. (1997.) "UPS Strike May Revive American Labor Movement." Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News: Sept.
After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.
When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:
EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.
However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…
Anderson, Paul, "Why Did the Spanish Civil War Start in July 1936?" History Review 48(2004), 36-40.
Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Revolution: The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.
Kousoulas, Dimitrios G. The Price of Freedom: Greece in World Affairs, 1939?1953. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1953.
Smith, Howard K. The State of Europe. New York: Knopf, 1949.
Neo-Functionalism the European Model
The concept of neo-functionalism originated in the 1950s after the Second World War. During that time, the world was witnessing an emerging pattern of regional integration that saw countries especially in Europe and Latin America eliminate trade barriers in a bid to form regional economic blocks. Neo-functionalism, widely considered as a theory, is synonymous with western European integration. It is thought that the proponents of European integration adopted this theory as their main integration strategy. According to Rosamond (2000), neo-functionalism was triggered by the interactive activity among the original six member states (p. 10). On the other hand, Eilstrup-Sangiovanni (2006), asserts that neo-functionalism was as a result of the behaviorist turn in American social science that were centered on institutional forms, behavior and the integration process (p. 89). He however notes that neo-functionalism failed to describe the integration process during the 1965 empty chair crisis because…
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Commission of the European Communities. (1983). Treaties Establishing the European Communities. uxembourg: Office of Official Publications of the European Community.
Eilstrup-Sangiovanni, M. (2006). Debates on European Integration. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.
Goldstein, W. (1993). Europe After Maastricht. Foreign Affairs, 117-32.
This is exactly the case with the European Union; a European-Union-Member-State that fails to pay on its public arrears will cause weakening of capital amidst its financers. The danger that this financial catastrophe will extend towards the remaining Euro-Area would position the ECB under immense stress to help and rescue the dissolute Member-State, despite the fact that this move may undermine Euro-Area value in the progression (Eichengreen and Wyplosz, 1998). As long as private agents consider that ECB would give way to this stress and as long as Member States keep the right to act in a dissolute way, the central bank will eventually require reliability. Once more, most of this reasoning is also relevant to numerous supply-side procedures; for instance, the viewpoint of inflationary earnings settlements. Salaries negotiating that drive the curve externally will, perhaps, produce pressures for the central bank to assist the ensuing inflation to keep away…
Agell J., Calmfors, L. And Jonsson, G. (1996), 'Fiscal policy when monetary policy is tied to the mast', European Economic Review, 40, pp. 1413-40.
Aizenman, J. (1994), 'On the need for fiscal discipline in an union', National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper W4656.
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Allsopp, C. And Vines, D. (1996), 'Fiscal policy and EMU', National Institute Economic Review, 158, pp. 91-107.
To wit, "half of Americans deem religion very important in their lives; fewer than a quarter in Spain (22%) feel this way, and in Germany (21%), Britain (17%) and France (13%), even fewer say religion is "very important" to their lives (PE).
Fifty-three percent of Americans are more apt to agree that it is vital to believe in God prior to having good morals and values while just 33% of Germans, 20% of the British, 19% of Spaniards and 15% of those in France agree with that statement. omen and the elderly are more apt to agree that God is indeed the "necessary foundation for morality and good values" (PE). Fifty-nine percent of American women say religion is "very important" to them but only 41% of American men agree with that statement (PE).
Meanwhile, in the Journal of Beliefs and Values (illiams, et al., 2009) the authors point out that…
Adams, James, and Ezrow, Lawrence. (2009). Who Do European Parties Represent? How
Western European Parties Represent the Policy Preferences of Opinion Leaders. The Journal
of Politics, 71(1), 206-223.
Bernstein, Elizabeth, and Jakobsen, Janet R. (2010). Sex, Secularism and Religious Influence
The eurozone package is politically more complicated. it's designed to show that 16 nations sharing the euro currency will stand united behind the debts of member nations to stave off a potential crisis of confidence that could damage them all." (Trumbull, 1)
This complexity is underscored by the inherently questionable imperatives of the European Monetary Union. Indeed, one of the core challenges of free trade, globalization and the establishment of intra-continental unions is the inherent difficulty in facing up the inherent incongruity of the aligning markets. The European Union has served as a prime example of this, matching a widely varied set of nations in a single economic pact. The result is that in many contexts, visible distinctions remain even as economic policy is set with the collective in consideration. These distinctions are not necessarily irreconcilable, but under the current structure of the European Monetary Union, they most certainly are.…
Baetz, J. (2010). Merkel: $1 Trillion Rescue Package Only Buys Time. Atlanta Journal -- Constitution. Online at http://www.ajc.com/business/merkel-1-trillion-rescue-528257.html
Bilefsky, D. (2010). Greece's Stumble Follows a Headlong Rush Into the Euro. The New York Times.
Brouwer, K. (2010). Is it the Euro or the Yugo? MarketWatch.
Greek Embassy. (2007). Greece in the E.U. Embassy of Greece; Washington, D.C.
New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination: European Perspective
The beginning of the European Union was with the coalition of six nations (namely France, Germany, Italia, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) who entered into a treaty back in the year 1951 to determine the ECU Coal and Steel Community. The next signed treaty was in the year 1957 to determine the ECU Economic Community. The Coal and Steel Community were also built with a firmer incentive to improve political stance as oppoed to the economic goals: to attain a peace settlement mainly between the countries of France and Germany. The treaty creating the ECU Economic Community was more motivated towards the achievement of the economic objectives, on the other hand, but had strong political stance as well. It basically aimed to determine a typical or single market by which goods, capital, services, amongst other things could move freely inside the European…
Begg, Iain et al., 2001, Social Exclusion and Social Protection in the European Union: Policy Issues and Proposals for the Future Role of the EU, South Bank University Working Paper, http://www.sbu.ac.uk/euroinst/policyreport.pdf
Ben-Gera, M. (2009). Coordination at the centre of government for better policy making. Conference Paper for Conference on Public Administration Reform and European Integration. SIGMA.
Biagi, Marco, 2000: -- The Impact of European Employement Strategy on the Role of Labour Law and Industrial Relations --, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 16, No. 2, Summer 2000, 155-73
Browne, Matthew, 2003: -- La methode ouverte de coordination et la Strategie europeenne pour l'emploi: Modele ou faux-semblant ? -- in Renaud Dehousse (ed.), L'Europe sans Bruxelles ? (forthcoming)
Role of Labor Unions in Industrial Relations
In their definition, labor unions have always been known as organizations that have always aimed at getting their members both financial and non-financial benefits. The role of labor unions is however bigger than that and they have been known to aid in helping employers improve the productivity and discipline of their workers. Labor unions respond to issues differently. This is explained by the differences in industrial relations contexts and also policies of different states as well as strategies of the various employers around the country.
Employees come together to form a labor union to achieve a common goal. Labor unions have several goals. Some of the goals include agitating for higher retirement benefits as well as other benefits for its members. They also seek to increase the number of workers assigned for specific job tasks. They ensure that employees work under good and…
Baglioni, G. And C. Crouch (eds.) (1990) European Industrial Relations. The Challenge of Flexibility (London: Sage).
Barrow, C. (2013). Industrial Relations Law. New York: Routledge.
Blanpain, R. (2007). Decentralizing Industrial Relations and the Role of Labor Unions and Employee Representatives. New York: Kluwer Law International.
Blanpain, R., & Baker, J. (2010).Comparative Labor Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. New York: Kluwer Law International.