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"Creational critics often charge that evolution cannot be tested, and therefore cannot be viewed as properly scientific subject at all. This claim is rhetorical nonsense" (Stephen Jay Gould).
Human life is both sacred and mysterious. From time before recorded history, human beings, both scientific and religious have tried to determine what it is exactly that gives life and by extension, can take life away. In ancient times, most people believed that some great unknown deity who controlled all the aspects of life. ith the advent of scientific inquiry and investigation, people have tried to apply empirical research and evidence to the question of human existence. Since the concept of human evolution was first proposed, many people were strongly opposed to the very idea that human beings and primates were descended from a common ancestor. Even today in this supposedly enlightened and scientific time, there are still large amounts of…
Dobzhanksy, Theodosius. "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution."
The American Biology Teacher. The National Association of Biology Teachers. 35:3. 1973. 125-129.
Hecht, Jeff. "Chimps are Human, Gene Study Implies." New Scientist. 2003. Print.
Humes, Edward. "Unintelligent Designs on Darwin." Trib Live. Trib Total Media. 2012. Print.
What is evolutionary theory and what are causes of evolution and the evidence of evolution?
The term 'evolution' evokes varied connotations. In simple and direct terms it is a process of change or development over a long period of time. Defined so, evolution can refer to any phenomena-- evolution of universe, evolution of human culture etc. -- that change over a period of time. However, in common parlance, evolution refers to biologic or organic evolution, which is the formation and development of life on earth. iological evolution is "an unpredictable and natural process of temporal descent with genetic modification that is affected by natural selection, chance, historical contingencies and changing environments." (NAT, 1997) It is the change in genetics of a population over time.
Theory of Evolution:
The first scientific studies on evolution were conducted in the 1700s by two French biologists - Comte de uffon and aron Cuvier…
Dobzhansky Theodosius "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution," American Biology Teacher vol. 35 March, 1973
Evolution," Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia available at www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution- Wikipedia.htm
Mueller, L.D., Joshi, A. & Borash, D.J. "Does population stability evolve?" Ecology 81, 2000-1273-1285.
Neil A. Campbell, Biology 2nd ed., Benjamin/Cummings, 1990, p. 434
Evolution vs. Creationism
iological evolution or evolutionary biology is genetic change in a population occurring from generation to another (O'Neill 2002). All life forms evolve and continue evolving from earlier species, and these life forms include human beings. Most biological scientists concur that the earliest life forms on earth evolved from chance natural occurrences 3 1/5 to 4 billion years ago. They agree that evidence for evolution comes from fossil records of change, the chemical and structural similarities of related life forms, the recorded genetic changes in living organisms for many generations (O'Neill) and the geographic distribution of these related species.
Fossil remains of animals and plants in sedimentary rock deposit prove and serve as records of past changes that occur through time and of the numerous varieties of living things. They also suggest that gaps or missing links in evolution are due only to lack of recorded data (O'Neill).…
1. Bakke, Mark. Philosophy/Evolution vs. Creationism. EarthLink Network.
Philosophy of Life. (accessed 28-02-03). http://home.earthlink.net/~mbakke1/evolcrea.htm
2. Cable News Network. Evolutionary Biologist Don Waller on Creationism vs. Evolution in Schools. CNN.com LP, LLP: AOL Time Warner Company, 2003
3. O'Neill, Dennis. Early Theories of Evolution: Evidence of Evolution.
Countless fossils and remnants of ancient limbs (such as the legs found on a dolphin recently) continue to back up the theory of how animals evolved from other forms of life and other kinds of bodies. For instance, whales and dolphins (proven by DNA to be related) have the vestiges of legs within their sleek bodies and their front "fins" have bones that correspond to human hands, rather than fish fins. They have been traced from an ungulate that evolved on land, then returned to the sea and adapted to that environment. Of course this took millions of years, but the bones and fossils of ancient whales back up this long history (Whitehead, 2003).
Creationism is the view that rejects scientific theories that contradict the stories of those events that are expressed in the Bible. Bishop Samuel Wilberforce of Oxford, in the 1880's, found the idea of human beings being…
Darwinism," (2004). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford, CA. Stanford University Press.
Darwin, C. (1962). The Origin of the Species, New York: Modern Library,
Futuyma, D.J. (1982). Science on Trial: The Case for Evolution, New York: Pantheon Books.
Fox, M. (2006). The A.W.E. Project: Reinventing Education, Reinventing the Human. New York: Copperhouse Publishing.
In conclusion, perhaps we should heed the words of Charles Darwin himself who before his historic voyage aboard the H.M.S. eagle between 1831 and 1836 was a devout Christian and creationist -- "There is a grandeur in this view of life. Whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been and are being evolved" (on the Origin of Species, Internet). With this, it is abundantly clear that Darwin, the former creationist, was thoroughly convinced after his voyages that evolution is a fact of life which makes ID redundant and meaningless. ut perhaps Darwin knew something which we continue to fail to understand -- that nature itself is the ultimate designer, unknown unto itself but ever present, the quintessential intelligence without shape, form or preconceived notions of design.
ehe, Michael J.…
Behe, Michael J. "Design for Living." New York Times. February 7, 2005. Internet.
Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/
Darwin, Charles. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. 2008. Internet.
For one, the researcher discovered that there was a structure called Meckel's cartilage that was present between the incus, or anvil bone, of the middle ear and the lower jawbone of Yanoconodon. hy is this so important? ell, coincidentally, in the developing human embryo the lower mandible transforms and produces the bones of the middle ear. As the embryo further evolves, the identical Meckel's cartilage is produced as the bones migrate from the jaw to the middle ear. Afterwards the cartilage is dissolved into fibrous membranes and becomes part of the jawbone again and dissapears. This is the first time the presence of Meckel's cartilage was found in a fully developed mammal. This also adds some credence to an old saying "ontogeny capitulates phylogeny," or in English the stages in the development of the embryo mirrors the evolutionary stages in the development of the species. hile intriguing and also not…
Luo, Z., Chen, P., Li, G., Chen, G. & Chen, M. "A New Eutriconodont Mammal and Evolutionary Development in Early Mammals." Nature, (2007) Vol 446; 288-293
The genes that are responsible for giving the feelings of happiness are so designed to limit the pleasurable experience to be of a short-lived nature. Therefore, happiness derived from actions is never of a permanent nature and consequently the feelings of satisfaction are also temporary. The transient nature of the pleasure implies that man would endeavor to achieve it again and again. (as in sex). Also happiness is not only limited to food and copulation. Things such as the well-being of our children, our own social esteem, are also factors that bring happiness.
To quote from the Ecclestiases "All human toil is for the mouth, and yet the appetite is not satisfied." In this scheme of things designed by nature, people are continuously attracted by a plethora of things and propelled into action, which they feel would give them that ultimate happiness. ut, all through their existence, people don't realize…
1) Robert Wright, "Dancing to Evolution's Tune," 'Time', January 7, 2005
2) Bruno Dubuc, "The Brain from Top to Bottom: The Role of Dopamine," Accessed on 11th February 2005, http://www.thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_03/d_03_m/d_03_m_que/d_03_m_que.html
3) Keith E. Stanovich, "The Robots rebellion: Finding Meaning in the Age of Darvin," Accessed on 11th February 2005, http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/770893.html
The combination of this information, however, forms a firm foundation for scientific research.
Archeology has long been a laboratory for evolutionary studies and the field of physical anthropology has relied heavily upon archeology for documenting much of its research into the lifestyles of the ancient people that they have investigated. With the advent of DNA technology, anthropologists have been able to use the archeological specimens to trace the domestication of animals and plants and scientific conclusions have been able to be drawn that would not have been available but for the DNA technology. Because physical anthropology is heavily dependent on the biological evolution of the human and primate species the contributions of archeology to this study are invaluable. In fact, there is some modern thought that archeology is actually losing its distinctiveness as a separate field of study and is slowly, but surely, merging into the field of anthropology. egardless…
Fahlander, F. (2004). Archaeology and Anthropology: Brothers in Arms? - on Analogies in 21st Century. In F.F. (editor), Material Culture and Other Things-Post Disciplinary Studies in 21st Century (pp. 185-211). Gothenburg: Gotarc.
Jurmain, R. (2008). Essentials of Physical Anthropology. Beverly, MA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Kaestle, F.A. (2002). Ancient DNA in anthropolgoy: Methods, applications, and ethics. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 92-120.
Royal Anthropological Institute. (n.d.). Discover Anthropology. Retrieved January 22, 2012, from Discover Anthropology: http://www.discoveranthropology.org.uk/
Evolution of CM with Timeline
70's -80's; mainly a product centric era but the evolution of the customer relationship management started taking place.
90's; the CM started becoming popular among the organizations.
21st century; advent of e-CM and CM is considered one of the most important tools in the success of a business.
Important milestones in the evolution of the CM
In the early 90's, after the evolution of the CM in the 70's and 80's, a lot of organizations stared to go back to the way the businesses were carried out in the pre-industrialized era, i.e. On the basis of the strong and direct relationships with the customers.
The introduction of internet also played a very important role in the popularity of the CM among the organizations as with the advent of internet and the trend of deregulation the competition increased a lot and the organizations realized…
Khera, M. (2010). The Evolution of CRM & The Challenges of Personalized E-Support. Maaya Corporation
Sheth, J.N., and Parvatiyar, A. (1995). "The Evolution of Relationship Marketing," International Business Review, 4(4), 397-418.
Thomas, J.C., Kellogg, W.A & Erickson, T. (2001) "The Knowledge Management Puzzle: Human Factors and Knowledge Management." IBM System Journal. Vol. 40 No. 4.
Webster, F.E. Jr. (1992) "The Changing Role of Marketing in the Corporation," Journal of Marketing 56(4), 1-17.
"Arthurian female heroes, contrariwise, exist (at least for a time) as active helpers to male heroes, but always in the service of the patriarchal culture the hero upholds" (Fries, 3). One could argue that since this universe is thus so narrow for women, that embodying these counter-hero roles is actually the one way in which women can become empowered. Since autonomy and self-determination does not so strongly exist for women this fictional realm, and that they often function as a means of reflecting or mirroring the desires and goals of the greater male hero that the only way for these women to manifest desires and goals of their own is by attacking the already established values and structure.
While Fries strongly attributes this narrowing and general one-dimensionality of the female figure in Arthurian literature, to the sheer inability of male authors of the period to imagine anything else, and this…
Reference Library, 1996. Print.
Fries, M. "The Lady to the Tramp: The Decline of Morgan le Fay in Medieval Romance." Arthuriana (1994): 1-18. Print.
Fries, M. "Gender and the Grail." Arthuriana (1998): 67-79. Print. .
Fulton, H. "A Woman's Place: Guinevere in the Welsh and French Romances." Quondam et Futurus (1993): 1-25. Print.
Goodrich, P.H. "The Erotic Merlin ." Arthuriana (2000): 94-115. Print.
Evolution of Cognitive Psychology
A discipline in the field of psychology, cognitive psychology examines the way people process information. This field achieves this goal by examining how humans treat information that they receive through stimuli and how their treatment of information contributes to certain responses. Therefore, the professionals in this field generally study people's internal processes like perception, language, attention, thinking, and memory. Cognitive psychology is based on the concept that understanding the internal process of individuals' minds is crucial to understanding their responses and actions. As a result, this discipline of psychology basically emphasizes on the person and his/her natural environment.
One of the foundational concepts in cognitive psychology discipline is cognition, whose literal meaning is described as knowing. Cognition refers to people's mental processes like attention, memory, thinking, decision making, solving problems, and understanding language. While the term is also used in other branches of psychology like…
Braisby, N. & Gellatly, A. (n.d.). Chapter 1 -- Foundations of Cognitive Psychology. Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199273768/ch01.pdf
McLeod, S. (2007). Cognitive Psychology. Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive.html
Evolution of Electronic and Consumer Shopping
Through time there has been a lot of technological advancement. The changes in technology have had an impact on virtually all aspects of our daily lives. Just look around and you can see evidence of how wired we all are. Thanks to the internet anything one wants can be delivered at their door step in matter or hours or days. The changes in technology have made it easy for everyone's day-to-day lives. Technology has changed how we run our day-to-day lives such as education, healthcare, social life, leisure activities and even the working environment. Technology has helped in doing things faster and also improved how people interact with each other for instance through the internet, mobile phones, video conferencing, portable computers and so on (Hill,2012). The paper will look at how the evolution of electronic technologies has changed an d impacted consumer retail shopping…
Wee, H.(2013). How mobile technology is revolutionizing in-store shopping. Retrieved November 20,2013 from http://www.cnbc.com/id/100377473
ABC Trick.(2013).How Technology has Changed How Consumers Shop and What's Next. Retrieved November 20, 2013 from http://www.abctrick.net/2012/03/how-technology-has-changed-how.html
White, A.(2010).Technology Advances in Retail. Retrieved November 20,2013 from http://www.arubanetworks.com/pdf/technology/whitepapers/wp_Retail_advances.pdf
Hill, M.(2012). How RFID Technology is Revolutionizing the Consumer Shopping Experience . Retrieved November 20,2013 from http://www.retailtouchpoints.com/executive-viewpoints/1711-how-rfid-technology-is-revolutionizing-the-consumer-shopping-experience -
Evolution of Management
There are many contributors to the field of management creating different management styles and theories. The major contributors to management thought are Frederick Taylor with the scientific management, as described in "Shop Management 1903," "Principles of Scientific Management, 1911" (Koontz & Weihrich, 2006). This thought believes that the main concern for management is the increment of productivity and pay for employees, by applying scientific methods. The theory emphasizes on the use of science, creation of harmony and cooperation in groups, realizing maximum output, and improving workers. This management thought has other contributors like Henry Gantt (1901) who proposes harmony and cooperation between management and employees (Koontz & Weihrich, 2006). In addition, are Frank Gillbreth (1900) pioneered the time and motion studies, while Lillian Gillbreth focused on human aspects in work, human needs, and personalities.
The second group of thought is the modern operational management theory postulated by…
Daft, R.L. & Lane, P. (2009). Management. 9th ed. Mason; South-Western, Cengage Learning.
Koontz, H. & Weihrich, H. (2006). Essentials of Management. New Delhi; Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Lunenburg, F.C. & Ornstein, A.C. (2011). Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices. Mason; South-Western Cengage Learning.
Northouse, P.G. (2012). Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, California; Sage Publications, Inc.
Evolution of Image Identity in Spanish Films From 1970s to Present
The Spirit of the Beehive
The movie mainly dwells around a little girl Ana who is fascinated with Frankenstein, a 1931 American horror film. Besides the movie highlights her family life and schooling and has been tagged the bewitching portrait of a child's haunted inner life (Erice, 1973). This film is portrays the effect of the Spanish civil war that disintegrated families leaving behind a divided society. This film was shot in 1973 when the regime's iron rule was diminishing and contains symbolism and subtlety depicting the Spanish community after and before the war.
From the film, disintegration of Ana's family's emotional life is a representation of Spaniards during the civil war. Additionally, the barren empty landscape around the sheepfold portrays Spain's isolation from the rest of the continent during the first years of Franco's regime. The film further…
Camus, M. (Director). (1984). The Holy Innocents [Motion Picture].
Erice, V. (Director). (1973). The Spirit of the Beehive; El espiritu de la colmena [Motion Picture].
Zambrano, B. (Director). (1998). Solas [Motion Picture].
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Affect Learning From Lectures?" Applied Cognitive Pscyhology. 23(6): 747-59.
Chomsky, N. (1967). "A eview of B.F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior." eadings in the Pscyhology of Language. Cited in:
Goldstein, B. (2007). Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, esearch, and Everyday
Green, M.. And A. Oliva. (2009). "ecognition of Natural Scenes From Global
Properties: Seeing the Forest Without epresenting the Trees." Cognitive
Psychology. 58(2): 137-76.
Hayes, S. et.al., eds.. (2001). elational Frame Theory: A Post-Skinnerian
Account of Human Language and Cognition. Springer.
Neisser, U. And I. Hyman. (1999). Memory Observed: emembering in Natural
Context, 2nd ed.s. Worth Publishers.
eed, S. (2009). Cognition: Theory and Applications. Wadsworth.
hodes, M. And S. Gelman. (2009). "A Developmental Examination…
"About WordNet." (2009). Princeton University Online. Cited in:
Balota, D. And E. Marsh, eds. (2004). Cognitive Psychology: Key Readings .Psychology
This provided the context for an extreme diversification of fish across the world.
Within the evolution of the jaw, there are general patterns of predatory and defense mechanisms, as well as the construct of the armor of modern fish. With the evolution of jaws in fish, there was much less of a need for body armor for protection. ather, the fish stepped out of the prey position and into a predatory one with the advantages of the jaws. Thus, they came to have less predators themselves, and so less of a need for protection armor. Many early fish, such as the Coccosteus, which was serves as an evolutionary bridge between the fully armored fish of prehistoric times to the modern sleek and armor less fish of today, (Benton & Harper 2009). Also, their jaws served as a protection measure in themselves, which also helped reduce the level of external armor…
Benton, Michael J. & Harper, David a. (2009). Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record. 1st ed. Wiley-Blackwell.
Kagle, Rebecca. (1997). The evolutionary steps of fish. Serendip. Retrieved October 26, 2009 at http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/1904
Strickgerger, Monroe W. (2000). Evolution. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
They performed in the battle very well and made them known throughout countries.
The attle of Amiens (1918)
In 1917, the Canadians form a group of soldiers fighting on the Western Front and became the attack troop of the ritish Army. Microsoft Encarta Reference Library stated that "Many Canadians -- including William "illy" ishop, Raymond Collishaw, William aker, and Don MacLaren -- were among the war's top fighter aces." Soon, with their previous attacks they were able to reconstruct their forces to prepare for the next war. The attle of Amiens started August 8, 1918. The Germans knew about the front of the ritish troop which was the Canadians and the Australians. Around Amiens, the Canadian Forces assembled and planned for the attack to the Germans, they went even far to the south of Kemmel to attack the target and studied the terrain by wearing the brand of Australians soldiery.…
Cruise, B. Evolution of the Canadian Military: The Boer War, Vimy Ridge and Dieppe [online] Available at http://www.friends-amis.org/essay2_e.html;Internet; accessed 8 November 2005.
Halsey, M. The Boer War [online]. Available at http://www.pvhs.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/scramble/boer_war.htm;Internet; accessed 8 November 2005.
Ice, T. The Boer War: South Africa, 1899-1902 [online]. Available at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/8141/boerwar.html;Internet; accessed 8 November 2005.
Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2005. Boer War. 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation.
Evolution is the Process by which organisms change over successive generations through the inheritance of new traits. During sexual reproduction, a complete set of DNA is donated from each parent organism. These two complete sets of DNA then mix together to create an entirely new set, discarding the remaining, giving rise to a new organism with a completely independent set of DNA. During the process, minor changes can occur in the makeup of the DNA, called mutations. These changes are the result of randomness, or chance mistakes which just happen to occur. Sometimes these mutations cause new traits to appear in the particular organism. If a new trait assists the organism in it's survival, then the organism will survive longer, reproduce more, and pass this particular trait along to more offspring. This is called "Natural Selection," it is nature selecting for the best new traits through survival. Sometimes new traits…
Driscoll, Carlos. (2009) The Evolution of House Cats. Scientific American. Retrieved from Science News, Articles and Information| Scientific American.
Honeycutt, Rodney, (2010). Unraveling the Mysteries of Dog Evolution. BMC Biology, 8 (20), Retrieved from Academic Onefile.
Morey, Davcey. (1994). The Early Evolution of the Domesticated Dog. American Scientist, 82 (4), Retrieved from Academic Onefile.
Vila C, et al., (1997). Multiple and Ancient Origins of the Domesticated Dog. Science 276, 1687-89, Retrieved from Academic Onefile.
I dislike you the worst of anybody in the world except John Reed" (Bronte 34). In this scene, we see Jane refuse to say or do something in exchange for something called love. She even decides to leave Rochester when she finds out about Bertha. She walks away from love because she does not want to think she settled for something.
Another novel that explores the evolution of self is Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. Austen uses Elizabeth's growth process to make her points about society. Elizabeth becomes an excellent case study because she learns from her mistakes and becomes healthier person by the end of the novel. She learns from the mistake she made with ickham and this revelation allows her to move into a relationship that she will treasure for the rest of her life. She and Darcy both must learn to get over their first impressions…
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Bantam Books. 1981.
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. New York: Scholastic Books. 1962.
Keats, John. "Ode to a Nightingale." English Romantic Writers. New York: Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich, Publishers. 1967. pp. 1184.
Evolution and Development of Dog Species:
According to the findings of previous research, it has been suggested that dogs are paedomorphic wolves that have evolved through heterochrony. Heterochrony is described as an evolutionary technique that produced diversity through perturbations of the timing and rate of development, which needs very minimal genetic innovation. Consequently, this evolutionary technique is considered to be the most common mechanism in the generation or production diversity (Drake, 2011, p. 204).
There are also other researchers that have been conducted to examine the essential principles used in genomic analysis of domestic dogs in order to understand the genetic changes that have taken place during the domestication of these animals. These studies have largely demonstrated that the evolution of dogs comprises of two principle modes of evolution. The basic principle mode is the fixation of distinct metamorphosis of significant impact in individual heredities that are then crossed to…
Drake, A.G. (2011, April). Dispelling Dog Dogma: An Investigation of Heterochrony in Dogs
Using 3D Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Skull Shape. Evolutionary Development, 13(2), 204-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2011.00470.x.
Kirkness et al. (n.d.). The Dog Genome: Survey Sequencing and Comparative Analysis.
Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn/news/0309/177.htm
These developments have proven positive for the human species, allowing for greater nutritional variety and varieties of tastes: "Beginning with Mendel's study of peas, knowledge of genetics helped usher in scientific crop development, resulting in high-yielding varieties. Food production increased in every part of the world in the past few decades, including in Africa" (Prakash 2001). The idea humans are tampering with nature in an insidious manner through genetic modification seems more due to superstition than science: using gene transfers to develop GM crops is an extension of older forms of human evolutionary influences on agriculture.
The idea that organic is always inherently better, more natural, and an 'older' form of agriculture likewise seems specious, given how long human beings have been engineering nature to sustain communities in a more salutary fashion. In fact, genetically modified foods permit less use of pesticides, if they are engineered to be more disease…
Prakash, Channapatna S." The Genetically Modified Crop Debate in the Context of Agricultural
Evolution. Plant Physiology, 126 (May 2001): 8-15
Hall, B.K. And B. Hallgrimsson. Strickberger's Evolution, 4th ed., Jones and Bartlett Publishers,
Sudury, MA, 2008.
Evolution of South Korea's Politics And Economy
South Korea (official name: epublic of Korea) was proclaimed as a separate country in 1948 following World War II and the partitioning of the Korean peninsula between the occupying forces of the United States and the Soviet Union. It had very few natural resources, and was among the poorest countries of the world at the time. The country was further devastated in the 1950s following the war with North Korea. Since the mid-1960s, South Korea has achieved remarkable economic progress and except for a major hiccup during the Asian economic crisis of 1997, the economic growth has been consistently high. In sharp contrast to its impressive economic development, the political development of the country has lagged far behind. This essay compares and contrasts the evolution of South Korea's politics and economics and briefly examines the causes for such an anomaly.
The initial decades…
CIA -- the World Factbook." (2003) South Korea. [Available online]. Retrieved on October 29, 2003 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ks.html#Econ
South Korea." (2003) Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003.
Why Invest in Korea?" (2003) Investment Public Relations Team. [Available online]. Retrieved on October 29, 2003 at http://www.kisc.org/servlet/KiscUK1USub01Q-MENU_ID=%23WNWKISC&LANG=2&SITE_ID=KISC&ITEM_ID=001454
South Korea." (2003) Encarta article. Para on Syngman Rhee and the Second Republic
Why Evolution is True: An Examination of Coyne’s Book
Science truly has unveiled many of the mysteries of the world, with many scientific discoveries provoking more questions than answers regarding the nature of our existence and life on this planet. Even so, evolution and the question of evolution continues to spark debate and intrigue. Jerry Coyne’s book Why Evolution Is True asserts that the evidence points repeatedly to evolution as a result of natural selection. The evidence that Coyne refers to is massive and originates from a wealth of data in an array of fields—from genetics to anatomy to virtually every sector of the sciences. Coyne makes compelling arguments that demonstrate why the subject of evolution is so fascinating even today, with all the strides in technology and the sciences that we have undergone. While Coyne firmly sees evolution as undebateable, anyone who possesses the faculties of critical thinking will…
Collins, N. (2012, October 25). Early humans \\\\'still climbed trees 3m years ago\\\\'. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/evolution/9632929/Early-humans-still-climbed-trees-3m-years-ago.html
Coyne, J. A. (2010). Why evolution is true. Oxford University Press.
Marshall, M. (2009, July 14). Timeline: The evolution of life. Retrieved from https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17453-timeline-the-evolution-of-life/
McDowell, S. (2009, May 20). Why Evolution Is True Book Review. Retrieved from http://seanmcdowell.org/blog/why-evolution-is-true-book-review
Si.org. (2018, January 4). Genetics. Retrieved from http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/genetics
The development of the concept of evolution is, in essence, the story of the development of the scientific method. It begins with observation, continues through the development and testing of hypotheses, adds replication, and finally, affirmation of the strength of the theory. The fact that evolution is one of the most-challenged theories in all of science has ended up being one of its strengths. Because so many have sought to reject it, to undermine it, and denigrate it, the theory of evolution has been forced to stand up to all of these challenges. And it has. The reality is that the theory of evolution is one of the most robustly supported theories in the whole of scientific study, and it had to be, in order to withstand these challenges. The constant testing, adaptation and yes, evolution of the theory of evolution over the years has made it the perfect…
Ayala, F. (2009). Darwin and the scientific method. PNAS. Vol. 106 (S 1) 10033-10039.
Darwin, C. (1859) On the origin of species. Retrieved March 20, 2018 from http://darwin-online.org.uk/converted/pdf/1861_OriginNY_F382.pdf
Millstein, R. (2017). Evolution. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved March 20, 2018 from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/evolution/
He was endowed with the capacity to think and reason out and choose the right action. In genesis 2:7 there is an account that god created man out of dust and hence clearly rules out any theory which suggests that man is an evolutionary product. "God formed the man from the dust of the ground & breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being." [Dr. Robert D. Luginbill]. Genesis 1:26-27 also states that man is created in the image of god and also the only created being to have the capacity to feel the love, enjoy the kinship and the communion with god.
Nature of Man
Some theologians share a monistic philosophy of man and do not consider the presence of a soul as a separated part of his being. However the dualistic aspect of man is adopted by many Christian followers. The…
Greg Herrick, "Anthropology & Hamartiology: Man and Sin," Accessed on September 27th 2004, http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=728
Jay P. Taylor, "the Doctrine of man: Anthropology," Accessed on September 27th 2004, http://www.agts.edu/faculty/faculty_publications/class%20notes/taylor_jay/taylorj_4doctrine_man_2004.pdf
H.P. Blavatsky, "The Secret Doctrine: ARCHAIC, OR MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY," Accessed on September 26th 2004, http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/sd/sd2-3-01.htm
CARM, "Theistic Evolution," Accessed on September 26th 2004, http://www.carm.org/evolution/evtheistic.htm
Evolution of the Feather and the Origin of irds
THE EVOLUTION OF THE FEATHER AND THE ORIGIN OF THE IRD
This is a paper that explains about the origin of birds and the actual evolution of the feathers. The paper details about the way the feathers had first evolved and the way these birds had their origin. The common belief that the dinosaurs are the ancestors of these birds has been analyzed and the paper also deals with as to how the feathers of these birds would have developed.
The origin of feathers is unknown. Scientists have researched on this topic but none of the theories have even come close to being proved. In the past five years there have been efforts to answer as to the real evolution of these feathers. The mystery of the evolution of feathers is closely linked with the origin of birds themselves. The origin…
Martin, Larry D. And Czerkas, Stephan A. (September 2000) "The Fossil Record of Feather Evolution in the Mesozoic" American Zoologist, volume 40, issue 4,-page 687
Prum, Richard O. (January 23, 2003) "Paleontology: Dinosaurs take to the air" Nature, volume 421, pp.323-324
Sues, Hans-Dieter. (April 26, 2001) "Paleontology: Ruffling Feathers" Nature, volume 410, pp. 1036-1037
Hou, Lianhai; Martin, Larry D; Zhou, Zhonghe and Feduccia, Alan. (November 15, 1996) "Early Adaptive Radiation of Birds: Evidence from Fossils from Northeastern China" Science, volume 274
Evolution of Criminal Justice Policy:
The evolution of the criminal justice system can be traced to as early as 1969 when the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice presented a report on the growing challenge of crime in the society. In addition to providing a detailed approach on the prevention and fight against crime, the report also provided means of improving the collaboration among policing, courts, and corrections. This is because of the significance of these three parts in the criminal justice system and their ultimate impact on the implementation of the criminal justice policy.
As the first contact between a criminal and the criminal justice system, policing or law enforcement has evolved in three distinct areas i.e. politically, progressively and through reforms. Both the political era and progressive period of the evolution of policing was during the pre-colonial period with the political era emanating from…
Hartmann, F.X. (1988, November). Debating the Evolution of American Policing. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/114214.pdf
"History of Criminal Justice, Punishment and Corrections." (n.d.). Intelicus. Retrieved August
23, 2011, from http://intelicus.com/history-of-criminal-justice-punishment-corrections/
725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave ackground radiation (CM) that pervades the observable universe. This is believed to be the remnant that scientists were looking for. Penzias and Wilson shared the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for this discovery.
Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" hydrogen and helium found in the observable universe are believed to support the ig ang model of origins (the ig-ang Theory Web site, 2003).
In 2003, Physicist Robert Gentry proposed an alternative to the standard ig ang theory, an alternative that also accounts for the evidences listed above (Eastman and Missler, 1996). Gentry believes that the standard ig ang model is founded upon a faulty paradigm that he claims is inconsistent with the empirical data. Gentry bases his model on Einstein's static-spacetime paradigm that he claims is the "genuine cosmic Rosetta."
Gentry is not alone. Other high-profile dissenters include…
Eastman, Mark. Missler, Chuck. The Creator: Beyond Time and Space, (1996) p. 11.
W. Wayt Gibbs, "Profile: George F.R. Ellis," Scientific American, October 1995, Vol. 273, No.4, p. 55.
Big-Bang-Theory.com. (2002). Big Bang Theory. Retrieved from the Internet at: www. Big-Bang-Theory.com.
Gish, Duane. (June, 1991). The Big Bang Theory Collapses. Institute for Creation Research.
This problem was solved in the following way: the program uuencode which is used by email-clients transforms its binary code (code of bits and bytes) into text code using ASCII table principle and it's send in the form of text character set in the following form (begin file name reports text translated binary body end). The recipient's email-client executes uudecode program and transforms it to binary primary code.
Telnet is a program for computer networks that use TCP/IP, for example Internet. It allows terminal emulation, as it connects user's computer to a networks' server. This program which works in console mode allows to manage the controll over server as if the commands were executed on the server computer initially, as well as it allows to control, communicate and do data exchange with other computers and servers. Telecom uses identification policies as username and password and allows control of web…
Hahn, Harley Hahn Teaches the Internet 2nd ed., Que 2002
Kasser, Barbara Using the Internet, Fourth Edition,
Gralla, Preston How the Internet Works, Fourth Edition, Que. 2001
I know that the case you cite, of Dr. Drake, has been a common one. The religion-builders have so distorted and deformed the doctrines of Jesus, so muffled them in mysticisms, fancies and falsehoods, have caricatured them into forms so monstrous and inconceivable, as to shock reasonable thinkers, to revolt them against the whole, and drive them rashly to pronounce its Founder an impostor. Had there never been a commentator, there never would have been an infidel.... I have little doubt that the whole of our country will soon be rallied to the unity of the Creator, and, I hope, to the pure doctrines of Jesus also (Jefferson, 1854).
American Transcendentalism -- the transcendentalist movement was a group of new ideas in religion, literature, culture and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century as a generalized protest against the general state of intellectualism and…
Benedict, Ruth. (2007). Zuni Mythology. Martino Publishing.
Coffey, J. And P. Lim. (2008). The Cambridge Companion to Puritanism.
Cowley, G. (Fall/Winter 1991). "The Great Disease Migration." Newsweek. Cited in:
In an era where the issue of human and civil rights was considered an element that could not be addressed by law, the drafting of the U.S. constitution came as a result of a great democratic endeavor which tried to point out several aspects. On the one hand, it proved the fact that the people are the supreme judges of the way in which the country is developing through the fact that Thus, the most important line for the American democracy is part of the Declaration of Independence which underlines the fact "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" (the Declaration of Independence, n.d.). This aspect certifies the idea that according to the American documents, people have the right to be free in all their respects.
The Constitution comes…
Adams, John. "Novanglus, Febuary 6, 1775." From Revolution to Reconstruction. 2003. 5 May 2008 http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/P.ja2/writtings/novan1.htm
American Foreign Relations. Revolution: Impact on the Economy. 2007. 5 May 2008 http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/Re-Ro/Revolution-Impact-on-the-Economy.html
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Republicanism. 2006. 5 May 2008. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/republicanism/
In actual fact, because of STCP's option of multiplicative amplify, STCP have to in stable state persuade congestion actions approximately all 13.4 round trip times, in spite of the connection speed. HSTCP encourages packet losses at a slower speed than STCP, but still much quicker than CP-eno.
3. Problems of the Existing Delay-based TCP Versions
In contrast, TCP Vegas, Enhanced TCP Vegas and FAST TCP are delay-based protocols. By relying upon changes in queuing delay measurements to detect changes in available bandwidth, these delay-based protocols achieve higher average throughout with good intra-protocol TT fairness (Cajon, 2004). However, they have more than a few deficiencies. For instance, both Vegas and FAST suffer from the overturn path congestion difficulty, in which simultaneous onward and overturn path traffic on a simple bidirectional blockage connection cannot attain full link operation. In addition, both Vegas and Enhanced Vegas employ a conservative window increase strategy of…
B. Melander, M. Bjorkman, and P.Gunningberg, 2000. A new end-to-end probing and analysis method for estimating bandwidth bottlenecks. In IEEE GLOBECOM '00, volume 1, pages 415 -- 420.
C. Dovrolis, P. Ramanathan, and D. Moore, 2001. What do packet dispersion techniques measure? In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM '01, volume 2, pages 905 -- 914.
Cisco Systems Inc. NetFlow Introduction. 2008. http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./tech/tk812/tsd_technology_support_protocol_home.html (Accessed August 10, 2011)
C-S. Chang, R.L. Cruz, J-Y, Le Boudec, and P.THiran, 2002. "A min-+ system theory for constrained traffic regulation and dynamic service guarantees," IEEE/ACM Transaction on Networking, vol.10, no. 6, pp. 805-817.
he answer to the prayers of sport fans seemed to have come in 1982, with the implementation of the Action Sport program. It stood as the first official proposal related to sports development in the country. he program brought significant improvements to the sports scene in England and in several other countries neighboring it, considering that it made it possible for numerous people to get jobs and for more professionals to get actively involved in promoting sports.
he Sports Development Continuum plan came as a method to elaborate the concept of sports development. Derek Casey introduced theories relating to Foundation, Participation, Performance, and Excellence, influencing individuals engaged in sports to gain a better understanding of what sport development meant. he plan was later modified so as for people to comprehend the level to which they could participate and assist the domain. It became obvious that none of the principles put…
The answer to the prayers of sport fans seemed to have come in 1982, with the implementation of the Action Sport program. It stood as the first official proposal related to sports development in the country. The program brought significant improvements to the sports scene in England and in several other countries neighboring it, considering that it made it possible for numerous people to get jobs and for more professionals to get actively involved in promoting sports.
The Sports Development Continuum plan came as a method to elaborate the concept of sports development. Derek Casey introduced theories relating to Foundation, Participation, Performance, and Excellence, influencing individuals engaged in sports to gain a better understanding of what sport development meant. The plan was later modified so as for people to comprehend the level to which they could participate and assist the domain. It became obvious that none of the principles put across by Casey would have any effectiveness if it were not for the others.
The establishment of the National Lottery program in 1994 would practically revolutionize sports as they were perceived by Englishmen. Whereas the program was initially believed to have little effects on the sports development, it brought some of the most important improvements in the domain. The New Laborers plan worked brilliantly and made it possible for sports development to become what it is today -- a booming domain that provides numerous benefits for the people of England.
Other specific branches of management study have been developed for multinational enterprises (MNEs) and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).
Strategic management incorporates much of the work of previous management theorists, in particular including elements of organizational structure, motivation, organizational behavior and the definition of roles. In some respects, strategic management's focus on the human side derives most substantially from the Drucker tradition. Production management, conversely, remains focused on task. Systems such as Six Sigma and TPS follow on Taylor's theories about task specificity and optimization. There remains at this point in management theory there is a disconnect between these two types of management theory. Perhaps the future direction of management theory is to bring the two concepts -- production management and people management together to form a holistic view of the organization.
Most of today's management theories derive from the influence of Taylor, Drucker and other management thinkers of…
Cliff Notes. (2010). Classical schools of management. Cliff Notes. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Classical-Schools-of-Management.topicArticleId-8944,articleId-8851.html
NetMBA.com (2007). Frederick Taylor and scientific management. NetMBA.com. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/scientific/
McNamara, C. (no date). Brief overview of contemporary theories in management. Free Management Library. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from http://managementhelp.org/mgmnt/cntmpory.htm
Evolution and Adaptation of the Owl
Over the years studies have endured to study the owl in its natural environment and in the controlled environment. Much has been found about owls but more can still be learnt. Owls are said to belong to the Aves as their phylogenetic and two distinct families of owls have been pointed out, the Barn owls and the other types of owl. There are 17 known species of barn owls throughout the world and they belong to the family Tytonidae and the other family of trigidae comprise of the other 161 species that are known (Carolina Biological upply Company, 2011).
The oldest known fossils for the owl date back to 38-54 million years ago and were from Miocene. Going by the evidence collected from the fossils, the ancient owls evolved into the two families of owl in the modern world. For the Barn Owl, it…
Since the owl is a predator and has much of its life active at night, there are several adaptations that is has developed over the years to enable it to be a good hunter and for its survival, these adaptations are in form of the vision, hearing, flight and the mode of flight.
Vision; the owl has its eyes located at the front of the head in a shallow dish like depression to enable it to collect the maximum amount of light emanating from the target. They are able to rotate their head at 270 degrees hence giving it the wider view spectrum. The owl also has disproportionate large eyes in comparison to their skull relative to other birds as well as the eyes being tubular in shape. Due to this tubular shape of the eyes, they cannot be rotated as in other birds but the owl uses the 270 degrees head swivel without necessarily moving the torso. This will also keep the bird still and silent not to arouse a potential prey.
Flight; most owls have the ability to fly without producing any sound. This is due to the serrations that are found along their feathers that minimize the rattling of the feathers while on flight hence giving them an advantage over the prey that may be depending or hearing for identification of any predators in the dark (Deane, P. Lewis, 2005). The surface of the feathers mainly used in flight is covered with velvet like structure which helps in the absorption of the sound of the wing while it is
Evolution of Field Artillery
Field artillery, and its uses have evolved dramatically over the years, to produce different outcome and concerns, associated with warfare and its challenges. Field artillery has taken many twists and turns in a progressive direction toward the high technology and computerized resources available today to a modern army in a developed nation. Not to say that strategy does not play a significant role in the process of combat, it does, yet technology is often the determining factor for whether the winning strategy will prevail. There have been significant moments in time when changes in the technology of field artillery were the greatest and this can be said of the period between 1815 and 1918, yet the most significant changes were implemented during the end years of those dates.
During the last four decades of the nineteenth century and the first two decades of the twentieth century,…
Dastrup, Boyd L. The Field Artillery: History and Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=28495525
Gudmundsson, Bruce I. On Artillery. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.
BBC History- Battle of Verdun: 21 February 1916 - July 1916 (February, 28, 2002
, lands useful to man, but according to technical and conspicuous for purposes that each civilization.
When business needs and adds prestige to urban heritage, religions, however, that mark their territories of pagodas, churches, monasteries, mosques and other places of worship, this singularity is affirmed more, while the forms of urban and rural habitat are specified, they are luxuries or miserable. And civilization, always customary in everyday life acquires additional visibility monumental materializing the skills of craftsmen-artists who enrich the work of the builders.
Added to this are, of course, the wealth and prestige that comes from adding additional, oral traditions of all time, written tradition gradually spread to shops and palaces, and the ideological apparatuses of all kinds, from which they eventually win the depths of peoples. o, the graphics become, like languages, distinctive marks of the various civilizations.
Maturation profoundly affects trade flows of civilization. On the one…
Stocking, George, Victorian Anthropology, Free Press, 1991, ISBN 0-02-931551-4
Trigger, Bruce, Sociocultural Evolution: Calculation and Contingency (New Perspectives on the Past), Blackwell Publishers, 1998, ISBN 1-55786-977-4
Reade, Julian 2001 Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60(1):1-29
The workforce is addressed on a personal level to ensure that each individual not only understands what the expectations are of him or her, but also to ensure that they will give only their best effort towards the organizational goal. In order to motivate employees in this way, it is necessary for each individual to understand the organizational goals and to care sufficiently about these. Employees therefore have to find meaning in their work. This can best be done by communication.
It is one fortunate feature of the current technological world that communication can occur both regularly and instantly. Instead of having to print out thousands of circulars, managers can write a single email and send it to thousands of employees simultaneously with a single click. This greatly facilitates the communication paradigm between management and employees, or indeed between the HR department and employees.
Various forms of communication are possible…
Business Wire (2008, Jan 31). Corporate Co-evolution Develops Broader Macroeconomic Principles that can be applied to today's International Corporate Environment. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2008_Jan_31/ai_n24241274
Carney, Michael. (2002, Jan-Feb). The co-evolution of institutional environments and organizational strategies. Organization Studies. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4339/is_1_23/ai_87782496
Christensen, C.M. (2006). The innovator's dilemma. New York: Harper Collins, Collins Business Essentials.
Cuddihey, Alden (2003, Fall). Aligning human resources and business: an overlooked formula for success. Canadian Manager. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6710/is_3_28/ai_n29036750
Evolution of Health Care Information Systems
The objective of this study is to compare and contrast a contemporary healthcare facility or physician's office health care facility or physician's office operation of 20 years ago and to identify at least two major events and technological advantages that influenced current HCIS practices. The physician's office and health care facility of 20 years ago was a paper-based operation. All records were paper records, appointments were written on calendars and prescriptions were handwritten, notations on the patient's health records was done by writing on the physical paper record and all hospital orders were written by hand. During the 1970s hospital growth and expansion occurred and the expenditures for Medicare and Medicaid were on the rise. At this time mainframes were still in use and microcomputers became available and not only were they smaller but they were also less expensive. However, transformation did not come…
Costs and Benefits of Health Information Technology (nd) Evidence Report/Technology Assessment Number 132. Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center, Santa Monica, CA. Retrieved from: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/evidence-based-reports/hitsys-evidence-report.pdf
Friedman, S. (nd) Facts About Health Care Information Systems. eHow Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/about_6117257_health-care-information-systems.html
History and Evolution of Health Care Information Systems (nd) Chapter 4. Retrieved from: http://www.slideserve.com/paul/history-and-evolution-of-health-care-information-systems
We have never prescribed a "let-it-blow policy for tornadoes and hurricanes, a "let-it-erupt" policy for volcanoes or a "let-it-grind" policy for glaciers. Why, then, did we need a "let-it-burn" policy for fires, or surrogate strategies like prescribed fire? Humans and fire have an inseparable history." (p.5) Agee states that the classical view of the succession of plants "...persisted much of the 20th century: the Clementsian view of regional convergence towards a vegetation life-form created by autogenic succession in the presence of stable climate." (p.6)
Agee relates that the primary obstacle to conducting an "appropriate economic analysis of fire in wilderness as understanding "the natural state" was defined by Mills in 1985 who held that the objective of wilderness policy then would be to "allow resource change to be viewed as cost or benefit." (p. 14) Agee reports that in 1983 the Wilderness Fire workshop was held in Missoula in which…
Aplet, Gregory H. (2006) Evolution of Wilderness Fire Policy. International Journal of Wilderness APRIL 2006 • VOLUME 12, NUMBER 1-9.
Agee, J.K. (2000) Wilderness Fire Science: A State-of-Knowledge Review. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5. 2000.
Leong, J.C. (nd) Evolution of Fire Science. Online available at: http://126.96.36.199/mainpages/teacher/J_C_Leong/updata/lab/syllbi/fires/Lesson%20a1%20-The%20Evolution%20of%20Fire%20Science.pdf
An increase in employee-management teamwork and communication likewise reduced the need for labor union representation. Labor unions, thus, no longer play the critical role they once did in labor-management relations (Encyclopedia of Small usiness, Maxwell).
A New Global Labor Federation
Representatives from trade unions throughout the world organized a new global labor federation to insure that workers' rights are not overlooked in economic globalization (Associated Press, 2006). The new body, the International Trade Union Confederation, replaced the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. It would adapt itself to the fresh challenges to the rights of unionized workers. It would also take bolder steps against forced and child labor. Appointed head of the new federation was Guy Ryder, who assured everyone that "the strong tradition of solidarity" would continue. He emphasized the importance of trade union unity in the international level in insuring effective representation of workers rights and interests in…
Associated Press (2006). Delegates launch global labor union. Deseret News: Deseret
News Publishing Company. Retrieved on June 8, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20061102/ai_n16831637/?tag=content;col1
Encyclopedia of Small Business (2002). Labor unions. CBS Interactive, Inc. Retrieved
on June 8, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qx5201/is_2002/ai_n19121346/?tag=content;col1
Evolution of Transportation
Transportation is one of the tools obligatory by civilized man to get order out of disorder. It arrives into each segment and facet of our continuation. Considered as of every point-of-view, economic, political and military, it is indisputably the most significant industry in the world.
You can no more function a grocery store or a brewery than you can win a war devoid of transportation. The more multifaceted life turns out to be, the more essential are the effects that make up our transportation systems (Moulton, 1949).
History Of Transportations
In the sixty years as of the 1790s to the 1840s, the United States acknowledged what has been appropriately phrased a 'transportation revolution'. Revolutionary it in fact was, for the social, economic, as well as political consequences of the alterations in transportation were extensive and transformative.
More often than not historians recognize actions such as the enlargement…
H.G. Moulton, Controlling Factors in Economic Development. The Brookings Institution, 1949, esp. Chapter VIII.
Stanley I. Fischler, Moving Millions. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
William D. Middleton. The Time of the Trolley. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Press, 1967.
Solomon et al. History of Transit and Innovative Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1971.
The major benefits to using a SaaS platform for integrating social networking, CM and marketing systems are the significantly lower costs of operation, the pay-as-you-go approach to leasing only the application areas used, and the flexibility of scaling the computing workload up or down based on the unique requirements of a given company's strategy. SaaS has become the platform of choice for managing social networks, as Facebook, Twitter, Friendfeed, millions of blogs hosted on WordPress, and Foursquare are all hosted on the Amazon Web Services (AWS) platform which is the most popular SaaS-based computing platform in use today (Lin, 73). The SaaS platform has rapidly emerged as a dominant platform for CM systems as Salesforce.com today has over 60,000 implementations in place, each one numbering over 100 users or more (McKay, 15).
With the emergence of SaaS as a dominant platform for hosting social network applications, CM systems and marketing…
An, J.. "Evaluation of Customer Relationship Management's Performance under Networked Manufacturing. " International Journal of Business and Management 5.1 (2010): 156-159.
Babu, K., and B. Kumar. "Customer Service Management - Turning Customer Loyalty Into Profitability. " Synergy 8.2 (2010): 93-98.
Beck, K. "Thundering into Social Media. " Customer Relationship Management 1 Jan. 2011: Pages 37, 38.
Bernoff, J., and C. Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. " MIT Sloan Management Review 49.3 (2008): 36.
" (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao) They believe that he information they are providing will allow the clinician to have a more expansive approach in treating bacterial keratitis and in deciding which secondary antibiotic to use.
The goal of initial antibiotic therapy for bacterial keratitis is the proper selection of a drug which has coverage for the aetiopathogen. Microscopic evaluation of corneal smears can provide insight into the identity of the pathogen, but when smear examination is uninformative the principle of managing bacterial keratitis has been to use antibiotics which have coverage that is sufficiently broad and effective to treat the leading corneal pathogens. (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao)
The main thrust for their interest in this study was to assist the clinician who is in less that ideal setting when faced with treating bacterial keratitis. As mentioned previously the virulent nature of this disease necessitates immediate treatment but the…
Murillo-Lopez, Fernando H. "Keratitis, Bacterial," Unidad Privada de Oftalmologia CEMES [serial online] 2006. [cited 2009 Mar 23] http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1194028-overview
Sharma S, Kunimoto DY, Garg P, Rao GN. "Trends in antibiotic resistance of corneal pathogens: Part I. An analysis of commonly used ocular antibiotics." Indian J. Ophthalmol [serial online] 1999 [cited 2009 Mar 23];47:95-100. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1999/47/2/95/22799
Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.
Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.
While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher ene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…
Consciousness: Section PS13D
Holism, Reductionism and Four Theories: John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner; Jean Piaget; Gestalt Psychology
Nature vs. Nurture: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54B, Fall 2008.
Psychological Assumptions of the Cognitive Revolution: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54E, Fall 2008.
A prototype system for cellular phone service was created by at&T and Bell in 1977. In 1978, this new system was put through public trials with more than two-thousand trial customers in the Chicago-area. The first actual commercial cellular telephone service was offered in Japan in 1979. The United States lagged a little behind, as they were still testing cellular systems in the Washington area in 1981. Finally, in 1982 the FCC authorized the establishment of commercial cellular telephone service in the United States. In 1983, the first commercial analog cellular telephone service in America was available in Chicago, under the name Ameritech. The popularity of cellular phone service skyrocketed through the 1980s, and subscribers to cellular telephone service exceeded one million by 1987.
This fast and dramatic increase in demand for cellular telephone technology necessitated changes within the system so that more cellular service users could be accommodated. There…
Bellis, M. (2007). Selling the cell phone. Retrieved 6/13/2007 at http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa070899.htm .
Farley, T. (2007). Privateline.com: mobile telephone history. Retrieved 6/13/2007 at http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.privateline.com/PCS/history.htm.
During the period from April to June2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak had a negative impact on Thai economies. The total revenue from tourism was 10% lower than expected.
However many studies of the tourist industry in the country point out that it is extremely resilient and " in the tsunami disaster, a quick recovery process began after a deep sentiment of sadness. Investment recovered very quickly with a view to cleaning up the destruction left behind. Following recent years of strong growth, the economy of Thailand should be in a strong position to recover from this tragedy." (Seenprachawong U.)
There is little doubt that the Thai tourist industry is one that is extremely dependent on changes in the natural environment and influences on the culture from the outside. While the resilience of this industry have be shown in the face of natural disasters,…
Asia Market Research. March 16, 2007. http://www.asiamarketresearch.com/
Continued unrest, travel warnings hit Thai tourism. March 16, 2007. http://www.dancewithshadows.com/travel/thai-tourism.asp
Community-Based Tourism in Doi Inthanon National Park:Case Study of Ban
Mae Klang Luang Tourism Alliance, Chiangmai, Thailand. March 16, 2007. http://www.iges.or.jp/APEIS/RISPO/inventory/db/pdf/0006.pdf
As a result, while Microsoft started out much behind relative to Apple in terms of evangelism, Microsoft has more than closed the gap. Software has become the focal point of the hardware platforms paradoxically, and ironically today the software applications and operating systems are orders of magnitude more critical today than the hardware itself. The revolution both the Apple Macintosh and IBM PC started is being continued and amplified with the development of the next generation of software applications, including those specifically designed for the Internet.
Today Microsoft has a market capitalization rate of $282B with annual sales of $44B and a net Income of $12B, Microsoft's dominance of five core business areas including office productivity, Internet applications, server and enterprise applications, and entertainment products continues to p[ropel the company into the largest and most profitable software company in the world. Apple Computer reported their latest annual revenue at…
Hertzfeld (2005) - Revolution In The Valley. Andy Hertzfeld. O'Reilly Media. 1 rst Edition. December 1, 2004
Kawasaki (1990) - The Macintosh Way. Harper Collins. Reprint Edition. September, 1990
Linzmeyer (2004) - Apple Confidential 2.0: The Definitive History of the World's Most Colorful Company No Starch Press; 2 edition (January 2004)
Stanford University (2005) - Stanford Report. A Ne3ws Service for Stanford University. Commencement Address for Steve Jobs, June 14, 2005. http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/june15/jobs-061505.html
Evolution of Special Education: Pre-1950s to Present
Special Education Evolutions
Special reduction has made tremendous evolutions since its inception. To effectively understand the current state of special education in public education, it is necessary to consider the full trajectory and how the perspectives on special education have developed over the years. The first special education programs were target at "at risk" children who primarily resided in urban slums and ghettos after a public education was made compulsory in the United States. They taught manual skills such as carpentry or metal work while other programs focused on teaching moral lessons to minorities. Later, special education began to focus more on children with disabilities. Although there were students that had physical and mental disabilities in the nineteenth century, making specific provisions for the inherent challenges that these students faced did not became a common educational priority until the 1940s. Since this time,…
Armstrong, F. (2002). The historical development of special education: humanitarian rationality or 'wild profusion of entangled events'? History of Education, 437-456.
Aron, L., & Loprest, P. (2012). Disability and the Education System. Future of Children, 97-122.
Lloyd, J., & Llloyd, P. (2015). Reinforcing Success: What Special Educaiton Could Learn From Its Earlier Accomplishments. Remdial and Special Education, 77-82.
Seave, P. (2011). Evidence-Based Practices Reduce Juvenile Recidivism: Can State Government Effectively Promote Implementation Among Probation Departments? American Journal of Community Psychology, 138-140.
Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)
The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example…
Antolin, Michael F., and Herbers, Joan M. (2001). Perspective: Evolution's Struggle for Existence in America's Public Schools. International Journal of Organic Evolution, 55(12),
Armenta, Tony, and Lane, Kenneth E. (2010). Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution
Controversy in Public Education. The Clearing House, 86(3), 76-79.
The Argument- The theory of evolution was developed out of the work of 19th century botanist and explorer, Charles Darwin and his book On the Origin of Species. Essentially, it is a scientific theory that postulates that organisms change over time based on pressures from the environment that cause genetic mutations within the organism. Over time, these changes are more adapted to a specific environment, more of that organism live longer and reproduce more, thus causing those traits to become even more entrenched in the population. Life then, is part of a gigantic tree in which primitive organisms, over millions and millions of years, evolved into higher beings due to the product of two opposing forces: variation in traits (common or rare) and natural selection (which traits aid survival) (Understanding Evolution).
Creation Science is a branch of creationism that has resurfaced in American education after several Supreme Court decisions defined…
The purpose of this work is to explore the "Theory of Evolution" as set forth by Darwin and to further explore what is termed as "natural selection" as well as that of "artificial selection." This paper will further examine Darwin's Theory as to the workings of evolution as well as exploring exactly how natural selection works to produce evolution.
Finally, the role of individual genetic variations in relation to evolution and natural selection will be researched. The evolving of traits in species will also be examined as well as the applicable use of those theories.
Having first traveled throughout the world, on a ship, exploring both land and water, in the role of a "Naturalist," and having observed the wonders of the Andes and witnessed the result of Chilean earthquakes, crossed hundreds of miles, trekking through unknown regions, Charles Darwin, returned to England.
Darwin continued to study and…
Bennett, Albert F. et al. (nd) "Relevance of Evolutionary Biology to the National Research Agenda " Executive Summary [Online] available at: http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~ecolevol/fulldoc.html
Ballyntyne, Paul, Ph.D (nd) "Evolution and Psychology In Darwin, Romanes, Morgan, James, Dewey, and the Chicago Functionalists" [Online] available at: http://www.coment.ca/~pballan/section4(210).htm
Williams James and Functionalism (nd) available [Online] at: http://www.psych.utah.edu/gordon/Classes/Psy4905Docs/PsychHistory/Cards/James.html
Bennett, Albert F. et al. (nd) "Relevance of Evolutionary Biology to the National Research Agenda "
The first and most serious is that any type of modification will produce a certain type of outcome. While it is true in the most general sense that helpful modifications are more likely to be retained, it is imperative to keep in mind that significant mutations to an organism are typically fatal, and that most genetic mutations that yield living organisms either cannot produce viable offspring or have an insignificant or slightly negative effect. Hence, pure quantity of variance within a species is meaningless, and the big decisions fall to fate: is species X capable of adapting to cataclysmic event Y? While the ability to adapt to diverse conditions is helpful, no significant change will occur in a species without significant pressure.
The reason is that only mild, phenotypic variation can take place in a large, breeding population. Significant alterations, as previously noted, are typically fatal or incidental. Even if…
The panelists, all of whom are conservative Republicans who have questioned evolution, will report to the school board which is expected to approve new science standards in June (Johnson pp). Defenders of evolution acknowledge that their boycott leaves opponents unchallenged but said that they hoped their absence would help to defuse the "media-saturated argument over science and the Bible" (Johnson pp).
Efforts to require schools to teach the purported errors of evolution are under way in nearly two dozen states, and are led by two groups of activists (Johnson pp). One group consists of religious conservatives who believe the traditional biblical account that God created the world in six days (Johnson pp).
The other group are the advocates of intelligent design and consists of "intellectual thinkers, some of them scientists, who argue that life on the planet is too complex to have come about without some sort of guiding intelligence"…
Johnson, Alex. "The evolution of a fight to the end." MSNBC News. May 7, 2005. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/7736155/
In the states: evolution education related legislation surfaces across the country." Georgia Journal of Science; 12/22/2004; pp.
Dutch, Steven. "Aftermath of Evolution." Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay; pp. http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/WestTech/darwin1.htm
S. government is based upon that belief, while other governments, such as communism and Marxism is based on accidental evolution (Benen 2001).
This belief system appears to be the extreme, however it is a popular one among creationists.
According to the National Academy of Sciences, "The theory of evolution explains how life on earth has changed...In scientific terms, 'theory' does not mean 'guess' or 'hunch'...Scientific theories are explanations of natural phenomena built up logically from testable observations and hypotheses" (Benen 2001). Biological evolution is the best scientific explanation for the vast range of observations about the living world, thus "the occurrence of evolution in this sense is a fact," because scientists no longer question whether descent with modification occurred since there is so much strong evidence to support the idea (Benen 2001).
Since no one knows how long a "day" actually was in the Book of Genesis, it could well…
Benen, Steve. (2001 January 01). Age-Old Controversy. Church & State. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Evolution. (2002-2006). All About Philosophy. Retrieved October 13, 2006 at http://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/evolutionism.htm
Redditch, R.G. (2002 April 08). Creationism and evolutionism easily reconciled.
The Birmingham Post (England). Retrieved October 13, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Thus, just an article strictly on the newest thoughts regarding complex design by Zimmer would be seen as support of his beliefs.
Why, then, the added zing against ntelligent Design? s because the continued dispute between the scientists and Creationists has disturbed Zimmer so much that he had to add these comments? Or, was it a National Geographic editor who read Zimmer's piece and said, "Let's make this article juicier by setting the ntelligent Design people against the scientists."
No one will ever know for sure if either of these scenarios or another one is the truth. However, it does seem odd that the three paragraphs noted above after the introduction can easily be removed without any changes needed to the flow of the article. The first two paragraph introduction moves very smoothly into "Some have emerged..." There is nothing lost by removing these middle three paragraphs than some heat.…
It just would have been more effective if there were two separate articles: The overall article on the complexity and then a side bar on the evolution vs. Creationism controversy. In the latter article, additional comments could have come from scientists both pro and con Intelligent Design, for, in fact, there are a number of scientists (even biologists and zoologists) who do believe that these marvels of nature are the result of some overall plan or design.
In his book Why Darwin Matters, Author Michael Shermer, founding editor of the Skeptic and Scientific American columnist, writes why religion and science need not be in conflict. Science and religion are two different realms, he stresses: respectively the natural and supernatural. He cites Pope John Paul II in support of their possible coexistence. Zimmer and other scientists do not need to discount their opponents to demonstrate the fascination of evolution. All the examples in nature do it all by themselves.
Zimmer, Carl (2006). "A Fin, is a Limb is a Wing." National Geographic Magazine.
evolution of eukaryotic cells linked to the increase of atmospheric oxygen concentration during the Precambrian?
Increase of atmospheric oxygen during the Precambrian period led to creatures which were more dependent on oxygen in the atmosphere. Oxygen levels in the atmosphere increased from 1% to 15% of the modern level of oxygen. The increase in oxygen in the air led to the evolution of more expansive lungs which were capable of taking in more air and converting it into energy. As eukaryotic cells evolved, they became more capable of respiration which added to the complexity of the evolutions of creatures.
Scientists believe that if there are no controls on the emission of CO2 from burning fossil fuels, the concentration of this gas could double by the end of the current century, leading to a significant rise in the average temperature of the Earth. What would be some of the likely evolutionary…
evolution of the central processing unit (CPU). In order to accomplish this task, literature was gathered and researched to arrive at a consensus of the actual historic evolutionary process of this particular piece of technology. After the research was processed, a summary of the findings were presented to communicate this collection of facts and opinions. The essay concludes by suggesting trends for this technology in the future and what we can expect our computer power to contribute during this upcoming time.
The central processing unit (CPU) is at the heart of every computer running in today's world. That fact alone suggests the massive importance this technology has afforded mankind. To best understand how this development has affected mankind it is necessary to review the CPU's history and its evolution into the mainstream.
The history of computer was first based upon the idea that bigger was better. The very first…
Bekter, M., Fernando, J., Whalen, S. (1997). The History of the Microprocessor. Bell Labs Technical Journal, Autumn 1997.29-56. Retrieved from http://www.beatriceco.com/bti/porticus/bell/pdf/bell_labs_journals/bell_labs_technical_jo urnal_autumn_1997_3.pdf
Lilly, P. (2009). A Brief History of CPUs: 31 Awesome Years of x86. Maximum PC 14 Apr, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.maximumpc.com/article/features/cpu_retrospective_the_life_and_times_x86 ? page=0,0
Ralph, N. (2011). Processors: What to Expect From CPUs in 2012. PCWorld, 27 Dec, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.pcworld.com/article/246688/processors_what_to_expect_from_cpus_in_2012 .html
Risley, D. (2001). A CPU History. PC Mech, 23 Mar 2001. Retrieved from http://www.pcmech.com/article/a-cpu-history/10/
Evolution in efore Adam
Jack London was, in keeping with his time, fascinated with the emerging Theory of Evolution. This is evident in a number of his works, but no more so than in efore Adam. In this novella London places evolution in a central role, not simply choosing to highlight it in a passage here and there, as he does in Daughter of the Snows and White Fang, but by using it to supply the central conflict and to propel the narrative forward. As the narrator himself says in the opening chapters, "Evolution was the key. It gave the explanation, gave sanity to the pranks of this atavistic brain of mine that, modern and normal, harked back to a past so remote as to be contemporaneous with the raw beginnings of mankind."
The words 'atavist' and 'atavistic' are used repeatedly throughout the text. These words, nearly foreign to us…
London, Before Adam. New York: Macmillan, 1907.
London, Before Adam, p.11
London, Before Adam, p.9
London, Before Adam, p.10
The development of the atomic bomb as well as its perceived success rate however made further development in chemical and biological weaponry unnecessary.
It is worth noting that biological weapons were never employed significantly in World War I and World War II. The effects of biological weapons even if crude has been pointed out by Spiers (2010) when he mentioned how Japanese surrendered in 1945 abut six of their soldiers released several plague-infested rates as well as sixty horses that were infested with the deadly glanders into the relatively quite and safer Chinese countryside. This left Changchun as well as its environs unsafe for habitation until the 1950s
A review of literature indicates that the United States never actively used chemical or biological weapons as part of its military operations. In its history of military development and its rise to be the world superpower. There are cases however when…
Anderson, F (F) ed. The Oxford Companion to American Military History
Black.J (2002) America as a Military Power: From the American Revolution to the Civil War
Chambers, JW (1999)ed., The Oxford Guide to American Military History
Doughty, R., Gruber, I, Flint, R, Grimsley, M and Herring, G (1995)American Military History and the Evolution of Western Warfare. Wadsworth Publishing