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Walzer ends his book with a call to reuse the narrative once more as a call to social liberations, much as it was used in the old African-American spiritual and Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech, ultimately putting for the a vision of socially transforming politics where individuals constantly remember the value of their freedom and the need to honor the covenantal obligation of acting justly in the world. In short, Walzer seems calls for a kind of secular shining city on the hill, unlike the Puritans or Messianic Zionists, taking the best from reinterpretations of Exodus narratives of liberation from the past.
But why strive to reclaim the Exodus narrative at all in modernity? The many interpretations of the story suggest that the story has been reinterpreted so many times; it has become all things to all people, inclusive to Walzer, exclusive to another. And it is…… [Read More]
Fortunately for them, Joseph, who is Jacob's son, invites them into that land and he was a man who had been sold off earlier to an Egyptian person by his jealous brothers earlier. Joseph, being possessed of the extremely uncanny ability to read and interpret dreams, is recognized for that very fact, and is soon promoted into being a prestigious member of the Egyptian Courts. However, one thing must be kept in mind before starting the Exodus, and this is the presence of the three important themes of Abraham being God's alliance and His Promise, Isaac, who is the spared sacrifice, and Jacob, who is doomed to struggle with God, or in other words, Israel. It is at this point that the description of the Exodus begins.
The Exodus is in fact a unique and exceptional account of the irth of a Religion, and everything that is described within the…… [Read More]
Exodus/Story Of Moses
Many scholars refer to the book of exodus as the bedrock of faith in Israel. The book links two key first encounters: the Israelites' Exodus from captivity in Egypt, and their reception of the covenant of God at Sinai. The Exodus of Israelites from Egypt is symbolic of the existence of Israel, primarily by the delivering power of God. And the covenant shaped the nation's relationship with God. This relationship or covenant entails both parties keeping promises, and also holding the key promise from Yahweh for a brighter future. The two foundational encounters -- the exodus and the reception of the covenant -- are the source of the identity of Israelites as a people delivered by God.
The exodus of Israelites from Egypt is also a key basis for the two main religions related to the Messiah -- Christianity and Judaism. In Christianity, the exodus is celebrated…… [Read More]
The setting is perhaps one of the most famous in the entire Biblical narrative: the side of the ed Sea, a crowd of fleeing Hebrew salves anxiously looking over their shoulders at the approaching army of the Pharaoh. According to rabbinical commentary, however, Moses doesn't just simply the raise his staff and part the waters -- more has to happen first, and the more that happens is hugely influential in shaping the new relationship that the Hebrews are forming with God, and the new role for man that this creates.
The Biblical narrative as it currently stands tells the story in the following manner: the people, trapped between the sea and the approaching army, begin complaining to Moses, "What have you done to us by bringing us out of Egypt? Didn't we say to you in Egypt, "Leave us alone; let us serve the Egyptians"? It would have been better…… [Read More]
Costume review: Exodus: Gods and Kings
It is always challenging to re-create historical costumes of a past era; it is even more challenging to do so when that era is Biblical times, given the religious significance attached to that period. People seeing the film with have strong, established ideas of how characters 'should' look based upon their personal beliefs and the numerous previous depictions of this era. ecreating images which had become iconic in previous films (as well as Egyptian hieroglyphics) was the daunting task which faced the designer of Exodus: Gods and Kings, the 2014 release which details the story of Moses and his attempt to free the Israelites from slavery in Egypt. The costume designer Janty Yates, in an interview with the L.A. Times, noted that he was able to draw upon actual historical depictions of what individuals wore during this era. For example, " all the…… [Read More]
A strong leader in the mold of Sadaam Hussein, he fought a life and death struggle with the Hittite leader Muwatalli II at Kadesh in Syria in 1274 B.C.E.. hile the battle resulted in a draw, it was just barely so and resulted in a peace treaty between the two empires. Egyptian inscriptions portray it as a great victory ("Ramses ii: the," 2007).
This author identifies most with Moses. He is great but is also the typical "everyman" in that he is an ordinary man caught up in extraordinary circumstances who aspires and achieves his greatness through humble service to his nation.
The narrative does not seem to be interested in Egypt or the Pharaoh per se. For instance, we do not even know who the Pharaoh is. For the author of Exodus, this is not important. Even the relation of the Exodus narrative itself is only told because it…… [Read More]
Exegetical Analysis: Exodus 13:1-14:31
In the first fifteen chapters of the book of Exodus, "Yahweh is seen as beginning to fulfill the patriarchal promise by means of redeeming Abraham's seed out of Egypt" (Beale, 1984, p. 130). The divine name YHWH, emphasizing God as one who effects and controls reality is highly significant in the context of these chapters. Through the revelation of His YHWH name, God demonstrates His authority, power, and essence to the Egyptians, to Pharaoh, and to the greater Pagan world. Chapters 13 and 14 form the basis of this analysis. Chapter 13 focuses on God's instructions to the children of Israel regarding the celebration of the Passover feast, whereas chapter 14 dwells on their deliverance at the ed Sea (Levinsohn, 2012).
Structure of the text (Exodus 13:1-14:31)
13:1-16 will be analyzed as Part One, and 13:17-14:31 as part two.
Part One (13:1-16)
Theme: the Law of…… [Read More]
Cuban Exodus of the 1960s
Whether studying the history of the world, or the history of a specific country, the 1960s were an era whose influence is felt in diverse ways, even into the 21st century. The 1960s is a decade ripe for study by historians with diverse interests. Whether a historian or student of history wishes to consider international relations, military strategy, methods of advertising, popular culture, scientific & technological developments, or civil rights, there is ample content from the 1960s to satisfy most appetites. The 1960s is known for several dominant features including explosions in areas of art, music, and film; expansion of perspective regarding topics such as sexism, racism, and other forms of civil injustice; as well as wars and revolutions happening in at least one place on nearly every continent. Many forms of art, music, and thinking would not exist today without the counterculture and cultural…… [Read More]
By initiating the covenant, Yahweh is able to outline what he expects from the Israelites and what they can expect from Him. By making this promise, God is ensuring their continuation on their path to holiness (Glenny 1992). He is additionally making it possible for His relationship with the Israelites to grow from simple followers to "a kingdom of priests," in which they will play a crucial role in leading other people to the truth of God (Ex. 19:6).
There are a number of individual sections within Exodus 19:5-6. The first is the opening, where Yahweh asks the Israelites to enter the covenant. In the second section, Yahweh establishes the Israelites as his possession. Third, Yahweh declares that the entire earth belongs to Him. The next section, which opens verse 6, explains the Israelites' future as a kingdom of priest and a holy nation. Finally, Yahweh instructs Moses to share…… [Read More]
The emphasis here is on God's glory, as the only distributor of riches or poverty:
And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lift up mine hand unto the LORD, the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth, That I will not take from a thread even to a shoelatchet, and that I will not take any thing that is thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram rich.[...]"(Genesis 14. 22-23)
In Exodus 17, there are two miracles: Moses saves the people from dying of thirst by using his rod to smite a rock and produce water, and then saves them again in the confrontation with Amalek. The actual fighters in the battle are Amalek and Joshua, but Moses saves the people in the way God directed him to do: by keeping his hands raised for a whole day:
But Moses hands were heavy; and…… [Read More]
Deuteronomy 5-12 and Exodus 20-24
Together, the book of Exodus and the book of Deuteronomy are the Old Testament books that set forth the Decalogue, or Ten Commandments. In both of the listed excerpts, the Decalogue is given early on in almost exactly the same words. After the initial similarities, the content and message of each book deviates into other subjects. The book of Exodus lists the statutes and ordinances by which the Israeli people are to live and abide under. Deuteronomy concerns itself primarily with the proper worship and respect for God, with an emphasis on the rewards for living by God's laws and the punishments to be expected if the people turn against the Lord's will.
The Decalogue is first introduced in Exodus 20 and in Deuteronomy 5. They consist of ten cardinal rules to be obeyed in order to live righteously in the eyes of God and…… [Read More]
Genesis 1 (in the Old Testament) and the pronouncement of the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20 (of the Old Testament). Be sure to include the purpose of Exodus 20 and how it is related to Genesis 1.
Comparing and contrasting Genesis 1 and Exodus 20 of the Old Testament
The story of creation [Primeval story] in the Book of Genesis is one of the most read stories of all times. It has changed in presentation and style in the years to some but its original version remains the most validated one regardless of other interpretations.
The Book of Genesis [Old Testament] is considered the basis of all stories. It begins with the creation of everything for consider the words, "In the beginning God created..." [Genesis I]. This denotes the creation of creating if there is such a term. The basic tenets of the chapter are that God is one and…… [Read More]
Legal interpretation and influence of God's interactions
With his people in the book of Exodus
As Moses led the children of Israel across the desert into the Promised Land, he had earned the position of leader, and head law giver for the entire nation. Moses had stood before pharaoh, and with God's help, delivered millions of people from slavery into freedom. Now, as they left Sinai with a list of commandments, as well as traditions and customs, handed down to them from god himself, the children if Israel faced a long transformation. They had to build a new collective identity. The Israelites needed to become a people with a sense of self-governance, after spending 400 years in Egypt as slaves during which their every move was dictated for them.
The transformation required an entirely new mindset, and the process would not be easy. (Lewin, 1951) Rather than looking for an…… [Read More]
By Chapter Ten, "Solving the Race Problem," Nell Painter has developed the background of the mass migration as a necessary reaction to worsening conditions in the South proper. To motivate community cohesion among Blacks, new political organizations and parties like the United Colored Links were formed. At the same time, white Southerners feared an impending exodus because they continued to depend on sharecroppers as a form of cheap, nearly slave labor. The Links offered southern Blacks the philosophical and social means by which to create a community identity distinct from the oppressors.
Part Three of Exodusters consists of nine chapters and describes the heart of the matter of migration. "Liberia Fever," Chapter 11, Painter discusses the Liberia proposition in the greater context of the exodus. The sense that Blacks needed to start new and from a clean slate meant that many did look towards Africa as a symbol of genuine…… [Read More]
The covenant is the central motif in Jewish identity and consciousness, representing the unique relationship between the Jews and God. Although there are several instances during which the Jewish people engage in covenant with God, the most significant and momentous is the covenant God forms with Moses, who in turn communicates God's will to the Jewish people. As Boadt (1984) points out, the covenant is also significant from literary and historical perspectives because "all of biblical history may be called a theology of the covenant," (p. 174). The covenant represents a bilateral relationship and form of communication, a sort of mutually beneficial agreement in which both God and the Jewish people agree to specific behaviors that are expressions of mutual trust, love, and loyalty. Essentially, the covenant is a binding contract between God and the Jews, which outlines the parameters of the relationship and what is expected of both parties.…… [Read More]
In exchange for God's miracle work, the Jewish people are instructed to follow a rigorous, strident set of laws. These laws were delivered by God to Moses, who transmits them to the laypeople. The covenant between God and the Jews demands obedience to these scriptural laws. The detailed description of the construction of the tabernacle offered in Exodus illustrates the extent of the spiritual code that binds the "chosen people" with their Almighty.
The central theological theme of the Biblical book of Exodus is that God and humanity enter into a sacred contract. To break the contract means breaking a promise to God, a horrible offense punishable by the wrathful Creator. Ascription to the covenant will mean that God will continue to watch over the Jewish people and ensure their heritage in the Promised Land.… [Read More]
idolatry: How some object or text discovered by archeologists, or some other type of cultural or literary parallel, enhances our understanding of something in Exodus
dolatry in the ancient Near East -- a non-Exodus Perspective
Over the course of the past several decades in modernity, numerous objects as well as the actual substances of texts discovered by archaeologists, have contributed to the modern understanding of the characterization of so-called 'idol worship' in Exodus as well as other Hebrew texts, texts that have come to have been canonized as 'The Hebrew Bible," as referred to by members of the Jewish religion, or 'The Old Testament,' as such books are frequently referred to by members of the Christian faith.
Up until this point in time, the way that ancient sraelites perceived idol worship held dominance how the people who worshipped idols saw idol worship. However, the Bible frequently mischaracterizes these other…… [Read More]
The Hebrews do not actually appear in history until about 1224-1211 B.C.E. during the reign of Marniptah, king of Egypt (Ancient pg). Marniptah was the son of Raamses I, 1290-1223 B.CE, who is thought to be the kind of Egypt at the time of the Hebrew exodus (Ancient pg). In an account of Marniptah's military campaign in Asia, 1220 B.C.E., inscribed in granite is listed all the conquered peoples including the Israelites, who are mentioned as "now living in Canaan" (Ancient pg). Before this, the only history is that which was written by the Hebrews themselves who trace their origins to a "single individual, Abraham, who comes originally from Mesopotamia" (Ancient pg). This pre-Egyptian Hebrew history is referred to as the age of the patriarchs, which means father-ruler (Ancient pg). More than a thousand years had passed before this era of history was written down, and although it…… [Read More]
The fact that God seems to be taken surprise by human action, and the fact that the Lord can also change his mind in the last verse of the passage, Exodus 32: 14, suggests free will exists, or the ability of humanity to change the world through prayer, and the idea that not all of the future is already decided -- the 'maybe' exists in the form of humanity's to show free will to obey or disobey, and to beg for forgiveness.
In Numbers 14:11-23, God again seems taken by surprised by the sins of His children, in this case Moses' sister Miriam and his brother Aaron, who criticize Moses for marrying a Cu*****e woman. God punishes Miriam with leprosy, and Moses and Aaron beg God to heal their sister. God bargains with the men, refusing to heal her outright, but agrees to heal her after seven days, showing the…… [Read More]
Pentateuch consists of the first five Books of the Bible. The Pentateuch is the same as what many people mean when they refer to the Torah, which is the first five books of the Tanakh. These books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. In both Jewish and Christian tradition, Moses is considered the author of most of the Pentateuch and the belief is that God dictated the books to Moses (Fairfield, N.p.). However scholars generally agree that the books actually reflect compilations of earlier writings by various different authors. Taken together, the five books introduce the reader to God. They explain that God is the creator of the universe and everything in it, how the world has imperfections despite being a divine creation, God's unique relationship with man, and the beginnings of the special relationship between God and his chosen people (Fairfield, N.p.).
The Pentateuch begins with Genesis. Genesis…… [Read More]
Media epresentation of Issues in Immigration
Immigration is a fundamental element of American history. Centuries ago, immigration was not the issue that it is in the 21st century. There is a very small percentage of Americans that can trace their heritage back to the beginning of the country without at least one family member or even generation of family that are not immigrants. Around the turn of the 20th century, with the advent of industrialization and the mass exodus from numerous countries into the United States, immigration has been a white, hot point of contention in American culture and American media. The focus of this paper is a very recent article in The New York Times about President Obama's decision to allow a specific demographic of illegal immigrants to remain the country legally providing them opportunities to obtain legal documentation, attend institutions of higher education, and work without fear of…… [Read More]
The objective of this study to is examine the expenditures on corrections at the state and federal level and perform a cost benefit analysis of the modern American conception of justice.
Justice -- What Is It?
Justice is many things to many people. To some individuals justice is viewed as a form of punishment and to other justice is equity. roadly defined, justice can be viewed as a means to exact equality from an inequitable relationship between two individuals or entities. Justice, according to the ible, in terms of punishment is "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth." (Exodus 21:22) What the ible speaks of in this instance is that transgressions shall be rewarded with appropriate punishment.
The American justice system is one characterized by punishment that is oftentimes inequitable and in appropriate in the sentencing of offenders. Dr. Matthew Robinson notes that…… [Read More]
. This was to lead to the inevitable interaction and cross -- cultural pollination between the cultures. Kline states that; " No wonder that such a large number of Egyptian loan words, phrases and intellectual ideas should be preserved in the Old Testament, along with a large number of idiomatic expressions, and two Egyptian units of measure" (Kline). However, while cultural interaction and the adoption of various phrases and words is not denied by most scholars, what is contested and debated is the extent to which this cultural interaction influenced and impacted the development of the religious foundations of both Judaism and Christianity.
4. How Egypt influenced customs and practices; fact vs. myth
There are numerous examples in the literature that refer to a more extensive cultural intersection and interaction with the Egyptian civilization. One can refer to the view that the name of the Divine Unity in this regard.…… [Read More]
Slavery in the Bible
In modern estern countries, many Christians and Jews may wish to portray God as the comfortable deity of a middle-class consumer society like the United States, but the Bible demonstrates that nothing could be further from the truth. In the Bible, the God of history from the story of Cain and Abel, through Abraham, Joseph, Moses and the Prophets and of course the ministry of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Repeatedly, God intervenes on the side of the poor, the weak, the lowly and the outcast, and against the rich and powerful. He has mercy on Joseph when his brothers sell him into slavery in Egypt and elevates him about all others. God takes the side of a young shepherd boy David against the thuggish giant Goliath and then against the evil and corrupt King Saul. ith Jesus, the constant messages is that God shows…… [Read More]
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…… [Read More]
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…… [Read More]
(Deuteronomy 22:28-29). hile these Biblical endorsements of unequal treatment may seem historical and antiquated to a modern, estern audience, the fact is that many parts of the world still treat women in a similar fashion, so that the Bible would be useless in helping to determine a standard of human rights for women.
In addition, many human rights activists believe that the death penalty is a de facto violation of human rights, regardless of the guilt or innocence of the person to be executed and the nature of the crime committed by that person. However, the Bible clearly endorses the application of the death penalty. Moreover, the Bible endorses the use of the death penalty in areas where most of the modern world has determined its use to be inappropriate. Amaziah executed his father's assassins, and the Bible described him as doing "what was right in the eyes of the…… [Read More]
family god mean?
In my opinion, I believe that a family god should always take care of the family as well as their lineal descendants without ever breaking away from them. Also, being a family god, I think the god also has to love this family, and the family who gets blessings from the god should also have to love the god, worship the god without doubt, and not betray his love. It is like a relationship, both side have to put their heart into it. In other hand, if everyone can worship this god, and get blessings from this god, it would not be considered as a family god, so it is more likely to be a one to one relationship. One of the reason for having a family god is that the god would separate your family and your lineal descendants with rest of the people in the…… [Read More]
This again stresses that God's love has nothing to do with Israel's attractiveness and everything to do with God's grace.
"Kept the oath" (v. 8). God's love is faithful. We should not be surprised that God chose Israel in its weakness. This is exactly what God did in Genesis 12:1-3. The promise of children and a land made to an old, childless couple seemed impossible. Yet they conceived, and the promise of land is about to be fulfilled for Israel now, on the verge of the Jordan, attesting to God's faithfulness.
"Covenant loyalty" (v. 9) is an excellent rendering of the hendiadys "the covenant and the loyalty." (Hendiadys consists of two nouns joined by "and," expressing a single idea.) The word for "loyalty" (hesed) is of the essence in covenantal situations, since it refers to the mutual commitments pledged by each of the parties. On the human side, it becomes…… [Read More]
Living in the palace as a prince was no doubt an indulgent experience, and likely contributed to the temper that Moses was so famous for. As an infant, he is the very image of innocence and hope, just like the baby Jesus. But as his life went on, his character became much more complex. The first story form the Old Testament that clearly illustrates Moses' inability to contain his temper comes in the second chapter of the book of Exodus: "He saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his own people. Glancing this way and that and seeing no one, he killed the Egyptian and hid him in the sand" (Exodus 2:11-12). This episode is especially telling because it does not show simply a rash display of temper -- Moses takes the time to make sure no one will witness his actions before he kills the Egyptian. He is…… [Read More]
Jews and Jewish eligion
Judaism is one of the revealed religions of the world and like Islam and Christianity; this religion also endorses the concept of monotheism. Being one of the oldest monotheist religions, Judaism has a long history but throughout this history, its basic beliefs, traditions, sacred texts and rituals have remained more or less the same.
Monotheism in Judaism
Like Christianity and Islam, Judaism is one of the most well-known monotheist religions. Monotheistic means believing in one God. Unlike some other religions like Hinduism and Buddhism, Jewish religion believes in the existence of one single God who is the source of all power in the world. In Torah, God says: "I am the first, and I am the last; and besides me there is no God." (Isaiah 44:6)
Jewish people tend to believe that there is one Supreme Being that controls the whole world and our destinies. Over…… [Read More]
However, Pharaoh's heart was heartened and he refused. ecause of this, Aaron was instructed to lay down the rod in front of the Pharaoh and it became a snake. The pharaoh then ordered his sorcerers to throw down their rods and they also became snakes but Aarons snake ate the other snakes and the Pharaoh's heart was hardened and he would not release the children of Israel. Then the Lord turn to River into blood and there was no water for seven days.
Pharaoh's heart continued to be hardened and several other plagues followed. According to the Old Testament these plagues included frogs, flies, lice, the death of cattle, boils, hail, locust, the plague of darkness. Finally, the Lord killed the entire first born of Egypt. He instructed the people of Israel to cover their doors with the sacrificial blood of a lamb so that death would pass over them.…… [Read More]
history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…… [Read More]
She answered that no one had condemned her. Jesus then said to her, "Then neither do I condemn you," Jesus declared. "Go now and leave your life of sin" (John 8:11).
Because the woman was not stoned in the end, many interpret it to mean that Jesus changed Mosaic law and then this argument is extended to capital punishment in general. However, Jesus still left the opportunity for her to be stoned. If one of the people in the crowd had been without sin, then the woman would have still been stoned. He did not tell them not to stone her, he only set a condition on who should cast the first stone. He said nothing about the second or third stone, only the first. Luckily, for the woman, there were no qualified takers who could cast the first stone. Therefore, Jesus did not abolish capital punishment in this passage.…… [Read More]
'? 17 but the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men-children alive? 18 and the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said unto them: 'Why have ye done this thing, and have saved the men-children alive?'? 19 and the midwives said unto Pharaoh: 'Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere the midwife come unto them.'? 20 and God dealt well with the midwives; and the people multiplied, and waxed very mighty? 21 and it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that He made them houses. (Exodus 1: 15-21)
The lord does not speak here of the Hebrew male children as being alive before their birth, instead he speaks of the favor he gives to the midwives who save the Hebrew male children at their birth,…… [Read More]
He indicates that even what Paul writes to people through his epistles is the Word of God. He is (again presciently) aware that the words might be twisted and misunderstood). But he has no doubt that Paul's writings (more prolific that his own were) as well as his own are divinely inspired Scripture. Paul, writing in Corinthians sums up the closeness of the role of the Holy Spirit in the furtherance of God's Words. He indicates that what he preaches does not come from him. hey are not his teachings, but directly the teaching of the Holy Spirit, which manifests itself in the form of words.
In recognizing Scriptures as the unadulterated Word of God, one must also consider biblical references of what Jesus, his apostles, prognosticators and epistle-writers thought of scripture. Simply put, what do the primary characters of the New estament think of the Old estament? Several centuries…… [Read More]
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]
Judaism and Christianity both have fairly common as well as totally contrasting religious concepts. In spite of the apparent differences and divisions it has to be understood that both these religions are like different streams of water merging in the ocean of god.
Christianity and Judaism are both religions of abrahamic origin. There are many similarities and differences between the two religions. Since Christianity originated from Judaism, it lends to the thought that both the religions are very closely related. However, in spite of their common origin, they differ considerably in some of the important issues while at the same time exhibit resemblance in many aspects. Even the monotheistic belief, which both these religions stand for, is quantified by entirely different perception of the attributes of godhead. Similarly, in the understanding of the messianic concept there is a significant contradiction giving us a hint of the vastly different nature of…… [Read More]
The first five books were separated from the whole about 400 B.C. As the Pentateuch. Jean Astruc in the eighteenth century noted that the Pentateuch is based on even earlier sources. The two chief sources have since been identified in Genesis on the basis of their respective uses of Yahweh or Elohim in referring to the deity. They are called J. For the Jehovistic or Yahwistic source and E. For the Elohistic source, and P. For the Priestly source was later separated from the E. source (Miller and Miller 698-699).
Consider just the complexities involved in the construction of the first book of the bible, Genesis, in its present form. It is believed that at an early time in human history, perhaps as early as the eleventh or tenth century B.C., someone put together the stories of God's dealing with the fathers from oral forms then in circulation. Such a…… [Read More]
The Bible and criminal procedures
There are several instances where the Bible speaks about the criminal procedures as well as justice in the society. These verses in the Bible were given as guidelines towards ensuring the protection of the innocent from undue punishment and holding the criminals to account for their crime. The verses given in the prompt affirmed my belief and conviction of how the criminal procedures should operate in a civilized society.
In the first instance, the prompt outlines the significance of having witnesses in the course of handling a case. I am in agreement two scriptures on the importance of corroboration by witness testimonies and the need for a second witness to act as a validation or affirmation of the events that led to the crime as accounted for by the first witness in order to fairly convict an individual. Deuteronomy 17:6 further gives higher…… [Read More]
The scene is reminiscent of Egyptian burial chambers; the walls were covered with brilliantly painted images of deities in animal form, including Anubis, the jackal-headed god who weighed the soul of the dead. This second phase of the prophet's vision of Jerusalem illustrates a number of important points with respect to the state of religion in the capital city. The nation's leadership was actively engaged in the pursuit of evil. hen the integrity of the nation's leadership is lost, there is no hope for its people.. It is already clear from the first part of the prophet's vision that the worship of the temple had become sadly debased; a pagan altar had been set up in the temple's outer court. So why, with a public altar outside was there a secret worship of the other false gods inside? Probably, there were two forms of the false religion? The open altar…… [Read More]
The book demonstrates faith during suffering, emphasized through Job's tribulations.
A book of poems, written primarily by David in praise of God.
A book of wisdom, often regarded as an instruction manual for a Godly life.
A book intended to help readers avoid painful situations of life experienced by Solomon.
Song of Solomon
This book is about love the sanctity of marriage.
A book about judgment and comfort, written by Isaiah.
A book of repentance, written by Jeremiah.
A book of poems that grieve Israel's ruin.
This book is a history of the fall of Jerusalem and God's judgment.
A history of Daniel's banishment in Babylon.
This book illustrates God's love for his people. Hosea's wife cheated on him Hosea drew closer to God because of it.
This book urges God's people to do right. Locusts are an example…… [Read More]
Details about their historical escape from Egypt and their trek to the Promised Land are alluded to from Exodus to Deuteronomy. Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy also touch upon the Israelites' religious duties pertaining to the Sabbath, Passover and other holidays, circumcision, the priesthood, and the various offerings to be made in God's name.
The Pentateuch serves as a wisdom document by revealing the reasons why God favored the Israelites over others. For example in Deuteronomy God explains that the Israelites' righteousness was not the reason for them inheriting the Promised Land; the wickedness of the land's former inhabitants was the actual reason for this inheritance. The wisdom to be found within the Pentateuch can also be seen in the laws that God ordained upon the Israelites such as the Ten Commandments. These laws espouse certain universally accepted doctrines such as the prohibition against stealing and giving false witness.… [Read More]
In this regard, artee (2000) points out that the Leipzig protest of January 15, 1989, was a good example of how social protest in the East was becoming more sophisticated and organized, with thousands of activists distributing leaflets calling for attendance at the rally all over Leipzig around midnight of January 11-12, 1989: "The leaflets boldly called for an open demonstration the next Sunday afternoon in front of Leipzig's old Rathaus (City Hall). The occasion, the 70th anniversary of the murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, offered the opportunity to publicize Luxemburg's famous statement that 'freedom means always freedom for those who think differently'" (artee 2000, 121). This author adds that the efforts by the activists during January 1988 to join the official parade with banners of their own clearly inspired the Leipzig protestors: "The Leipzig event would be different, however; it would be independent of any official ceremonies.…… [Read More]
It is not intended for the contemplation of the reserved sacrament. Under this new principle, Roman Catholic tabernacles are now set in separate chapels or other more appropriate places (ELCA).
Guidelines for Lutheran Churches
These Churches do not recommend the placement or use of eternal flame lamps in the worship area (ELCA 2011). Doing so will give the erroneous belief that God is present only because of the light or that He is absent if the light is off. Lutheran theology affirms the real presence of Christ in the sacrament and the maintenance of the elements for the sick and the homebound. Some Lutheran congregations keep a clear encased light near the elements to honor or indicate the area where these elements are kept but not to worship them (ELCA).
Symbols at the First Presbyterian Church
An acolyte carries a torch during a liturgical procession (FPCreidsville 2011). This light represents…… [Read More]
While unable to purchase land in their original locations, Europeans and Americans alike moved to the West as this region presented them with the ability to capitalize more on their money. Additionally, the decreased cost of transportation would have also contributed to the movement of the population. Last, it is also argued that the migration was generated by technological developments. All these in essence worked together to create a more appealing image of the West and it came to a situation in which the actual exodus led other people to also move to the West.
"Population growth and technological innovation worked in concert as the main driving factors of Western Expansion. Specifically, the decrease in transportation costs induced Western migration and the redistribution of the American population -- without it only 30% of the population would have been in the West in 1900, compared to an actual historical figure of…… [Read More]
Indeed, over half of the boatlift population had criminal backgrounds. To further support this characterization of the boatlift, Castro himself is quoted as saying that the departing citizens leaving from Mariel are the scum of the country and were surely welcome to leave Cuba for he thought no other country would have them, even America. He openly denounced the population leaving by way of boat at a 1980 May Day celebration during the height of the Mariel migration.
ut the figures about criminality do not alone tell the tale of the character of the migrants. Many criminals in Cuba have been imprisoned for political activities such as freedom of speech that would not be considered criminal in America. Also, homosexuality is illegal in Cuba. Many of the boatlift population had engaged in homosexual relations, which are outlawed in Cuba. The conservative Cuban population of America, however, was by and large…… [Read More]
The Jews, of course, were as antagonistic to hearing Stephen preach the life of Christ as they were to Christ Himself -- ho is the way of salvation, and hom they have rejected. Stephen's speech is fiery and full of love and fury -- love for Christ, fury for the Jews who rejected Him: "You stiff-necked people! Your hearts and ears are still uncircumcised." (Here Stephen as much as says, "You are not real Jews. Real Jews would have recognized their Redeemer.) "You are just like your ancestors: You always resist the Holy Spirit!" The reaction of the Jews is to stone Stephen to death. Stephen accepts his martyrdom and dies as Christ died, with a prayer for his persecutors -- and out of that prayer comes (through the mercy of God) the conversion of St. Paul.
In conclusion, "we may say that perseverance as a Christian is the only…… [Read More]
According to J.P. De Caussade, God speaks "today as he spoke in former times to our fathers when there were no directors as at present, nor any regular method of direction."
In other words, Fr. De Caussade asserts that God maintains and has always maintained a personal relationship, or a providential relationship, with mankind. However, the exact way in which God exercises control over the world and the lives of humans in the world has been debated for many centuries. Indeed, in the realm of God's providence, there are numerous variables and nuanced positions, which have been argued by Christians since the time of the Apostles through to the Protestant Reformation right up to today. This paper will consider the two broader views of recent centuries -- the Arminian and the Calvinist -- and evaluate whether there might be alternative views that incorporate both perspectives of how Providence…… [Read More]
There was no time to allow better preparation of the bread. They had to move out of Egypt in before Pharaoh could realize. The bitter herbs symbolized the bitter life experienced in Egypt. They remained as captives of slavery for many years, and a moment of redemption approached. In the book of Exodus, one sympathizes with the Jews that served life of slavery without freedom.
However, one feels delighted because of the happy conclusion when the Jews attain freedom and redemption. Passover offers a bonding moment that brings together everyone that shares the Jewish customs. The home and most Jewish families celebrate the holy days such as the New Year in Jewish calendar and the Day of Atonement. They celebrate these holy days at night of the eve of the holy day and families prepare meals before performing the synagogue service. They serve the meals with apples and honey which…… [Read More]
The objective of this study is to answer as to whether justice is served when a defendant is allowed to plea-bargain his or her case in court and why. This process is such that the prosecutor enables the defendant to plead guilty to a charge that is lesser than the original charge with less maximum sentence than the original charge.
There are many various factors that determine whether each case will be eligible for a plea bargain. This involves both sides of the case weighing the strength of their case and whether going to trial would be an effective resolution to the case. Another factor that determines whether a plea bargain might be satisfactory is the public push for prosecuting the case to the full extent of the law. The defense attorney gives consideration to the desire of the individual defendant to go to trail and the seriousness…… [Read More]
Monotheism means the worship of one god.
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all monotheistic religions: God demands an exclusive relationship with His followers and an acknowledgement of His unique power.
All major monotheistic faiths have a concept of the 'end of days' or final judgment
God as the divine watchmaker.
God sent into motion the universe with His power but we are now able to use our own reason to govern our lives.
Enlightened reason and science is the best way to understand the future.
The natural world is the source of meaning.
Ethics can be found 'in nature.'
ather than formal religion, we must look to nature for guidance.
Life has no inherent meaning.
There is no system of morality inherent to the human condition beyond that which we construct.
We are adrift and not heading to a purposeful future.
Existentialism…… [Read More]
Free Will: Comparing Aquinas & the Holy Scriptures
Thomas of Aquinas is recognized by the Orthodox as one of the foundational theologians, particularly in that he provided an important step in towards the Renaissance by helping to reacquaint Christianity with Aristotle, who he refers to throughout his as "the Philosopher." As one who draws inspiration from Aristotle, he is particularly interested in rational philosophy as applied to the realm of religion and theology. This makes his defense of free will particularly strong, though at points one feels he lacks the necessary sense of ambiguity to completely address the iblical texts. What is important to glean from his work, however, is a message that is also prominent in the Scriptures: that man is "made to God's image, in so far as the image implies an intelligent being endowed with free-will and self-movement..."
Summa Theologica, II:1:1)
Some thinkers believe that humans do…… [Read More]
marketing department has been losing, in the last period of time, well trained and enthusiastic young men, who have chosen to pursue their career elsewhere. As many of them have left after a brief period of time spent in the marketing department, the company has lost time and money invested in their training, as well as their large potential. As such, as study will be conducted to analyze the causes and propose possible solutions for this issue. The following report includes a set of data, with personnel's opinions and answers, an analysis of the data and conclusions on the findings. The last part of the report will list a series of recommendations for the company's president.
Following the recent leave of three excellent workers in the marketing department, two recently hired and one with a ten- year experience, a careful research and study will be conducted in order to evaluate…… [Read More]
Women in the Old Testament
The Bible never says that women are evil, sexually wanton or inferior to men; instead, it says a lot of good things regarding women. In the Old Testament / Hebrew Scriptures, most women are described as enterprising, resourceful, intelligent as well as, courageous. However, there are some many stories in the Old Testament that involve demeaning treatment of certain women. For instance, women were restricted to roles of no authority as well as, not allowed to testify in court. In summary, this paper will discuss on the depiction of Women in the Old Testament using two sources; Bible Harper Collins Study Bible and the Encountering Ancient Voices by Corrine Carvalho.
In Leviticus 12:1-5, a woman who gives birth to a boy is considered to be ritually unclean for 7 days. However, if the woman gives birth to a girl, the mother is unclean for 14…… [Read More]
Narcissistic leaders are part of society and take on roles that promote at times progress, at other times, chaos. This is because the narcissistic leader only cares about him or herself (Maccoby, 2012). Although such leaders may be useful in certain settings, in others, they can create long-term damage amidst subordinates and followers. Covenant leadership on the other hand generates the highest performance leaders via motivated, high-trust, and committed relationships. These leaders have a good understanding of life through successful integration of ethics and leadership, applying the private and public aspects of life into an integrated whole. The problem with covenant leadership is that it takes time to build such connections, leading to frustration and problems in the short-term. This essay hopes to examine both leadership styles and see how the narcissistic leadership style causes problems and how the covenant leadership style can offer solutions.
Narcissism has its roots in…… [Read More]
" Therefore, Spero says, there is the fifth requirement, calling the reader to keep the commandments and statutes. Spero explains: "where the reverence and love are weak, the actual observance of the commandments, with its evocation of the Presence of God, can strengthen these elemental emotions. Thus, the function of the practical commandments is both expressive and impressive" (p. 155).
The book of Deuteronomy, and specifically its tenth chapter, has multiple meanings and may be interpreted differently, depending on one's approach. But it is clear that the chapter speaks to us, to the community of faith today. Even in his secular interpretation, Nelson (2003) tried to link the book to values we consider important today (the system of checks and balances or democracy). But the book has a theological message, which is as relevant today as it was for Israelites thousands of years ago, as explained well by Tanner (2001).…… [Read More]
These Gods subjugated humans in a way that never happened in other primitive river-valley cultures yet seemed to follow a political will as the concept evolved. This finally culminates in the marriage between the God of Above, Nergal, lord of Summer, Growth and Heat; and the Goodness of the Below, Ereshkigal, queen of the underworld, inter, the Cold, and of Death. e now have opposites, attracted, and yet polarized in deed, action, and even interpretation (Messadie, 1996, 90-7).
This conception then seems to flow mythologically out of the Middle East into other cultures; we have the trickster, the shadow, the evil one, and even the unknown. However, considering the geographical location of the Abrahamic religions, it is logical that there would be a cross-over from the archetype that would manifest itself within these religious traditions.
Satan in Judaism -- in traditional Judaic thought, there is no conception of the Devil…… [Read More]
This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."
This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.
In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…… [Read More]
The death penalty is therefore morally and ethically necessary not only for an ordered society but as a necessary means to protect the innocent from evil.
Secondly, from a Catholic point-of-view this stance is supported by centuries of Church doctrine and by references to iblical test, as discussed above. This also refers to the view that many modern Catholics take; which in turn refers to the contemporary emphasis on the right to life as a sign of the decline of religion and the growth of secularization. This reflects the view that the growing opposition to the death penalty"… has gone hand in hand with a decline of faith in eternal life." ( Dulles)
The above discussion has outlined the two central arguments for and against the death penalty from a Catholic perspective. There is little doubt that this topic has also crested intense debate within the Church. This…… [Read More]