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The subject of the book is clearly applicable to the field of paleoanthropology because the same techniques can be applied to studies of human populations and their response to changes in the environment. In the contemporary world, the discussions in the book are also important in analyzing the nature of global warming, what might cause it, and what its consequences might be, given that global warming is one of the issues raised as a cause for the Permo-Triassic extinction. The book therefore may suggest what sort of future we ourselves face if the temperature does warm to a significant degree over the next several decades.
In addition, the book can give the reader a good idea of the sort of work being done today in developing an image of the change that has already taking place and so the change that might be taking place now worldwide. Those who believe…
Extinction of the Native American
The area of the world that is now known as the United States of America used to belong to various tribes of people which are now known as Native Americans as opposed to their old name, Indians, which was a misnomer based on the erroneous idea that explorers from Europe did not know that such a large land mass existed and that by crossing the Atlantic Ocean, they had made it to the country of India. hen Europeans first arrived in this country, they were highly outnumbered by populations of Native Americans. The United States of America is a nation that was built on the ideas of life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, and freedom for all persons. Yet, that freedom has been won only through the genocide of hundreds of thousands of people. In the course of a few centuries, the Native American peoples have…
Alexis de Tocqueville. Tocqueville and Beaumont on Race. 1831.
Benjamin Franklin. Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America. The Norton Anthology
of American Literature. 1782.
Bruce Johnson. Encyclopedia of American Indian History. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2008.
Early Education Shows No enefit (HSLDA 2007)
This article argues for the viewpoint that Head-Start-type early education is not only non-productive, but can actually lead to detriments to children's development as they enter formal school. The article begins by citing the results of a recent study of 35,000 students by Durham University, which found that there was no benefit to pre-school education programs for children. The article points to a series of earlier studies, reaching back to the 1960's, which demonstrate that there are no lasting benefits: it is clear from these studies that summer pre-school programs show no short-term or long-term gains, while all-year pre-schools offer some advantages only in the first year or two of formal schooling. The article also argues that children who go to pre-schools too young suffer from being away from their parents, and may have behavioral difficulties later. One could expect that those who…
Bethell, T. "Against Sociobiology." First Things. 2001. http://www.firstthings.com/article.php3?id_article=2126 (Accessed November 20, 2007).
CER. "Education Programs Constitutional; Growth Steady." EdReform. com. July 26, 2007. http://www.edreform.com/index.cfm?fuseAction=document&documentID=2691§ionID=122&NEWSYEAR=2007 (Accessed November 20, 2007).
Crawford, C.B. And Krebs, D.L. Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology: Ideas, Issues, and Applications. Mahwah: Lawrence Eribaum, 1998.
Crawford, C.B. And Sheib, J. The Essence of Evolutionary Society: An Introduction. 2004.
The most obvious front-line application of this study is in the conceptualization of the relative needs of the respective species in connection with human efforts to prevent extinction, especially extinction that is directly attributable to human activity. The traditional approach to species conservation emphasizes the data establishing declining populations. That approach ignores species that are equally at risk by virtue of human activity. Therefore, continued reliance on that approach to defining acceptable human activity in sensitive habitats and to allocating conservation attention and resources does not adequately protect species that may be tremendously vulnerable to extinction within a relatively short period of habitat invasion by human activity.
Relevance to Course Issues
We learned (among other things) that natural habitats are the product of so many specific relationships, phenomena, and delicate balances that it can be extremely difficult to predict the way that human activity might disrupt those natural…
Nail biting (onychophagia) is a bad habit, and the target behavior is the complete extinction of this habit. The baseline behavior has been observed and plotted in the following table:
Dimensions of Measurement
Frequency and Duration
Frequency and Duration
Frequency and Duration
Once per hour for minimum of ten seconds
Once per 90 minutes for minimum of ten seconds
Once per 120 minutes for minimum of five seconds
Function of Baseline Behavior
Distraction from work
Distraction and detachment
Distraction and frustration channeling
Methods to observe and acquire baseline behavior include both the frequency and duration of the behavior, observed over the course of three days. The baseline measurement prior to the intervention included a notation of both frequency and duration of the nail biting. On day one, the frequency was once per hour, but on days two and three the frequency went down in increments of…
Chan, A.L. (2014). Why biting your nails is more than just a bad habit. Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/18/nail-biting-bad-for-you_n_5675467.html
Gibson, L.E. (n.d.). Does nail biting cause any long-term nail damage? Mayo Clinic. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/expert-answers/nail-biting/faq-20058548
"How to Stop Nail Biting," (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/beauty/nails/stop-nail-biting-tips
Standen, A. (2012). Nail biting: mental disorder or just a bad habit? NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2012/10/01/161766321/nail-biting-mental-disorder-or-just-a-bad-habit
Evolutionists for generations after Darwin imagined a slow and steady process of adaptation, in which daily culling and breeding success very gradually adapted a population from one form into another. Such a process would not be dissimilar to unnatural selection, such as that done with domesticated animals, that gradually worked to change a wolf into a little Cairn Terrier or Shih Tzu. However, some have suggested that there might be a more sudden sort of change involved, in which evolution moves suddenly and with great speed. This theorized form of evolution, called punctuated equilibrium, has been widely debated, but seems to be increasingly accepted by scientists. There appears to be evidence for punctuated equilibrium from laboratory experiments, from field and fossil evidence, from theory and even from Darwin's original work.
It is a common misconception that evolution cannot be experimentally studied in laboratories -- actually, a number…
Broyles, R.C. 1997. Punctuated Equilibrium. http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/1366/pe.html
Kerr, R.A. 1995. Did Darwin get it all right? Science, v267 n5203 p1421(2)
Mlot, Christine. 1996. Microbes hint at a mechanism behind punctuated evolution. Science, v272 n5269 p1741(1)
Theobald, D. 2003. All you need to know about Punctuated Equilibrium (almost): Common misconceptions concerning the hypothesis of Punctuated Equilibrium. University of Colorado at Boulder. http://ucsu.colorado.edu/~theobal/PE.html
1. The bookmarks indicated the following six events:
· Formation of the earth and moon 4.6 billion years ago
· Earliest life, 3.9 billion years ago
· Early land plants 420 million years ago
· Largest mass extinction 248 million years ago
· Dinosaur extinction 65 million years ago
· "Lucy", early hominid, 4 million years ago
2. In the Archaean period, there are cyanobacteria and stromatites.
3. The three periods of time that are described as eras are the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, and the Cenozoic.
4. There are five mass extinction events listed. They are:
End-Orcovician, where many types of ocean life became extinct including trilobites, brachiopods, and graptolites. The Late Devonian, stromatoporoids, brachiopods associated with reefs and more trilobites all became extinct, as coral systems suffered heavy losses. The End-Permian extinction saw some corals, trilobites, and types of brachiopods, orinoids and shelled cephalopods all became extinct at this…
eversing Extinction Without etraining
einstate CS without U.S.
The association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (U.S.) is believed to be the result of synaptic connections that formed during the pairing of the CS and U.S.. Extinction training had therefore been proposed to represent the dissolution of these connections (reviewed in Gupta, Vig, Noelle, 2011). However, a large body of evidence argues against this model and suggests conditioning and extinction represent two functionally distinct neurobiological systems; one for the acquisition of an CS-U.S. association and the other capable of inhibiting this association. This would explain the phenomenon of 'savings', which represents the ability of a response to be restored with little effort after extinction training. The second model also explains why a second round of extinction training takes less time to work. The neuronal connections that were formed during the CS-U.S. pairing therefore remain intact, even after…
Gupta, Ashish, Vig, Lovekesh, Noelle, David C. (2011). A dual association model for the extinction of animal conditioning. Neurocomputing. Published online ahead of print. Retrieved September 3, 2011 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092523121100422X
Thanellou, Alexandra and Green, John T. (2011). Spontaneous recovery but not reinstatement of the extinguished conditioned eyeblink response in the rat. Behavioral Neuroscience, 125, 613-625.
Contrary to what one would expect if the extinction were gradual, the existing history of fossil records indicates that dinosaur were doing quite well up and that there were no factors threatening their extinction but that suddenly there is a complete loss of fossil history; a sudden extinction?
The collision theory is likely the most popular of the available approaches but there are several others including one that involves the idea that massive volcanic eruptions throughout the world caused the extinction of the dinosaur. The theory is that volcanic activity became so widespread as to cause a severe buildup in gas, ash, and dust to accumulate in the atmosphere to the point that the sun's rays were eventually lessened to the point that temperatures plummeted, plant life died, and the dinosaur could not adapt to their new environment and gradually died off as a result. The physical evidence for this…
With the purpose of finding out what the minimum population to be introduced in a nature reserve was, wildlife biologists employed a computer simulated (stage 2) reproductive history of each bear in a population and altered the number of individuals so as to determine if certain numbers of bear populations would generate individuals who would last for 100 years. Even though this provided wildlife biologists with important information, they went further (step 3) and tried to see what happened if new bears were added to the initial population over the 100 years course. Wildlife biologists consulted historical data (step 4) with the intention of discovering what the home range (amount of land used throughout a lifetime) an adult female was. Combining information obtained during the previous steps, wildlife biologists found the minimum land area a bear population needed in order to have 50% chances of survival.
Step 6 involves the…
Extinction Events or Environmental Catastrophes
Many uncertainties exist over the acts and roles of extinction in the world today. Nonetheless, with all these uncertainties, it is possible to formulate reasonable statements that depict the probable role of extinction. The role of extinction can be thought to have some elements, most of which are instrumental in striking the relationship and power seen in evolution and extinction in the earth's history up to the appearance of hominids (8 million years ago) . For any widespread species or any group of a widespread species, extinction needs some bit of environmental shock that comes in the form of physical or biological aspects that normally occur. Such occurrences take place during the geological lifespans of the given species or groups of species. In this case, the shock that is resulting has to be applied with a rapidness that is enough to take place over a…
Abe, Takuya, Simon A. Levin, and M. Higashi. 1997. Biodiversity and Ecological Perspective. New York, NY: Springer New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-1906-4 .
Courtillot, Vincent. 2002. Evolutionary Catastrophes: The Science of Mass Extinction. Cambridge [U.A.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Fry, Iris. 2000. The Emergence of Life on Earth: A Historical and Scientific Overview. New Brunswick, NJ [U.A.]: Rutgers University Press.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. 2014. The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History. New York, Routledge.
However, there simply does not seem to be sufficient evidence for the disease hypothesis. First, there has been no evidence of disease found. Next, even extremely virulent diseases, like the plague or West Nile Virus, do not have the kill rates necessary to cause the extinction of an entire species. In addition, one has to realize that the extinction of large mammals coincided with the extinction of other animals, like birds, marsupials, placentals, testudines, and crocodilians. It is unlikely that a disease would be lethal in such a wide-variety of animal populations, especially when it did not destroy all species of certain animal genus.
The final theory is that a meteor killed the large mammals. There is evidence that meteor impacts caused earlier extinctions like the Permian-Triassic extinction and the extinction of the dinosaurs. Meteor impacts can interfere with food sources, because the resulting dust in the air interferes with…
Without the mass extinction of the dinosaurs, is doubtful that human beings would ever have evolved in the first place. By comparison to the effects of the that meteorite, all of the human activity in the world that has ever occurred since the first human being who hunted for prey or started a fire is infinitesimally small and utterly insignificant.
More importantly, human concern for animal species extinctions seems to be largely predicated on our anthropomorphic impulses: that is, we have the greatest empathy for animals that remind us of ourselves or that seem appealing or "cute" to us. Consider the different way that we regard tuna and dolphin for just one example. We hunt the former so aggressively that we are on the verge of having to maintain wild tuna populations artificially if we hope to continue eating as much sushi and tuna fish sandwiches as we wish. Other…
Theories Of Collapse Of The Mayan Civilization
The Mayan civilization existed between the third and the tenth centuries A.D. In a region that covers the present parts of Guatemala, Yucatan, and Honduras. Historical analysis shows that the Mayan people had a lively trade irrespective of the poor nature of their soil and abundance of dense forest and insects. The marvel cities and advanced calendar system of the Mayan people attest to their prolific knowledge, expertise, and skills. The perfectly written and maintained manuscript compounds to the prowess nature of this population. However, most of the cities of the Mayan people remained deserted past the tenth century. The reasons behind their disappearance remain a mystery. An assortment of theories has been developed to explain their disappearance (Heley, 2010). Therefore, this research paper discusses two of the theories explaining the disappearance of the Mayan people alongside discussing the most effective…
Heley, M. (2010). The Everything Guide to 2012: All you need to know about the theories, beliefs, and history surrounding the ancient Mayan prophecies. Cincinnati: F+W Media.
Foster, L.V. (2007). A brief history of Central America. New York: Facts on File.
Gill, R.B. (2001). The great Maya droughts: Water, life, and death. Albuquerque: Univ. Of New Mexico Press.
Simonian, L. (1995). Defending the land of the jaguar: A history of conservation in Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Gould's and Mayr's biological species concept, as presented by Stamos (2008). According to these scientists and to this species concept, two populations are termed as belonging to the same species if they are capable of interbreeding.
So, as Stamos further exemplifies, the chimpanzees form a single species, because they are capable of interbreeding, they are producing offspring. Human beings and chimpanzees are not capable of producing offspring together, so they belong to two different species. Furthermore, two races of dogs belong to the same species: they are capable of interbreeding and the resulting dog is also fertile. However, a horse and a donkey belong to different species: while they are able to interbreed, their resulting offspring is not itself fertile.
To sum up, my understand is that humans belong to the same species because of reproductive compatibility. At the same time, the human species is formed of different races, whereby…
1. Stamos, David, (2011). Evolution and the Big Questions: Sex, Race, Religion, and Other Matters. John Wiley & Sons
2. Barnosky, A. et al. (2011). Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived? 3 MARCH 2011 | VOL 471 | NATURE | 51-55
3. Hill, Kevin, (1993). The Endangered Species Act: What Do We Mean
by Species? Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review. Volume 20, Issue 2, Article 3
child refuses to take a nap, punishment is one option of creating the desired behavior. A parent may rely on several classical behavioral learning techniques to gradually encourage the child to nap. The technique of punishment is one of many methods of reinforcement, based on basic operant conditioning and behaviorism.
With punishment, an aversive stimulus is added to decrease the behavior (Heffner, n.d.). The idea is that the subject associates the undesirable behavior with negative consequences and therefore avoids that behavior in the future. If it is applied immediately and directly after the behavior is exhibited, and applied consistently and clearly after each instance, punishment may be effective.
However, punishment can also lead to suppressed emotions like anger or resentment, and may create other undesirable behaviors if not used properly (Heffner, n.d.). Therefore, the punishment for not taking a nap must be consistent and appropriate. Examples of types of punishments…
Beck, H.P. (2001). General psychology. Retrieved online: http://www1.appstate.edu/~beckhp/reinforcementdefinitions.htm
"Corporal Punishment: Key Issues," (n.d.) Australian Institute of Family Studies. Retrieved online: https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/corporal-punishment-key-issues
Heffner, C.L. (n.d.). Reinforcement and reinforcement schedules. AllPsych. Retrieved online: http://allpsych.com/psychology101 /reinforcement/#.VdtPE9OrSRs
Provide an example of something you learned through positive reinforcement; provide an example of something you learned through negative reinforcement.
Through positive reinforcement, I learned how to throw a ball. My father taught me in the backyard, and the farther I threw it, the more he told me I had done a 'good job.' I learned through negative reinforcement not to breathe through my nose while swimming -- every time I breathed incorrectly, I would always choke on the water, which made me extremely aware of how I was breathing.
Provide an example (and the steps involved) of something you can teach a child or a pet through shaping.
You can housebreak a puppy through shaping. First, you keep the puppy in a crate because it does not want to soil its den, and only let it out of the crate when you can observe the puppy. When the puppy…
Biodiversity is a term which refers to the amount and degree of diversity found within living biology. Biodiversity is likely best measured as the sum total of the number of existent creatures, systems, and variety of creatures found within the world at large (National Geographic, 2016). In order to best understand the significance of this statement, it is necessary to codify biodiversity into three different varieties. There are ecosystems, species, and genes which comprise all of the variety found within the notion of biodiversity (National Wildlife Federation, 2016). Therefore, all that is needed to determine biodiversity is to simply add the number of each ecosystem, species, and gene variation found.
The importance and benefits of biodiversity
Biodiversity is important because of the way that different living systems found within it interact with one another. Oftentimes there is a degree of dependence between those systems. It is worth noting…
The Malayan tiger is a tiger subspecies that is smaller in size and is found in Malaysia as well as some areas in Thailand. It is one of the many tiger species but it is endangered. It can be found in central and southern areas of the Malaysia peninsula as well as to the south of Thailand. Its habitat is the forests that are less dense which have higher food supply.
Because of the loss of habitat occasioned by deforestation, the existence of Malayan tiger is endangered. Recent estimates place their population at between 600-800 individuals, thereby making it one of the tiger species that have a large population (Malayan Tiger n.p).
ild tigers in all their species are facing extinction threats. For hundreds of years they have been important in Asia's nature and culture (Global recovery program p.10). They are at the top of the…
"Global Tiger Initiative." Tiger Summit. St. Petersburg: Global Tiger Initiative Secretariat, 2010. 70.
Malayan Tiger. 1 January 2008. 26 January 2015 .
"Securing a future for tigers in the wild." Wednesday November 2010. WWF. Accessed by 26 January 2015 available at:.
Tara Harris, Minnesota zoo, Allison Amavisa, Phoenix zoo. "Tiger conservation campaign." The AZA tiger species survival plan (2012): 12.
3. Most early colleges were always on the "edge of extinction." Why? There are several reasons why the early colleges hovered on the age of extinction. One of the more plausible is the fact that they college life did not appeal to many of the working class, which made up most of the Unite States. Numerous of these saw no practical reason for the college or university. In addition, institutions of higher learning were at the mercy of financial and natural disasters.
4. Did the American people not value education enough to support their emerging colleges? While the American people did value the college and university experience, Americans quickly created for themselves an identity that was different from the English identity. This different identity required a different kind of university. This is what prompted University of Nashville President Philip Lindsley to say, "our busy, restless, speculating, money-making people' required colleges…
Some biologists suggest the decline may be due to a "decreasing availability of suitable carrion and increasing competition for carcasses by other species (Prospero)." In order for the beetle to reproduce, it must have the carcass of a vertebrate animal approximately the size of a dove.
There have been a number of proposed plans for recovery management of the beetle, as well as implementations. In 2001, there was a largest "American burying beetle reintroduction effort in the 12-year history of the species' recovery program on Nantucket Island off the Massachusetts (Clough)." Over 300 beetles were raised for this release in Providence, Rhode Island at the Roger illiams Park Zoo. In June 2001, "320 American burying beetles (160 pairs) were given dead quail for food and released at the Massachusetts Audubon Society's Sesachacha ildlife Sanctuary. ith each pair of beetles capable of raising 10-20 larvae, there is hope the…
American Burying Beetle. (Accessed 29 November, 2004). http://endangered.fws.gov/wildlife.html#Species ).
Chenot, Amy. "UW Researchers Hunt Endangered Beetle." Wisconsin State Journal. (1996):
Clough, Mark. "Region 5. (Regional News & Recovery Updates)." Endangered Species
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
Part 1: A Closer Look at the Evidence
1. The first graph on the NASA site shows the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, comparing across time. It shows that for all time, there were fluctuations in the level of CO2 in the atmosphere, but that the level always remained below 300 parts per million. The graph takes a sharp uptick in recent years, and by the time we get to the 20th century it is basically a straight upward line, to the present level around 400ppm. The 1950 level was only at around 320, so nearly a quarter of the carbon in the atmosphere has been added in about the last 70 years or so, and that is for all-time.
The UK website explains that the increase in carbon dioxide levels in the environment has occurred since the Industrial Revolution, which brought about many changes in technology, including the…
Human ace and Environment
The Human ace and the Environment: Moral and Ethical Dilemmas
"We can't as humans oblige the environment to follow our agenda in all things, however much we can bend certain natural forces to our will; we can't control the weather system or the succession of the seasons...the world turn, and the tides move at the drawing of the moon" (Williams). As the modern philosopher comments on the relationship that humans have with the environment, it seems that his commentary is more than just that- it is factual information that needs to be explored deeper. The environment that the human race inhabits is a delicate one but it is imperative that there is an understanding between the two entities, especially from the humans that reap the benefits from the environment. From William's commentary, moral and ethical questions are illuminated in regards to the relationship between the human…
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, (2011): Scientific Missions- Reduce the environmental effects of human activities. Available from: http://www.pnnl.gov/missions/environment.asp : [Accessed: Oct 18, 2011].
Science Staff, (2011), "Global warming ," The New York Times, Sep 30, 2011.
Soluk, A, (2010), Why We Need to Protect Our Environment, New Polity. Available from: http://www.newpolity.com/2010/10/21/why-we-need-to-protect-our-environment,: [Accessed: Oct 18, 2011].
Williams, R, (2009), Rowan Williams: Human Responsibility and the Environment, . Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/belief/2009/mar/26/religion-anglicanism ,: [Accessed: Oct 18, 2011].
For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.
The Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.
With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…
Akers, Ronald. Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Transaction Publishers, 2009
Griffin, Ricky Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning, 2009
Sarafino, Edward. Self-Management: Using Behavioral and Cognitive Principles to Manage Your Life. John Wiley and Sons, 2010
Ronald Akers, Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance (Transaction Publishers, 2009), 25.
Finally, the third category of needs is given by power - or the individuals who wish to have control; they have a small interest in what other people think of them and only desire their obedience.
E: Example: An individual driven by affiliation needs will not make major decisions on his own, but will always consult with his loved ones to get their opinion and approval. A power driven individual on the other hand will make those decisions on his own mostly because he can and this once again assures him of his power.
Skinner's Reinforcement Theory
T: Topic sentence: Skinner's theory identifies four types of responses that could be implemented by a higher power relative to the behavior of a subaltern.
E: Explain what that is: The first possible response would be a positive reinforcement which encourages the individual to continue; the second is negative reinforcement which encourages the…
Barnet, T., 2006, Reinforcement Theory, Reference for Business, http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Pr-Sa/Reinforcement-Theory.htmllast accessed on May 20, 2008
Chapman, a., 1995-2008, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.html . Ast accessed on May 20, 2008
September 2002, What Is Motivation?, University of South Australia, http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/motivation/Pages/What%20is%20Motivation.html . Ast accessed on May 20, 2008
2002-2007, Acquired Needs Theory, Changing Minds, http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/acquired_needs.html . Ast accessed on May 20, 2008
Candix represents a company that came into existence after extinction for various economical and organizational issues. In order to revive the organization, the transaction system in 2000 was mainly on the provision of procurement services to the oil and gas market and industry in Nigeria. To supplement this development, the company also executes engineering projects to oil and gas industry and the government of Nigeria. The company operates on the organization of six members constituting the board of directors. The business transactions have not been notable for the company hence realization of numerous challenges. The task is to enable the company develop effective and efficient transaction system to meet the needs and satisfaction of clients or consumers in the market. The company operates on three main activities or categories in order to enhance the total revenue hence expansion of production levels. The three activities are procurement of goods…
Teplicka, K, & ulkova, K 2011, 'Kaizen and Its Applying during Cost Decreasing In Process Of
Production Firm Maintenance', Annals of the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara
International Journal of Engineering, 9, 3, pp. 315-318, Academic Search Complete,
EBSCOhost, viewed 26 July 2012.
TVA v. Hill Questions
Do you agree with the Court's decision, based upon the language of the Endangered Species Act quoted above? That is, did the Endangered Species Act preclude construction of the dam? Should the ESA have precluded construction of the dam? as Congress right to amend the ESA to permit the dam to be built?
The Supreme Court acted correctly in its decidedly rigid invocation of Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). According to its decision, Section 7 asserts that "all Federal agencies must take such action as is necessary to ensure that actions authorized, funded, or carried out by them do not result in the destruction or modification of this critical habitat area." (U.S. Supreme Court, p. 1)
Given that $100 million of federal funds had already been funneled into the Tellico Dam project, it is clear that Congress was explicitly responsible for…
Church, T.W. (2007). Review: The Snail Darter Case: TVA vs. The Endangered Species Act by Kenneth M. Murchison. Law and Politics Book Review, 17(8).
Courts, Cats, and Carbon (CCC). (2013). Special Feature: Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill. Courtscatscarbon.com/
Garrett, E. (2009). The Story of TVA v. Hill: Congress Has the Last Word. Weblaw.usc.edu.
Rizzardi, K. (2008). Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill -- 437 U.S. 153. ESA Blawg.
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
GOVENMENT'S USE OF SPECIAL NETS
Opinion Supporting the Government's Use of Special Nets
There is a great concern for the endangered species in the environment thus there is a need for their protection. The activities such as poaching, unregulated fishing, and deforestation contribute to the extinction of some species (McDonald et al. 2016). Notably, there is a need to check on the human behaviors in the environment to protect the animal species that are in the danger of the extinctions.
As seen from the case, the U.S.' government considered it appropriate to protect the environment including the animals facing the dangers of the extinctions. It is clear that there is a rise in the case of trade on the elephant ivory and the other animals such as the shrimps and the turtles (Wojakowski et al. 2015). Therefore, the government is attempting to explore the different problems facing the endangered species…
Bennett, N., Dearden, P., Murray, G., and Kadfak, A., 2014. The Capacity to Adapt? Communities In A Changing Climate, Environment, and Economy On The Northern Andaman Coast Of Thailand. Ecology and Society 19(2): 5.
Jensen, K. and Rozenberg, G. Eds., 2012. High-Level Petri Nets: Theory and Application. Springer Science & Business Media
McDonald, S.L., Lewison, R. L. and Read, A.J., 2016. Evaluating the Efficacy of Environmental Legislation: A Case Study from the U.S. Marine Mammal Take Reduction Planning Process. Global Ecology and Conservation, 5, Pp.1-11
Peckham, S.H., Lucero-Romero, J., Maldonado-Diaz, D., Rodriguez-Sanchez, A., Senko, J., Wojakowski, M. and Gaos, A., 2015. Buoyless Nets Reduce Sea Turtle Bycatch In Coastal Net Fisheries. Conservation Letters Volume 9, Issue 2, pages 114-121,
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…
Time-Outs in the Classroom
Time-Outs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Time-Outs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
On the second page of a 2010 report published by the National Disabilities ights Network (NDN) called School is Not Supposed to Hurt is a picture of a 7-year-old girl who died while being restrained and secluded in a Wisconsin school. This report went on to describe the wide-spread used of restraints and seclusion by schools in the United States and its publication triggered a congressional investigation. The Government Accountability Office (GAO, 2009) published its own report a few months later, which examined 10 court cases resulting in criminal convictions, civil adjudications, or settlements. These 10 cases formed the basis for judging the veracity of hundreds of allegations of mistreatment, injuries, and death resulting from children being restrained or secluded by school personnel. Even more troubling was the…
Benshoof, S.R. (2012). The Use of Time-Out with Escape Extinction to Reduce Noncompliance Maintained by Escape or Attention (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing. (No. 3534847).
Donaldson, J.M., Vollmer, T.R., Yakich, T.M., & Van Camp, C. (2013). Effects of a reduced time-out interval on compliance with the time-out instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46(2), 369-78.
Everett, G.E., Olmi, D.J., Edwards, R.P., Tingstrom, DH, Sterling-Turner, H.E., & Christ, T.J. (2007). An empirical investigation of time-out with and without escape extinction to treat escape-maintained noncompliance. Behavior Modification, 31(4), 412-34.
Fabiano, G.A., Pelham, W.E. Jr., Manos, M.J., Gnagy, E.M., Chronis, A.M., Onyango, A.N. et al. (2004). An evaluation of three time-out procedures for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavior Therapy, 35, 449-69.
According to Fitzpatrick & Keegan (2010), "This use of historical ecology to study "the complex, historical interactions between human populations and the ecosystems they have inhabited" (Kirch 1997a, p.2; see also Crumley (ed.) 1994), has been applied in other parts of the world to observe anthropogenic changes through time. Archaeologists, influenced by a wide array of scientific fields, have taken a keen interest in understanding how humans adapted, influenced, modified, and impacted their environment. This is a difficult endeavor, however, because "environments change and the magnitude of change are never constant" (O'Brien 2001, pp. 29-30). (Fitzpatrick, Keegan, pg. 30, 2007)
Fitzpatrick & Keegan point to the uses of historical ecology to investigate the interrelationships between humans and the biosphere. The importance of noting environmental changes as separate from human involvement may be erroneous. Environmental changes are hinted by proponents of historical ecology to have been initiated by humans through their…
Anderson, a. 2009, Epilogue: Changing Archaeological Perspectives upon Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands1, University Press of Hawaii.
Balee W. (1998), Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates -- Chapter 1.
Bird DW., Richardson JL., Veth PM., Barham AJ. (2002) Explaining Shellfish Variability in Middens on the Meriam Islands, Torres Strait, Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 457-469
Erlandson, Rick (2010) Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems.
Class room management holds extreme importance in the process of teaching. It is mandatory for a teacher to manage her class effectively in order to achieve her predetermined instructional goals. 'Successful classroom management involves much more than rules and discipline. Indeed research into classroom management demonstrates that effective teachers are proactive about student behavior, and they involve students in the process of establishing and maintaining rules and routines'. (Strong, 2007)
An effective instructional is dependent on various factors, and a properly managed classroom is definitely one of those factors. There is no way that a teacher can achieve her desire objective, if the process of teaching is taking place in a poorly managed classroom. A properly managed classroom along with attractive materials can definitely attract the attention of students and involve them in the process of learning. Management of classroom is also important to avoid any unnecessary wastage…
Evertson, C.M, & Weinstein, C.S. (2006). Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (p.51)
Mcleod, J, Fisher, J, & Hoover, G. (2003). The Key Elements of Classroom Management: Managing Time and Space, Student. Alexandria, USA: ASCD Publication.(p. 75)
Stronge, J.H. (2007). Qualities of Effective Teachers. Alexandria, USA: ASCD Publication. (p.40)
return of the Gray Wolf. The writer details the history of the species including their near extinction. The writer then discusses the comeback efforts that have been employed and their success levels. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
Earth Watch, The eturn of the Gray Wolf
For many decades the plight of the Gray Wolf was underplayed through the public's misunderstanding. The Gray Wolf brought to mind flickering movie screens in which gray wolves would howl at the moon and attack prey after dark. The image conjured up a strong and virile species that was destined to live forever in the wild for the public to fear and admire at the same time. The truth is the Gray Wolf was slowly dying off and was eventually threatened with extinction. The Gray Wolf was not a species that elicited warm fuzzy feelings nor did people think they should…
Author not available (1999). DEFENDERS OF WILDLIFE RELEASES FIRST COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL WOLF STRATEGY. U.S. Newswire, 12-17-1999.
Hebert, Josef. H.(2000). Gray Wolf Makes Remarkable Recovery. AP Online, 07-11-2000.
Uhlenbrock; Tom (1998).Of The Post-Dispatch, GRAY WOLF SHOT BY CAMPER IN ARIZONA IS SETBACK FOR A ST. LOUIS WILDLIFE GROUP MALE WAS REINTRODUCED INTO WILD., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 05-01-1998, pp B4.
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…
Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.
Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…
Antarctica. Siyabona Africa Web site. Retrieved September 28, 2004 at http://balule.krugerpark.co.za/africa_antarctica.html
Chile Web site. Retrieved September 17, 2004 at http://www.visit-chile.org/antartica/antartica.phtml
Australia urges regulation as tourism to Antarctica escalates. (2004, March 24) Agence France Presse English. Retrieved September 14, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com .
Bulgaria in Antarctica. Retrieved September 15, 2004 at http://www.bluelink.net/antarctic/ant_en/BGant.htm
The attempts to penetrate the cove seems to be more thrilling to timepiece, as individual may be able to see the very real danger the creatures were subjected to due to the system or methods used in capturing them which did range from revolutionary, at night they indeed they used thermal-imaging to scout out the location.
There is No doubt that such a sturdy mix of factors has been involved in the reformation of the AME food web with which both climate alter and exhaustion of acme and middle atrophic level of genus playing a part which brings us to this question of whether we should seriously re think the relative contributions what it is that we actually measure or manage in the whole observed trends of SO organization
Johnston, E. "Mercury Danger in Dolphin Meat," Japan Times, 23 (September 2009).
Leigh, E.G., S.J. Wright, E.A. Herre, and…
Johnston, E. "Mercury Danger in Dolphin Meat," Japan Times, 23 (September 2009).
Leigh, E.G., S.J. Wright, E.A. Herre, and F.E. Putz. 1993. The decline of tree diversity on newly
isolated tropical islands: A test of a null hypothesis and the implications. Evol. Ecol. 7:76-102.
"Mercury levels of whale-eating town's residents 10 times average," Japan Today: Japan News
Deposition occurred over a very long time period. The study found that the sediments separating the two events were characteristic of normal sedimentation, with burrows formed by creatures colonizing the ocean floor, erosion and transportation of sediments, and no evidence of structural disturbance" which means that there is no reason to believe that the asteroid impacted normal life in measurable fashion very quickly, or that fossil evidence of the asteroid's impact had been disrupted (New blow against dinosaur-killing asteroid theory, geologists find, 2009, National Science Foundation).
Even defenders of the asteroid theory think it is unlikely that it was a one-time event that killed most of the life on planet earth, and believe that the asteroids created inhospitable conditions that developed over time. Recent research also indicates that the asteroid "landed in deeper water than previously assumed and therefore released about 6.5 times more water vapor into the atmosphere. The…
Geologist gets to the bottom of Chicxulub impact crater. (2007, January 22).
University of Alaska Fairbanks. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 3, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com ? / releases/2007/01/070118094039.htm
Hypothesis: Asteroid impact. (2009). Evolution: What killed the dinosaurs? PBS.
Retrieved May 3, 2009 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/extinction/dinosaurs/asteroid.html
he study illustrates through the use of many other situations as examples that the government is not upholding and enforcing the ESA the way it should be when it comes to fresh water mussels and their current threat of extinction.
his study was extremely thorough and dedicated to providing the most information possible in its completion.
It incorporated an educational component in which it explored the law as well as the fresh mussel species.
Because of the method it used in examining the problem through a case study that held fresh mussels and their plight against hundreds of similar situations, and pointed out the differences and outcomes in those situations this case study should be considered thorough and well done research.
he public and private sector can use this study in decision making when it comes to current and future development questions in their areas.
One example would be…
This study was an excellent example of how a well done piece of research can provide answers for everyone that has an interest in a topic, regardless of the "side" one is on.
Biber, Eric (2002) the application of the Endangered Species Act to the protection of freshwater mussels: a case study. Environmental Law
Coral reefs began declining when more and more large fish, turtles and seals were killed, species which in the past had frequented coral reef systems. The "reduced visits" have led to a reduced number of herbivorous fish and "added nutrients from pollution" all of which result in seaweed overgrowth and destruction of the reef (Houlder, 2003).
Methods for Addressing Over fishing
The government has encouraged many fisheries and local agents to develop strategic plans for combating the problem of deep sea over fishing. In particular much attention has been spent on an 'ecosystem' approach to fishery management which is adaptive, geographically specified and works to balance diverse objectives (Shotton, 2003). An ecosystem approach aims at "conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems and the fishery resource" (Shotton, 2003).
Longlines can be weighted so that bait sinks faster, and hooks can be set at night, thus reducing the impacts on…
Clarke, T. (September, 2003). "North sea fish have shrunk." Nature Science - European
Cetacean Bycatch Campaign. 1, December 2004: http://www.eurocbc.org/northsea_number_small_fish_increased_due_to_overfishing_25sept2003page1290.html
CSI. "Destructive Fishing Practices." Conservation Science Institute. 1, December, 2004 from: http://www.conservationinstitute.org/destructivefishingpractices.htm
Dayton, P.K., Thrush, S.F., Agardy, M.T., & Hofman, R.J. (1995). "Environmental effects of marine fishing." Aquatic Conservation 5: 205-32
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited…
Amazon rainforest destruction at 10-year high
By Raymond Colitt in Sao Paulo (accessed 5-19-05)
Published: May 20, 2005 03:00 | Last updated: May 20, 2005 03:00
http://news.ft.com/cms/s/4ea07b74-c8cd-11d9-87c9-00000e2511c8.html rainforest (accessed 5-19-05)
Explain what conservation biology is and highlight its goals.
Conservation biology is a branch of biological sciences which is primarily concerned with the preservation of life on earth including organisms which are classified as plants and animals. It examines biodiversity and ways and means in which the biodiversity of life on Earth can best be sustained (Sahney 2008,-page 759). This branch of biological study began as a reaction to the growing concern over extinction of species and disruption of habitats because of natural disasters and/or the actions and behaviors of human beings and industrialization. Interactions between species, particularly the interaction between humans and native populations is of particular interest to conservation biologists, particularly in terms of negative effects of human interaction.
The goals of conversation biologists are to protect various species as well as their habitats and ecosystems. They also want to prevent the extinction of species and…
Fujikawa, T. & Dougherty, J. (2010). The value of biodiversity and its impact on human health.
David Suzuki Foundation.
Sadava, et al. (2011). Life: the Science of Biology Volume 2. 9th ed. Sinauer: Gordonsville, VA.
Sahney, S. & Benton, M. (2008). Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time.
Ethics of Intervention for Food Refusal
'Feeding' means ingesting food during initiation stages between an adult and a child, mostly mothers; while 'eating' means an individual ingesting food on his own. Feeding problems and issues are very common in toddlers and infants and parents often report vomiting, spitting around mealtime, and lack of gain of weight of children.. The parents also report their toddlers being very fussy about their food, which includes eating a minority of foods while rejecting most others and also eating very little at every meal. The studies show that more than half of the parents of toddlers and infants report feeding problems with special needs children being at a lot of risk, necessitating corrective, intervention plans (Kerwin, 2004).
The Escape Extinction (EE) is put into action when the feeding problem of a child is understood to be tackled by negative reinforcement, which is a process…
Bachmeyer, M. H. (2009). Treatment of Selective and Inadequate Food Intake in Children: A Review and Practical Guide. Behav Anal Pract., 43-50.
Kerwin, M. E. (2004). Behavioral Intervention and Prevention of Feeding Difficulties in Infants and Toddlers. JEIBI, 129.
PETULA C. M. VAZ, V. M. (2011). USING NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT TO INCREASE SELF-FEEDING. USING NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT TO INCREASE SELF-FEEDING, 915-920.
Trees cover nothing less than one-third of the earth's surface, and it is estimated that around 3 trillion trees exist worldwide. Forests are found in different climates and locations, they exist in wet, dry, sweltering and bitterly climates. Each of these forests types have the natural peculiarities that allow them to develop in their respective climate (Motivans). Unfortunately, in the past few decades, there has been an enormous level of commercial activities that have subjected forests all over the world to a dire consequential threat with adverse felt by most of the woodlands around the world. Deforestation, road and building constructions form a major part of human threats on the woodlands. Adding to the human activities is the climate change, which has been very devastating on many of the species that inhabit these forests. The threats on their inhabitants are a direct danger of extinction to these woodlands, as what…
Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.
The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)
The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…
Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.
Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.
Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.
Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
Crocodiles are appreciated for their self preservation capacity and for their apex predator position. However, hundreds of people are killed every year as a result of their encounter with the beasts. In order to control the problem, people resorted to having crocodiles removed from human-inhabited areas. In spite of the fact that the situation ameliorated as a result of crocodiles being removed, people are still easy victims for stealthy crocodiles. (Lynne, Kelly.)
The Australian government is determined to put an end to crocodile attacks. Considering the fact that tens of thousands of crocodiles are found on the continent, people believe that it is virtually unavoidable for others to fall victims to crocodiles. (Lynne, Kelly.)
hile it is generally believed that only carnivores can be apex predators, omnivores can also be true killers. Brown bears, for example, have no natural enemy within the ecosystems that they reside in, and,…
1. Lynne, Kelly. Crocodile: evolution's greatest survivor. Allen & Unwin, 2006.
2. Prugh, R. Laura, and Stoner, J. Chantal, and Epps, W. Clinton, and Bean, T. William, and Ripple, J. William, and Laliberte, S. Andrea, and Brashares, S. Justin. "The Rise of the Mesopredator." Bioscience Vol. 59, No. 9.
3. Whyte Macdonald, David Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio. The biology and conservation of wild canids. Oxford University Press, 2004.
4. "Wolf Management Strategies." Wisconsin Departament of Natural Resources. 25 Nov. 2009
Political Issue and Tourism
Over the years, there has been concern over the fats shifting weather pattern occasioned by the global warming. Extreme and erratic weather conditions have been experienced in almost every part of the world. This essay will review the literature that is available on the definition of Global warming, the causes of global warming, effects of global warming on the community and nations, what the government is doing to stop global warming, as well as what Non-Governmental Organizations or Non-State Organizations are doing to stop global warming and finally what should be done to stop global warming.
The essay will also review the impact of global warming and community of Nations on tourism and how the changing weather patterns have impacted on the tourism trends from the human perspective as well as from the flora and fauna perspective. This will show how global warming has affected the…
Admin, (2011). Definition of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.definitionofglobalwarming.com/
African Safari Vacation, (2010). Effects of Global Warming on Tourism in Africa. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.kenyaonetours.com/african-safari/events/global-warming-on-africa.htm
Anita Pleumaron, (2007). Tourism Feels the heat of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11,
2011 from http://www.google.co.ke/#sclient=psyab&hl=sw&source=hp&q=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&oq=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=94883l112644l1l113205l35l34l4l0l0l14l3892l25307l5-126.96.36.199.4l22l0&bav=cf.osb&fp=a55a91a0191aef52&biw=12
Also the alternative voice over IP providers such as Vonage, at & T. is expected to enhance the market share during the period. The demand for wireless connectivity by the direct consumers will also increase having wide choices to choose from like 3G, Wi-Fi, WiMAX. The SSLs and VPNs will dominate in the field of single-user remote access while the IPSec based installations will be resorted to in respect of the network-to-network use. And finally the WiMAX-based services are expected to influence the overall market.
Carew, Sinead. "WiMax May Pose Fresh Challenge to Broadband" (3 February, 2005)
etrieved at http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=technologyNews&storyID=7749299. Accessed on 10 March, 2005
Gabriel, Caroline. (2005) "WiMAX Ambitions Depend on Success in Newly Available
Spectrum" etrieved at http://www.wimaxtrends.com/feature.htm. Accessed on 10 March, 2005
Home Entertainment Networks" (2002) etrieved at http://www.ruleweb.com/wdvl/homenetworking.pdf. Accessed on 10 March, 2005
ILECs Headed for Extinction, According to META Group" (January 30, 2005)
Carew, Sinead. "WiMax May Pose Fresh Challenge to Broadband" (3 February, 2005)
Retrieved at http://www.reuters.com/newsArticle.jhtml?type=technologyNews&storyID=7749299 . Accessed on 10 March, 2005
Gabriel, Caroline. (2005) "WiMAX Ambitions Depend on Success in Newly Available
Spectrum" Retrieved at http://www.wimaxtrends.com/feature.htm . Accessed on 10 March, 2005
Because ranchers have long distrusted wolves, most ranchers in the surrounding area saw the wolves as a threat to their livestock and their very way of life. They also cite history that shows wolves are quite difficult to dissuade from attacking vulnerable livestock, and that many ranchers and farmers saw eliminating the wolf as the only real way to protect their stock and their families. Writers Smith and Phillips continue,
Although several methods have been developed to minimize or prevent depredations, few have proven successful. Guard dogs have been used widely, but with marginal results. Generally one guard dog is not sufficient, as several dogs seem necessary to deter a wolf attack. Another approach requires farmers and ranchers to intensify husbandry of livestock (e.g., confine sheep to structures overnight, develop calving areas near ranch headquarters, or monitor open range stock daily). Ultimately, killing the wolf or wolves responsible for the…
Donnelly, K.J. (1999, January). Canine in the wild. World and I, 14, 180.
Editors. (2005). Gray wolf. Retrieved from the National Wildlife Federation Web site: http://www.nwf.org/wildlife/graywolf / 26 Aug. 2005.
Jones, K. (2002, March). Fighting outlaws, returning wolves: Karen Jones examines the significance of the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park. History Today, 52, 38+.
Li, J. (2000). The wolves may have won the battle, but not the war: How the west was won under the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf recovery plan. Environmental Law, 30(3), 677.
Religious doctrine usually includes some form of salvation as a reward for good behavior and for keeping to the tenets of the religion. Each religion treats this general idea in its own way. For the Christian, right behavior lead to salvation from permanent death and promises an afterlife in heaven. In uddhism, the promise is not of an afterlife but of a reward in this world, a reward in the form of perfect peace through a mind free of craving and unwanted emotion. Nirvana is a state of mind and an achievement in itself, for nirvana is that state of mind to which the adherent aspires. It is considered the highest form of happiness and is achieved only by the most dedicated follower of the uddha.
The conception of salvation usually relates to the idea of some ultimate value or being, and it can be thought of as an…
Ames, Van Meter. "Zen." In Japan and Zen, Betty Ames and Van Meter Ames (Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati, 1961.
Corless, Roger J. The Vision of Buddhism: The Space under the Tree. St. Paul, Minnesota: Paragon House, 1989.
Gowans, Christopher W. Philosophy of the Buddha. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Griffiths, Paul J. On Being Buddha: The Classical Doctrine of Buddhahood. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.
The Role of the Hippocampus in Instrumental Conditioning
Laura H. Corbit and Bernard W. Balleine
The rational for the study is to shed light on a fundamental process occurring in instrumental learning that has not been well-researched. The authors hypothesize that instrumental learning consists of stimulus response (SR) processes and action-outcome (AO) processes. SR associations are encoded into procedural memory, whereas AO associations are encoded into declarative memory. The authors cite research that has stated that declarative memory is hippocampal dependent. Thus, the authors hypothesize that damage to the hippocampus should interfere with AO associations while not interfering with SR associations. In experiment 1A rats with dorsal hippocampal lesions and sham lesions (the IV) are tested for their sensitivity to outcome devaluation with a satiety treatment protocol (the DV) after being trained to press levers for two types of reinforces. The hypothesis was that lesioned rats would demonstrate a…
In mid-1800's, telegraphy was invented. This invention was revolutionary because it decreased all the hurdles in communication of information. This type of invention or any innovations that connects two or more people and acts as a survival tool for a particular group i.e. ethnic or technological group is known as Keystone specie. Even though Specie is a term mostly used for living organisms, here in a larger context keystone specie is referred to as "a system of people, practices, values, and technologies" that is essential for the survival of anything. (Johnson, 2010)
The keystone species concept has been a mainstay of the ecological and conservation biology literature since its introduction by UW zoology professor Robert T. Paine in 1969. His seminal paper extended the conclusions of a field experiment published three years earlier. The research resulting in the keystone species concept was done on Makah Tribal lands on…
Johnson, S. (2010). Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation. London: Penguins Books Ltd.
Keystone Species Hypothesis. (1996). Retrieved September 24, 2011, from washington.edu: http://www.washington.edu/research/pathbreakers/1969g.html
McNely, B. (2010) Exploring a Sustainable and Public Information Ecology, S.Carlos, SP, Brazil.
Nardi, B.A. And V.L. O'Day (2004) Information Ecologies. Chapter 4 in Information Ecologies: Using Technology with Heart. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
This has also introduced salt water fish and marine life that can exist in fresh water, the many forms of Jellyfish being one of several who have made their way nearly a hundred miles inland on the river (Salazar, 2000). If the dam had not been built the influx of marine life from the ocean would not have occurred, which would have led to a greater stabilization of the fish ecosystem. The many benefits of a fish and water-based ecosystems matter more in countries with lower per capita incomes where the waters are fished for regularly meals instead of for sport. In China, the river is the equivalent of the western world's grocery store. Creating such a huge disruption to the river has in effect contaminated the "grocery store" for millions of residents who rely on the fish for a source of food along the river's bans. Not only has…
Henry C. Alberts, Renee M. Alberts, Mitchel F. Bloom, a. Diane LaFlamme, & Satu Teerikangas. (2004). The Three Gorges Dam Project from a systems viewpoint. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 21(6), 585.
Joanna Gail Salazar. (2000). Damming the child of the ocean: The three Gorges project. Journal of Environment & Development, 9(2), 160-174.
Manik Suri. (2003). A river in peril: The waters rise at Three Gorges. Harvard International Review, 25(3), 10-11.
Of course, it conveniently satisfied the needs of the American government, although this purpose was hidden, even to some of the devoutly Christian teachers at the schools.
So long rendered voiceless, and forced to speak in the language of their oppressors, Adams makes a heroic effort to find the real words and real impressions of these children in prose: "By evening I was too tired to play and just fell asleep wherever I sat down. I think this is why the boys and girls ran away from school; why some became ill; why it was so hard to learn. e were too tired to study" (Adams 153). Children were kept busy in line with the Protestant work ethic -- work was supposed to be good for the soul, and if the children were worked hard, it was thought that they would be less apt to revolt, question what they were…
Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School
Experience, 1875-1928. University Press of Kansas, 1997.
The behavior conditioning arises from the punishment not being liked, and therefore the behavior is avoided.
The last form of reinforcement, extinction, occurs when a reaction to a certain behavior is denied and removed, and resultantly the unwanted behavior is decreased, if not terminated. An example of extinction reinforcement includes a child who hides behind furniture in an attempt to gain attention - which is a response that has previously been positively reinforced. hen the child's attention-seeking actions are subsequently ignored, the behavior decreases, if not stops.
Research indicates positive reinforcement is the most powerful of the reinforcement paradigms (Heffner). Other methods of operant conditioning, such as punishment, can potentially summon additional negative responses such as anger and resentment. In situations of positive reinforcement, both parties involved focus on the positive aspects of the experience, which adds to the fulfillment of the desired behavior.
Examples of reinforcement principles from my…
Heffner, C. "Psychology 101." AllPsych Online the Virtual Psychology Classroom. Heffner Media Group, Inc., 01 Apr 2001. Web. 7 Apr 2011.
The corruption which has been imputed to the drama as an effect, begins when the poetry employed in its constitution ends: I appeal to the history of manners whether the periods of the growth of the one and the decline of the other have not corresponded with an exactness equal to any example of moral cause and effect. (54)
In this message Shelley connects the universal idea that poetry, once translated into the theatrical creates a natural transition into a cause and effect relationship but that the poetry itself is also flawed in that translation and that even this form of art cannot perfectly represent the moral, cause and effect situation.
A under a thin disguise of circumstance, stript of all but that ideal perfection and energy which every one feels to be the internal type of all that he loves, admires, and would become. The imagination is enlarged by…
Inappropriate use of the terms "noncontingent reinforcement" and "differential reinforcement of other behaviors"
Shakespeare would not have anticipated this issue -- labels for procedures when he wrote "What is in a name, a rose with any other would smell as sweet." The controversy is not about the effect of the procedure but rather relates to if the applied behavior analysis on the use of the terms 'noncontingent reinforcement' -- NC and 'differential reinforcement of other behaviors' -- DO are appropriate and the definitions of the process. The irony is that there is no dispute in the effectiveness of the processes but if the use of the terms is confusing and if the definition of reinforcement is contingent on behavior. The question then is if the issue will be dead and if it can be shown that an alternate name may clear the confusion especially with regard to the term 'contingent…
Carr, James E; Severtson, Jamie M. (2005) "On the Appropriateness of the Term
"Noncontingent Reinforcement" European Journal Of Behavior Analysis, vol. 21, no. 6, pp: 21 -- 24.
Kodak, Tiffany; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Romaniuk, Cathryn. (2003) "A comparison of differential reinforcement And Noncontingent Reinforcement For The Treatment Of A Child's multiply Controlled Problem behavior Behavioral Interventions" Behav. Intervent, vol. 18, no, 1: 267 -- 278.
Poling, Alan; Normand, Matthew. (1999) "Noncontingent Reinforcement:An Inappropriate
Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (obert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.
Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…
David N. Perkins, (1992). Transfer of Learning. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/traencyn.htm
Encyclopedia Britannica, (2011 ). Insight in Learning Theory. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289152/insight
Gonzalez, J.J. (2002). Modeling Erosion of Security and Safety Awareness. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference of the System Dynamics Society July 28 - August 1, 2002 Palermo, Italy, Vol., 200. Retrieved on April 10, 2010 from www.ikt.hia.no/.../Modeling%20Instrumental%20Conditioning%20(HICSS'36%20pap
Jeffry Ricker, (2011). What is Stimulus Generalization & Discrimination? Retrieved December
controversial than a person could ever imagine. Historical interpretations must be questioned so that faulty historical thinking can be identified. One of the most complicated aspects in historical interpretations is that they are precisely that -- interpretations. This means that people cannot help but look back at history through the lens of today's history; this affects interpretation and today's interpretation will be different than yesterday or tomorrow's interpretation because it will be a completely different time. Historians have a very difficult job because they must be able to take in information and interpret it in responsible ways. Historians need the humility to listen and trust others and the courage to interpret (Cathcart 1995, p. 16)
In studying the past, historians use primary and secondary sources as well as oral history. A primary source is considered to be something that is created by a person who witnessed an event. Examples of…
Attwood, B. 1996. 'Teaching Historiography.' Australian Historical Association Bulletin, No.
82, pp. 43-46.
Cathcart, M. 1985. 'Symposium: Why History?' Australian Book Review, pp. 16-18.
Reynolds, H. 1984. 'The Breaking of the Great Australian Silence: Aborigines in Australian