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False Memories Petition
The problem of a witness recall of memory based on psychiatric intervention- the evidence of which is unreliable
It is humbly submitted that oral evidence all over the world forms the primary form of evidence. What a person sees, hears and probably experiences are part of the testimony which can be rebutted by a cross examination. In the adversarial form of criminal law, evidence of this type must be subject to a cross examination by the defence. In the case of a person submitting evidence based on the recall of past events that spans years previously, mostly a result of intervention by a third agent -- a doctor or other operator who using a drug, powerful suggestions or hypnotic trance induce the witness to give evidence based on what they submit is from the 'subconscious'. The problem with this evidence is that it cannot be put to…
Caselaw. (2011) "State v. King: STATE of North Carolina v. Melvin Charles KING.
No. COA10 -- 1237." Retrieved 16 April, 2012 from http://caselaw.findlaw.com/nc-court-of-appeals/1576370.html
Elbow, Steven. (2010) "Memories on trial: Parents say therapists gave daughter false memories of abuse" The Capital Times, Retrieved 16 April, 2012 from http://host.madison.com/news/local/crime_and_courts/memories-on-trial-parents-say-therapists-gave-daughter-false-memories/article_56549e30-0c89-11e0-a44f-001cc4c03286.html#ixzz2QcOsRE2N
False Memory Syndrome Foundation Staff. (2013) "False Memory Syndrome Foundation
false memoies. Reseach indicates that many subjects of abuse o othe taumatic occuences often develop false memoies. They emembe events eithe diffeently than they actually occued, o they foget them entiely. One study by Doctos Roedige & McDemott in looked at undegaduates and how they pocessed memoies. Deep and shallow encoding was used to help them emembe lists of wods. Some emembeed the wods coectly, while othes emembeed them falsely. The deepe encoding method povided moe eliable esults. Many scientists and psychologists have studied the fomulation of false memoies and why they occu. False memoies can ceate poblems with a peson's view of the past and thei view of themselves, and most expets believe fo a peson to be "whole again," they must econstuct these memoies o thei psyche will be split in seveal diections.
Past eseach began as ealy as 1932 on false memoies, although liteatue and study has…
references and choices. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(2), 135-139. Retrieved September 15, 2009.
Bjorklund, D.F. (2000). False-memory creation in children and adults: Theory, research, and implications. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum.
Brainerd, C.J., & Reyna, V.F. (2005). The science of false memory. Oxford psychology series, no. 38. New York: Oxford University Press.
Conway, M.A. (1997). Recovered memories and false memories. Debates in psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Corson, Y., Verrier, N., & Bucic, A. (2009, July). False memories and individual variations: The role of field dependence-independence. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(1), 8-11. Retrieved September 15, 2009.
Memories are an important part of the human experience. They help us define who we are, based on our past experiences, the people we have met, the places we have been and the things that we have done. Yet, there is much that we take for granted about memories, and they are often misunderstood. Consider for example criminal trials, where testimony is given on the basis of what people remember about an incident. This is just one example of how we rely on memories, but examples exist throughout human society. The problem is that memories are not perfect. They are sometimes inaccurate -- we remember things differently from how they occurred, we confuse time frames, and over time it becomes more difficult to remember specific details. Psychologists have dedicated a substantial amount of study to memories, and the different factors that influence memory formulation, retention and recall. Consider that…
Chan, J., Thomas, A. & Bulevich, J. (2009). Recalling a witnessed event increases eyewitness suggestibility. Psychological Science. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from https://public.psych.iastate.edu/ckchan/ISU_Site_for_Chan/Publications_files/Chan%20et%20al%202009%20Psych%20Sci.pdf
Schacter, D. (1999). The seven sins of memory. American Psychologist. Vol. 54 (3) 182-203.
Loftus, E. & Pickrell, J. (1995). The formation of false memories. Psychiatric Annals. Vol. 25 (12) 720-725.
At first glance, The Myth of epressed Memory seems like it might be an offensive read that denigrates the experiences of millions of abuse and incest survivors. Yet according to Elizabeth Loftus and Katherine Ketcham, the phenomenon of repressed memory is largely a myth. The authors' motives for writing The Myth of epressed Memory seem noble enough on the surface: to retain the credibility of their professions and prevent the unnecessary traumatizing of clients who were never abused but who are instead duped into believing so. Yet the reader cannot help but wonder why Loftus and Ketcham are so adamant, almost angry, about the scores of stories related to repressed memory.
What Loftus and Ketcham describe in The Myth of epressed Memory is disturbing; that psychologists routinely tell their patients that buried deep within their psyche is a sexual abuse memory that is causing their current state of…
Loftus, E. & Ketcham, K. (1994). The Myth of Repressed Memory. New York: St. Martin's.
Pettus, A. (2008). Repressed memory? Harvard. Retrieved online: http://harvardmagazine.com/2008/01/repressed-memory.html
Memory: How it Works and ecovering Lost Memories
The concept of memory and what comprises memory is often controversial. Loftus (1998) cites an article reporting on the case of a woman whose family accepted a large settlement on the grounds that health care professionals planted false memories into her mind. The woman suggested that she had been persuaded to believe multiple misconceptions regarding her history via drug therapy and hypnosis. While the case cited in this story is among the first involving allegation that psychotherapists may induce false memories, there is a long history of such cases brought to trial (Loftus, 1998).
How can this happen? The fact of the matter is that memory is for many a big mystery. Psychologists and researchers have been studying memory for some time (Goldsmith, Koriat & Pansky, 2000). The fact of the matter is no consistent conceptual framework exists for defining memory or…
Goldsmith, M., Koriat, A. & Pansky, A. (2000). "Toward a psychology of memory accuracy." Annual Review of Psychology, 481.
Loftus, E.F. (1998). "The price of bad memories." Skeptical Inquirer, 22: 23-24. 12, Nov
Hearing the sound of a large truck that sounds similar to a garbage truck will also remind me.
Some cues make remembering easier as well, by being a specific reminder. If someone asked me if I had done everything I needed to do today, I might remember that I need to take out the trash. However, if someone asked me if I had taken out the trash, I would almost definitely remember that I need to do so.
Finally, I am more likely to remember something if I have repeated it to myself several times. If I keep telling myself or being reminded by other people that I need to take out the trash, I am far more likely to remember it than if I only had one reminder. This is because I need the repetition to move the information from my short-term memory. Short-term memory can only store a…
Stasko, J. (1997) Human memory. Human-computer interface, Winter. Retrieved on November 11, 2004, at http://www.cc.gatech.edu/classes/cs6751_97_winter/Topics/human-cap/memory.html
Ward, K. (2004, 15 October) Psychology of memory: remembering. Ken Ward's creative memory course. Retrieved November 11, 2004 at http://www.trans4mind.com/personal_development/creative-memory/psychology.htm
Loftus, E. (1997, September) Creating false memories. Scientific American, volume 277, #3. 70-75. Retrieved November 11, 2004 at http://faculty.washington.edu/eloftus/Articles/sciam.htm
umors of the impact of repressed memory are prevalent, "yet data on cognitive functioning in people reporting repressed and recovered memories of trauma have been strikingly scarce" (McNally 2011). Part of the explanation for this lack of evidence is the high rate of failure to actually pull out repressed memories within the context of the lab. Many studies examining the issue focused on using psychologists using hypothetical scenarios "hoping that this guided-imagery technique will unblock the presumably repressed memories" (McNally 2011). ather than providing the guidance that would help the participant show repressed memories, "unfortunately, this procedure may foster false memories," therefore jeopardizing the entire study (McNally 2011). As such, evidence for repressed memories remains elusive.
As a future professor, it is important to understand how memory works within the minds of one's students. There are a number of different strategies one can use to help students remember the most…
Kensinger, Elizabeth a. (2007). Negative emotion enhances memory accuracy. Association for Psychological Science, 16(4), 213-219.
McNally, Richard J. (2011). Recovering memories of trauma: A view from the laboratory. Psychological Science. Harvard University Department of Psychology. Web. http://www.psychologicalscience.org/journals/cd/12_1/McNally.cfm
False Beliefs new
False Beliefs and Their Behavioral Consequences
Human psychology is so amazing that it can control human behavior with and without his conscious will. People often develop habits, behaviors or routines that become a vital part of their lives and once they become used to these habits, there are often negative aspects associated to these routines and habits that develop false believe in them (False Memories Can Influence Behavior, 2008). When there are false believes in the minds of people, they observe the world with same negative believes and perceptions and respond accordingly. The paper investigates whether the childhood memories affect the behavior in later age or not and how long-term or short-term it can be that the believes affect behavior.
The false believes are such a disease that is often beyond a person's ability to control. These believe inculcate in the minds of people and…
False Memories Can Influence Behavior, (2008), Retrieved from:
Geraerts, E, Bernstein, D.M., Merckelbach, H., Linders, C., Raymaekers, and Loftus, E.F.,
(2008), "Lasting False Beliefs and Their Behavioral Consequences," Association for Psychological Science, 19(8), pp. 749-753
Is repression a valid and legitimate process in the sense that Freud portrayed it or, alternatively, as might be presented in a more modern explanation?
According to Freud we 'repress' aspects of our memory we find unpleasant by relegating them to what Freud called our subconscious, versus our conscious mind (Ciccarelli 2013: 180). Scientists today are more inclined to view repression in light of the faulty operations of long-term memory retrieval. As new memories are created in a subject's long-term memory, existing memories can become distorted or replaced (Ciccarelli 2013: 182). Also, every time a memory is retrieved it is slightly altered, as it is affected by the memories that have been subsequently formed. Memory can also become distorted by current misinformation. We may think we have remembered something but we are really affected by the prompting of others.
Thus, repression can be legitimate in the sense that not…
Ciccarelli, S.K., & White, J.N. (2013). Psychology: An Exploration (2nd ed.). U.S.A.: Pearson
Johnson, Kareem J. & Barbara L. Fredrickson. (2005). "We all look the same to me:"
Positive emotions eliminate the own-race bias in face recognition.
False Identification and Lineup Instructions Biased/Unbiased
There are many instances where people have been wrongly accused only because they were falsely identified or either because there was not enough evidence present that would prove them guilty. George Allen Jr. was convicted in 1983 on the charges of capital murder, rape, sodomy and first degree burglary. It has been noted that the reason for his false conviction was false confession, invalid or improper forensic evidence and government misconduct (Innocenceproject.org, 2013). Another case is of Barry Gibbs who was charged with second degree murder in the year 1988. He was wrongly charged due to eyewitness misidentification and government misconduct. It was noted that Barry Gibbs served 17.5 years of jail time before he was exonerated in the year 2005. (Innocenceproject.org, 2013)
These cases therefore give an idea that eyewitness misidentification is a very important cause of wrongful convictions all over the country…
Brandon, R. & Davies, C. (1973). Wrongful imprisonment. [Hamden, Conn.]: Archon Books.
Buckhout, R. & Others (1974). Determinants of eyewitness performance on a lineup.. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 4 (3), 191-192.
Christianson, S. (1992). Emotional stress and eyewitness memory: a critical review. Psychological bulletin, 112 (2), 284.
Grether, W.F., & Baker, C.A. (1972). Visual presentation of information. In H.P. Van Cott & R.G. Kinkade (Eds.), Human engineering guide to equipment design (pp. 41-121). Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research
Its a good idea to leave behind information that is not necessary for us any more like past phone numbers and names of strangers whom we may not meet again.
Episodic memories are the autobiographical events of a person's life based on his or her experiences, relationships, learning and ideas. In a loss of episodic memory, the links that exist in the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain are broken. This happens when the patient has suffered a head injury or has been in any form of trauma. Also, episodic memory failure happens when the frontal lobes are damaged and as a result, the patient is able to remember some information though not in the order in which it happened. Further more, this leads to false recollection of events that could not have happened.
Implicit memories are those that do not require intentional remembering or…
Gibb, Barry. (2007). The Rough Guide to the Brain. New York: Penguin
Squire. L; Kandel. E. (2000). Memory: From Mind to Molecules. New York: Scientific American Library
Schacter, Daniel. (2001). The Seven Sins of Memory. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
" In fact, in the 8 years since she wrote her article, physicians and other professionals have been leaving the profession in droves, simply because of the rise in lawsuits, and the coinciding rise in malpractice insurance that doctors must carry to do business today. Indeed, patients are suing for everything from shoddy psychiatric treatment to misdiagnosis and error during medical treatment. It seems as if some patients are simply waiting for a problem with their treatment, so they can take advantage of it and sue, hoping to collect a big award, just as some of the patients did in Loftus' article. The prevailing attitude among many patients is that doctors are all "wealthy" and thus they can afford these lawsuits, whether they deserve them or not.
This offers great implications for the future of healthcare. Just recently, a news report talked about the absence of newly graduated doctors going…
Loftus, Elizabeth F. "The Price of Bad Memories." University of Washington. 1998. 14 Dec. 2006. http://faculty.washington.edu/eloftus/Articles/price.htm
epressed and recovered memory has been the topic of much debate for the past ten years. Many feel that these psychological issues have been used to create chaos in the legal system and to destroy families. Professional organizations all over the world have commented on the controversy surrounding repressed and recovered memory.
The purpose of this discussion is to examine the issues and controversies that the psychiatric community is currently facing. We will also explore the research involving repressed and recovered memory. Let's begin by defining repressed memory and recovered memory.
Definition of epressed Memory and ecovered Memory
According to the Psychology Dictionary repression is a, "Psychoanalytic Theory, the defense mechanism whereby our thoughts are pulled out of our conscious and into our unconscious." (Psychology Dictionary) Many psychologists have concluded that the act of repressing memory is usually caused by a traumatic event. (Carroll 2002) These psychologists also contend that…
Memories: true or false. (2002, Fall). Issues in Science and Technology, 19, 7+..
Psychology Dictionary (2003). Retrieved May 19, 2003, at http://allpsych.com/dictionary/r.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000917406
Alessi, H.D., & Ballard, M.B. (2001). Memory development in children: implications for children as witnesses in situations of possible abuse. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 398+.
Carroll, (2002). Repressed Memory. Retrieved May 20, 2003, at http://skepdic.com/repressedmemory.html
Learning & Memory
The Accuracy of Memory
The research I completed for this assignment was fairly straightforward. Upstairs in my living room on a day in which I had yet to leave the house, I tried to imagine my front door. I did so without having looked at it for at least 14 hours -- since I had arrived at home the evening before. Once I was able to visualize the door, I then wrote down all of the details that I could conceive of related to its physical appearance. My annotations on this subject included the fact that the door is white and is at the base of approximately 20 steps which lead to the main unit of the domicile. In this tall foyer, the white of the door stands out against the creme color of the walls around it (I was able to see this same color on…
Baars, B. (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: the Workspace of the Mind. San Diego: Oxford University Press.
Dehon, H., Laroi, F. "Affective valence influences participant's susceptibility to False Memories and Illusory Recollection." Emotion. 10 (5): 627-639.
Gallo, D.A. (2010). "False memories and fantastic beliefs: 15 years of DRM illusion." Memory & Cognition. 38 (7): 833-848.
Lindsay, D.F., Read, D.J. (1994). "Psychotherapy and memories of childhood sexual abuse: a cognitive perspective." Applied Cognitive Psychology. 8: 281-338.
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…
Although some memories remain veritable and intact from the original experience, many memories are inextricably mixed up with post-analysis and interpretation. Furthermore, the authors examine psychological literature for information on memory processing, noting that false memories and actual reproductive memories activate the same brain regions and are therefore processed similarly. However, research shows that when people recognize the falseness of the memory at the time of encoding, they will process the cues differently. The researchers designed the present study based on these prior researches. Furthermore, the current study hearkens to advertising literature in general, which investigates the impact of ads on consumer behavior. The authors note that the retroactive impact of advertising has been studied far less than the proactive impact of advertising and therefore the present study can fill gaps in the literature and offer impetus for conducting future studies.
2. The psychological concepts discussed center on memory: both…
Traumatic Long-Term Memory and related issues of forgetfulness. The differentiation of current competing theories under review regarding Traumatic Long-Term Memory are explored and critiqued. This research paper also explains the differences between the theories and their positive / negative contributions toward improving human memory.
Long-Term Memory is memory that has been consolidated or stored so that it is available after distraction (Long, 1996). It represents the storehouse of information that has been consolidated and made relatively permanent. Although the limbic system is the essential structure initiating consolidation, the actual memory stores are throughout the nervous system. Their location is a function of the brain structures involved in processing the information (Long, 1996).
Receptors to projection cortex have very little storage capability as they are used to process all information for that modality and thus are subject to interference. The sensory association cortex is more important for, at this level, patterns…
Anderson. (1995). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:
Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.
Bjork & Bjork. (1992). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:
Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.
population of seniors grows in number, an understanding of how age affects memory becomes increasingly important. Yet the awareness of age-related memory loss can itself be a problem, causing a type of self-fulfilling prophecy known as stereotype threat. Stereotype threat refers to the sense of threat a person experiences when identifying with a stereotype. In the case of aging, a person who has been continually reminded of age-related memory loss might therefore perform worse on memory recall tests. Stereotype threat can be triggered directly, as when people are told that aging reduces memory performance, or indirectly, such as simply being shown the word "senile."
Stereotype bias can further enhance age-related memory loss by causing a self-fulfilling prophecy. However, there are different types of memory functions. Memory functions can be loosely grouped into two categories: implicit and explicit memory. Explicit memory refers to the active and purposeful recollection of people, places,…
Eich, T.S., Murayama, K., Castel, A.D. & Knowlton, B.J. (2014). The dynamic effects of age related stereotype threat on explicit and implicit memory performance in older adults. Social Cognition 32(6): 559-570.
oss et al. (2010) placed electrodes at specific points on participants' skulls that were used to apply small electrical charges at various times during the experiment, while no charge or "dummy charges" (a charge that provided the same sensation as a full charge, but that did not actually provide current to the brain) was given at other times in order to test and control for the real effect of an actual charge to the brain. This methodology is described in brief by Porter (2011), however the technical elements that are carefully detailed in the research publication of the methods used are not presented in this popular media article (oss et al., 2010). All of the information aside from the key findings of the article are left out also, although the basic limitations of the finding are described and there is evident care taken to not inflate the results or over-exaggerate…
Porter, J. (2011). A Genuine Jolt to the Memory. Miller-McCune. Accessed 1 March 2012. http://www.miller-mccune.com/culture/a-genuine-jolt-to-the-memory-28442/
Ross, S., McCoy, D., Woilk, D., Coslett, H. & Olson, I. (2010). Improved proper name recall by electrical stimulation of the anterior temporal lobes. Neuropsychologia 48(12): 3671-4.
..Educational psychologists have made rather extensive investigations of semantic (declarative) and procedural memory with respect to studying and theorizing about classroom learning and teaching....very little theoretical or empirical work has been conducted in educational psychology that has examined the episodic (experiential and autobiographical) memories of teachers and learners in relation to instructional interventions and students' learning from such interventions.
Martin 1993: 169-170)
Another memory theory that has become popular and may have significant educational distinction is the concept of working memory, or rapid access memory that is finite (such as the AM of a computer and therefore cannot be stretched across to much stimulus or brain work to elicit memory of the core concepts.
esearch on test anxiety and working memory suggests that performance deficits caused by test anxiety can be explained by the extent to which individuals are able to use their working memory capacity (Darke, 1988b; Eysenck, 1985).…
Antoine, Marie, Shannon Donald, and Carolyn C. Cox. 2003. "Are Students Throwing Away Nutrition?." Journal of Research in Childhood Education 17:230.
Arnold, Magda B. 1984. Memory and the Brain. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Chance, P.A. 1999. Learning and Behavior. New York: AIPI.
Das, J.P. 1989. "Good and Poor Readers' Word Naming Time, Memory Span, and Story Recall." Journal of Experimental Education 57:101-114.
The artistic authenticity of a particular object is determined, in part, by the objects provenance -- its history that helps us to understand the significance and original cultural context of the object. ithout this context it becomes complicated to identify certain tribal cultural artifacts as artwork or not.
But let's imagine that there exists an institutional framework or bureaucratic organization with the resources to undertake such a monumental task of artistic identification. There would still be additional problems to consider. In Indonesia, for instance, there are numerous political and cultural obstacles facing the emerging push for preservation. Communication in the nation is lackluster. Identifying and controlling all potential tribal art among the indigenous people is a task best left to the imagination. The infrastructure simply does not yet exist to properly compensate indigenous artists and craftsmen, let alone stem the tide of black-market deals and random destruction. Yet this is…
Barbier, Jean-Paul. "The Responsible and the Irresponsible: Observations on the Destruction and Preservation of Indonesian Art."
Duffon, Denis. "Authenticity in Art." In the Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics. Ed. Jerrold Levinson. (NY: Oxford University Press, 2003). 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.denisdutton.com/authenticity.htm .
Hamlin, Jesse. "How de Young Is Handling New Guinea Art Question." San Francisco Chronicle (4 May 2006): E1. 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/05/04/DDGJMIJFVO1.DTL .
Lehmann, Karl and Lehmann, Andrew. "Tribal Art of Papua New Guinea." Lost World Arts. (Maui, Hawaii: 2004). 18 Dec. 2006 http://www.lostworldarts.com/new_page_2.htm .
Memory and Forgetting: A Comprehensive Analysis
Memory loss is a huge problem in an aging population.
No substantive cure for memory loss.
Forgetfulness does not always accompany aging.
Different types of memory loss:
The memory impairment that comes with aging may be due to confusion as well as memory loss.
Memory loss and forgetfulness may be preventable.
There are a number of different approaches to reducing forgetfulness
Daily behavioral changes
The goal of the paper began as a meta-analysis of efforts aimed to reduce forgetfulness
Too many promising approaches to aiding memory impairment to engage in a traditional meta-analysis
Look at the theoretical overlap of different known approaches that may enhance or impair memory
F. Not engaging in a meta-analysis of a single therapy because single therapies do not have therapeutic efficacy.
G. Examine the hypothetical overlap between various treatment modalities
Bottiroli, S., Rosi, A., Russo, R., Vecchi, T. & Cavallini, E. 2014. 'The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.' Front Aging Neurosci, vol.6. pp. 284-. Available from: [November 11, 2014].
Cairney, S.A., Durrant, S.J., Jackson, R., & Lewis, P.A. 2014. 'Sleep spindles provide indirect support to the consolidation of emotional encoding contexts.' Neuropsychologia, vol. 63, pp. 285-92.
Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res, 169, pp.323-338. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9
Lo, J.C., Dijk, D.J., & Groeger, J.A. 2014. 'Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation. PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, e108100. Available from: . [4 November 2014].
Cognition and Memory
Cognition: Particularly Memory
Starting from a purely global point, at least as far as it applies to humans (animals in general actually), the brain is where everything begins. Within its folds and neural pathways are contained the chemicals that allow the electrical impulses which in turn produce thought. Every creature has thought at some level. A gnat does not travel completely based on instinct; there is some primitive awareness of what it is traveling toward and the need to possess certain elements from its environment which will allow the tiny insect to feed and reproduce. Of course, some would have people believe that every action is the result of some type of instinctual movement toward some reward and away from a punishment. Others see every action or thought as resulting from environmental stimuli and believe that nothing occurs innately. Of course, most beliefs that include such all…
These factors, however, can contribute to bias opinion. Legal professionals also consider occupation in relation to memory accuracy. For example, law enforcement officers tend to be better witnesses as they practice paying attention to detail, and are required to recall details on a regular basis. This overall category pertaining to the attributes of the witness have an effect on encoding and storing information, which are the first two stages of information processing. When these factors influence information processing, any information filtered to long-term memory can be significantly distorted.
The second category considered when establishing the accuracy of an eyewitness's memory is the attributes of the perpetrator. When questioning an eyewitness, legal professionals must inquire if the perpetrator was wearing a disguise, has a distinctive face, or if they were an acquaintance, friend, or family member. Each of these scenarios contributes to the accuracy of the individual's memory. The third general…
Baddeley, A. (2004), 'The Psychology of Memory', The Handbook of Memory Disorders for Clinicians.
Kensinger, E. (2007), 'Negative emotion enhances memory accuracy behavioral and neuroimaging evidence', Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 213-218.
Malpass, R. (2005), 'Eyewitness memory and identification', The San Antonio Defender,
Available at: http://eyewitness.utep.edu/Documents/Malpass&05EyewitMem&ID.SAD.pdf
The psychological priming aspect of implicit memory is also responsible for the phenomenon whereby individuals are more likely to believe facts that they have heard repeatedly than equally plausible (or implausible) facts heard for the first time (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007). In fact, this type of priming is so effective that it often persists despite evidence that the statement is actually false. A typical example would include the persistence of the very commonly expressed belief that human beings "use only a small percentage of their minds" (such as 10%) even after being informed that neurologists know this is not true, simply because that bit of false trivia is heard so often.
Gerrig, ., Zimbardo, . (2007). Psychology…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, R. (2007). Psychology and Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
The researchers hypothesized that the participants would be less likely to use the operand retrieval strategy in solving difficult problems than with simple problems. It is easier to use the operand retrieval strategy with simple problems because solving them requires no computation. The opposite holds true for difficult multiplication problems. Use of the operand retrieval strategy is expected to be associated with a greater generation effect.
The second experiment in the study examined whether an increased generation effect was possible due to better memory for the operands involved in the problem, what is known as the operand memory hypothesis. The hypothesis for this experiment, which took into consideration the principles of procedural account, was that the generation effect observed for difficult and simple problems should be similar when the operands are recalled, but should be different when recall of answers is required.
The final experiment in the study, experiment 3,…
McNamara, D., Healy, a. "A procedural explanation of the generation effect for simple and difficult multiplication problems and answers." Journal of Memory and Language 43 (2000): 652-79.
If a person behaves in a confused or agitated way, I would begin to suspect that all is not well. Drowsiness, abnormal eye movements, and a staggering gait are also symptoms that, together with the undesirable emotional and cognitive states, are symptoms that generally appear for Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (Heath Grades Inc., 2011).
The idea of "activation" concerns the frequency of memory use. The more a memory is used, the more it is activated. Activation leads to strength. Frequent activation means that a memory will become increasingly stronger. One example of this is the study process. If a piece of text is studied for the first time, recall is weak. When the initial memory is activated by revisiting material, it is strengthened slightly. Increased activation therefore means increased strength. In other words, activation is the active process that results in the unconscious strengthening of recall.
According to Halligan,…
Dowd, E.T. (2006, Sep.). What Changes in Cognitive Therapy? The Role of Tacit Knowledge Structures. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Halligan, S.L., Michael, T., Clark, D.M., and Ehlers, A. (2003). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Assault: the role of Cognitive Processing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol. 71, No. 3
Health Grades (2011). Symptoms of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Retrieved from: http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/w/wernicke_korsakoff_syndrome/symptoms.htm
Melnyk, L and Bruck, M (2004). Timing Moderates the Effects of Repeated Suggestive Interviewing on Children's Eyewitness Memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol 18.
Eye Witness Memory and Identification
In the contemporary legal environment, an eyewitness plays a critical role in the legal system. A correct eyewitness identification has helped in advancing an investigation, and can be used to solve a complex case. Despite the importance of eyewitness identification in a legal system, eyewitness misidentification is being identified as the contributing factor to wrongful convictions based on the DNA testing. Typically, the eyewitness misidentification leads to 70% of wrongful convictions based on the DNA evidence in the United States. In cases after cases, it has been proven by the DNA that eyewitnesses are mostly inaccurate. For example, a review of 311 cases reveals that 73% of the convictions have been due to the eyewitness errors leading to wrongful convictions. Evidence have also revealed that eyewitness identifications can sway strong alibis, juries and police. Unfortunately, the memory of some eyewitnesses is either unable to recall…
Arkowitz, H. & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2010). Why Science Tells Us Not to Rely on Eyewitness Accounts. Scientific America Mind.
Green, M. (2013). Eye Witness Memory is Unreliable. Visual Expert.
Hope, L., & Sauer, J.D. (2014). Eyewitness memory and mistaken identifications In book: Investigative Interviewing: The Essentials, Carswell: M. St.-Yves.
Malpass, R.S. & Topp, L.D. (2005) Eye Witness Memory and Identification. The Defender
Warning on False Memory ate
Effect of Explicit Warning on False Memory ate
False memories are a prevalent phenomenon that interferes with a variety of important tasks, such as eyewitness testimony. They can occur during the encoding, storing, or recalling phase of the memory-making process. esearchers have discovered that through association, the mind can encode events as authentic memories even though they never occurred. Associative memory illusions can be revealed using an experimental paradigm called the DM Effect, which presents related word lists to study subjects and tests whether closely associated, but unpresented items become encoded into memory. The ability to discriminate between presented and unpresented items depends on the ability of subjects to monitor the memory task and this can be tested by warning subjects in advance of the possibility of associated memory illusions. Previous studies have shown that the efficacy of monitoring can be increased by…
Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 17-22.
McDermott, Kathleen B. And Roediger, Henry L. (1998). Attempting to avoid illusory memories: Robust false recognition of associates persists under conditions of explicit warnings and immediate testing. Journal of Memory and Language, 39, 508-520.
Reisberg, Daniel. (2009). Cognition: Exploring the Science of the Mind. New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Roediger, Henry L., & McDermott, Kathleen B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not represented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803-814.
Eyewitness and ecalling
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
Literature on Schemas
Literature on Schemas and Stereotypes and their role in Eyewitness
I shook hands with Bugs Bunny... Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?
To investigate and prosecute crime the criminal justice system heavily depends on eyewitness identification (Wells & Olson, 2003). An eyewitness goes through different psychological procedures prior to the courtroom testimony. It is evident that before…
Brewer, W.F., & Treyens, J.C.(1981). Role of schemata in memory for places. Cognitive Psychology, 12(2), 207-230
Charman, S., & Wells, G.(2008). Can eyewitnesses correct for external influences on their lineup identifications? The actual/counterfactual assessment paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14(1), 5-20.
Christianson, S., & Hubinette, B.(1993). Hand up A study of witnesses' emotional reactions and memories associated with bank robberies. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7(5), 365-379
Duffy, E.L.(1948). Motivational theory of emotion. Psychological Review, 55, 324-328.
individuals who see and later recall the same event produce markedly discrepant accounts. Aside from motivational factors (such as dishonesty) or personal differences in memory capacity there are a number of factors relevant to affecting the accuracy information recalled from long-term memory. One of the first things to consider when comparing different recollections of the same events is to consider under what conditions the respondents encoded the information which they later recalled. Important encoding conditions include the length of time the incident occurred (longer events result in more accurate recall) and any possible distracting circumstances that were present during the event that could interfere with encoding. However, perhaps the most important consideration concerns the preconceived notions of the eye of the beholder. A person encoding information that will be stored into long-term memory is not like a video camera. People view the world through preconceived notions or schema that frame…
Haber, R.N., Haber, L. (2000). Experiencing, remembering and reporting events. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6(4): 1057-1097.
Schultz, S. (2001). Study advances memory theory. Princeton Weekly Bulletin, 90 (23). Retrieved on 12 April 2011 from http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pwb/01/0409/6a.shtml .
Wikipedia (2010). Eyewitness memory. Retrieved on 12 April 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eyewitness_memory .
However, through a review of the clinical history and the semantic debate over the relationship between trauma -- especially sexual abuse -- during childhood and the surfacing of psychologically distressing consequences in adulthood, it is evident that the diagnosis of repression is often misapplied. "The term 'dissociative." As applied to these disorders, is better construed as a descriptive label (referring to loss of conscious access to memory) than any pathological process instigated by trauma." (Kilstrom, 36) This means that the 'amnesia' triggered by such events can accurately be regarded as the involuntary mode of memory loss rather than the intentional psychological conditioning to 'block out' negative experiences. To an extent, this verifies the claim that amnesia may be caused by emotional trauma, even though this is empirically elusive in a case by case basis.
Barrett, J. (2002). Amnesia. Health, a to Z. Online at http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/amnesia.jsp
Gleaves, DH, Smith,…
Barrett, J. (2002). Amnesia. Health, a to Z. Online at http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/amnesia.jsp
Gleaves, DH, Smith, S.M.,Butler, L.D., & Spiegel, D. (2004). False and recovered memories in the laboratory and clinical: A review of experimental evidence. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 3-28.
Kilstrom, J.F. (2004). An unbalanced balancing act: Blocked, recovered and false memories in the laboratory and clinic. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 34-41.
LEF. (2003). Amnesia: Online Reference. Life Extension. Online at
3. The Controversy Associated With ecovered epressed Memories and Conway
The importance of autobiographical memory, as confirmed by Conway (2001) has lead not only to research regarding memory distortions, but also to studies regarding recovered repressed memories. obinson-eigler and obinson-eigler (2008) state that a controversy exists as to whether or not memories of traumatic events that have been "recovered" can be completely trusted. Conway's (2001) argument relating episodic memory to autobiographical memory certainly relates. Conway (2001) argues that episodic memories are routinely forgotten, even as soon as 24 hours after they occur, and that the autobiographical memory is the context to which they are tethered in order to be remembered. Thus, Conway (2001) would most likely argue that the validity of recovered memories lies in their relation to the self or autobiographical memory.
4. An analysis of Autobiographical Memory According to Conway
While obinson-eigler and obinson-eigler (2008) call autobiographical…
Conway, M.A. (2001) Sensory perceptual episodic memory and its context:
autobiographical memory. In Episodic Memory (Baddeley, a. et al., eds), Oxford University Press
Robinson-Reigler, G. & Robinson-Reigler, B. Cognitive Psychology: Apllying the Science of the Mind. Second Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Cell Phones (Technology) On Communication
Cell phones and other cellular communication equipment are omnipresent in today's digital age, with roughly 1.5 billion cellular phones used, at present, across the globe; on an average, 75 billion SMSs are sent globally, in a month (Merry, Domlija & Mackenzie, 2005). While the use of cellular communication has greatly contributed to the area of communication, cellular interferences have hampered functioning in various contexts, including driving, parenting task completion, and enrolment in academic courses. Strayer and colleagues (2005) proved that cognitive impairments linked to cell phone usage while driving may be the same as those linked to drunken driving. Impacts of distractions from cell phones have been observed in laboratory as well as naturalistic settings. Here, the word 'distraction' implies the unintentional inattention to the task at hand, which is characteristic of unlooked-for events (e.g. a call on one's cell phone). By contrast, the word…
Adler, I. (2013 January 17). How our digital devices are affecting our personal relationships. WBUR. Retrieved on 4 December 2015 from http://www.wbur.org/2013/01/17/digital-lives-i
Baron, N.S. (2008). Always on: Language in an online and mobile world. New York: Oxford.
Brignall, T.W., & van Valey, T. (2005). The impact of Internet communications on social interaction. Sociological Spectrum, 335-348.
Campbell, S.W. & Kwak, N. (2011). Mobile communication and civil society: Linking patterns and places of use to engagement with others in public. Human Communication Research, 37, 207-222.
Interviewing Intoxicated Individuals: Specific Issues and How to Deal With Them
Unfortunately, there are gaps in procedures in regards to how to deal with intoxicated suspects and witnesses or those individuals being interviewed who have a substance abuse problem. This lack of clear guidelines often causes confusion and other issues when law enforcement has to interview such individuals. Law enforcement has to deal with a number of issues here, including how intoxication may impact judgment and recollection of events, as well as the potential to increase false confessions for intoxicated suspects.
Intoxicated individuals are hard to get through too. This goes for suspects, victims, and witnesses. Still, officers have to deal with intoxicated individuals on a regular basis. One report suggests that "5% of U.S. police officers believed that they commonly encounter intoxicated witnesses whilst working on cases" (Palmer et al., 2008). One major issue law enforcement has to deal…
Evans, Jacqueline R., Compo, Ndja, & Russano, Melissa B. (2009). Intoxicated witnesses and suspects: Procedures and prevalence according to law enforcement. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 15(3), 194-221.
Palmer, Francesca, Flowe, Heather D., Takarangi, Melanie K, & Humphries, Joyce. (2008). Intoxicated witnesses and suspects: An archival analysis of their involvement in criminal case proceeding. University of Leicester. Web. http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/psychology/ppl/hf49/manuscripts/IntoxicatedEyewitnessesArchive2012.pdf
Psychology is a diverse discipline encompassing a number of different subject areas. These areas are tied together by the common idea of understanding the psychological processes that drive our behavior. This gives rise to a number of different disciplines, such as motivation, behaviorism and cognitive psychology. These disciplines can then be divided into an even greater variety of sub-disciplines (Tougas, 2010).
These different disciplines have some relation, but there is no one unifying thread throughout this. They are related because of their psychological nature -- they arise in the brain and can be explained by the brain. But ultimately, these are elements of what it means to be human. In that sense, there are similarities but only in a general sense. For the most part, the different psychological disciplines only have these loose ties. This diversity of study can help however. People who study psychology are exposed to a number…
Tougas, J. (2010). Diversity -- the nature of psychology. Examiner.com. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.examiner.com/article/diversity-the-nature-of-psychology
Schacter, D. (1999). The seven sins of memory. American Psychologist. Vol. 54 (3) 182-203.
McLeod, S. (2014). Cognitive dissonance. Simply Psychology. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive-dissonance.html
Blending pop psychology with cognitive science, Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons write about perceptual biases and inattentional blindness in The Invisible Gorilla. Sparked by a now-famous experiment the authors performed, The Invisible Gorilla: How Our Intuitions Deceive Us is not as much about intuition as the subtitle of the book suggests. Rather, the book describes six ways our brains are fooled by illusions. Recognizing and understanding the illusions can prevent people from making critical mistakes in judgment. Those mistakes can sometimes be egregious, as when cops presume a black man is a criminal or when drivers overestimate their ability to multitask on the road. Salesmen and stage magicians count on the brain’s susceptibility to illusion to be successful. Memories of past events are reconstructions, rather than accurate recordings of the facts. Therefore, the main reason why Chabris and Simons translated their research findings into a popular book written for a…
o Galton, there was no reason why blind painters could not become great in their own right: "hey can also become painters of the rank of Royal Academicians." (ibid.)
he 'Mind's eye' is a fascinating treatise on how blind people are actually far more sightful than we take them to be. In fact, blind people may actually be more sightful than sighted individuals themselves. Blind people are often encouraged to transfer their abilities to strengthening their other capacitates (and thus to seeing that way). his may, however, be misleading. Blind people have often retained a great deal of their original sight and can still see in an internal way. his continues to serve them, and should likely be the talent that should be focused on. Lastly, each blind person, as does each individual in general life, sees in a different way. We are idiosyncratic and unique in our…
The 'Mind's eye' is a fascinating treatise on how blind people are actually far more sightful than we take them to be. In fact, blind people may actually be more sightful than sighted individuals themselves. Blind people are often encouraged to transfer their abilities to strengthening their other capacitates (and thus to seeing that way). This may, however, be misleading. Blind people have often retained a great deal of their original sight and can still see in an internal way. This continues to serve them, and should likely be the talent that should be focused on. Lastly, each blind person, as does each individual in general life, sees in a different way. We are idiosyncratic and unique in our mental and physical visualization. Conclusions can never be drawn, but the visually impaired are more visually enhanced than we take them to be. They may be more visually enhanced than the sightful. They see in 'their mind's eye'.
Sacks, O. (2010) the Mind's Eye. Knopf, NY
Humanity seems to unravel altogether in Pi: Faith in Chaos, both written and direct by Darren Aronofsky. Max is a brilliant but socially crippled young mathematician who has built a supercomputer and possibly unlocked the mathematical secrets of the universe, explaining everything from the stock market to God. The mathematical precision with which the world would operate if this is true casts a great deal of doubt on the existence of free will. At the same time, however, the film is asking questions about reality, and whether or not Max's discovery can truly be used in any practical way. Ultimately, both questions are rendered moot by Max's destruction of the mathematical portion of his brain. Though this seems to be an act of free will, it could also be the natural and inevitable next step in the algorithm of his life following his discovery of the sacred 216-digit number. Regardless,…
When we ask ourselves what is knowledge (as we do when we are engaged in the process of philosophy) we are effectively asking what is our relationship with the world. V.S. amachandran - as is the norm for philosophers - asks the question about our relationship to the world by using what at first might seem to be a relatively trivial issue, or at least one that very few of us shall ever actually have to worry about, which is the question of phantom limbs, the subject of both amachandran's interest and our own.
The desire to know and the desire to discover are essentially active, even aggressive actions taken on the part of consciousness to acquire pieces or aspects of the world. When we seek knowledge, we seek to take into our minds (and so to take into our bodies physically) something that exists in the world.…
Anderson, J.W. (1991). Freud or Jung. Chicago: Northwestern University.
Aristotle.(1989). Poetics. Trans. S.H. Butcher. New York: Hill and Wang.
Carnap, R. (1995). An Introduction to the philosophy of science. New York: Dover.
Descartes, R. (1999). Discourse on method and meditations on first philosophy (4th ed.). New York: Hackett.
Morgan's Case Study
Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…
Counseling Staff. (2015, June 1). Five Counseling Theories and Approaches. Retrieved from The Family Institute at Northwestern University website: https://counseling.northwestern.edu/five-counseling-theories-and-approaches/
Han, H.S., West-Olatunji, C. & Thomas, M.S. (2011). Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators. SRATE Journal, 20(1), 1-11.
Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M. J., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A multicultural perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: an integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
There is a region in the brain, called the fusiform face area or FFA, which is vital in recognizing and distinguishing faces (Andrews et al., 2010). rain scientists have been acquiring an understanding of the mechanisms, which distinguish faces. A baby's brain processes faces at four months as distinct objects. Faces tell a baby a lot of things, such as the person's identity, gender, race, emotion and truthfulness. The loss of that ability to recognize and distinguish faces is called proposophagnosia or face blindness. It often follows a stroke or brain injury. A person who suffers from this damage, even with normal vision, cannot recognize the faces he already knows very well, such as spouse and children. The damage is often on the fusiform gyrus, which is located in the underside of the brain and other areas (Andrews et al.).
Face Processing and Other Discoveries
Andrews, T. et al. (2010). About face: how the brain recognizes and processes faces.
Brain Briefings: Society for Neurosciences. Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from http://www.sfn.org/index.aspx?pagenome=brainBriefings._10_aboutface
Haxby et al. (1996). Face encoding and recognition in the human brain. Vol 93
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States: National
Nobel Prize laureate Derek Walcott begins his oration with an anecdote about the village of Felicity in Trinidad, which is predominantly East Indian. The story begins as the local towns prepare for a Saturday performance of the amleela, which is a stage version of the Hindu epic amayana. Walcott describes vividly with rich detail the cane fields, reminding listeners that the Indians are here because they were brought here during colonial times to be indentured laborers. Now a vibrant Indian community is entrenched, adding richness and color to the tropical landscapes of Trinidad and Tobago. As Walcott and his American friends arrive, the amleela cast and crew are setting up their multiplicity of deities, one of which is a huge effigy constructed of local materials like bamboo.
Briefly Walcott draws a parallel between the amleela and his own stage production, or reinvention and reconstruction, of Homer's Odyssey, the screenplay…
British and Commonwealth History Collections. Retrieved online: http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/hasrg/abhist/brithist/caribbean.html
"Caribbean Histories Revealed." The National Archives. Retrieved online: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/caribbeanhistory/
Higman, B.W. A Concise History of the Caribbean. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Palmie, Stephan. The Caribbean: A History of the Region and its Peoples. University of Chicago Press, 2011.
narrator's life and memories of growing up in the Chinese countryside, and how leaving them behind has disillusioned and depressed the narrator. "My Old Home" tells the story of a Chinese man returning to his old home to help his mother and nephew move away. It is a beautiful narrative that celebrates the beauty and intensity of rural China, but it paints a sad picture of where China is heading, and what her people are leaving behind.
Essentially, this story shows that you can "never go home again," an enduring theme in much of the world's literature. In this case, a grown man (the narrator) with a family and a job in the city goes back to his rural home to help his family move away. Like most adults, the home he remembers as "grand" as a child is now old and shabby. He thinks the home is not what…
Hsun, Lu. "My Old Home." Globaled.org. 2009. 30 Sept. 2009.
One personality profile gives "a person who likes change" as one of its assessments. Scrutinizing the statement, one will see that this is likely to apply to almost everyone. First, it does not specify in what aspect in life the person likes change, making it open to personal interpretations. Second, possibility is huge that people are likely to favor change in at least one of the aspects of their lives, given that people are dynamic by nature. Check the tool's background and be not surprised if it is not rooted on solid research ground -- validity or reliability is low, sample used was not representative of the population and standardization was not strictly applied, among others.
Beware of selective perceptions. People fall for the trap of seeing vague descriptions as accurate because of the tendency to bring it down to the personal level. However, recall of personally-relevant information is subject…
MacDonald, D.J. & Standing, L.G. (2002). Does Self-Serving Bias Cancel the Barnum Effect? Social Behavior and Personality, 30 (6), 625-630.
Ulrich, C. (2004). Dissecting the Process of Reasoning. Human Ecology, 32 (2), 15-19.
Wittrock, D.A. & Foraker, S.L. (2001). Tension-Type Headache and Stressful Events: The Selective Memory in Reporting of Stressors. The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 41(5), 482-493.
They were not informed of the reason for the code. They were asked "(a) How similar do you think this person is to you? (1 _ not at all similar to 11 _ very similar) and (b) How much do you think this person will like you? (1 _ not at all to 11 _ very much)" and other like preliminary questions to see if subliminal likes were noticed and present (Jones, p. 672).
Students were then asked to remember their "partner's" code number and dismissed.
First, the birthday-association manipulation was modestly associated with anticipated liking, _ _.15, t (107) _ 1.64, p _.10. Second, a multiple regression analysis showed that anticipated liking did predict partner liking, even after controlling for birthday association, _ _.61, t (107) _ 8.23, p _.001. Finally, the same regression analysis showed that the birthday-association effect was eliminated after controlling for anticipated liking, _ _.04,…
Berg, J.H. And McQuinn, R.D. (1986). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 50, No. 5.
Fry, R. (1999). Biology of love. The Health Report. 6 Sep 1999. The effect of love on the chemical state of our brains. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s49793.htm.
Emanuele, E. Polliti, P, Bianchi, M. Minoretti, P. Bertona, M., & Geroldi, D. (2005). Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love. www.biopsychiatry.comAbstract. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Nov. 09.
Geher, G. (2005). Motivational underpinnings of romantic partner perceptions: Psychological and physiological evidence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 22, No. 2, 255-281.
Although "Midsummer" is a shot work, in keeping with more of the original modernistic style of poetry writing, it is no less poignant in the message it conveys.
In many ways, DH Lawrence is a visionary that offers the reader imagery and creativity that engulfs the reader into the world in which he creates with his words. As with Walcott, it was not necessary for Lawrence to achieve cadence in his writing though the use of rhyme. There is a balance that is struck that clearly reads as poetic. Lawrence's expressive language and use of interesting characters helps to tell the stories of dehumanization that only comes with man's lack of recognition for the power of nature, and moving too fast in directions unknown under the call for modernization.
"If one thinks a poem is coming on… you do make a retreat, a withdrawal into some kind of silence…
Baugh, Edward. Derek Walcott. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006.
Burnett, Paula. Derek Walcott: Politics and Poetics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.
Eagleton, Terry. The English novel: an introduction. Willey-Blackwell, pp. 258-260, 2005.
King, Bruce. Derek Walcott, a Caribbean life. Oxford: OUP, 2000.
The Role of a Photojournalist in Shaping the Syrian Narrative
This paper discusses the role of the photojournalist in shaping the Syrian narrative. The images that photojournalists create are used by a variety of media outlets, both mainstream like CNN and alternative like social media uploaders, to develop a narrative that promotes a perspective on events and advocates for a reaction from the public—either support for intervention or condemnation of the use of force by governments that are not directly involved in the conflict. The paper examines the gassing incident at Khan Shaykhun in Syria to see how photojournalism played a part in shaping the responses of the American president. It also examines how spectacle, soft power, embedded reporting, interventionism and the CNN effect all play a part in shaping the narrative built on the work of photojournalists.
The paper also discusses the impact of photojournalism in the Digital…
Holocaust revisionism continues to be a major problem because of the ill-will between Arabs in Jews in the current Middle East. In fact, as recently as 2006, a major Arab power hosted a conference on the Holocaust. However, the purpose of the conference was not to address lingering effects of the Holocaust, like the pervasive anti-Semitism that plagues much of the world, but to provide support for the position that the Holocaust was a myth. This concept is central to Iran's political position regarding Israel. Iran maintains that Israel is not a legitimate country, and that its political existence has been justified by the myth of the Holocaust, which the estern world used to justify Israel's re-creation after orld ar II. (CNN). In fact, modern Holocaust deniers recast the issue as some type of Jewish conspiracy, and this conceptualization actually serves to increase worldwide anti-Semitism.
Of course, the lessons…
BBC. "Q&a: Sudan's Darfur Conflict." BBC. 2007. BBC. 1 Feb. 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3496731.stm .
CNN. "Iran Plans Holocaust Conference." CNN. 2006. Cable News Network LP, LLP. 1 Feb. 2007 http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/01/15/iran.holocaust/ .
Holocaust-history.org. "Questions and Answers on 'Revisionism' and the Holocaust."
Holocaust-history.org. 2006. www.holocaust-history.org.1 Feb. 2007 http://www.holocaust-history.org/denial/revisionism-qa.shtml .
peasant in modern Chinese fiction.
The image of the peasant in modern Chinese fiction
A great deal of writers has gotten actively engaged in discussing the image of the Chinese peasant during the last century. Class differentiation, the struggle to attain economic stability, and poverty as a whole represent some of the main topics that writers took on regarding the matter. It was very difficult for some people to understand how the Chinese peasant changed through time, especially given that communism had brought along significant transformations, making the masses less able to act in accordance with reform. In spite of these respective changes, however, the Chinese continued to preserve some of their traditional values.
Upper class individuals in China were among the most ignorant when considering their perspective toward peasants. Because of their higher social status, these people were unable to understand that peasants were equal to them and that…
Lau, Joseph S.M. "The Columbia anthology of modern Chinese literature," (Columbia University Press, 2007)
Ling, Ding, "When I was in Hsia Village"
Xun, Lu, "My Old Home"
During the trail, the prosecution is liable to produce sufficient evidence against the culprit, and it has to be proven that misrepresentation was false, but that the thief knew of the falsity. The opinions and puffing are not included in false pretense. False Pretense also includes the shift of title. In the case of larceny by trick, the culprit deceives to deprive the owner of possession, not title. Therefore false pretense is taken much different from larceny by trick, and the implication is taken separately.
False Pretense is basically treated as an act of Theft. The act of false pretense is applied to the defendant, who obtained any chattel, money or valuable security from any other person with intent to defraud.
QUESTION # 3
The act of trespass is legal offence with an intention to spy, rob or cause damage. Trespass is going beyond the limit of what is considered…
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996, 912, 42 U.S. Code 710; see Not in Front of the Children, pp. 145-48.
David S. Wall., Crime and the Internet.
Andrea Liss., Trespassing Through Shadows: Memory, Photography, and the Holocaust.
For many years psychologist have tried to piece apart how humans learn, evolve, and develop identities. Many theories have been observed and explained, but none can ever be perfect. For as long as the human mind has been a subject of study, psychologists who study it will always be asking certain questions, such as: do humans learn through observation or through experience? Which carries more weight, experiences in the environment, or being taught step-by-step procedures? For example, if a mother sees her child reach for a hot stove, she will probably slap the child's hand away telling him to not do that because he will be burned and it will hurt. The child then has two options: to not touch a hot stove because the mother told him not to, and the mother knows best, or to touch the hot stove and find out for himself that stove…
Brace, N, & Byford, J 2010, Discovering Psychology, The Open University, London.
Cialdini, RB 2005, 'TARGET ARTICLE: Basic Social Influence Is Underestimated', Psychological Inquiry, 16, 4, pp. 158-161, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2011.
Darnon, C, Butera, F, & Harackiewicz, J 2007, 'Achievement Goals in Social Interactions: Learning with Mastery vs. Performance Goals', Motivation & Emotion, 31, 1, pp. 61-70, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2011.
Kutnick, P, & Kington, A 2005, 'Children's friendships and learning in school: Cognitive enhancement through social interaction?', British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 4, pp. 521-538, Education Research Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2011.'
hotel sent the security guard on duty to check on Gonzalez in his hotel room. The defendant rebuffed to open the door. The security guard heard the sound of breaking glasses and the high television volume. This prompted the hotel to summon Laredo Police Department to assist in carrying out investigations. The hotel staff did not appeal the police to take Gonzalez into custody. In the other case, Michael Evans arrived at the club with his companions; he unknowingly groped Ms. Niland who later instructed the security officer to arrest him.
Nonetheless, in the second case, Michael Evans had number of associates including, Chad Sorrell, Bernard Lynch, and Dan Lechner. They witnessed the event at the club as opposed to the first case where Gonzalez was alone studying in his hotel room in preparation for the forth-coming Texas Import/Export examination.
In the first case, due to lack of sufficient evidence…
Caregiving to Elderly People
In this document, interactive caregiving training is briefly discussed.
Caregiving to Elder People
ecent developments at the medical industry and more health conscious diet increase the life expectancy. According to the Census, 36.3 million Americans were 65 and over in 2004 and the numbers are expected to increase as 71.5 million in 2030. Aging brings serious memory problems, emotional and physical declines along with the natural changes of inner and outer organs. Taking a good care of an elderly person with memory loss, dementia and Alzheimer's disease is a very demanding job requiring serious physical and mental efforts. Therefore, intellectual and mental training of the caregivers is very important. The physical work caregivers undertake is very hard including bathing elderly people, feeding them, running errands and trying to understand what they really need. The result of this long-term care is exhaustion, anxiety and depression. egardless of…
Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer's disease and Other Dementias" American Psychiatric Association. October 2007. http://www.psychiatryonline.com/pracGuide/loadGuidelinePdf.aspx?file=AlzPG101007 . Retrieved 2007-12-28.
Gordon, Betty N., Baker-Ward, Lynne, and Ornstein, Peter A. (June 2001) "Children's testimony: A review of research on memory for past experiences."
Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review. Volume 4(2), 157-181. Retrieved at http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/1096-4037 on December 7, 2003. Document Link URL:
The goal of the article was to evaluate several recent studies on children's memory the implications for the accuracy of children's testimony in the legal system. Although the studies were not all purely focused on sexual trauma recollections, the implications for legal court battles focusing on these recollections are of particular interest to the authors.
Pertinent to evaluating importance of article is how thoroughly it deals with the question of how memory develops in children over the course of the development process and how this memory may be tampered with.
The article also touches upon the idea, slightly more tangentially of how subjective is autobiographical and/or eyewitness testimony…
"Contention for shared resources significantly impedes the efficient operation of multicore processors" (Fedorova, 2009). The authors of "Managing Contention for Shared Resources on Multicore Processors" (Fedorova, 2009) found that shared cache contention as well as prefetching hardware and memory interconnects were all responsible for performance degradation. After implementing a pain, sensitivity and intensity, model to test applications, the authors discovered that high miss rate applications must be kept apart and not co-scheduled on the same domain (memory). Therefore, the management of how the applications were scheduled by the scheduler would mitigate the performance degradation of the cache lines and the applications on the processors.
The authors built a prototype scheduler, called Distributed Intensity Online (DIO) that distributes intensive (high latest level cache (LLC) miss rates) after measuring online miss rates of the application. With the execution of eight different workloads for testing, the DIO improved workload performance by…
Arteaga, D. e. (n.d.). Cooperative Virtual Machine Scheduling on Multi-core Multi-threading Systems -- A Feasibility Study. Retrieved from Florida International University: http://visa.cs.fiu.edu/...i/tiki-download_file.php?field=25
Fedorova, A.B. (2009). Managing Contention for Shared Resources on Multicore Processors. Vancouver, Canada: Simon Frazier University.
Xu, C.C. (2010, Mar). Cache Contention and Application Performance Prediction for Multi-core Systems. Retrieved from University of Michigan: http://web.eecs.umich.edu/!zmao/Papers/xu10mar.pdf
Zhoa, Q. e. (2011, Mar). Dynamic Cache Contention Detection in Multi-threaded Applications. Retrieved from Massachusetts Institute of Technology: http://groups.csail.mit.edu/commit/papers/2011/zhao-vee11-cache-contention.pdf
Malpass, R. & Devine, P. (2003). Increasing Eyewitness Accuracy in the Lineup Procedure Is All in How You Ask the Question.
The author of this brief overview of the research presents a very clear and concise problem statement for the research undertaken. Eyewitness accuracy when it comes to lineups is the primary issue of concern to the researchers, and the problem statement given at the top of the summary article specifically identifies the issue of false identifications -- witnesses wrongly identifying the wrong person in a lineup and leading to false arrests and even false convictions -- as the area of primary concern. This relates directly to the experiment the researchers design and carried out and to the results of this experiment, making this clearly focused and very concise problem statement relevant throughout the entire research study. The purpose of the research is clearly and immediately identified, helping the reader…
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
Roberts, Rev. Dr. Mark D. "Oprah, James Frey, and the Question of Truth" markdroberts.com.
30 January 2006.
Claim: James Frey's book is fraudulent and should never have been published.
Purpose: To explain his outrage at Frey's misrepresentation and the publisher's lack of fact-checking.
Important information in the title: Frey's supposedly inspirational and gut-wrenching story was prominently featured on Oprah's book club and became a best seller.
Important info in the background material: The author was published by the same publishing house as Frey, under a different imprint. He states that Frey was treated very differently than he was in terms of the scrutiny to which Frey's story was subject.
Sentence explaining author's claim and how he/she would respond to the prompt: Some things are factual and facts must be honored.
Important parts of the text that specifically show claim/purpose/tone: specifically show claim/purpose/tone: I'm tempted to say…
Did Leonard Shelby Kill His ife?
Memento is the 2000 film by Christopher Nolan that follows Leonard Shelby (Guy Pierce) as he attempts to piece together fragmented memories and facts in an attempt to get revenge on a man that raped and killed his wife. Throughout the film, Shelby is seen interacting with numerous people who grow to become unreliable influences on Shelby and manipulate him to further their own agendas. Given Shelby's anterograde amnesia, much of what he claims to remember, and his subsequent notes, can lead the viewer to question Shelby's memory. hile it can be argued that Shelby killed his wife and simply cannot remember, there is evidence to support the argument that Shelby did not kill his wife.
There is evidence provided in the film that supports the argument that Shelby did not murder his own wife. One of the first pieces of evidence…
Memento. Dir. Christopher Nolan. United States: Summit Entertainment, 2000. Netflix Instant
Nolan, Christopher. Memento. Web. 26 October 2012. Screenplay.
Waller, Bruce N. "Eyewitness Testimony."