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Family Structure Evolution in America
Family structure in the United States is definitely evolving. This fact is demonstrated by an analysis of several different aspects of the family structure as defined within the National Council on Family elations. The specific forms of evolution within the family structure studied within this paper pertain to dating, marriage, and gender roles. By conducting a literature review of articles related, respectively, to each of these facets of family, one can see that there has been a great deal of evolution in the values of the family in the U.S.
The first article reviewed for this assignment is entitled "History of dating violence and the association of with late adolescent health." This article explored the relationship between the health of young adults and adolescents and negative experiences associated with dating or romantic relationships. Health was defined in both sexual, physical and mental terms, as explicitly…… [Read More]
At the same time, children being raised in single-parent families has doubled. Statistically, by the age of 18, over 50% of children in the U.S. are going to spend a portion of their childhood in a single-parent home. These numbers, experts say, make it crucial that we understand how the changes in the structure of the family influence many areas of children's lives, including educational outcomes (Schneider, Atteberry, & Owens, Family structure and children's educational outcomes, 2005).
And, again, the results of studies in this specific area indicate that, taking into account any other external factors, when it comes to achievement in an educational setting, children living with their own married parents do significantly better than other children. The influences that family structure and support can have are so strong they can counter the negative forces of social status or cultural background. It is established by study after study that…… [Read More]
It appears from the quotes Plutarch pulls from relevant sources such as Plato that Sparta was best known among its contemporary cities for its prowess in war, its unique governmental structure, and its tightlipped philosophizing. Plutarch himself adds to this portrait by discussing the way in which society and the family were structured within the city. In reading about the life of a preeminent lawgiver and social experimenter such as Lycurgus, it is only natural to wonder what his laws meant for the average citizens and for the life of the families within his realm. This question about the lives of the women and children of Sparta is partly answered in Plutarch's telling of the tale, though some questions remain. According to what Plutarch writes, the family in Sparta is subordinated to the good of the state, which in some ways is a burden to the children (particularly…… [Read More]
Unemployment and Family Structure
The Sociological and Psychological Affective Dimensions of Unemployment on Family Structure
Human society has forces that sometimes create balances and imbalances among individuals within the society. With this premise, it can be said that some changes within the social structure may be beneficial to an individual and detrimental for the other. Indeed, one illustration of these imbalances in the society is the negative, or non-beneficial, effects of unemployment of an individual on his/her family. Although unemployment may be best viewed as an economic issue, the social and psychological effects that it brings to the individual and society makes it an essential issue to be discussed in the domains of sociology and psychology.
This paper aims to identify the relationship between unemployment and its affective nature on the family structure and posit that, there is a significant relationship between the two, wherein unemployment leads to the weakening…… [Read More]
It is also important in connection with the ongoing contemporary debate about same-sex marriage and same-sex adoptive partners (Healey, 2008).
1. How prevalent are so-called non-traditional families (NTFs) in the U.S.
2. What problems (if any) have been associated with NTFs?
3. Are children living in NTFs benefited or harmed by their situation?
4. Are children living in NTFs better off than children living with unhappily married parents in traditional families?
So-called traditional families are still considered the norm in American society and they are often represented as the model for parenthood in particular. Meanwhile, there is likely ample reason to suspect that children raised in happy single-parent (and same-sex parent) families are happier than those raised by unhappily married parents in traditional families. If that is true, the prevailing social prejudice against non-traditional family structure is entirely unjustified by any evidence.
1. Non-traditional…… [Read More]
The attitude of being the "Little Emperor." Albeit, normally disappears by the time the child from the one child family begins working when an adult.
Child psychologist David Elkind Ph.D. (2009), Professor Emeritus of Child Development at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, asserts in the article, "The only child," that many of the currently adolescent singletons regularly presenting with a variety of social and behavioral problems (¶ 1). This social policy counters the Chinese tradition which encourages a family to have many children, especially boys. This policy, along with Chinese traditions attributes to the fact that children are deemed valuable. In turn, family members tend to overprotect and spoil the children from one-child families.
In any county, the family decision regarding how many children will be in the family may be complex. Elkind (2009) notes that in Western and other Asian countries, that the decision to have a single child…… [Read More]
Interestingly using that age group 7-10 years, olds also helps the reader to understand the possible severity of this type of problem. The regression models showed that there were significant associations with income, mother's aptitude, as well as home environment. In addition, the differences between single parent family structures vs. two parent were evident. The researchers indicated that they utilized a richer fuller definition of family structure however; this was not clearly identified within this paper. This is a cause for concern, as their terms are not clearly outlined in this respect allowing the reader to possibly identify them independently. This does not allow for a clear understanding of the theoretical framework. Despite the significant findings one has to consider what other factors can be considered as having a possible influence on negative childhood outcomes. The researchers examined multiple family structures and diverse theoretical approaches; if the research was more…… [Read More]
Science/Technology on the Modern Era
Family structures and social relationships in North America have undergone significant changes in the modern era, largely because of scientific/technological advancements. Such advancements have propelled the Women's Movement, caused a transformation of youth culture, and altered dating habits. This paper explores the positive and negative impacts of scientific/technological advancements in North America, how such advancements influenced the Women's Movement, and how the Women's Movement has impacted family structures.
Positives and Negatives
In the field of information and communication technology (ICT) alone, vast advancements are seen to have had positive and negative effects on North America.
The positive effects range from time saving devices that allow users to transmit information to anywhere from anywhere with an efficiency heretofore unthinkable. "Compared to sending letters, email is cheaper and faster" (Thunder02, 2009), while information sharing has essentially effected borderless communication. Advancements in ICT have also allowed for the…… [Read More]
Socioeconomic Status, Family Structure, and Parental Involvement: The Correlates of Achievement
Do class/socioeconomic status, the attention of a parent, the working patterns of the mother, and familial structure have any impact on a student's academic performance? This particular study seeks to, specifically, describe "the relationship between educational attainment and the components of the SES index as used in the National Longitudinal Surveys conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics." The 1980 High School and Beyond senior cohort was utilized in the undertaking of this study, with more than fifty eight thousand high school seniors and sophomores (1980) being used as the nationally representative sample. The survey of the samples took place in years 1980, 1982, 1984, as well as 1986.
The research made use of correlational research design. As Privitera (2013, p. 215) points out, correlational research design seeks to "use data to determine if two or…… [Read More]
It shows the selfishness of Dewey Dell, who is only concerned about her pregnancy and gives other family members little thought. It shows the long-suffering, to the point of self-immolation, of Cash. It shows the rivalry of Darl and Jewel, both vying for their dead mother's affection. And it shows the innocent simplicity, bordering on mental instability, of the young Vardaman. Each of these family members was affected in different ways by this destructive family dynamic.
Anse, in one of the most telling passages in the book regarding his relationship to the family, goes down the list of family members and whines about how each has cost him money in some way, further complaining that he has to work, when he does so, even though he doesn't have any teeth (35-37). Wadlington argues that because the story is set in the south and Anse is the "master" of the house,…… [Read More]
"While biological and psychological factors hold their own merit when explaining crime and delinquency, perhaps social factors can best explain juvenile delinquency" which "is a massive and growing problem in America." (http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html)
Doggett, a. "Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure" http://facstaff.elon.edu/ajones5/Anika's%20paper.htm
Goode: 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control, 1985.
Social Disorganization at the micro level:
Control Theories: Why most don't deviate?"
Owner: obert O. Keel. Last Updated: Monday, October 3, 2005. http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/socdisor.html
Miller, a.(2005) Every Smack is a Humiliation-- a Manifesto
Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Prentice-Hall. "Social Learning Theory" http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/Social.html
Schegel, K.(1998) Lecture Notes. http://www.indiana.edu/~theory/Kip/Control.htm
Juvenile Delinquency.Family Structure" http://family.jrank.org/pages/1006/Juvenile-Delinquency-Family-Structure.html
Causal Theories of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Perspectives" http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html
Control Theory 2" http://www.homestead.com/rouncefield/files/a_soc_dev_6.htm… [Read More]
As one commentator notes; "What this adds up to is, in my view, a significant shift in the balance of work and family life. oles are changing, the nature of care is changing, and the stress related to juggling the balance is increasing (Edgar, 1997, p. 149)
A number of statistics also help to outline the nature of the family structure in a developed economy like Australia. In terms of workforce participation, the figures are as follows: "….86% for fathers and 56% for mothers in two-parent families, and 65% for male and 43% for female sole parents"(Edgar, 1997, p.151). This is also indicative of a shift in the role of the female as solely a homemaker. "In 1993, 53% of couples with dependent children were both employed & #8230;" (Edgar, 1997, p. 151). Therefore, there are still imbalances and disparities in terms of the family structure and this is a…… [Read More]
It is expected that an initial
investment of $400,000 will be needed in order to effectively establish the Center. In addition, the Center will require a maintenance cost of $50,000 per month.
5. Budget and Strategy
Strategy 1: Arranging meetings with community leaders
This strategy ensures that the community at large will accept FAC in its capacity as an establishment to provide help and counseling within the existing cultural, religious, and educational paradigms. Public trust is important for the success of the Center. Specifically, this strategy includes arranging meetings times, venues and refreshments. This is estimated at a budget for about $5,000 per meeting. This strategy will also include the possibility of securing the services of a cultural consultant; preferably also a person with some standing in the community. The budget for this is estimated at an initial fee of about $3,000, which will repeat monthly for as long as…… [Read More]
d., pg. 67). Thus, the definition of the British family is almost wholly contained within a woman's decision. Women who have children and enter the workforce create new trends in British family life, such as the fact that children are cared for primarily by professionals working in the home, at nursery schools, or grandparents (Kathleen, n.d., "Family Life," 2009). The redefining of family relationships to give equality to both the husband and wife and the problem of finding childcare while both parents work is a result of women's entry into the workforce and modern conceptions of family life.
While these characteristics apply to the primary types of families in the United Kingdom, it is important to recognize that this state is diverse in terms of ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, religion, etc. Cloud (2008) discusses the difficulties in conducting research for one often not-discussed portion of society -- homosexuals. Cloud (2008)…… [Read More]
Family to Family
Pipes, Jerry & Victor Lee. (1999). Family to family. Alpharetta: North American Mission Board,
The Christian-focused psychology text Family to family offers family counseling with a spiritual orientation. The book is designed to address the difficulties many modern families face, including competing schedules, generational clashes, and having a sense of strong moral values in a secular society. Spending time together in a spiritual fashion can give families an oasis of stability in a fast-paced, increasingly impersonal world (Pipes & Lee 1999: 11). Creating a sense of community within the church and creating a community between members of the family are the essential building-blocks of the author's stated goal to save the modern family.
Family members must learn to establish more meaningful relationships with one another and with God -- rather than just focusing on themselves or blaming others. The authors wrote their book to address a common…… [Read More]
Structural family approach
Major contributors of Structural family approach
Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008()
History of Structural family…… [Read More]
Family elations esearch
The Sociology of Families and Households is a film that will be examined in this paper. The film is full of controversial topics as well as complex socioeconomic issues that will be discussed in detail. A textbook, Public and Private Families, written by Andrew Cherlina share a lot of concepts of the film will be brought in to the discussion as well.
The various relationships that exist between Marxist theory, sociological perspectives, structural functionalism, as well as the family and early feminist theory are examined throughout the program. It examines the rapid decline in marriage over the last few decades as well as the great increase in couples choosing cohabitation. Divorce is increasing and the fertility rate is on the decline in the U.K. All of these factors have combined to affect the traditional family in Britain and has created new challenges for them in how everyday…… [Read More]
If the child is punished for small infractions of the rules and other children are not, this makes him feel that life is unfair, and makes him act in the ways that he is expected to act. Formal labeling is manifest when teachers treat students labeled as gifted as brighter, which motivates the children to perform better on tests, or when students labeled as 'special education' or 'ESL' are assumed to be capable of less than other children. If less is expected of them, they will naturally perform at a lower standard.
Q5. Identify some of the factors that could lead to inept parenting in single parent family households.
Even the best single parent faces considerable challenges. Single parent households tend to be less affluent economically, which automatically presents a difficulty in terms of ensuring that children have safe and healthy environments in which to live. Single parents…… [Read More]
In summary, observational preexperience had differential effects on the timing of subsequent contingency performance of infants (p. 693)."
This research supports the potential for vicarious learning as a pre-emptor to juvenile delinquency when the family, academic, and social conditions are reflective of the elements that reflect a lack of structure, participation in community, poverty, and poor education systems that are not financed to provide the infrastructure in a child's early years.
4. Explain your understanding of Baumrind's Typology of Parenting Styles. Based on your understanding of the parenting styles described by Baumrind, which style of parenting style is most effective? Which is the least effective style of parenting? Why? Be sure to support your answer.
Diana Baumrind discussed parenting types, the authoritarian parent, the permissive parent and the authoritative parent (Grolnick, W., 2003, p. 5). Baumrind's description of the parenting styles is:
The authoritarian parent attempts to shape, control, and…… [Read More]
It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.
7. eflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?
I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…… [Read More]
In fact, many studies show that deviant or antisocial children may experience a strengthening of the bonds between parents and society in the process of their development.
Therefore, while social control theory is one view, there are many alternative theories that take other findings and variables into account. In general, the view that a deviant child who does not change by a certain age is "condemned "to a life of crime if sharply criticized, as it often does not concur with empirical findings. Theories put forward by Gottfredson and Hirsch propose another view of the life-course towards crime that takes into account the fact that in many case early deviant behavior does not necessarily lead to a life-long pattern of criminal behavior.
Describe the labeling theory and the consequences that labeling can have on a child. Should we be concerned with labeling? Why or why not?
In essence,…… [Read More]
Snell, L. (December 1, 2002). "Special Education Confidential" How Schools Use the "Learning Disability" Label to Cover Up Their Failures." Reason. Cited in:
Westwood, P. (2003). Commonsense Methods for Children With Special Needs.
Luis and Maria brought their family to the United States because of the chronic unemployment in Puerto Rico. They both graduated from Secondary School, although monetary and family responsibilities prohibited them from college or advanced trade school. Luis was a mechanic and bus driver in Puerto Rico, and was able to take his Class CU.S. Certification. He is a full-time driver for the city's Metro Bus Service, which is a medium income job, and because it is a City Government position, has decent benefits. Maria worked in a poor-quality "sewing" shop in Puerto Rico, but managed to find a position with a Dress Shop/Tailor catering to the Latino immigrant community. She specializes in…… [Read More]
Diverse and Changing Face of the Family Structure
The state of marriage has statistically changed in recent years, transforming the familiar structure of the nuclear family into an institution of non-traditional deviations. As with any issue, deviations from the norm pose objections and controversy. In the case of the family, philosophical, theological, and social debates revolve around the question of what constitutes the family structure ideal for raising children. The trend in single parenting, a decline in marriage rates, and the introduction of the homosexual family has led to the conservative opinion calling for a return to traditional family values and ethics to counter the demoralization of America. Sociologists, however, observe that family diversity is healthy and should be supported by society. Thus the depiction of the ideal family framework becomes a struggle between social opinions and political agendas. Society is changing, and the family compositions are reflective of those…… [Read More]
Family environment as a predictor of adolescent delinquency
According to the study entitled "Family environment as a predictor of adolescent delinquency" by Monique Matherne and Adrienne Thomas (2001), juvenile delinquency has long been analyzed as a social and family-based problem, not something that is solely due to the young person's character. Availability of guns, violent television, and poor educational opportunities has all been linked to delinquent behaviors (Matherne & Thomas 2001: 656). Although most researchers would concede that delinquency is multi-factorial in its cause, there remains a great deal of debate in the academic community as to which variables predict the likelihood of the juvenile to engage in delinquent behavior. Cashwell and Vacc (1996) "have suggested that family relations might be even more important than peer relations in predicting delinquency" (Matherne & Thomas 2001: 660). The family environment has been particularly focused upon for potential causation of delinquency in…… [Read More]
Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems
Considering the reading assignments in both texts, what do you see going on with Pete and his family?
Family dynamics is affecting Pete and his family. The point of focus is the pattern of dynamics apparent in Tim's family, including the impact that the youngsters behavior has on the family members. The following points affect family dynamics:
Intra-parental relationship number of youngsters in the family persona of each of the family member an absence of a parent the assortment of individuals who are living under the same roof level and type of influence from extended family or others a chronically sick individual within the family a veritable assortment of societal and emotional trauma faced in the past by elders, such as an divorce, affair, unemployment, death, homelessness familial attachments, or lack thereof (i.e. insecure, secure)
inherited features of family members through generations…… [Read More]
Family Theoretical Perspective
The family is a social institution that has attracted a lot of research. There are many things that revolve around this institution and hence the reason why it attracts a lot of attention and consequent research. The topic of this paper is family and the chosen article is, "Beyond the nuclear family: The increasing importance of multigenerational bonds."
The structures of family forms vary just as their definitions. There is no single form of true family. In earlier years the nuclear family that comprises of a single set of biological parents and their children was prevalent. However, there has been a trend towards multiple generations of the same family living and working together in the same household. Today, there are many types of family forms that can be seen and they are due to the evolution of the family that started off as a result of a…… [Read More]
Family Systems Theory; Application of Family Therapy Theories
The concept of family therapy has over the years has been developed into different approaches that have definite characteristics. These theories have been used to bring forth solutions to different family issues that are experienced on regular basis. It is not easy to understand the structure of a family since there are no universal structures that the family problems or challenges take, this means that even in the application of the family systems theories in bringing solutions to families, the application purely depend on individual unique family challenges and not on a universal template. These unique characteristics that each family challenge takes makes it hard to apply one system theory and have full confidence that it will work, hence the frequent overlapping of the theories, and in this case the strategic family therapy and the structural family therapy will be applied to…… [Read More]
Family of Origin
The origin of the family describes the family in which one is grown up, inter-family interactions and relations between one's parents', siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles and grandparents. The current study examines the origin of a family and determines the systematic research based on the behavior and relation of members and provides evidence-based practices in order to address the relational gap found among the family members.
Attachment Styles in Family
Early Marriage and Divorce
Evidence-Based esearch and Intervention
The family in which one is grown up with the collaboration of adult's economic contribution and influence from parents, siblings and grandparents collectively describes one's family of origin. The origin of one's family tends to effect the systems that are being followed in the family and describes the degree to which they can be adaptive in nature.…… [Read More]
Family elation and Substance Use Disorders
Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider society (Peter 2015). This paper will explore important familial roles, cultural differences in family systems, and how family members can facilitate treatment of a teenage member diagnosed with substance/drug use disorder. Family interventions such as Functional Family Therapy, Brief Strategic Family Therapy, In Family Behavior Therapy, Multi-systemic Therapy and Multidimensional Family Therapy will also be discussed.
In What Way Is The Family A System Of oles?
Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider…… [Read More]
Family Law eform
Briefly describe major features of women's roles and positions in Confucian patriarchal and patrilineal family.
The Confucian patriarchal and patrilineal family had very limited roles for women. This occurred with them serving as second class citizens when it comes to their inheritance and overall place in the family. In other words, the male family members were first in line for power, authority, influence and assets. If something happened to them, is the when women would receive property and play a greater role. In many cases, they were less influential in their ritual responsibilities when it comes to their ancestors. Inside the kin group, they were subservient to males. This meant that they were not educated and served as the nurturer for raising the lineal heirs. While at the same time, they were expected to remain silent in public and perform various duties around the house. (Shin, 2006)…… [Read More]
People generally focus on appearance when coming across a particular individual. This is perfectly exemplified by the meeting between the old member of the De Lacey family and the monster. The man initially welcomes the creature, as he is no longer able to see and is unacquainted with the monster's facial features and body.
Victor Frankenstein can be considered to contrast the monster through his behavior, his background, and because of the goals that he has. The scientist virtually had everything that the monster longed for, considering his family, his reputation, and the fact that he was generally seen as one of society's leading members. Instead of valuing what he had, however, Frankenstein gave it all away in favor of gaining reputation, as this was apparently the thing that he appreciated the most in life. hile most readers are likely to blame Frankenstein for most unfortunate events in the book,…… [Read More]
It also varies with urban or rural residence. Urban households commonly earn more and enjoy a higher standard of living than rural households. The allocation for food spending corresponds to the biggest part of the family budget. However, as family income increases, the share in food in consumption expenses generally drops. This is most likely because of the popularity of "fast foods" nowadays.
The process of socialization takes a lifetime whereby the individual acquires the established beliefs, values, sentiments, norms and behavior of his group and society. It is through socialization that the individual becomes a functioning member of his group. It is also through this process that values, customs and beliefs are passed on from one generation to the other.
Because of the significance of early experiences and primary relationships, the family remains to be the most important socializing agent in the child's life (Davidson and Moore,…… [Read More]
Families, Delinquency & Crime
The fundamental changes occurring to families in the 2st century can be classified into two different categories, depending on the internal or the external perspective that is used in the analysis. The external perspective proposes an analysis of the sociodemographic changes that have occurred to families under the impact of the external factors of the 2st century. The sociodemographic changes are characterized both by the numbers, by a quantitative reflection of families, and by the relationships that are formed within each family.
From the first perspective, the 2st century has imposed both changes in the number of families (some cultures, notably the Western ones, have encountered decreases in size because of an increased reluctance of individuals to get married) and in the formation of these family groups. As such, in many of these family groups, the norm has translated from a man-woman marriage as the basis…… [Read More]
Family on Family: An Interview With Uncle Simon
The idea of the family as a social subsystem is a very useful one in the academic world and in sociological and therapeutic practice, but it is not necessarily one that individual laypeople ascribe to when they think about their own family (Lesser & Pope, 2007). Though certain aspects of most people's conceptions of the family unit can be seen to mirror larger social structures in some ways, most people's views are much more individual and personalized (Carter & McGoldrick, 1998). The following interview, conducted with the interviewees uncle, demonstrates the personalized yet somewhat standardized view of family that can and does ultimately emerge when people think about their family.
The interviewee, Simon, had not previously though very much about the definition of "family" or how this definition was and is influenced by other social trends, though upon reflection he acknowledged that…… [Read More]
At the same time, the Japanese parent will likely encourage the child's freedom, especially in the early stages of life, while the American parent will tend to correct from early stages of development any misbehavior or errors. With the relationship mother-child, the Japanese mother will tend to emphasize less the development of the communication side for the child and will prefer a more symbiotic relationship (Ibid. page 71).
4. A family can best be defined through some of the main characteristics it has. However, one should also known that there are some general characteristics that everyone accepts as to what a family is and several others that are only accepted by groups of individuals as to what the family is. As such, both aspects need to be taken into consideration and discussed.
First of all, the family is judged to be the fundamental unity cell of society. From this perspective,…… [Read More]
To batter understand the mechanisms of decision making and purchase behavior within an adoptive family take the case of a nuclear family, formed from a 48 years old mother, a 51 years old father and an adopted 15 years old son. The mother is a clinical psychologist and the father is currently an out of work electrician. In this particular case:
big ticket purchases are generally decided by the mother, since she is the sole provider of the family; the father is charged with the family vacations food and toiletries are purchased on individual preference basically because the mother does not have enough time to cook group decisions are made in regard to the places where to dine out or electronic appliances to be purchased for the home the child's power of influence is revealed by his capability to research certain products and provide his mother with the required information…… [Read More]
Expressive functioning is related to communication such as emotional, verbal, and nonverbal communication, problem solving and roles within the family. Beliefs within the family are also a part of expressive functioning.
For the purpose of the Calgary Family Assessment Model, a family is defined as who they say they are. It is very important that the clinician performing the assessment not assign their own beliefs upon what he or she believes a family is, and take into account what the patient feels about family as to the patient is may mean not only the people who actually live within the household but can also address past, present and future emotional attachments.
Calgary Family Intervention Model:
The immediate family is composed of Mr. Herbert Schelley (the patient), Mrs. Annette Schelley (his wife), and their son Thomas Schelley. The extended family consists of the Schelley's two married daughters, their husbands and their…… [Read More]
Family Policy Integration
I discourse on family policy integration and education including a systematic approach to family policy and overview of the many reasons family integration helps communities prosper. Detailed analysis of why human service organizations benefit more from integration than the current method of providing services to individuals, which is more costly and tends to see families as separate entities.
Family policy integration and education is a systematic approach to family policy that would focus on reducing the need for developing programs and services that target individual adults and children, and focus instead on strengthening and empowering families (odriguez, et al., 2011; Westman, 2009). The goals of family policy integration include developing services which allow families to become sustainable, and human services organizations to take charge of programs in a manner that allows them to take ownership of programs that require greater accountability for their results (Westman,…… [Read More]
...in the end 'the addict has to want to change' and if the addict does not want to change it does not matter what program..." that the addict is in. (National Institute of Justice, 2005) the National Institute of Justice reports that a woman "often retains legal custody of a child while in prison, and once out, may not have the child immediately returned to her by the family member caring for the child." (2005)
Sarah Samson reports in the work entitled: "Groundbreaking Study Identifies Crucial Factors for Successful Community Reintegration of Ex-Prisoners in altimore" published in 2004, that Programs that help prisoners stay connected with their families, get drug treatment, and work while in prison can increase the chances that they will successfully reintegrate back into society, according to a new study released today by the nonpartisan Urban Institute. The study breaks new ground by recording prisoners' perspectives on…… [Read More]
Moshavi D. & Koch M.J., (n.d). he Adoption of Family-Friendly Practices in Family Owned Firms.
he article is centered on the family business and how the conflicts that emanate from the family business affects the non-family employees and what repercussions it has on the business as well. It highlights the work and family systems interaction and how that interaction can be managed. his is an empirical investigation into how the family business owners manage the work and family conflicts that face the non-family employees. he article first highlights some pertinent theories that help explain the influence of family on business like the resource-dependency theory and institutional theory in order to help the reader understand the entire concept. he researcher used the survey method to collect his data and 680 human resource manager filled in questionnaires that were used. he dependent variable is sighted as work-family responsiveness and the independent…… [Read More]
Monogamous Nuclear Families, Polygamous and Communal Families
Family has different connotations for different persons and cultures. In American society, the word is usually meant to denote a nuclear family consisting of a father, mother and their children. However the meaning of family in Asia is different because the family includes the grandparents, relatives and siblings of the elders. Family thus would also denote an entire clan. In African communities the Mormon system has its own connotation of family. Most of the world has some form of plural marriage, or polygamy, and is sanctioned by religions. Polygamy is not a non-western practice, but also exists in modern Western societies. (Koktvedgaard Zeitzen, 2008)
The common type of family being the nuclear family, the other types have all along attracted researchers to attempt to find an anthropological theory for polygamy that has spread to U.S. And UK to Malaysia, India, regions of Africa…… [Read More]
Murdock (4 functions family) Paragraph 2 - Describe evaluate Parsons (2 functions
When attempting to identify the various different functions that the family provides to both individuals and to collective groups in society, it becomes necessary to illustrate the principles of a number of different vantage points on this subject. This document will consider those of functionalists, Marxists, radical feminists and interpetivists in attempts to reach a consensus opinion.
George Murdock was one of the principle functionalists, and advanced the viewpoint that the family provides four vital functions for individuals and units within society. He believed that the family was a basic social unit that lived in a single residence that consisted of at least a pair of adults of both sexes and at least one child. One of the four main functions that Murdock believed the family provided for individuals was a means of having a sexual relationship that…… [Read More]
Nontraditional families in America have seen a remarkable increase in numbers over the past twenty years. The traditional family unit depicted in sitcoms on television and spoken about in the literature still dominates the social scene but in actual numbers it exists in only about twenty-five percent of the nation's households. Strangely, discussions regarding this magical unit still occupy the thoughts and arguments of politicians, preachers and conservative activists as they talk about the merits of "family values." Yet, what truly is the impact of the nontraditional family on today's society? How do children raised in such families fare in the social make-up such as school performance and their social interaction and, finally, why are the remaining prejudices against such families not logically justified?
The rapid increase in the number of nontraditional family is a social phenomenon. Such families, few in number, existed in near anonymity until the past twenty…… [Read More]
In J. Smith (Ed.), Understanding families into the new millennium: A decade in review (p. 357-381). Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations.
Ferree, M. (1984). The view from below: Women's employment and gender equality in working-class families. In .. Hess, & M.. Sussman (Eds), Women and the family: Two decades of change (p. 57-75). New York: Haworth Press.
Fung, J. (2010). Factors associated with parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems in Chinese immigrant families. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 3993), 314-327.
Hewlett, S., & West, C. (1998). The war against parents: What we can do for America's beleaguered moms and dads. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Hwang, K., Chang, S., Chen, S., Chen, C., & Yang, K. (2001). Chinese relationism and depression. Unpublished manuscript.
Lai, E., & Fang, S. (2001). Sex role attitude and housework participation among men and women in Taiwan. Paper presented at the…… [Read More]
They are therefore not determined or restricted by factors such as norms, morals or external principles. A concise definition of this view is as follows:
Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. It is believed by constructivists that representations of physical and biological reality, including race, sexuality, and gender are socially constructed
Another theoretical and philosophical stance that is pertinent to the understanding of the status of the family in modern society is the post-structural or deconstructive view. This is allied to a certain extent with the constructivist viewpoint, which sees society as a social construction and denies the reality of transcendent factors. This view therefore sees the family as a structure which is not fixed or static but is relative in terms of the norms and values…… [Read More]
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family
The main components of structural therapy
Structural therapy is a family treatment model founded on the frameworks of systems theory. The distinctive component of this model is the emphasis it has placed on structural adjustments as the primary objective of the therapy session. This emphasis is prominent over details of adjustments in individual behaviors. This model is distinctive because the therapist is the most active agent and receives much attention in the course of family restructuring (Lock & Strong, 2012).
The main purpose of structural family therapy is prevention of sequences from repetition by coveting the hierarchical structures of families. This encompasses shifts in power distribution among family members by adjusting interaction styles. Nevertheless, structural family therapy operates by making alterations on the dysfunctional family structure through encouragement and promotion of growth among family members with the primary intention of re-building the family (Petridis,…… [Read More]
ather than lamenting the loss of a family structure from an admittedly anomalous decade, Stacy (1993) argues that social reforms are necessary to ensure that children are cared for.
In Beck-Gernsheim's (2002:85) assessment, the focus should not be on "the black-and-white alternative 'end of the family' or 'family as the future'" but on "the many grey areas or better, the many different shades in the niches inside and outside the traditional family network." According to Beck-Gernsheim (2002) traditional definitions of family exclude many groups such as single people, the childless and single-parent families who have never married. They also ignore the potential conflict that occurs within traditional families. Beck-Gernsheim (2002) explains that changes in families, which have been occurring since industrialization, are the result of individualization.
In pre-industrial times, family structure was centered on work and economics, which each family member having a role to support the family farm or…… [Read More]
Nursing Case Study
Family nursing diagnosis is a holistic process that involves a thorough and complete family assessment to establish both curative and preventive concerns in a given family. The assessment from the participating family established a number of diagnostic issues. One of the family members suffers from obesity. D.K. who is ten years old and in second grade took two years to complete first grade. Obesity is a condition whereby the Body Mass Index (BM1) is over 30kg/m2. This is because of excess fat accumulation in a person's body. The Body Mass Index BM1, is the measure for obesity, and it is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by his/her height in square meters.
Obesity may be associated with the several of medical conditions like heart attack, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and some types of cancer (Domino, 2007). Major causes of obesity are lack of physical exercises…… [Read More]
Another important area of change relates to sexual norms and values in the family. Studies show that there has a definite growth in more permissive attitudes towards sex and particularly premarital sex. The number of people who see sex between an unmarried man and woman as "wrong" dropped from 36% in 1972 to 24% in 1996. (the Emerging 21st Century American Family)
These statistics indicate a change for the earlier view of sex as only being acceptable between married couples; which questioned the established norm and role of sexuality in the traditional family.
Another central area of change since the 1950's is the value associated with child rearing and the family. The more traditional concept of the family has at its core the ideal and value of providing secure and moral child - rearing practices. This aspect has changed and there has been a move away for this central value.…… [Read More]
Only through violence and rejection, he has learned, can one gain the upper hand in power relationships with others -- and also violence provides a way of alienating himself from others, as Paddy fears caring about other people too much because of the lessons he has unintentionally been taught by his family. Despite the love he evidently feels for his parents, because of his failed vigils to keep them together, eventually Paddy says that he wants to look at his father and feel nothing, and says that his brutal fights with other boys in the neighborhood are the most important things in his life, more than family relationships. Denied fulfillment and acceptance at home, even though his innate instinct is to love his parents, this instinct is ripped out of the boy by the circumstances of his life, and like Pearl's children, he tries to forget and emotionally deaden himself.…… [Read More]
Toulmin Argument on American Families
Up to 30 years ago, divorces were difficult to obtain and were very rare in American society. However, in 1969, the advent of no-fault divorce laws caused a spike in divorce rates. Qualifier follows- This paper argues that if the United States wants to preserve the traditional ideals of the American family, (claim follows) -- the no fault divorce laws must be repealed.
Support #1 follows -- The no-fault divorce laws have caused an alarming spike in the divorce rate. In a statistical study, researchers found an estimated.8 point average increase in the divorce rate after the no fault divorce laws were enacted. The 1970s saw a "divorce boom," when the divorce rate more than doubled. In fact, the divorce rates in the states that have adopted no fault divorce laws were much lower than their no-fault counterparts (Nakonezny, Shull, and Rodgers).
The ease of…… [Read More]
The best -- and perhaps the only -- way to shape the future of the family really could be, as Coontz suggests, to understand its history and the external circumstances that shape it.
For all of its data and involved historical discussion, this book remains incredibly light and easy to read. It is written in a way that is accessible without being condescending; informative without ever becoming dry. Perhaps it is the direct impact the ideas discussed in this book have on our daily life, but more likely it is Coontz's comprehensive grasp of her subject matter and clarity of voice that makes this book as enjoyable a read as it is. This is perhaps unusual praise for a scholarly work, to comment on the pleasure one could take from reading it, but there is no way to deny the pleasure of candid and informed truth sharing. That is the…… [Read More]
(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…… [Read More]
Extended Family in Finding Nemo and Lilo & Stitch
In the American society, the concept of the family can be interpreted in various ways, due to the flexibility in which the term is used by Americans. More often, family does not only mean the nuclear family composed of the father, mother, and child/children, but it also includes relatives and friends who are close to the individual. Indeed, through the years, society has evolved to make its family institution bigger, more flexible, and wider, yet deeper, in scope.
The concept of the "family" is an important theme discussed in the animated films, Finding Nemo by Pixar and Lilo & Stitch by Walt Disney. These films centered its theme on how a family is constructed and what are the dynamics (or relationships) that develop from within upon its creation. This paper discusses and analyzes how these two films depict the concept of…… [Read More]
Students With Diverse Families
Written by Wendy Schwartz of Columbia University, Family Diversity in Urban Schools is a study of urban students living with caregivers other that their biological parents. In it, she presents a comprehensive and illuminating exploration of these households, along with recommendations that will help schools provide support for these families. Her well documented, well organized article characterizes the most common types of nontraditional families, and makes recommendations for schools that provide support for these families. The definition of family that the author prefers is the following:
Any group of individuals that forms a household based on respect, the meeting of basic needs, as well as those of love and affection, and one in which assistance is freely given to maintain social, spiritual, psychological, and physical health
According to Hampton, Rak, and Mumford, anywhere between thirty and sixty percent of all urban students live with caregivers that…… [Read More]
The family unit certainly serves as mechanism to ensure the survival of the human species, just as "family" units in the animal world function primarily to ensure that the young offspring reach an age when they can survive on their own. Interestingly -- and expanding the analogy -- the concept of "surviving on their own" does not mean surviving in isolation, except for those few animal species for which a solo existence in the norm. Indeed, for some animal species, a solo existence is dictated by the demand of territory with large expanses of wilderness or prairie required for their subsistence. But for human's surviving on one's own is taken to mean primarily an emotional maturity -- achieving an adult capacity -- with a strong economic overlay.
As society becomes more diverse, examples of how families support this independent living that is nested within social groups that are…… [Read More]
Rather than hysterically creating units to force fathers to do their duty, the underlying reasons for their lack of dutiful response should be investigated. Once the root causes of family decline are investigated, more effective remedies can be put in place. Certainly what has been done to date has not worked, if statistics like those of Vitz are to be believed.
Furthermore, I do not believe that we are facing a national crisis with regard to the family. Greater equality for women, more tolerance towards divorcees, and more opportunities in terms of work and childcare have opened doors for women that were not available in history. Abused women for example now have the means to escape the situation, be believed by the court, and raise their children with love and respect. Certainly this cannot be seen as a family in decline. Emotional issues and underlying reasons, rather than simple, surface…… [Read More]
Social Changes for the American Family: Today and in 10 Years
The next ten years will see a greater variation in the structure of families and marriages, with much greater variations and flexibility than has ever been the case in the past. This will be primarily driven by the recognition that children, regardless of the composition of a family unit, need the structure and stability of long-term relationships at the adult level of stabilize their emotional maturation
(Milot, 2001). This shift to as much greater tolerance of marriage structures in addition to a questioning of consumerism, and if economic conditions continue to be turbulent, anti-consumerism, will mark the next ten years. The American family will shift from the prototypical nuclear family definition to one marked by more of a polyglot of roles, responsibilities and lifestyles (Milot, 2001).
Analysis of the American Family Today and in Ten Years
Clearly the economic…… [Read More]
Families these days are "in crisis" because all of us have lost a lot of values that used to keep a family together (Kim, 2000).
In addition, Coontz very analytically eliminated all the myths about what families used to be, how & what they are in the current time, and what they should be (Kim, 2000). However, as a reader one might notice just little discrepancy in her dispute and statistics, which may remind that all of these socio-cultural examinations have been basically constructions that tell the story in a better way or worse than each other, but not flawless (Kim, 2000).
Thus, this is just too big an issue to get the whole thing completely balanced and organized. However, her logic has been well-developed and with given facts and statistics, it derived some very outstanding conclusions. For example, in the last two chapters, she tied up the analysis and…… [Read More]
establishment of the People's Democratic Republic in China in the late 1940's, the Chinese Communist Party actively re-engineered society to curb birthrates and bring the country's population down to manageable levels. Part of this idea was a process that would re-imagine the family, a concept first found in the work of Plato. However, this invention of an 'ideal family' as being a paradigmatic national goal of social reformers that has its origins in British Malthusianism and gave birth to the practice of eugenics in the United States. It complemented a long tradition of periodic moral reforms and religious revivals that have existed in the United States since the Great Awakening.
The modern American concept of 'family values' owes its existence to the progressives of the late 19th century, whose principal manifestation was in organizations such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union and the Society for the Prevention of Vice. The…… [Read More]