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Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems
The literal meaning of the word "psychopathology" is a mind disorder or disease. Psychological diagnosticians, while assuming that the illness is located inside a person, always use the medical model in treating or studying patients with 'mental illnesses'. In comparison with the approach they take, I present two converging and related psychopathology perspectives. The two perspectives give an analysis based on context from the family's viewpoint. The first approach, the "family systems" approach, is a conception that came up in the 1950s as a substitute to the traditional focus of psychopathology on individuals (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 1996).
The second approach, "family risk factors" has been in existence in psychopathology but not in the foreground. It tries to identify a couple family aspects of the functioning of the family that are significant in the treatment as well as etiology of patients that have tested positive…
Ackerman, N.W. (1958). The psychodynamics of family life. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Ackerman, N.W. (1962), Family Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis: The Implications of Difference. Family Process, 1: 30-43.
Ackerman, N.W. (1962). Family Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis: The implications of difference. Family Process, 1(1): 30-43.
Ackerman, N.W. (1966). Treating the troubled family. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems
Considering the reading assignments in both texts, what do you see going on with Pete and his family?
Family dynamics is affecting Pete and his family. The point of focus is the pattern of dynamics apparent in Tim's family, including the impact that the youngsters behavior has on the family members. The following points affect family dynamics:
Intra-parental relationship number of youngsters in the family persona of each of the family member an absence of a parent the assortment of individuals who are living under the same roof level and type of influence from extended family or others a chronically sick individual within the family a veritable assortment of societal and emotional trauma faced in the past by elders, such as an divorce, affair, unemployment, death, homelessness familial attachments, or lack thereof (i.e. insecure, secure)
inherited features of family members through generations…
Adkins, K.S. (2010). A Contextual Family Therapy Theory Explanation for Intimate Partner Violence (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University).
Australian Counseling Association (n.d). Code Of Ethics and Practice.
Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., & Krasner, B. (1986). Between give and take: A clinical guide to contextual therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Bubenzer D. L & West J.D. (1993) Counseling Couples Volume 8 of Therapy in Practice. SAGE.
Family system is the basic and smallest social unit of the society that has played a crucial role in the development of countries and cultures. This unit has continued to develop in line with changes in the needs and demands of people as well as the society. Throughout the history of mankind, the family systems have played an important role in the development of children and individuals. However, there are various issues associated with the role of family systems in the development of an individual.
elationship between Family Systems and Healthy Development
As the basic unit of society, family systems have a strong link or relationship with healthy development. The role of family systems in healthy development is directly linked to the method of parenting within the family. This is primarily because a healthy family system can be identified through the method of parenting that is evident within the household.…
Hann-Morrison, D. (2012, December 11). Maternal Enmeshment -- The Chosen Child. SAGE
Journals. doi: 10.1177/2158244012470115
Harden, B.J. (2004). Safety and Stability for Foster Children: A Developmental Perspective.
Children, Families, and Foster Care, 14(1). Retrieved from http://futureofchildren.org/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=40&articleid=133§ionid=873
Napier and Whitaker exemplify systems therapy with their presentation of the Brice family case. It is necessary to identify the origins of the systems approach in order to fully appreciate its value in the context of family therapy. It approaches the family unit as a system and therefore borrows heavily from systems theory. Systems theory is a general theory applies across many disciplines and looks at systems that have the ability to self-regulate. The theory applies to biological systems, climate, environment, and the family unit.
Systems approach recognizes the interdependencies that exist in the family as a system. The family unit consists of individuals related to one another forming a complex web that should act in congruence. Therefore, although a part of a system is essential, it is the relationship of the part to the whole that is paramount. The family as a system is dynamic since…
Napier, A.Y., & Whitaker, C. (1978). The family crucible: The intense experience of therapy. New York: HarperCollins.
Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach
There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).
Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…
Caldwell, K., & Claxton, C. (2010). Teaching Family Systems Theory: A Developmental-
Constructivist Perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32(1), 3-21.
Gruber, K.J., & Taylor, M.F. (2006). A Family Perspective for Substance Abuse: Implications
from the Literature. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6(1), 1 -- 29.
Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory ateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors ecvar & evcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).
The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (ecvar & ecvar, 2006). However, the…
Becvar, D.S. & Becvar, R.J. (2006). Family therapy: A systemic integration. Boston, MA: Pearson
Broderick, P., & Weston, C. (2009). Family Therapy with a Depressed Adolescent. NCBI, 32-37. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719446/
Greenburg, L.S., Watson, J.C., & Lietaer, G. (1998). Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: Guilford
Israelstam, K. (1988). Contrasting four major family therapy paradigms: implications for family therapy training. Journal of Family Therapy, 179-196.
Age Students With Learning Disabilities
The impact of family motivation on college age students with learning disabilities may be a deciding factor in regard to the student's success or failure. College age students with learning disabilities obviously have more immediate needs in cooperative learning settings when compared to typical students. Educators cannot just tell the student to just sit-down and read five chapters of Freud. These students have problems like dyslexia, AD/HD, or English as a second language to name a few and they may have had additional help in the past that may not be available at an older age. When there are obvious underlying issues, the family, teachers and the students themselves have to work more closely together in order to reach the desired positive outcomes. "Teaching effectiveness is inferred from the product that was created; it is the product that is the indicator of scholarship." (Cranton,…
Positive feedback is a major part of the Family Systems Theory process. Feedback in this case is a process in which the family, and possibly the teaching team involved, all work together to regulate the thinking process of the college age student with learning disabilities. This process also incorporates the notion that positive self-talk by the college age student with some form of learning disability is a necessary component of educational success. Self-talk helps them monitor their own output. In other words, the human body in this case accepts feedback from both internal and external sources to promote positive goals and objectives. A good example of a positive feedback system is how an automatic pilot system is used in most commercial airplanes. The automatic pilot process provides a computer that is actually flying the plane constant feedback about required information regarding the planes speed, altitude, direction and so on. As the plane drifts off course slightly, the computer system realigns the flight path. The college age student with a learning disability also drifts off occurs from time to time and positive feedback from family members, teachers and counselors and the student themselves all help to get the student back on course. This approach continually promotes active coping efforts and attributes positive meaning to the learning situation.
Name of Theory: FAMILY STRESS & COPING THEORY
Based on Family Stress Theory, there can be many indicators of a family's adaptation to stress induced events. "One is the adaptation of individual family members, including adolescents have noted that such factors as the perceived levels of individual and family stress serve as markers of adaptation." (McCubbin, 1993) In other words, the adaptation implies that there are a large number
Structural family approach
Major contributors of Structural family approach
Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008()
History of Structural family…
Bobrow, E., & Ray, W.A. (2004). Strategic Family Therapy in the Trenches. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 23(4), 28-38. doi: 10.1521/jsyt.188.8.131.52840
D'Angelo, S.L. (1995). The Milan approach to therapy revisited. PsycCRITIQUES, 40(4), 352-352. doi: 10.1037/003578
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family Therapy: An Overview: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Rosen, K.H. (2003). Strategic family therapy. In L.L. Hecker & J.L. Wetchler (Eds.), An introduction to marriage and family therapy. (pp. 95-121). Binghamton, NY U.S.: Haworth Clinical Practice Press.
Napier & Whitaker's (1978) classic The Family Crucible is the benchmark book related to family therapy. The book is thorough, and divided into twenty chapters that cover the gamut of family therapy theory and especially practice. Napier & Whitaker (1978) are family systems theorists, and they openly divulge their appreciation for an approach to individual psychology that takes into account family systems. In other words, no individual can be understood or helped without paying attention to the family situation, its dynamics, and its role in identity formation and coping. The authors discuss dysfunctional family systems via a case study. By focusing on one case study, Napier & Whitaker (1978) show how family systems theory works, and what clients can expect from the process.
The authors weave their personal views and experiences throughout the case study, which clutters and bogs down the narrative, but which also provides a necessary…
Napier, A.Y. & Whitaker, C. (1978). The Family Crucible. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Systems theory is actually used by some practitioners in domestic violence social work and counseling by being packed within the approach of "family system theory" (e.g. Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). This approach holds that the family is a holistic system where all parts are inextricably and holistically intertwined and each member of the family affects the other. The school and community -- outside systems -- too affect the family, and, in turn, the individual family members have an impact on these external systems. Believing that all causes and effects have reciprocal impact, systems theory also posits circular causality where not only are multiple causes the instigation of one problem, but oen problem may, in effect, eventuate in multiple causes. Domestic violence, for instance, of spouse attacking other spouse negatively impacts children, which leads to poor academic study, which my negatively impact teacher's rating, disturbing the school, and so forth. Other…
Family system theory, too avoids labeling behaviors as good and bad seeing them as factor of external elements (such as geography or time) that are, often, beyond individual's control and often beyond his or her awareness too. Taking this in mind enables the counselor to not only be more empathic and understanding of client but to also help detach the client from guilt regarding his activities and show him how to effectively reduce his negative behavior in a self-efficacious manner. By seeing the behavior as simply an action that has been learned and robotically repeated / reiterated through the generations, family system theory reuses to evaluate it and teaches the counselor / social worker and client to see it as a negative variable, through no fault of his own, that needs to be altered. Altering it will, in turn, not only make his own life and lives of those who are closest to him happier, but he will also positively impact the lives of countless effected others.
System theory, when applied to treatment of domestic violence, may be helpful too in that it treats not only first-order levels but provides understanding of, and probes underneath, to second-order levels too. First order levels refer to the situation where surface behavior may be changed but the underlying attitude remains unaltered (Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). The perpetrator, for instance, may learn new communication skills but the influence of his cultural internalizations regarding supposed inferiority of the female remains unchanged. System theory, on the other hand, may help the client realize the root of his perspectives and, by so doing, have a greater and more enduring impact on him. This would consequent in a second-order change where the underlying rationale is addressed leading to male and partner affecting a healthier relationship.
It is in this way that I see systems theory as contributing powerfully to amelioration of domestic violence.
Systems and Diffusion of Innovation Theory
Systems theory vs. diffusion of innovation theory
Systems theory is based upon the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Its founder Ludwig von Bertalanffy proposed that, based upon his experience with the biology of organisms, all systems are constantly changing because they are able to interact with their environments. Systems are open and thus can acquire "qualitatively new properties through emergence" (Clark 2011). Living beings of all kinds are capable of taking in and incorporating new elements while expelling the old. This is vitally important for healthcare organizations today to understand, given the need to respect the changing nature of patients and the fact that patient's health can be significantly improved or worsened, depending on the type of care the patients receive and do not receive. Healthcare organizations must be true 'learning organizations' as new patients…
Clark, Don. (2011). Ludwig von Bertalanfy: General System Theory 1950. Big Dog and Little
Dog. Retrieved at: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/history_isd/bertalanffy.html
This article provides a brief introduction to the general concepts of systems theory, beginning with von Bertalanfy's career as a biologist studying organisms. It is a succinct explanation of the theory in lay person's terms, expressing it in phrases such as 'the whole is bigger than the sum of its parts.'
Diffusion of innovation theory. (2010). Utewente. Retrieved at:
Moshavi D. & Koch M.J., (n.d). he Adoption of Family-Friendly Practices in Family Owned Firms.
he article is centered on the family business and how the conflicts that emanate from the family business affects the non-family employees and what repercussions it has on the business as well. It highlights the work and family systems interaction and how that interaction can be managed. his is an empirical investigation into how the family business owners manage the work and family conflicts that face the non-family employees. he article first highlights some pertinent theories that help explain the influence of family on business like the resource-dependency theory and institutional theory in order to help the reader understand the entire concept. he researcher used the survey method to collect his data and 680 human resource manager filled in questionnaires that were used. he dependent variable is sighted as work-family responsiveness and the independent…
The writer here takes a closer look at the family business and specifically the communication trends that are experienced within such businesses. It also looks at how the communication helps to boost innovativeness in family business. The paper seeks to examine the effects of communication on innovation within the family business and how much innovation there is within the family business setting. The researcher here also looks at the variations in innovation among the family businesses and the reasons behind these disparities. The researcher highlights the various factors that are likely to affect the innovation within the family business setting and how these have over years changed. The data that was used was widely sourced from case studies of various family owned business in contrast to the business not owned by families. There was a general conclusion that non-family owned businesses seemed to show higher levels of innovation and better structured communication systems.
Memili E., Zellweger T. & Fang H.C., (2013). The Determinants of Family Owner-Managers' Affective Organizational Commitment. Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies.
The author here highlights the need for the commitment of the owner-managers within the family owned businesses. The levels of commitment as managers are seen to be affected by the levels of harmony that is within the business management position. The conceptual framework of this article looks highlights some major factors that are likely to determine the commitment of any individual family member in managing the family business. These are relationship conflict, work-family conflict, affective organizational commitment which are all seen to have an impact in the ownership attachment.
family by applying theories, concepts and knowledge. Through the study of the theories and concepts, the study will look at how families communicate, behave, operate and will also highlight common problems facing the family and especially tackling the health issue and how social systems affect provision of health care, and will illuminate this through an in-depth study of how it applies or affect the family unit. The study will discuss diversity issues in relation to the social system.
Family life is being scrutinized, and a new definition of a family is emerging every day, but in simple terms a family is a group consisting of parents and children living together in a household, caring and supporting each other. According to Merriam-ebster Dictionary; a family is a fundamental social group in society typically consisting of one or two parents and their children.
The family is the natural and fundamental group unit…
Boss P. Doherty W. LaRossa R. (2008). Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A contextual Approach, New York: Springer
Crawford, (1999), Bilingual Education: History Politics, Theory and Practice, 23 July 2011, http://www.one nation.org/Crawford.html
LaRossa & Reitzes. (1993). Family Theory, Washington D.C: Chapman Publishers
McGoldrick M, Gerson R. & Shellenberger S. (1985). Genograms in Family Assessment. W.W. Norton: North America
Psychology of marriage and family systems
Considering the text reading assignments, what do you see going on with Phillip and his family?
Given that Phillip was born to a mother who abused alcohol in the past, it is possible that there are physical issues which are affecting his performance in school. Phillip should be screened for learning disabilities and other issues which could inhibit his progress. Phillip is also struggling with issues which make him 'different' from his peers, including the poverty of his household, the fact that he is being shipped from one home to another as the result of his parents' divorce, and the fact that he might receive negative attention because of his mother's LBGT status as well as the fact he is a Native American.
If Phillip is being sexually molested, however, this could be another source of his withdrawal and anxiety, given…
Lubell K.M., Lofton T, Singer H.H. (2008). Promoting healthy parenting practices across cultural groups: A CDC Research Brief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2008.
Lucero, S. (2007). Working with Indian families and child substance abuse challenges. NRC4
Tribes. Retrieved from: http://www.nrc4tribes.org/files/Urban%20Indian%20guide.pdf
Murray Bowen developed a theory of family functioning and individual functioning within the family system. The Bowen theory most importantly takes into account the need to balance individuality with togetherness in tight social systems like families ("Bowenian Family Therapy," n.d.). There are eight basic concepts to the Bowen theory. The first is the differentiation of self, which is important for psychological health and well-being. An example of differentiation of self is when the person is able to hold a different opinion on a political or social issue than a parent without that difference causing a problem in the relationship. When the self is not differentiated, the person might have internalized the beliefs of mother, father, sister, or brother and cannot tell what is really "me" versus what is a result of programming, the desire for approval or absorbing others' beliefs.
The second concept to Bowen's theory is triangulation. Bowen believes…
"Bowenian Family Therapy," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.psychpage.com/learning/library/counseling/bowen.html
Vermont Center for Family Studies (n.d). What are the eight interlocking concepts of Bowen Family Systems Theory? Retrieved online: http://www.vermontcenterforfamilystudies.org/about_vcfs/the_eight_concepts_of_bowen_theory/
Shift From First-order to Second-Order Cybernetics in the Family and Systemic Therapies
The strategic family therapy model came up in the 1950s and was inspired by two primary works: the works of Milton Erickson who came up with revolutionary paradoxical interventions which took advantage of people's resistance to change to help alter psychiatric symptoms first; and the works of Gregory Bateson and the Palo Alto Group that made use of cybernetics in communication patterns of the family. The style of a therapist changes as he or she gets better as a person and as they develop professionally, and also as per what is in fashion at the time. An older person has the chance to look at what happened in their past and see what worked and what failed. This gives them a better perspective of what works and what might not work for a given situation. The path is…
Asen, E. (2004). Outcome research in family therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, vol. 8, pp. 230-238
Asen, K.E., Berkowitz, R., Cooklin, A., et al. (1991). Family therapy outcome research: a trial for families, therapists and researchers. Family Process, 30, 3-20.
Baron, P. (2007). Ecosystemic psychology; first and second order cybernetics.
Baucom, D., Shoham, V., Mueser, K., et al. (1998). Empirically supported couple and family interventions for marital distress and adult mental health problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 53-88.
Family Systems Theory; Application of Family Therapy Theories
The concept of family therapy has over the years has been developed into different approaches that have definite characteristics. These theories have been used to bring forth solutions to different family issues that are experienced on regular basis. It is not easy to understand the structure of a family since there are no universal structures that the family problems or challenges take, this means that even in the application of the family systems theories in bringing solutions to families, the application purely depend on individual unique family challenges and not on a universal template. These unique characteristics that each family challenge takes makes it hard to apply one system theory and have full confidence that it will work, hence the frequent overlapping of the theories, and in this case the strategic family therapy and the structural family therapy will be applied to…
Nichols M.P., (2009). Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods.
Family of Origin
The origin of the family describes the family in which one is grown up, inter-family interactions and relations between one's parents', siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles and grandparents. The current study examines the origin of a family and determines the systematic research based on the behavior and relation of members and provides evidence-based practices in order to address the relational gap found among the family members.
Attachment Styles in Family
Early Marriage and Divorce
Evidence-Based esearch and Intervention
The family in which one is grown up with the collaboration of adult's economic contribution and influence from parents, siblings and grandparents collectively describes one's family of origin. The origin of one's family tends to effect the systems that are being followed in the family and describes the degree to which they can be adaptive in nature.…
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001).First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage.In National Center for Health Statistics.
Carr, A. (1999). Evidence-based practice in psychotherapy and counseling. Journal of the Irish Association of Counseling and Therapy, 2(9), 15-34.
Dattilio, F.M. (2005). Introduction to the special section: The role of cognitive -- behavioral interventions in couple and family therapy. Journal of marital and family therapy, 31(1), 7-13.
Engels, F. (1942).The origin of the family.Current Book Distributors.
Family elation and Substance Use Disorders
Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider society (Peter 2015). This paper will explore important familial roles, cultural differences in family systems, and how family members can facilitate treatment of a teenage member diagnosed with substance/drug use disorder. Family interventions such as Functional Family Therapy, Brief Strategic Family Therapy, In Family Behavior Therapy, Multi-systemic Therapy and Multidimensional Family Therapy will also be discussed.
In What Way Is The Family A System Of oles?
Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider…
Marcia .C. (2011). Culture and Family Dynamics. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from http://www.dimensionsofculture.com/2010/11/culture-and-family-dynamics/
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014, January). Family-Based Approaches. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment-research-based-guide/evidence-based-approaches-to-treating-adolescent-substance-use-disorders/family-based-approaches
Novella .R. (2014, January). Family-Based Approaches. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from
It also varies with urban or rural residence. Urban households commonly earn more and enjoy a higher standard of living than rural households. The allocation for food spending corresponds to the biggest part of the family budget. However, as family income increases, the share in food in consumption expenses generally drops. This is most likely because of the popularity of "fast foods" nowadays.
The process of socialization takes a lifetime whereby the individual acquires the established beliefs, values, sentiments, norms and behavior of his group and society. It is through socialization that the individual becomes a functioning member of his group. It is also through this process that values, customs and beliefs are passed on from one generation to the other.
Because of the significance of early experiences and primary relationships, the family remains to be the most important socializing agent in the child's life (Davidson and Moore,…
Bellah, R.N. (1970). Beyond Belief. New York: Harper & Row.
Berger, P.L. (1963). Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Doubleday.
Berk, S.F. (1985). The Gender Factory. New York: Plenum.
Broom, DH, Broom, L. And Bonjean, C.M. (1990). Sociology: A Core Text with adapted readings. Belmont, California:Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Families, Delinquency & Crime
The fundamental changes occurring to families in the 2st century can be classified into two different categories, depending on the internal or the external perspective that is used in the analysis. The external perspective proposes an analysis of the sociodemographic changes that have occurred to families under the impact of the external factors of the 2st century. The sociodemographic changes are characterized both by the numbers, by a quantitative reflection of families, and by the relationships that are formed within each family.
From the first perspective, the 2st century has imposed both changes in the number of families (some cultures, notably the Western ones, have encountered decreases in size because of an increased reluctance of individuals to get married) and in the formation of these family groups. As such, in many of these family groups, the norm has translated from a man-woman marriage as the basis…
1. Roopnarine, Jaipaul; Gielen, Uwe. 2005. Families in Global Perspective. Pearson Education.
2. Vaskovics, L.A. 1994. Family and household structures in the former GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany from 1980 to 1989 -- a comparison. Wiesbaden.
3. Aly, A.M.Y. 1999. Lectures on population, family and childhood issues. Alexandria: The Modern University Office.
As one commentator notes; "What this adds up to is, in my view, a significant shift in the balance of work and family life. oles are changing, the nature of care is changing, and the stress related to juggling the balance is increasing (Edgar, 1997, p. 149)
A number of statistics also help to outline the nature of the family structure in a developed economy like Australia. In terms of workforce participation, the figures are as follows: "….86% for fathers and 56% for mothers in two-parent families, and 65% for male and 43% for female sole parents"(Edgar, 1997, p.151). This is also indicative of a shift in the role of the female as solely a homemaker. "In 1993, 53% of couples with dependent children were both employed & #8230;" (Edgar, 1997, p. 151). Therefore, there are still imbalances and disparities in terms of the family structure and this is a…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.). (1997). The Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors
World Peace Academy. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59215755
Baile, S. (1990). Women and Health in Developing Countries. OECD Observer, a (161),
18-20. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98938035
It is expected that an initial
investment of $400,000 will be needed in order to effectively establish the Center. In addition, the Center will require a maintenance cost of $50,000 per month.
5. Budget and Strategy
Strategy 1: Arranging meetings with community leaders
This strategy ensures that the community at large will accept FAC in its capacity as an establishment to provide help and counseling within the existing cultural, religious, and educational paradigms. Public trust is important for the success of the Center. Specifically, this strategy includes arranging meetings times, venues and refreshments. This is estimated at a budget for about $5,000 per meeting. This strategy will also include the possibility of securing the services of a cultural consultant; preferably also a person with some standing in the community. The budget for this is estimated at an initial fee of about $3,000, which will repeat monthly for as long as…
Family to Family
Pipes, Jerry & Victor Lee. (1999). Family to family. Alpharetta: North American Mission Board,
The Christian-focused psychology text Family to family offers family counseling with a spiritual orientation. The book is designed to address the difficulties many modern families face, including competing schedules, generational clashes, and having a sense of strong moral values in a secular society. Spending time together in a spiritual fashion can give families an oasis of stability in a fast-paced, increasingly impersonal world (Pipes & Lee 1999: 11). Creating a sense of community within the church and creating a community between members of the family are the essential building-blocks of the author's stated goal to save the modern family.
Family members must learn to establish more meaningful relationships with one another and with God -- rather than just focusing on themselves or blaming others. The authors wrote their book to address a common…
People generally focus on appearance when coming across a particular individual. This is perfectly exemplified by the meeting between the old member of the De Lacey family and the monster. The man initially welcomes the creature, as he is no longer able to see and is unacquainted with the monster's facial features and body.
Victor Frankenstein can be considered to contrast the monster through his behavior, his background, and because of the goals that he has. The scientist virtually had everything that the monster longed for, considering his family, his reputation, and the fact that he was generally seen as one of society's leading members. Instead of valuing what he had, however, Frankenstein gave it all away in favor of gaining reputation, as this was apparently the thing that he appreciated the most in life. hile most readers are likely to blame Frankenstein for most unfortunate events in the book,…
Bloom Bissonete, Melissa, "Teaching the Monster: Frankenstein and Critical Thinking"
Chao, Shun-Liang. "Education as a Pharmakon in Marry Shelley's Frankenstein," the Explicator, Vol. 68, No. 4, 223-226, 2010.
Lunsford, Lars, "The Devaluing of Life in Shelley's Frankenstein," the Explicator, Vol. 68, No. 3, 174-176, 2010
Schmid, Thomas H. "Addiction and Isolation in Frankenstein"
Women had joined the workforce long before the 1950s, with dual incomes being as necessary for many families during the Depression and even through the 1940s as they are today (Coontz 2000). In fact, the emphasis that was brought to the cohesion and in many ways the isolation of the nuclear family during the first half of the twentieth century was detrimental to many aspects of the family, including its economic viability, according to Stephanie Coontz's The Way We Never Were (2000). This historian also argues that personal satisfaction and happiness suffered when they became wholly attached to the success of the family rather than being derived form individual pursuits, as was the case earlier in the nineteenth century and before (Coontz 2000). The period since the 1950s has been one of increasing individualism and self-definition outside the context of the family, which has again made familial roles both more…
Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were. New York: Basic.
Skolnick, A. & Skolnick, J. (2004). Family in transition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Many nations do not use restorative justice as a policy, but eventually bright, progressive leaders worldwide will hopefully learn the value of restorative justice, and implement it at some level.
Youth Justice Process in New Zealand. (2005). Family Group Conference. Retrieved 29 June 2008, at http://www.justice.govtnz/youth/fgc.html.
This government-produced review of the ideologies and practical implementation of the Family Group Conference was a valuable and basic article in terms of the understanding the process and how it works well in most cases.
The Family Group Conference in New Zealand
The Family Group Conference (FGC) was established in New Zealand in 1989, with the purpose in mind of more skillfully and more fairly dealing with problems and issues of boys and girls (under the age of 14) and young people (14-16) who get in trouble with law enforcement. According to information provided by the Youth Justice Process (www.justice.govt.nz),the FGC has modernized and…
The assessment of my family is presented here for the academic purposes. The family comprises of six members that are working at different positions and live in personal home. Each member of family is educated. Based on questionnaire filled by all the family members, the summary is composed that will give an insight about the health of family.
Summary of each functional health pattern for family
The health perception-health function of the family suggests that it has an average health status. The health is not poor and the members are less vulnerable to severe health issues like diabetes and allergies yet there is a mild risk of getting cold and fever since there is low temperature at night and cool breezes during the morning. The family is suggested to have regular checkups and to take vitamins. Nutritional Metabolic Pattern of family shows that it has a healthy diet…
Doyer, B.M. And Radovich, N.H., (1990), "Functional health patterns: the postanesthesia care
Unit's approach to identification," Journal of Post Anesthesia Nursing, 5(3):157-62.
Vincenz, M.C., and Siskind, M.M., (1994), "Functional health patterns: a curricular course
Model for adult acute care," Nursing Diagnosis, 5(2):82-7
Once the children are of age, the parents' duty to take care of them reduces as the child takes charge to start a new life somewhere else. The parent usually has saved enough money through life insurance scheme and retirement savings to cater for himself after retirement. hen the child is grown, there is no dependence between the parents and children. Traits like hard work and honesty are encouraged towards children to ensure their survival in different societies when he grows up. In some cases when the parent is too weak and old to look after himself, he is taken to a home for the elderly since none of his children is available to take care of him (Stewart et al. 580).
The other model of family model is the model of psychological or emotional interdependence. In this model, the children are of less material help to the family. Parenting,…
Chou, K.L. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, pp 161-169, 2000.
Jose, P.E., Huntsinger, C.S., Huntsinger, P.R. & Liaw, F-R. Parental values and practices relevant to young children's social development in Taiwan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, pp 677-702, 2000.
Misra, G., & Agarwal, R. The meaning of achievement: Implications for a cross-cultural theory of achievement motivation, from a different perspective: Studies of behavior across cultures, Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger, pp 250-266. 1985.
Phalet, K. & Schonpflug, U. Intergenerational transmission of collectivism and achievement values in two acculturation contexts: the case of Turkish families in Germany and Turkish and Moroccan families in the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol 32, pp 186-201, 2001.
Its business alliances have succeeded because of the past encounter and uncompromising principles of Starbucks. When Starbucks created a licensing contract with Kraft Foods, Inc., it permitted Kraft Foods to begin to make Starbucks' items available in grocery markets, and now because of that attempt their items are available all over Northern U.S. And even the United Kingdom. If Starbucks did not have the primary features of what it is looking for in an alliance, it might not have been as effective in its collaboration with Kraft Foods or any other partner. Starbucks was willing to think about the good and bad in the possible collaboration and choose on whether or not the collaboration would benefit its organization (Davidson & Fielden, 2013). If Kraft Foods, Inc. did not have the same corporate perspective and objectives that Starbucks had, Starbucks would not have engaged in business with them. Starbucks has been…
Beer, S. (2014). Diagnosing the system for organizations. New York, NY: Wiley.
Harrison, M. (2004). Diagnosing Organizations: Methods, Models, and Processes (Applied Social Research Methods) (3rd ed.). Berlin: Sage Publications.
Davidson, M., & Fielden, S.L. (2013). Individual diversity and psychology in organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Smith-Acuna, S. (2010). Systems Theory in Action: Applications to Individual, Couple, and Family Therapy. John Wiley & Sons
Expressive functioning is related to communication such as emotional, verbal, and nonverbal communication, problem solving and roles within the family. Beliefs within the family are also a part of expressive functioning.
For the purpose of the Calgary Family Assessment Model, a family is defined as who they say they are. It is very important that the clinician performing the assessment not assign their own beliefs upon what he or she believes a family is, and take into account what the patient feels about family as to the patient is may mean not only the people who actually live within the household but can also address past, present and future emotional attachments.
Calgary Family Intervention Model:
The immediate family is composed of Mr. Herbert Schelley (the patient), Mrs. Annette Schelley (his wife), and their son Thomas Schelley. The extended family consists of the Schelley's two married daughters, their husbands and their…
Brownwald H. ed. (2003) Harrison's Textbook of Internal Medicine, 15th edition,
McGraw-Hill, New York
Clement S. (2004) Guidelines for glycemic control. Clin Cornerstone. 6(2):31-9
Echeverry D.M., Dike M.R., Washington C., Davidson M.B.. (1995). The impact of using a low-literacy patient education tool on process measures of diabetes care in a minority population J. Natl Med Assoc. (11):1074-81
In summary, observational preexperience had differential effects on the timing of subsequent contingency performance of infants (p. 693)."
This research supports the potential for vicarious learning as a pre-emptor to juvenile delinquency when the family, academic, and social conditions are reflective of the elements that reflect a lack of structure, participation in community, poverty, and poor education systems that are not financed to provide the infrastructure in a child's early years.
4. Explain your understanding of Baumrind's Typology of Parenting Styles. Based on your understanding of the parenting styles described by Baumrind, which style of parenting style is most effective? Which is the least effective style of parenting? Why? Be sure to support your answer.
Diana Baumrind discussed parenting types, the authoritarian parent, the permissive parent and the authoritative parent (Grolnick, W., 2003, p. 5). Baumrind's description of the parenting styles is:
The authoritarian parent attempts to shape, control, and…
Barron, M.L. (1954). The Juvenile in Delinquent Society (1st ed.). New York: Alfred a. Knopf. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6360952 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000504042
Brannigan, a. (1997). Self-Control, Social Control and Evolutionary Psychology: Towards an Integrated Perspective on Crime. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 39(4), 403-431. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000504042 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110022432
Grolnick, W.S. (2003). The Psychology of Parental Control: How Well-Meant Parenting Backfires. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110022435 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014544319
Rook, L. (2006). An Economic Psychological Approach to Herd Behavior. Journal of Economic Issues, 40(1), 75+. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014544319 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001116573
Systems Theory makes several assumptions that are useful for understanding the 14-year-old's behavior:
The state or condition of a system, at any one point in time, is a function of the interaction between it and the environment in which it operates." (Longres, 1999, p. 19)
Change and conflict are always evident in a system. Individuals both influence their environments and are influenced by them. Processes of mutual influence generate change and development." (Longres, 1990, p. 19)
Each person in a family is part of the whole system. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts." (Longres, 1990, p. 266)
These assumptions make us understand that the responsibility for the acts of the 14-year-old rest not with the child himself, but with the relationships and interactions in his family. More than anything else, the real issue is a family boundary problem where the hierarchical subsystem had not had a…
Brother Arrested in Slaying of Girl, 4." Washington Post 20. Sept., 2004: B-1
Longres, John F. Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Itasca, IL F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc., 1990
Teen Appears in DC Court In Slaying of Sister, 4." Washington Post 21 Sept. 2004: B-3
Family Policy Integration
I discourse on family policy integration and education including a systematic approach to family policy and overview of the many reasons family integration helps communities prosper. Detailed analysis of why human service organizations benefit more from integration than the current method of providing services to individuals, which is more costly and tends to see families as separate entities.
Family policy integration and education is a systematic approach to family policy that would focus on reducing the need for developing programs and services that target individual adults and children, and focus instead on strengthening and empowering families (odriguez, et al., 2011; Westman, 2009). The goals of family policy integration include developing services which allow families to become sustainable, and human services organizations to take charge of programs in a manner that allows them to take ownership of programs that require greater accountability for their results (Westman,…
Behnke, A.O. & Kelly, C. 2011. Creating programs to help Latino youth thrive at school: The
influence of Latino parent involvement programs. Journal of Extension, v.49, n1.
Morrow, C.E., Mansoor, E., Hanson, K.L., Vogel, A.L., Rose-Jacobs, R., Genatossio, C.S.,
Windham, A. & Bandstra, E.S. 2010 Feb. The starting early starting smart integrated services model: Improving access to behavioral health services in the pediatric health care setting for at-risk families with young children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, v.19, n.1, p.42-56.
Family preservation services have been defined as short-term, family-focused services designed to assist families in crisis by improving parenting and family functioning while keeping children safe (Services, N.d.). While it has typically been the case that many social service departments would rely on the foster care system for child safety issues, family preservation services became a popular alternative when it was recognition to be more beneficial for the children who need a safe and stable family environment. It has been realized that separating children from their families, such as is the case when they would enter foster care, can be traumatic for them and leave them with negative consequences that can last indefinitely. Therefore, instead of looking at the child as a sole individual, the family preservation perspective broadens the scope of the welfare to include the entire family unit.
The model for the services is founded on the belief…
They are also the guidelines by which a member determines the correctitude of conduct in relationships with the clients, colleagues, members of allied professions and with various populaces.
A member of the family and consumer sciences profession and of AAFCS is required by the code of ethics to maintain the highest responsible standard of professional performance. At all times, a member should uphold confidentiality and act with intelligence, dedication, and ebullience. A member is required to fulfill the obligation in order to continually advance and extend personal professional qualification. Sharing the professional competence with colleagues and clients is also a requirement meant to enlarge and carry on development of the profession.
The code of ethics requires members to support the objectives of the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences. Members should also take part in its development through informed, active participation in its programs. Extending public cognizance and understanding…
American Association of Family and Consumer Services, AAFCS/CFC National Examination Candidate Information, (2004) Bulletin Texas Teacher Certification Version
National Council on Family Relations, a Guide to Family Life Educators Code of Ethics, (2010).www.ncfr.org
The Minnesota Council on Family Relations (MCFR), Ethical Thinking and Practice for Parent and Family Life Educators (2009) Minneapolis: Minnesota Council on Family Relations.
Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.
Summary and Conclusion
While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…
Sandelowski M. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing; as cited by Joan Engebretson in Document entitled Hands-on: The Persistent Metaphor in Nursing, Holistic Nursing Practice Vol.16 No.4 07-01-2002 ISSN 09979311.
The Ecological Theory (nd) Online available at www.unt.edu/cpe/module1/blk1.htm
The Theoretical Matrix for a Rogerian Nursing Practice" by E.A.M.Barrett 2000, Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory, 9 (4) p.3-7. Copyright 2000 by the Swedish Society for Nursing Theories in Practice, Research, and Education. Reprinted with permission. http://medweb.uwcm.ac.uk/martha/theory.htm
Meyers, S.A. An Ecological Approach to Enhancing Parenting Skills in Family Therapy "http: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/coft/1998/
It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.
7. eflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?
I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…
Bates, K., C. Bader, and F. Mencken. (2003). "Family structure, power-control theory, and deviance: extending power-control theory to include alternate family forms." Western Criminology Review, Vol. 4, No. 3.
Egelman, B. And A. Susman-Stillman. (1996). "Dissociation as mediator of child abuse across generations." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 20, Issue 11.
Flowers, R. (2001). Runaway kids and teenage prostitution: America's lost, abandoned, and sexually exploited children. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Simons, R., C. Johnson, J. Beaman, and R. Conger. (1993). "Explaining women's double jeopardy: factors that mediate the association between harsh treatment as a child and violence by a husband." Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55.
In fact, many studies show that deviant or antisocial children may experience a strengthening of the bonds between parents and society in the process of their development.
Therefore, while social control theory is one view, there are many alternative theories that take other findings and variables into account. In general, the view that a deviant child who does not change by a certain age is "condemned "to a life of crime if sharply criticized, as it often does not concur with empirical findings. Theories put forward by Gottfredson and Hirsch propose another view of the life-course towards crime that takes into account the fact that in many case early deviant behavior does not necessarily lead to a life-long pattern of criminal behavior.
Describe the labeling theory and the consequences that labeling can have on a child. Should we be concerned with labeling? Why or why not?
ACF Questions and Answers Support. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from http://faq.acf.hhs.gov/cgi-bin/acfrightnow.cfg/php/enduser/std_adp.php?p_sid=qnPNlL5i&p_lva=&p_faqid=68&p_created=1001610478&p_sp=cF9zcmNoPTEmcF9ncmlkc29y dD0mcF9yb3dfY250PTEzJnBfc2VhcmNoX3RleHQ9JnBfc2VhcmNoX3R5 cGU9MyZwX2NhdF9sdmwxPTEwJnBfY2F0X2x2bDI9MzAmcF9zb3J0X2J 5PWRmbHQmcF9wYWdlPTE*&p_li =
Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/define.cfm
Crime Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from NCWC. Web site: http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/111/111lect03.htm
Overview of Labeling Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/labeling.html
Family Resource Questionnaire
Do you ever sit down with your entire family to discuss your important family goals? If so, how often do you have such meetings?
Which of the following types of goals do you include in those discussions?
Quality of Life Goals
Personal Goals of Individual Family Members
Do you include all members of the family or just the adults? If so, who is included and who is not included in those discussions?
Do you share concerns about financial matters with all members of your family? If so, who is included and who is not included in those discussions?
Do you allow members of you family who work to maintain separate finances from that of the family or do you include all of their income within your calculations of family resources?
Please use the following space to explain how you prioritize your projected expenses…
Family homelessness has emerged as a serious global problem and over the last twenty-five years the make-up of the homeless population has changed significantly in the United States (Swick Pp). The majority of the homeless were men in the early 1980's, however, today, families make up thirty percent of the homeless population, and some scholars suggest that families may constitute up to forty to fifty percent of the homeless (Swick Pp).
The United States federal government defines homeless individuals as those lacking a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence, or those who have a primary nighttime residence that is:
*a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations
(including welfare hotels, congregate shelters, and transitional housing for the mentally ill);
*an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized; or *a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as,…
Swick, Kevin J. "The dynamics of families who are homeless: implications for early childhood educators." Childhood Education. 3/22/2004; Pp.
This article focuses on articulating the various dynamics of families who are homeless and what strategies can be employed to effectively support homeless families with young children.
Washington, Thomas Alex. "The homeless need more than just a pillow, they need a pillar: an evaluation of a transitional housing program."
Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services. 3/1/2002; Pp.
Family-Centered Approach in Child Development
Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement
Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…
Britto, P.R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2001). The Role of Family Literacy Environments in Promoting Young Children's Emerging Literacy Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Davies, D. (2010). Child Development. NY: Guilford.
Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry.
Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. UK: Hienemann.
Reclaiming Children and Youth.. Retrieved October 02, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-206794465.html Wester, K, MacDonald, C & Lewis, T. (2008). A glimpse into the lives of nine youths in a correctional facility: Insight into theories of delinquency.(Report). Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling. American Counseling Association. 2008. Retrieved October 02,
2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-178713105.html
Gibbs, J., Potter, G.B., DiBiase, a.M. & Devlin, R. (2008). The EQUIP program: Helping youth to see -- really see -- the other person: Youth who present anti-social behavior need powerful interventions that strengthen empathy, counter negative peer influence, and challenge thinking errors. Reclaiming Children and Youth. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-183982220.html
Harkwick, K. & Brannigan, a. (2008). Self-control, child effects, and informal social control: A
direct test of the primacy of sociogenic factors. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Canadian Criminal Justice Association. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research:…
In fact, this theory does well to explain the prevalence of modern youth gangs. First, gang members oftentimes engage in behavior that is absolutely contrary to the norms and rules that they have learned at home, but, because of a lack of belief in society, at large, they allow themselves to discard those norms. Therefore, delinquents are "free to engage in virtually any opportunity for deviant behavior that presents itself." (Simon, Simon, & Wallace, 2004, p. 22). In addition, social control theory does not suggest that being friends with a delinquent leads to delinquency; on the contrary, it suggests that people seek out the companionship of similar people, so that delinquents will frequently seek out the company of other delinquents. Therefore, delinquents will flock together and will be willing to commit a wide-range of delinquent behaviors. Moreover, they may become bonded to the gang in a way that they were…
Simon, R., Simon, L., & L. Wallace. (2004). Families, Delinquency and Crime: Linking
Society's most Basic Institution to Antisocial Behavior. City of Publication: Publisher.
Less dramatically, in my own personal experience I have known people who have engaged in minor acts of delinquent behavior, for no apparent reason, and I have (successfully, I believe) had to deal with peer pressure to engage in antisocial acts.
In this course I would like to learn more about the juvenile justice, theories of why young people commit crimes, and how someone's family influences the likelihood that they will commit a crime. On a persona level, I am interested in family law in general, since so many of my friends come from divorced homes and have had to deal with the family court system. I think the course would prove useful in many fields I might choose to enter, including education, social work, the law, or law enforcement.
System of castas/Latin American History
Among many contributions of Mexico to the present American culture few are considered more significant than the concept of Mestizaje referring to the racial and cultural and synthesis. Mexico came out to be a fusion of the old and new world, particularly after the Spanish invasion during 16th century. Ever since the inception of the conquest the interracial sexual unions among Indians, Europeans, Africans and Asians appeared common, however, interracial marriage was allowed only during the later half of the 17th century. The frightened white elite treatened of the growing tide of Castas -- many racially mixed people- during 18th century formulated a caste system in order to institute status distinctions between the sub-groups so as to divide them and strengthen the Spaniards' sense of their own exclusivity. (An Unsettling acial Score Card)
The commissioned paintings of many groups of castas have remained to be…
Early Latin America. Retrieved from http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/stearns_awl/chapter25/objectives/deluxe-content.html Accessed 7 November, 2005
Fulopp, Tomas J. Latin America and the Concept of Social Race. Retrieved from http://www.vacilando.org/index.php?x=810 Accessed 7 November, 2005
Montalvo, Frank. Danzon and Mexico's Caste System. Retrieved from http://www.webcom.com/~intvoice/montalvo3.html Accessed 7 November, 2005
Poverty alleviation program for minority communities in Latin America: Communities of African Ancestry in Latin America history, Population, Contributions and social attitudes social and economic conditions. Retrieved from http://enet.iadb.org/idbdocswebservices/idbdocsInternet/IADBPublicDoc.aspx?docnum=479869 Accessed 7 November, 2005
Family Involvement at School
I enjoy working with the students at my school tremendously. At the K-8 school in Borough Park Brooklyn NY, there are largely Chinese and Hispanic demographics. Working with students and parents is what will prove crucial in improving the academic success of the students.
There are a number of things that are happening at my school in regards to family-involvement that are really making me excited for the improvement of the students' academic success. A lot of my Chinese-American students do get a lot of parent involvement at home. I hear from the students that their parents help them with daily homework and even push them to go beyond that day's lesson in order to prepare for the next upcoming lessons. In fact, I do see a heightened level of at-home parent involvement with the Chinese-American students, probably more so than any other demographic of students…
Family Nursing Practitioner Application Justification
The quest to become a nurse, that was finally realized when I became a registered nurse, was prompted by the need to work among the very underprivileged of the community in the poorest areas and vulnerable conditions. Having been a N, there are vast experiences that I have undergone, not only in the technical aspect of learning the prognosis and prescription but also further experiencing first hand the social needs of nursing and the existing gaps at the homestead levels. Combining the expertise and the human face to nosing will enable me to positively contribute in to improvement of the health status of both the American citizens who are extremely poor and the foreign missions that will be the next quest, particularly to Africa or Asia. This way the training I have undergone will not be confined to the codified nursing tenets and bedside care…
Nevidjon, B., (2012). The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. The Nursing Shortage: Solutions for the Short- and Long-Term. Retrieved September 10, 2013 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/workforce/NursingShortage/Resources/NursingShortageSolutions.html
He has been expelled from three school since he began his education and is currently attending junior high school after last attending a small charter school in his community. The shoplifting incident also caused his mother to ask his father to take him back into his home, he has lived with mostly his mother with infrequent visitation from his father, except for a year period where he lived with his father and stepmother and their other children, which ended at age 12 when he tried to vocalize feelings of concern about puberty to his stepmother and she perceived the conversation as deviant and asked that he be returned to his mother.
Justin's anti-social behavior began at birth but has had periods of extremes, beginning with near constant conflict with his mother over mundane requests as well as other general rejections of authority, including an incident of extreme foul language focused…
Greene, R.R. (1999). 5 Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Approach. In Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice (2nd ed., pp. 145-161). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Loeber, R., Farrington, D.P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W.B. (1998). Antisocial Behavior and Mental Health Problems: Explanatory Factors in Childhood and Adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Van Lier, P.A., Vuijk, P., & Crijnen, a.A. (2005). Understanding Mechanisms of Change in the Development of Antisocial Behavior: The Impact of a Universal Intervention. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(5), 521.
For example, GM lobbied the state of California 1998 to overturn an emissions-reduction mandate that would have prohibited many of GM's passenger vehicles from being sold in the large, car-hungry state. When it was successful in the short run, GM discontinued its work on its prototype of a battery-powered car, the EV1 that ran 100 miles on a single charge. Toyota, in contrast, continued to work on its hybrid line, and the resulting Prius shows the fruitfulness of the Toyota approach (Lifton 2008). Discontinuing research on battery-powered technology was not simply bad business sense on GM's part, but also showed how one part of the company (management) could thwart the efforts of another part of the company (&D). The focus of systems theory is synergy rather than such discordant behavior. Systems theory stresses that "the system's overall behavior depends on its entire structure (not the sum of its various parts)"…
Bunkley, Nick & Bill Vlasic. (2009, October 1). G.M. To close Saturn after deal fails. The New
York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/01/business/01auto.html
GM plans to cut 10,000 Opel jobs. (2009, 5 November). BBC. Retrieved November 27, 2009 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8343517.stm
Lifton, Jack. (2008, December 10). Toyota's business model is the reason that Detroit should not be bailed out. Gershon Lehman Group. Retrieved November 27, 2009 at http://www.glgroup.com/News/Toyotas-Business-Model-is-The-Reason-That-Detroit-Should-Not-be-Bailed-Out-29852.html
The model consists of five phases:
1. Perception of the ethical problem
2. Description the situation and objective definition of the ethical issue
3. Identification of alternatives
4. Selection of an alternative
5. esolution (Cooper, 2006).
This model has been implemented successfully in both the public and private sectors. The goals of the model are to create a management team consisting of responsible individuals that promote high standards, ethical decision-making practices on behalf of their code of ethics, transparency and accountability (Cooper, 2006). Ultimately, according to Cooper's model, ethical decision making is the process of identifying a problem, generating alternatives, and choosing among them so that the alternatives selected maximize the most important ethical values while also achieving the intended goal.
Most work-related decisions have an ethical component. With few exceptions, problems that involve people also involve ethical issues. Decisions that affect people's jobs and careers have an ethical…
Business Dictionary (2009) "Conflict of Interest" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/conflict-of-interest.html
Cooper, T. (2006). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.
Olsen, a. (2009). Authoring a code of ethics: Observations on process and organization. Center for the study of ethics in the professions. Illinois Institute of Technology. http://ethics.iit.edu/index1.php/Programs/Codes%20of%20Ethics/Authoring%20a%20Code%20of%20Ethics.html
Schnebel, E., & Bienert, M.A. (2004). Implementing ethics in business organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 53, 203-211.
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…
Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Friedlander, F., and Pickle, H. (1968). Components of Effectiveness in Small Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly13(2), 289-304
Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. New York: http://www.leaonline.com/entityImage/?code=200B
Kloos, B., McCoy, J., Stewart, E., Thomas R.E., Wiley, a., Good,- T.L., Hunt G.D., Moore, T. And Rappaport, J. (1997) Bridging the Gap: A Community-Based, Open Systems Approach to School and Neighborhood Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(2), 175-196
System Issues & Chikfila
Systems thinking is a way of synthesizing the issues surrounding any organization in both a macro and micro manner. This allows more shared values through teamwork, mental paradigms, the ability to think in the future, and look at projects in a way that are best for the organization as a holistic entity. Thus, when the process of inquiry is moved from the individual and rote (only knowledge) to an organization that moves through different, more analytical modes of thinking, the individual involved are more active participants and there is a shared vision alone with a personal and team mastery of the question in point. This evolution engenders personal buy-in, a feeling of empowerment, and clearly a new way of processing disparate information (Senge, 2006).
Chick-Fil -- A is an American fast food restaurant chain specializing in Chicken Sandwiches. Their headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia, and have…
Works Cited and Consulted
Chick Fil -- a Controversy. (2013). The Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/news/chick-fil-a-controversy
Chick-Fil-a. (2013). Press Releases. Retrieved from: http://www.chick-fil-a.com /Pressroom/Press-Releases#?release=LGBT-statement
Chick-Fil-a. (2010). Corporate Message. Retrieved from:
Systems Structures Presentation
Electronic health records are common in the modern era of globalization and high technology. Electronic health records can be defined as a collection of health information, in digitized form, of individuals as well as populations. The objective of having health records in digital form is to make them accessible across different health care settings. This enables the patients as well as physicians to obtain health information from their relevant health care facility by simply requesting it to be sent over from the electronic health records that were held at the previous health care facility where the patient had been checked up. The health care facilities today are connected through a variety of network-connected enterprise-wide information systems. These can easily transfer information regarding any patient from one health care facility to another, given that they are connected via the network.
Electronic health records consist of not only technology…
In the United States of America, as a ruling in the form of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the implementation of electronic health records in clinical settings was made compulsory with around $27 billion were allocated to the cause. This was a part of new health care reforms whose aim was that by 2015, there would be "meaningful use" of the technology made available to improve the quality of patient care available. The federal incentives being offered to hospitals and clinics in order to update to the electronic health record structures have all the physicians and nurses on their toes.
Nurses, as a result, are closely monitoring the effects and consequences of the use of the electronic health record structure systems on their ability to improve patient care. There have been admittedly some benefits. The availability of extensive up-to-date information on the patient and his medical condition and history, allows for measureable improvements from the treatment and care given to patients with chronic diseases as well as those patients which are on preventative medicine. It has been proved via a study conducted by the University of Pennsylvania that nurses that work in hospitals and other clinical set-ups with the electronic health care structures in place tend to report a greater deal of improvement in their patients than the nurses working in hospitals that are devoid of such technology. However, there is the task of the nurses learning to use and manage the electronic health record structures. Unless the nurses have had training or been provided transition time from the implementation of the electronic health record structure, they cannot get any meaningful use out of it. For the electronic health record structure to be effective, the user of the technology should be aware of how to mine for the data, the treatment plan to be followed and how to retrieve the meaningful data from the abundance of information available on the individual. Currently, there are also problems with the present infrastructure at hospitals for the proper implementation of the electronic health record structure.
In the future, if the administrators as well as the implementers of the health reforms seek to extract meaningful use from the electronic health record structures technology, they need to gear up and tackle a few issues beforehand. Step must be taken to ensure that the structure works according to the purpose it is meant for. The clinical integration across clinic-settings and hospitals should be made tighter and stronger. The nursing administration must prepare their staff for the upcoming implementation of electronic health record structures in terms of training, and also be prepared for the resistance that would come from the nursing staff during the implementation of new technology. There should also be preparation for the slowing down of the productivity when the system is first implemented. The main goal here is to measure the impact on the patient care and whether improvements in the quality of patient care is present or not.
...in the end 'the addict has to want to change' and if the addict does not want to change it does not matter what program..." that the addict is in. (National Institute of Justice, 2005) the National Institute of Justice reports that a woman "often retains legal custody of a child while in prison, and once out, may not have the child immediately returned to her by the family member caring for the child." (2005)
Sarah Samson reports in the work entitled: "Groundbreaking Study Identifies Crucial Factors for Successful Community Reintegration of Ex-Prisoners in altimore" published in 2004, that Programs that help prisoners stay connected with their families, get drug treatment, and work while in prison can increase the chances that they will successfully reintegrate back into society, according to a new study released today by the nonpartisan Urban Institute. The study breaks new ground by recording prisoners' perspectives on…
Baltimore Prisoners' Experiences Returning Home," by Christy Visher, Vera Kachnowski, Nancy La Vigne, and Jeremy Travis, has been made possible by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, OSI-Baltimore, the Abell Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Maryland Governor's Office of Crime Control and Prevention, and the John D. And Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
Community Supervision and Reentry (2008) Urban Institute Prison Reentry Portfolio. Online available at http://www.urban.org/projects/reentry-portfolio/community-supervision.cfm
Pelissier, Bernadette (2004) Gender Differences in Substance Use Treatment Entry and Retention Among Prisoner with Substance Use Histories. Research and Practice. American Journal of Public Health August 2004. Vol. 94 No. 8. Online available at http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/94/8/1418.pdf
Powell, M. Anne; and Nolan, Clare (2003) California State Prisoners with Children:
FAMILY DOLLA & MODELLS ANALYSIS
Family Dollar & Modell's Sporting Goods Analysis
Family Dollar & Modell's Sporting Goods Analysis
The award winning series Undercover Boss is a CBS reality show series that is about a senior management boss of a corporation who works as an undercover in a bid to discover, along with understanding the operation of the whole business. This likewise helps them to be able to recognize if there are any gaps in the corporation so that they can come up with the best way of speaking to them as a result. However, As CEO of Family Dollar, I am going to compare 2 positions from Undercover- Boss season 5 episodes 7. I would compare distribution center "warehouse" and Sales associate.
My name is Xavier Lewis, CEO of Family Dollar. Since 1959, when Family Dollar first swung its doors open to the public their doors (Leonard,…
Lambert, S. (Director). (2014). Undercover Boss Modell's Sporting Goods [Motion Picture].
Lambert, S. (Director). (2014). Undercover Boss S05E07 Family Dollar [Motion Picture].
Leonard, J. (2009). Family dollar stores.
Thompson Jr., A. S. (2008). Crafting and executing strategy. . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Monogamous Nuclear Families, Polygamous and Communal Families
Family has different connotations for different persons and cultures. In American society, the word is usually meant to denote a nuclear family consisting of a father, mother and their children. However the meaning of family in Asia is different because the family includes the grandparents, relatives and siblings of the elders. Family thus would also denote an entire clan. In African communities the Mormon system has its own connotation of family. Most of the world has some form of plural marriage, or polygamy, and is sanctioned by religions. Polygamy is not a non-western practice, but also exists in modern Western societies. (Koktvedgaard Zeitzen, 2008)
The common type of family being the nuclear family, the other types have all along attracted researchers to attempt to find an anthropological theory for polygamy that has spread to U.S. And UK to Malaysia, India, regions of Africa…
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Al-Krenawi, Salem. (1997) "Social Work Practice with Polygamous Families Child and Adolescent" Social Work Journal, vol. 14, no. 6, pp: 445-458.
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Sheva, Beer; Graham, John R. (2006) "A Comparison of Family
Functioning, Life and Marital Satisfaction, and Mental Health of Women in Polygamous and Monogamous Marriages" Int J. Soc Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 1, pp: 5-17.
Altman, Irwin; Ginat, Joseph. (1996) "Polygamous Families in Contemporary Society"
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family
The main components of structural therapy
Structural therapy is a family treatment model founded on the frameworks of systems theory. The distinctive component of this model is the emphasis it has placed on structural adjustments as the primary objective of the therapy session. This emphasis is prominent over details of adjustments in individual behaviors. This model is distinctive because the therapist is the most active agent and receives much attention in the course of family restructuring (Lock & Strong, 2012).
The main purpose of structural family therapy is prevention of sequences from repetition by coveting the hierarchical structures of families. This encompasses shifts in power distribution among family members by adjusting interaction styles. Nevertheless, structural family therapy operates by making alterations on the dysfunctional family structure through encouragement and promotion of growth among family members with the primary intention of re-building the family (Petridis,…
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family therapy: An overview. Australia: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Lock, A., & Strong, T. (2012). Discursive perspectives in therapeutic practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Peterson, G.W., Steinmetz, S.K., & Sussman, M.B. (2009). Handbook of marriage and the family. New York: Plenum Press.
Petridis, N., Pichorides, S.K., & Varopoulos, N. (2010). Harmonic analysis, Iraklion 1978: Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Crete. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
EFFT and Stepfamilies
Blended families or "step families" have one parent who is not the biological parent of the children in the family. These families will often face unique challenges due to their makeup. Furrow and Palmer (2007) discuss Emotionally Focused Family Therapy (EFFT) for stepfamilies. Furrow and Palmer identify four basic challenges that stepfamilies face:
(1).The past experiences of the different families join compete with the new family's ability to consolidate newer relational commitments.
Typical family boundaries are clouded in stepfamilies (e.g., who disciplines which child, who is the real parent of whom, etc.).
There is an "inheritance of loss" that occurs through remarriage that can affect the parents and the children of both original families. This can interfere with the development of the new stepfamily.
(4). There are different developmental needs in stepfamilies compared to other families.
These four specific challenges can make working with stepfamilies particularly difficult.…
Furrow, J. & Palmer, G. (2007). EFFT and blended families: Building bonds from the inside out. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 26(4), 44-58.
They have grandparents who visit them during the holidays. However, for the most part family members deal with their problems as individuals, not as a family unit.
Information provided by the family is an important source of information about the family. However, one cannot ignore outside sources of information as well. For instance, the worker may contact the school, neighbors, or others who are involved with the family to examine factors that may influence the current situation. The assessment plan will involve contacting the school to find out about Conrad's performance in terms of grades, attendance and overall performance.
The case of the Jarretts is complex, with many individual goals that must be completed on the way to resolution of the systemic problems. In this case, the identified patient is Conrad, as he was the one who tried to commit suicide. The goal of family therapy is the…
Bowen Center for the Study of the Family. (2010). Bowen Theory. Retrieved April 13, 2010
Missouri Department of Social Services. (2007). Child Welfare Manual. Retrieved April 13,
2010 from http://www.dss.mo.gov/cd/info/cwmanual/section7/ch1_33/sec7ch25.htm