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Family Systems Theory: Vignette II
Discussion of what's going on in this family
Claudia and Margaret had suffered violence at a young age and therefore, are prone to commit acts of aggression, with the chances of developing more symptomatology like anxiety, aggression, depression and low levels of self-esteem, as compared to those who led a violence-free childhood. Being victims of, and exposed to, family violence during childhood years can make Claudia and Margaret victims or offenders. Margaret was a victim of violence when she was young and resorted to aggression as the means to resolving conflicts in her relationships; her personality structure incorporates shame, anger and guilt. Claudia, also being victimized in childhood, cannot regulate her emotions, particularly anger, and exhibits more tolerance to adult intimate abuse. As they were both victimized or exposed to abuse, they not only display aggressive behaviors, but also possess ineffective ways of coping and…
Substance abuse and dependence within the gay/lesbian community. (2008). Retrieved April 8, 2015, from http://www.hebpsy.net/articles.asp?id=1804
Beatty, D.M. (2013).Effects of Exposure to Abuse and Violence in Childhood on Adult Attachment and Domestic Violence in Women's Same-Sex Relationships (Doctoral dissertation, Seton Hall University).
Kolko, D.J., Simonich, H., & Loiterstein, A. (2014). Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: An Overview and a Case Example. In Evidence-Based Approaches for the Treatment of Maltreated Children (pp. 187-212).Springer Netherlands.
Trepper, T.S., McCollum, E.E., De Jong, P., Korman, H., Gingerich, W., & Franklin, C. (2008). Solution focused therapy treatment manual for working with individuals research committee of the solution focused brief therapy association. Retrieved July, 23, 2008.
The Harrison family in the 1998 film "Stepmom" consists of the father (Luke Harrison, played by Ed Harris), the ex-wife and mother (Jackie Harrison, played by Susan Sarandon), the daughter (Anna Harrison, played by Jena Malone), the son (Ben Harrison, played by Liam Aiken), and the soon-to-be stepmom (Isabel Kelly, played by Julia oberts). The children's natural mother and ex-wife becomes of aware that she has cancer, a number of therapies are tried, but finally everyone must face the fact that disease will end her life before long.
The parents of Anna and Ben have divorced, and their father's girlfriend, Isabel -- a single, successful professional photographer -- is living with them. Isabel's efforts to provide good mothering to the children is met at every turn by their resistance -- understandably, the children want their parents back together. Ganong, et al. (2011) identified six patterns of step-relationship development,…
1492 Pictures (Producer), & Chris Columbus (Director). (1998). Stepmom [Motion picture]. United States: TriStar Pictures and Columbia Pictures.
Cox, M.J. & Paley, B. (1997). Families as systems. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 243-267.
Deater-Deckard, K., Dunn, J. & Lussier, G. (2002). Sibling relationships and social-emotional adjustment in different family contexts. Social Development, 11(4).
Ganong, L.H., Coleman, M., & Jamison, T. (2011, April). Patterns of stepchild-stepparent relationship development. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 396-413. doi: 10.111/j.1741-3737.2010.00814.x.
Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach
There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).
Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…
Caldwell, K., & Claxton, C. (2010). Teaching Family Systems Theory: A Developmental-
Constructivist Perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32(1), 3-21.
Gruber, K.J., & Taylor, M.F. (2006). A Family Perspective for Substance Abuse: Implications
from the Literature. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6(1), 1 -- 29.
Systems theory is actually used by some practitioners in domestic violence social work and counseling by being packed within the approach of "family system theory" (e.g. Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). This approach holds that the family is a holistic system where all parts are inextricably and holistically intertwined and each member of the family affects the other. The school and community -- outside systems -- too affect the family, and, in turn, the individual family members have an impact on these external systems. Believing that all causes and effects have reciprocal impact, systems theory also posits circular causality where not only are multiple causes the instigation of one problem, but oen problem may, in effect, eventuate in multiple causes. Domestic violence, for instance, of spouse attacking other spouse negatively impacts children, which leads to poor academic study, which my negatively impact teacher's rating, disturbing the school, and so forth. Other…
Family system theory, too avoids labeling behaviors as good and bad seeing them as factor of external elements (such as geography or time) that are, often, beyond individual's control and often beyond his or her awareness too. Taking this in mind enables the counselor to not only be more empathic and understanding of client but to also help detach the client from guilt regarding his activities and show him how to effectively reduce his negative behavior in a self-efficacious manner. By seeing the behavior as simply an action that has been learned and robotically repeated / reiterated through the generations, family system theory reuses to evaluate it and teaches the counselor / social worker and client to see it as a negative variable, through no fault of his own, that needs to be altered. Altering it will, in turn, not only make his own life and lives of those who are closest to him happier, but he will also positively impact the lives of countless effected others.
System theory, when applied to treatment of domestic violence, may be helpful too in that it treats not only first-order levels but provides understanding of, and probes underneath, to second-order levels too. First order levels refer to the situation where surface behavior may be changed but the underlying attitude remains unaltered (Nichols & Schwartz, 2005). The perpetrator, for instance, may learn new communication skills but the influence of his cultural internalizations regarding supposed inferiority of the female remains unchanged. System theory, on the other hand, may help the client realize the root of his perspectives and, by so doing, have a greater and more enduring impact on him. This would consequent in a second-order change where the underlying rationale is addressed leading to male and partner affecting a healthier relationship.
It is in this way that I see systems theory as contributing powerfully to amelioration of domestic violence.
Napier & Whitaker's (1978) classic The Family Crucible is the benchmark book related to family therapy. The book is thorough, and divided into twenty chapters that cover the gamut of family therapy theory and especially practice. Napier & Whitaker (1978) are family systems theorists, and they openly divulge their appreciation for an approach to individual psychology that takes into account family systems. In other words, no individual can be understood or helped without paying attention to the family situation, its dynamics, and its role in identity formation and coping. The authors discuss dysfunctional family systems via a case study. By focusing on one case study, Napier & Whitaker (1978) show how family systems theory works, and what clients can expect from the process.
The authors weave their personal views and experiences throughout the case study, which clutters and bogs down the narrative, but which also provides a necessary…
Napier, A.Y. & Whitaker, C. (1978). The Family Crucible. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Its business alliances have succeeded because of the past encounter and uncompromising principles of Starbucks. When Starbucks created a licensing contract with Kraft Foods, Inc., it permitted Kraft Foods to begin to make Starbucks' items available in grocery markets, and now because of that attempt their items are available all over Northern U.S. And even the United Kingdom. If Starbucks did not have the primary features of what it is looking for in an alliance, it might not have been as effective in its collaboration with Kraft Foods or any other partner. Starbucks was willing to think about the good and bad in the possible collaboration and choose on whether or not the collaboration would benefit its organization (Davidson & Fielden, 2013). If Kraft Foods, Inc. did not have the same corporate perspective and objectives that Starbucks had, Starbucks would not have engaged in business with them. Starbucks has been…
Beer, S. (2014). Diagnosing the system for organizations. New York, NY: Wiley.
Harrison, M. (2004). Diagnosing Organizations: Methods, Models, and Processes (Applied Social Research Methods) (3rd ed.). Berlin: Sage Publications.
Davidson, M., & Fielden, S.L. (2013). Individual diversity and psychology in organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Smith-Acuna, S. (2010). Systems Theory in Action: Applications to Individual, Couple, and Family Therapy. John Wiley & Sons
Systems Theory makes several assumptions that are useful for understanding the 14-year-old's behavior:
The state or condition of a system, at any one point in time, is a function of the interaction between it and the environment in which it operates." (Longres, 1999, p. 19)
Change and conflict are always evident in a system. Individuals both influence their environments and are influenced by them. Processes of mutual influence generate change and development." (Longres, 1990, p. 19)
Each person in a family is part of the whole system. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts." (Longres, 1990, p. 266)
These assumptions make us understand that the responsibility for the acts of the 14-year-old rest not with the child himself, but with the relationships and interactions in his family. More than anything else, the real issue is a family boundary problem where the hierarchical subsystem had not had a…
Brother Arrested in Slaying of Girl, 4." Washington Post 20. Sept., 2004: B-1
Longres, John F. Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Itasca, IL F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc., 1990
Teen Appears in DC Court In Slaying of Sister, 4." Washington Post 21 Sept. 2004: B-3
For example, GM lobbied the state of California 1998 to overturn an emissions-reduction mandate that would have prohibited many of GM's passenger vehicles from being sold in the large, car-hungry state. When it was successful in the short run, GM discontinued its work on its prototype of a battery-powered car, the EV1 that ran 100 miles on a single charge. Toyota, in contrast, continued to work on its hybrid line, and the resulting Prius shows the fruitfulness of the Toyota approach (Lifton 2008). Discontinuing research on battery-powered technology was not simply bad business sense on GM's part, but also showed how one part of the company (management) could thwart the efforts of another part of the company (&D). The focus of systems theory is synergy rather than such discordant behavior. Systems theory stresses that "the system's overall behavior depends on its entire structure (not the sum of its various parts)"…
Bunkley, Nick & Bill Vlasic. (2009, October 1). G.M. To close Saturn after deal fails. The New
York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/01/business/01auto.html
GM plans to cut 10,000 Opel jobs. (2009, 5 November). BBC. Retrieved November 27, 2009 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8343517.stm
Lifton, Jack. (2008, December 10). Toyota's business model is the reason that Detroit should not be bailed out. Gershon Lehman Group. Retrieved November 27, 2009 at http://www.glgroup.com/News/Toyotas-Business-Model-is-The-Reason-That-Detroit-Should-Not-be-Bailed-Out-29852.html
Age Students With Learning Disabilities
The impact of family motivation on college age students with learning disabilities may be a deciding factor in regard to the student's success or failure. College age students with learning disabilities obviously have more immediate needs in cooperative learning settings when compared to typical students. Educators cannot just tell the student to just sit-down and read five chapters of Freud. These students have problems like dyslexia, AD/HD, or English as a second language to name a few and they may have had additional help in the past that may not be available at an older age. When there are obvious underlying issues, the family, teachers and the students themselves have to work more closely together in order to reach the desired positive outcomes. "Teaching effectiveness is inferred from the product that was created; it is the product that is the indicator of scholarship." (Cranton,…
Positive feedback is a major part of the Family Systems Theory process. Feedback in this case is a process in which the family, and possibly the teaching team involved, all work together to regulate the thinking process of the college age student with learning disabilities. This process also incorporates the notion that positive self-talk by the college age student with some form of learning disability is a necessary component of educational success. Self-talk helps them monitor their own output. In other words, the human body in this case accepts feedback from both internal and external sources to promote positive goals and objectives. A good example of a positive feedback system is how an automatic pilot system is used in most commercial airplanes. The automatic pilot process provides a computer that is actually flying the plane constant feedback about required information regarding the planes speed, altitude, direction and so on. As the plane drifts off course slightly, the computer system realigns the flight path. The college age student with a learning disability also drifts off occurs from time to time and positive feedback from family members, teachers and counselors and the student themselves all help to get the student back on course. This approach continually promotes active coping efforts and attributes positive meaning to the learning situation.
Name of Theory: FAMILY STRESS & COPING THEORY
Based on Family Stress Theory, there can be many indicators of a family's adaptation to stress induced events. "One is the adaptation of individual family members, including adolescents have noted that such factors as the perceived levels of individual and family stress serve as markers of adaptation." (McCubbin, 1993) In other words, the adaptation implies that there are a large number
family by applying theories, concepts and knowledge. Through the study of the theories and concepts, the study will look at how families communicate, behave, operate and will also highlight common problems facing the family and especially tackling the health issue and how social systems affect provision of health care, and will illuminate this through an in-depth study of how it applies or affect the family unit. The study will discuss diversity issues in relation to the social system.
Family life is being scrutinized, and a new definition of a family is emerging every day, but in simple terms a family is a group consisting of parents and children living together in a household, caring and supporting each other. According to Merriam-ebster Dictionary; a family is a fundamental social group in society typically consisting of one or two parents and their children.
The family is the natural and fundamental group unit…
Boss P. Doherty W. LaRossa R. (2008). Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A contextual Approach, New York: Springer
Crawford, (1999), Bilingual Education: History Politics, Theory and Practice, 23 July 2011, http://www.one nation.org/Crawford.html
LaRossa & Reitzes. (1993). Family Theory, Washington D.C: Chapman Publishers
McGoldrick M, Gerson R. & Shellenberger S. (1985). Genograms in Family Assessment. W.W. Norton: North America
Murray Bowen developed a theory of family functioning and individual functioning within the family system. The Bowen theory most importantly takes into account the need to balance individuality with togetherness in tight social systems like families ("Bowenian Family Therapy," n.d.). There are eight basic concepts to the Bowen theory. The first is the differentiation of self, which is important for psychological health and well-being. An example of differentiation of self is when the person is able to hold a different opinion on a political or social issue than a parent without that difference causing a problem in the relationship. When the self is not differentiated, the person might have internalized the beliefs of mother, father, sister, or brother and cannot tell what is really "me" versus what is a result of programming, the desire for approval or absorbing others' beliefs.
The second concept to Bowen's theory is triangulation. Bowen believes…
"Bowenian Family Therapy," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.psychpage.com/learning/library/counseling/bowen.html
Vermont Center for Family Studies (n.d). What are the eight interlocking concepts of Bowen Family Systems Theory? Retrieved online: http://www.vermontcenterforfamilystudies.org/about_vcfs/the_eight_concepts_of_bowen_theory/
Family Systems Theory; Application of Family Therapy Theories
The concept of family therapy has over the years has been developed into different approaches that have definite characteristics. These theories have been used to bring forth solutions to different family issues that are experienced on regular basis. It is not easy to understand the structure of a family since there are no universal structures that the family problems or challenges take, this means that even in the application of the family systems theories in bringing solutions to families, the application purely depend on individual unique family challenges and not on a universal template. These unique characteristics that each family challenge takes makes it hard to apply one system theory and have full confidence that it will work, hence the frequent overlapping of the theories, and in this case the strategic family therapy and the structural family therapy will be applied to…
Nichols M.P., (2009). Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods.
Family of Origin
The origin of the family describes the family in which one is grown up, inter-family interactions and relations between one's parents', siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles and grandparents. The current study examines the origin of a family and determines the systematic research based on the behavior and relation of members and provides evidence-based practices in order to address the relational gap found among the family members.
Attachment Styles in Family
Early Marriage and Divorce
Evidence-Based esearch and Intervention
The family in which one is grown up with the collaboration of adult's economic contribution and influence from parents, siblings and grandparents collectively describes one's family of origin. The origin of one's family tends to effect the systems that are being followed in the family and describes the degree to which they can be adaptive in nature.…
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001).First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage.In National Center for Health Statistics.
Carr, A. (1999). Evidence-based practice in psychotherapy and counseling. Journal of the Irish Association of Counseling and Therapy, 2(9), 15-34.
Dattilio, F.M. (2005). Introduction to the special section: The role of cognitive -- behavioral interventions in couple and family therapy. Journal of marital and family therapy, 31(1), 7-13.
Engels, F. (1942).The origin of the family.Current Book Distributors.
Devel/Family Cycle Theory
Successful completion of developmental tasks enables a person to make a smooth transition to adulthood. According to family life cycle theory (FLC), a paradigm rooted in the ideas of Duvall and Hill, there are eight stages of development with normative age role expectations for the nuclear family (Hill, 1970; Hill & ogers, 1964; ice, 1994; all cited in Erickson, 1998). More recent work on FLC by McGoldrick and Carter offer a new set of stages that they believe describe the fundamental American middle-class family at the beginning of the 21st century (VanKatwyk). According to McGoldrick and Carter, the family life cycle refers to "the expansion, contraction, and realighnemt of the relationship system to support the entry, exit, and development of family members in a functional way" (2003, p. 384, cited in Erickson). Their six stage classification lists the following:
Leaving home: single young adults
The joining of…
Erickson, M.J. (1998). Revisioning the family life cycle theory and paradigm in marriage and Family. American Journal of Family Therapy 26(4), pp. 341-355.
Jordyn, M., & Byrd, M. (2003). The relationship between the living arrangements of university students and their identity development. Adolescence 38(150), pp. 267-278.
VanKatwyk, P.L. (n.d.). Family life cycle theory. Theories of Human Development. Retrieved from http://freedownload.is/pdf/family-life-cycle-theory-3553375.html
Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory ateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors ecvar & evcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).
The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (ecvar & ecvar, 2006). However, the…
Becvar, D.S. & Becvar, R.J. (2006). Family therapy: A systemic integration. Boston, MA: Pearson
Broderick, P., & Weston, C. (2009). Family Therapy with a Depressed Adolescent. NCBI, 32-37. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719446/
Greenburg, L.S., Watson, J.C., & Lietaer, G. (1998). Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: Guilford
Israelstam, K. (1988). Contrasting four major family therapy paradigms: implications for family therapy training. Journal of Family Therapy, 179-196.
It also varies with urban or rural residence. Urban households commonly earn more and enjoy a higher standard of living than rural households. The allocation for food spending corresponds to the biggest part of the family budget. However, as family income increases, the share in food in consumption expenses generally drops. This is most likely because of the popularity of "fast foods" nowadays.
The process of socialization takes a lifetime whereby the individual acquires the established beliefs, values, sentiments, norms and behavior of his group and society. It is through socialization that the individual becomes a functioning member of his group. It is also through this process that values, customs and beliefs are passed on from one generation to the other.
Because of the significance of early experiences and primary relationships, the family remains to be the most important socializing agent in the child's life (Davidson and Moore,…
Bellah, R.N. (1970). Beyond Belief. New York: Harper & Row.
Berger, P.L. (1963). Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Doubleday.
Berk, S.F. (1985). The Gender Factory. New York: Plenum.
Broom, DH, Broom, L. And Bonjean, C.M. (1990). Sociology: A Core Text with adapted readings. Belmont, California:Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Structural family approach
Major contributors of Structural family approach
Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008()
History of Structural family…
Bobrow, E., & Ray, W.A. (2004). Strategic Family Therapy in the Trenches. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 23(4), 28-38. doi: 10.1521/jsyt.188.8.131.52840
D'Angelo, S.L. (1995). The Milan approach to therapy revisited. PsycCRITIQUES, 40(4), 352-352. doi: 10.1037/003578
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family Therapy: An Overview: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Rosen, K.H. (2003). Strategic family therapy. In L.L. Hecker & J.L. Wetchler (Eds.), An introduction to marriage and family therapy. (pp. 95-121). Binghamton, NY U.S.: Haworth Clinical Practice Press.
Systems and Diffusion of Innovation Theory
Systems theory vs. diffusion of innovation theory
Systems theory is based upon the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Its founder Ludwig von Bertalanffy proposed that, based upon his experience with the biology of organisms, all systems are constantly changing because they are able to interact with their environments. Systems are open and thus can acquire "qualitatively new properties through emergence" (Clark 2011). Living beings of all kinds are capable of taking in and incorporating new elements while expelling the old. This is vitally important for healthcare organizations today to understand, given the need to respect the changing nature of patients and the fact that patient's health can be significantly improved or worsened, depending on the type of care the patients receive and do not receive. Healthcare organizations must be true 'learning organizations' as new patients…
Clark, Don. (2011). Ludwig von Bertalanfy: General System Theory 1950. Big Dog and Little
Dog. Retrieved at: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/history_isd/bertalanffy.html
This article provides a brief introduction to the general concepts of systems theory, beginning with von Bertalanfy's career as a biologist studying organisms. It is a succinct explanation of the theory in lay person's terms, expressing it in phrases such as 'the whole is bigger than the sum of its parts.'
Diffusion of innovation theory. (2010). Utewente. Retrieved at:
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…
Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Friedlander, F., and Pickle, H. (1968). Components of Effectiveness in Small Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly13(2), 289-304
Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. New York: http://www.leaonline.com/entityImage/?code=200B
Kloos, B., McCoy, J., Stewart, E., Thomas R.E., Wiley, a., Good,- T.L., Hunt G.D., Moore, T. And Rappaport, J. (1997) Bridging the Gap: A Community-Based, Open Systems Approach to School and Neighborhood Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(2), 175-196
System Issues & Chikfila
Systems thinking is a way of synthesizing the issues surrounding any organization in both a macro and micro manner. This allows more shared values through teamwork, mental paradigms, the ability to think in the future, and look at projects in a way that are best for the organization as a holistic entity. Thus, when the process of inquiry is moved from the individual and rote (only knowledge) to an organization that moves through different, more analytical modes of thinking, the individual involved are more active participants and there is a shared vision alone with a personal and team mastery of the question in point. This evolution engenders personal buy-in, a feeling of empowerment, and clearly a new way of processing disparate information (Senge, 2006).
Chick-Fil -- A is an American fast food restaurant chain specializing in Chicken Sandwiches. Their headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia, and have…
Works Cited and Consulted
Chick Fil -- a Controversy. (2013). The Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/news/chick-fil-a-controversy
Chick-Fil-a. (2013). Press Releases. Retrieved from: http://www.chick-fil-a.com /Pressroom/Press-Releases#?release=LGBT-statement
Chick-Fil-a. (2010). Corporate Message. Retrieved from:
Moshavi D. & Koch M.J., (n.d). he Adoption of Family-Friendly Practices in Family Owned Firms.
he article is centered on the family business and how the conflicts that emanate from the family business affects the non-family employees and what repercussions it has on the business as well. It highlights the work and family systems interaction and how that interaction can be managed. his is an empirical investigation into how the family business owners manage the work and family conflicts that face the non-family employees. he article first highlights some pertinent theories that help explain the influence of family on business like the resource-dependency theory and institutional theory in order to help the reader understand the entire concept. he researcher used the survey method to collect his data and 680 human resource manager filled in questionnaires that were used. he dependent variable is sighted as work-family responsiveness and the independent…
The writer here takes a closer look at the family business and specifically the communication trends that are experienced within such businesses. It also looks at how the communication helps to boost innovativeness in family business. The paper seeks to examine the effects of communication on innovation within the family business and how much innovation there is within the family business setting. The researcher here also looks at the variations in innovation among the family businesses and the reasons behind these disparities. The researcher highlights the various factors that are likely to affect the innovation within the family business setting and how these have over years changed. The data that was used was widely sourced from case studies of various family owned business in contrast to the business not owned by families. There was a general conclusion that non-family owned businesses seemed to show higher levels of innovation and better structured communication systems.
Memili E., Zellweger T. & Fang H.C., (2013). The Determinants of Family Owner-Managers' Affective Organizational Commitment. Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies.
The author here highlights the need for the commitment of the owner-managers within the family owned businesses. The levels of commitment as managers are seen to be affected by the levels of harmony that is within the business management position. The conceptual framework of this article looks highlights some major factors that are likely to determine the commitment of any individual family member in managing the family business. These are relationship conflict, work-family conflict, affective organizational commitment which are all seen to have an impact in the ownership attachment.
They have grandparents who visit them during the holidays. However, for the most part family members deal with their problems as individuals, not as a family unit.
Information provided by the family is an important source of information about the family. However, one cannot ignore outside sources of information as well. For instance, the worker may contact the school, neighbors, or others who are involved with the family to examine factors that may influence the current situation. The assessment plan will involve contacting the school to find out about Conrad's performance in terms of grades, attendance and overall performance.
The case of the Jarretts is complex, with many individual goals that must be completed on the way to resolution of the systemic problems. In this case, the identified patient is Conrad, as he was the one who tried to commit suicide. The goal of family therapy is the…
Bowen Center for the Study of the Family. (2010). Bowen Theory. Retrieved April 13, 2010
Missouri Department of Social Services. (2007). Child Welfare Manual. Retrieved April 13,
2010 from http://www.dss.mo.gov/cd/info/cwmanual/section7/ch1_33/sec7ch25.htm
Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it Like
COSS CULTUAL THEOIES BASED ON BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM
Cross cultural theories based on bend it like Beckham
Movies are one way in which different issues such as social and cultural backgrounds of different societies are filmed to educate or enlighten the community at large on different life styles as well as cultural diversity. Different films do have different numbers of characters, who act as family members, friends, and business personnel's in order to portray to the different issues to their viewers. With the help of a team comprising of the writer, producer and the directors, the characters are able to follow instructions so as to produce a film with the required themes. Bend it like Beckham, is a comedy-drama film in which the title is derived from a famous England football player David Beckham and his ability to score from…
Bates, D.G., & Plog, F. (1976). Cultural Anthropology, 3rd Ed., New York: McGraw-Hil
Baruth, L.G., & Manning, M.L. (2003). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan perspective (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., and M.W. Feldman (1981), Cultural Transmission and Evolution.
Princeton: Princeton University Press
A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and…
Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Public Policy Research 21(1). Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKiRnOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8Ryw-RdfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbROjWa5vU-CorRdw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ
Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.
Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWRScZuXra2PExRdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfRl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlRIUDHqnfiObow
Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXRvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_ShxR7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbReyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
Nursing Theory Framework
ecognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory
Affect egulation and Addiction
Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder
The First Phase of Therapy
Nursing Theory Framework
The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.
An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…
Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.
Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.
Fischer, B.P. (n.d.). Assessing the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the general canadian population: Methodological issues and questions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(9), 606-9.
Flores, P.J. (2012). Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: An attachment theory perspective. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 60(4), 546-70.
Child welfare services have a complicated history in America and still today face a continual crisis. On the one hand, foster care requires resources from the state and breaks up families; on the other hand, implementing family preservation plans carries its own risk. This policy reform paper will examine the problem presented by The Family First Prevention Services Act (FFPSA), enacted as part of Public Law (P.L.) 115–123, also known as the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018. It will then provide analysis of the problem from the standpoint of historical, social, economic, and political perspectives. It will then examine the policy, evaluate it and discuss current proposals for reform.
It is recognized that removing children from their families and placing them in foster group home services can be psychologically and emotionally damaging for the child (Ringel et al., 2018). However, leaving children in families where abuse is…
Behrmann, S. (2019). Former DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen says she left post because 'saying no' wasn't enough. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2019/10/22/kirstjen-nielsen-former-dhs-secretary-said-she-left-post-because-saying-no-wasnt-enough/2450196001/
Definitive Contract. (2016). Retrieved from https://govtribe.com/award/federal-contract-award/definitive-contract-hsfe3013c0366
Mallon, G., McHartt-Hess, P. (2013). Child Welfare in the 21st Century. 2nd Edition.Columbia University Press.
O’Connor, S. (2001). Orphan Trains: The Story of Charles Loring Brace and the Children He Saved and Failed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Patwardhan, I., Hurley, K. D., Thompson, R. W., Mason, W. A., & Ringle, J. L. (2017). Child maltreatment as a function of cumulative family risk: Findings from the intensive family preservation program. Child Abuse & Neglect, 70, 92-99.
Reid, P. (2019). DHS Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen speaks for first time since resignation announcement. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/kirstjen-nielsen-resigning-dhs-secretary-expected-to-offer-resignation-today-live-updates-2019-04-07/
Ringel, J. S., Schultz, D., Mendelsohn, J., Holliday, S. B., Sieck, K., Edochie, I., & Davis, L. (2018). Improving child welfare outcomes: balancing investments in prevention and treatment. Rand health quarterly, 7(4).
Wiltz, T. (2018). This New Federal Law Will Change Foster Care As We Know It. Retrieved from https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2018/05/02/this-new-federal-law-will-change-foster-care-as-we-know-it
Shift From First-order to Second-Order Cybernetics in the Family and Systemic Therapies
The strategic family therapy model came up in the 1950s and was inspired by two primary works: the works of Milton Erickson who came up with revolutionary paradoxical interventions which took advantage of people's resistance to change to help alter psychiatric symptoms first; and the works of Gregory Bateson and the Palo Alto Group that made use of cybernetics in communication patterns of the family. The style of a therapist changes as he or she gets better as a person and as they develop professionally, and also as per what is in fashion at the time. An older person has the chance to look at what happened in their past and see what worked and what failed. This gives them a better perspective of what works and what might not work for a given situation. The path is…
Asen, E. (2004). Outcome research in family therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, vol. 8, pp. 230-238
Asen, K.E., Berkowitz, R., Cooklin, A., et al. (1991). Family therapy outcome research: a trial for families, therapists and researchers. Family Process, 30, 3-20.
Baron, P. (2007). Ecosystemic psychology; first and second order cybernetics.
Baucom, D., Shoham, V., Mueser, K., et al. (1998). Empirically supported couple and family interventions for marital distress and adult mental health problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 53-88.
Systems Theory Lens
The analysis of the case study clearly indicates that the school eh cycle of production at the school begins with a child getting enrolled into the school at any grade level and ends with the student leaving the school after completion of his/her studies. The input systems and the throughout systems in the organization or the educational institution, in this case, has an input system that sustains the system and these inputs are provided by everyone in the hierarchy of the institution (Morgan, 2006). The production inputs for the educational institution include the suggestions that are sought into the system of intervention, in accordance with the case study, are the vital advice from the functional behavioral assessment (FSB) committee.
This is important as the committee comprises of experts and noted people from all walks of life and includes counselors, faculty, and department heads as well as a…
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of organization (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Staber, U. (2013). Understanding organizations. London: SAGE.
The Jacques family seems to have functioned very well until the husband began abusing drugs and alcohol. This was a problem before, but things have stabilized when the appropriate help was obtained. The relapse occurred directly after the wife and children left for a visit to the wife's family. Hence, it might reasonably be assumed that the presence of the family has a positive effect upon the maintenance of the treatment regime. Because Jean (the husband) functioned at a very high level before his relapse into the cycle of abuse and the abandonment of the treatment regime, it might be assumed that he will once again respond to intervention. Because there is as yet no physical danger to the family, the treatment and intervention program will be administered under strict official supervision, with regular monitoring sessions. However, while the aim is to keep the family together, a contingency…
Brown, J. (2010, Oct.). Psychotherapy Integration: Systems Theory and Self-Psychology. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. Retrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3658/is_201010/ai_n56230129/
DePfanfilis, D. (2006). Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention. U.S. Dept. Of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/neglect/neglect.pdf
Moore, B.C. (2005). Empirically Supported Family and Peer Interventions for Dual Disorders. Research on Social Work Practice. Vo. 15. Retrieved from: http://www.reachoflouisville.com/meath/meath/Empirically%20Supported%20Family%20and%20Peer%20Interventions%20for%20Dual%20Disorders.pdf
People generally focus on appearance when coming across a particular individual. This is perfectly exemplified by the meeting between the old member of the De Lacey family and the monster. The man initially welcomes the creature, as he is no longer able to see and is unacquainted with the monster's facial features and body.
Victor Frankenstein can be considered to contrast the monster through his behavior, his background, and because of the goals that he has. The scientist virtually had everything that the monster longed for, considering his family, his reputation, and the fact that he was generally seen as one of society's leading members. Instead of valuing what he had, however, Frankenstein gave it all away in favor of gaining reputation, as this was apparently the thing that he appreciated the most in life. hile most readers are likely to blame Frankenstein for most unfortunate events in the book,…
Bloom Bissonete, Melissa, "Teaching the Monster: Frankenstein and Critical Thinking"
Chao, Shun-Liang. "Education as a Pharmakon in Marry Shelley's Frankenstein," the Explicator, Vol. 68, No. 4, 223-226, 2010.
Lunsford, Lars, "The Devaluing of Life in Shelley's Frankenstein," the Explicator, Vol. 68, No. 3, 174-176, 2010
Schmid, Thomas H. "Addiction and Isolation in Frankenstein"
Once the children are of age, the parents' duty to take care of them reduces as the child takes charge to start a new life somewhere else. The parent usually has saved enough money through life insurance scheme and retirement savings to cater for himself after retirement. hen the child is grown, there is no dependence between the parents and children. Traits like hard work and honesty are encouraged towards children to ensure their survival in different societies when he grows up. In some cases when the parent is too weak and old to look after himself, he is taken to a home for the elderly since none of his children is available to take care of him (Stewart et al. 580).
The other model of family model is the model of psychological or emotional interdependence. In this model, the children are of less material help to the family. Parenting,…
Chou, K.L. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, pp 161-169, 2000.
Jose, P.E., Huntsinger, C.S., Huntsinger, P.R. & Liaw, F-R. Parental values and practices relevant to young children's social development in Taiwan and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, pp 677-702, 2000.
Misra, G., & Agarwal, R. The meaning of achievement: Implications for a cross-cultural theory of achievement motivation, from a different perspective: Studies of behavior across cultures, Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger, pp 250-266. 1985.
Phalet, K. & Schonpflug, U. Intergenerational transmission of collectivism and achievement values in two acculturation contexts: the case of Turkish families in Germany and Turkish and Moroccan families in the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol 32, pp 186-201, 2001.
Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.
Summary and Conclusion
While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…
Sandelowski M. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing; as cited by Joan Engebretson in Document entitled Hands-on: The Persistent Metaphor in Nursing, Holistic Nursing Practice Vol.16 No.4 07-01-2002 ISSN 09979311.
The Ecological Theory (nd) Online available at www.unt.edu/cpe/module1/blk1.htm
The Theoretical Matrix for a Rogerian Nursing Practice" by E.A.M.Barrett 2000, Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory, 9 (4) p.3-7. Copyright 2000 by the Swedish Society for Nursing Theories in Practice, Research, and Education. Reprinted with permission. http://medweb.uwcm.ac.uk/martha/theory.htm
Meyers, S.A. An Ecological Approach to Enhancing Parenting Skills in Family Therapy "http: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/coft/1998/
It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.
7. eflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?
I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part…
Bates, K., C. Bader, and F. Mencken. (2003). "Family structure, power-control theory, and deviance: extending power-control theory to include alternate family forms." Western Criminology Review, Vol. 4, No. 3.
Egelman, B. And A. Susman-Stillman. (1996). "Dissociation as mediator of child abuse across generations." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 20, Issue 11.
Flowers, R. (2001). Runaway kids and teenage prostitution: America's lost, abandoned, and sexually exploited children. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Simons, R., C. Johnson, J. Beaman, and R. Conger. (1993). "Explaining women's double jeopardy: factors that mediate the association between harsh treatment as a child and violence by a husband." Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55.
In fact, many studies show that deviant or antisocial children may experience a strengthening of the bonds between parents and society in the process of their development.
Therefore, while social control theory is one view, there are many alternative theories that take other findings and variables into account. In general, the view that a deviant child who does not change by a certain age is "condemned "to a life of crime if sharply criticized, as it often does not concur with empirical findings. Theories put forward by Gottfredson and Hirsch propose another view of the life-course towards crime that takes into account the fact that in many case early deviant behavior does not necessarily lead to a life-long pattern of criminal behavior.
Describe the labeling theory and the consequences that labeling can have on a child. Should we be concerned with labeling? Why or why not?
ACF Questions and Answers Support. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from http://faq.acf.hhs.gov/cgi-bin/acfrightnow.cfg/php/enduser/std_adp.php?p_sid=qnPNlL5i&p_lva=&p_faqid=68&p_created=1001610478&p_sp=cF9zcmNoPTEmcF9ncmlkc29y dD0mcF9yb3dfY250PTEzJnBfc2VhcmNoX3RleHQ9JnBfc2VhcmNoX3R5 cGU9MyZwX2NhdF9sdmwxPTEwJnBfY2F0X2x2bDI9MzAmcF9zb3J0X2J 5PWRmbHQmcF9wYWdlPTE*&p_li =
Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/define.cfm
Crime Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 from NCWC. Web site: http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/111/111lect03.htm
Overview of Labeling Theories. Retrieved April 9, 2008 http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/labeling.html
In summary, observational preexperience had differential effects on the timing of subsequent contingency performance of infants (p. 693)."
This research supports the potential for vicarious learning as a pre-emptor to juvenile delinquency when the family, academic, and social conditions are reflective of the elements that reflect a lack of structure, participation in community, poverty, and poor education systems that are not financed to provide the infrastructure in a child's early years.
4. Explain your understanding of Baumrind's Typology of Parenting Styles. Based on your understanding of the parenting styles described by Baumrind, which style of parenting style is most effective? Which is the least effective style of parenting? Why? Be sure to support your answer.
Diana Baumrind discussed parenting types, the authoritarian parent, the permissive parent and the authoritative parent (Grolnick, W., 2003, p. 5). Baumrind's description of the parenting styles is:
The authoritarian parent attempts to shape, control, and…
Barron, M.L. (1954). The Juvenile in Delinquent Society (1st ed.). New York: Alfred a. Knopf. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6360952 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000504042
Brannigan, a. (1997). Self-Control, Social Control and Evolutionary Psychology: Towards an Integrated Perspective on Crime. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 39(4), 403-431. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000504042 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110022432
Grolnick, W.S. (2003). The Psychology of Parental Control: How Well-Meant Parenting Backfires. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110022435 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014544319
Rook, L. (2006). An Economic Psychological Approach to Herd Behavior. Journal of Economic Issues, 40(1), 75+. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014544319 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001116573
Reclaiming Children and Youth.. Retrieved October 02, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-206794465.html Wester, K, MacDonald, C & Lewis, T. (2008). A glimpse into the lives of nine youths in a correctional facility: Insight into theories of delinquency.(Report). Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling. American Counseling Association. 2008. Retrieved October 02,
2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-178713105.html
Gibbs, J., Potter, G.B., DiBiase, a.M. & Devlin, R. (2008). The EQUIP program: Helping youth to see -- really see -- the other person: Youth who present anti-social behavior need powerful interventions that strengthen empathy, counter negative peer influence, and challenge thinking errors. Reclaiming Children and Youth. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-183982220.html
Harkwick, K. & Brannigan, a. (2008). Self-control, child effects, and informal social control: A
direct test of the primacy of sociogenic factors. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Canadian Criminal Justice Association. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research:…
In fact, this theory does well to explain the prevalence of modern youth gangs. First, gang members oftentimes engage in behavior that is absolutely contrary to the norms and rules that they have learned at home, but, because of a lack of belief in society, at large, they allow themselves to discard those norms. Therefore, delinquents are "free to engage in virtually any opportunity for deviant behavior that presents itself." (Simon, Simon, & Wallace, 2004, p. 22). In addition, social control theory does not suggest that being friends with a delinquent leads to delinquency; on the contrary, it suggests that people seek out the companionship of similar people, so that delinquents will frequently seek out the company of other delinquents. Therefore, delinquents will flock together and will be willing to commit a wide-range of delinquent behaviors. Moreover, they may become bonded to the gang in a way that they were…
Simon, R., Simon, L., & L. Wallace. (2004). Families, Delinquency and Crime: Linking
Society's most Basic Institution to Antisocial Behavior. City of Publication: Publisher.
He has been expelled from three school since he began his education and is currently attending junior high school after last attending a small charter school in his community. The shoplifting incident also caused his mother to ask his father to take him back into his home, he has lived with mostly his mother with infrequent visitation from his father, except for a year period where he lived with his father and stepmother and their other children, which ended at age 12 when he tried to vocalize feelings of concern about puberty to his stepmother and she perceived the conversation as deviant and asked that he be returned to his mother.
Justin's anti-social behavior began at birth but has had periods of extremes, beginning with near constant conflict with his mother over mundane requests as well as other general rejections of authority, including an incident of extreme foul language focused…
Greene, R.R. (1999). 5 Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Approach. In Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice (2nd ed., pp. 145-161). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Loeber, R., Farrington, D.P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W.B. (1998). Antisocial Behavior and Mental Health Problems: Explanatory Factors in Childhood and Adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Van Lier, P.A., Vuijk, P., & Crijnen, a.A. (2005). Understanding Mechanisms of Change in the Development of Antisocial Behavior: The Impact of a Universal Intervention. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(5), 521.
Less dramatically, in my own personal experience I have known people who have engaged in minor acts of delinquent behavior, for no apparent reason, and I have (successfully, I believe) had to deal with peer pressure to engage in antisocial acts.
In this course I would like to learn more about the juvenile justice, theories of why young people commit crimes, and how someone's family influences the likelihood that they will commit a crime. On a persona level, I am interested in family law in general, since so many of my friends come from divorced homes and have had to deal with the family court system. I think the course would prove useful in many fields I might choose to enter, including education, social work, the law, or law enforcement.
Expressive functioning is related to communication such as emotional, verbal, and nonverbal communication, problem solving and roles within the family. Beliefs within the family are also a part of expressive functioning.
For the purpose of the Calgary Family Assessment Model, a family is defined as who they say they are. It is very important that the clinician performing the assessment not assign their own beliefs upon what he or she believes a family is, and take into account what the patient feels about family as to the patient is may mean not only the people who actually live within the household but can also address past, present and future emotional attachments.
Calgary Family Intervention Model:
The immediate family is composed of Mr. Herbert Schelley (the patient), Mrs. Annette Schelley (his wife), and their son Thomas Schelley. The extended family consists of the Schelley's two married daughters, their husbands and their…
Brownwald H. ed. (2003) Harrison's Textbook of Internal Medicine, 15th edition,
McGraw-Hill, New York
Clement S. (2004) Guidelines for glycemic control. Clin Cornerstone. 6(2):31-9
Echeverry D.M., Dike M.R., Washington C., Davidson M.B.. (1995). The impact of using a low-literacy patient education tool on process measures of diabetes care in a minority population J. Natl Med Assoc. (11):1074-81
Family Policy Integration
I discourse on family policy integration and education including a systematic approach to family policy and overview of the many reasons family integration helps communities prosper. Detailed analysis of why human service organizations benefit more from integration than the current method of providing services to individuals, which is more costly and tends to see families as separate entities.
Family policy integration and education is a systematic approach to family policy that would focus on reducing the need for developing programs and services that target individual adults and children, and focus instead on strengthening and empowering families (odriguez, et al., 2011; Westman, 2009). The goals of family policy integration include developing services which allow families to become sustainable, and human services organizations to take charge of programs in a manner that allows them to take ownership of programs that require greater accountability for their results (Westman,…
Behnke, A.O. & Kelly, C. 2011. Creating programs to help Latino youth thrive at school: The
influence of Latino parent involvement programs. Journal of Extension, v.49, n1.
Morrow, C.E., Mansoor, E., Hanson, K.L., Vogel, A.L., Rose-Jacobs, R., Genatossio, C.S.,
Windham, A. & Bandstra, E.S. 2010 Feb. The starting early starting smart integrated services model: Improving access to behavioral health services in the pediatric health care setting for at-risk families with young children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, v.19, n.1, p.42-56.
...in the end 'the addict has to want to change' and if the addict does not want to change it does not matter what program..." that the addict is in. (National Institute of Justice, 2005) the National Institute of Justice reports that a woman "often retains legal custody of a child while in prison, and once out, may not have the child immediately returned to her by the family member caring for the child." (2005)
Sarah Samson reports in the work entitled: "Groundbreaking Study Identifies Crucial Factors for Successful Community Reintegration of Ex-Prisoners in altimore" published in 2004, that Programs that help prisoners stay connected with their families, get drug treatment, and work while in prison can increase the chances that they will successfully reintegrate back into society, according to a new study released today by the nonpartisan Urban Institute. The study breaks new ground by recording prisoners' perspectives on…
Baltimore Prisoners' Experiences Returning Home," by Christy Visher, Vera Kachnowski, Nancy La Vigne, and Jeremy Travis, has been made possible by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, OSI-Baltimore, the Abell Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Maryland Governor's Office of Crime Control and Prevention, and the John D. And Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
Community Supervision and Reentry (2008) Urban Institute Prison Reentry Portfolio. Online available at http://www.urban.org/projects/reentry-portfolio/community-supervision.cfm
Pelissier, Bernadette (2004) Gender Differences in Substance Use Treatment Entry and Retention Among Prisoner with Substance Use Histories. Research and Practice. American Journal of Public Health August 2004. Vol. 94 No. 8. Online available at http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/94/8/1418.pdf
Powell, M. Anne; and Nolan, Clare (2003) California State Prisoners with Children:
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…
Monogamous Nuclear Families, Polygamous and Communal Families
Family has different connotations for different persons and cultures. In American society, the word is usually meant to denote a nuclear family consisting of a father, mother and their children. However the meaning of family in Asia is different because the family includes the grandparents, relatives and siblings of the elders. Family thus would also denote an entire clan. In African communities the Mormon system has its own connotation of family. Most of the world has some form of plural marriage, or polygamy, and is sanctioned by religions. Polygamy is not a non-western practice, but also exists in modern Western societies. (Koktvedgaard Zeitzen, 2008)
The common type of family being the nuclear family, the other types have all along attracted researchers to attempt to find an anthropological theory for polygamy that has spread to U.S. And UK to Malaysia, India, regions of Africa…
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Al-Krenawi, Salem. (1997) "Social Work Practice with Polygamous Families Child and Adolescent" Social Work Journal, vol. 14, no. 6, pp: 445-458.
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Sheva, Beer; Graham, John R. (2006) "A Comparison of Family
Functioning, Life and Marital Satisfaction, and Mental Health of Women in Polygamous and Monogamous Marriages" Int J. Soc Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 1, pp: 5-17.
Altman, Irwin; Ginat, Joseph. (1996) "Polygamous Families in Contemporary Society"
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family
The main components of structural therapy
Structural therapy is a family treatment model founded on the frameworks of systems theory. The distinctive component of this model is the emphasis it has placed on structural adjustments as the primary objective of the therapy session. This emphasis is prominent over details of adjustments in individual behaviors. This model is distinctive because the therapist is the most active agent and receives much attention in the course of family restructuring (Lock & Strong, 2012).
The main purpose of structural family therapy is prevention of sequences from repetition by coveting the hierarchical structures of families. This encompasses shifts in power distribution among family members by adjusting interaction styles. Nevertheless, structural family therapy operates by making alterations on the dysfunctional family structure through encouragement and promotion of growth among family members with the primary intention of re-building the family (Petridis,…
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family therapy: An overview. Australia: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Lock, A., & Strong, T. (2012). Discursive perspectives in therapeutic practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Peterson, G.W., Steinmetz, S.K., & Sussman, M.B. (2009). Handbook of marriage and the family. New York: Plenum Press.
Petridis, N., Pichorides, S.K., & Varopoulos, N. (2010). Harmonic analysis, Iraklion 1978: Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Crete. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
One of the most popular televisions shows currently is "19 Kids and Counting" featuring the ever-growing Duggar family. The hit series on The Learning Channel, is hosted by the Duggar parents, Jim Bob and Michelle Duggar, as well as the family's 19 children (nine girls and 10 boys) and various celebrity visitors and other multi-member families who help keep the show fresh and interesting. Clearly, any family with 21 members will involve a complex social system that provides a useful framework in which to examine various theories and concepts related to social units. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to examine the social system of the Duggar family from three theoretical and five conceptual perspectives, a definition and discussion concerning these theories and concepts and how the social unit demonstrates these, followed by a description and illustration of the various ways in…
Assadourian, E. (2009, March-April). The living earth ethical principles: A family for all families. World Watch, 22(2), 28-29.
Mass, W. (2007, October 29). Arkansas couple proud parents of 17! The New American, 23(22),
Stanley, L. (2010, April 12). Update on the Duggars - Josie makes 19. The New American, 26(8),
Transitioning From Closed to Open Systems: How Effective Nurse Leaders Approach Problem Solving and Decision Making in Organizations
The objective of this study is to examine transitioning from closed to open systems and how effective nurse leaders approach problem solving and decision making in organizations. This study will utilize systems theory in identifying an issue or process that could be improved and apply knowledge and strategies related to systems theory.
The problem addressed in this study is the excessive trust vested in unlicensed personnel resulting in some to make decisions reserved to licensed health professionals.
Responsibilities of the Nurse Manager
It is reported that the licensed nurse manager or supervising nurse has the responsibility to "delegate professional responsibilities only to persons who are qualified by education, experience or licensure to carry out the responsibility." (New York Office of the Professions, Division of Professional Licensing Services, 2009, p.27) It is additionally…
2013 NACNS Annual Conference: Clinical Nurse Specialists Leading Innovation for Healthcare Change. April 2013. Vol. 27. No. 2. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/journalarticle?Article_ID=1505534
Explanation of RN Scope of Practice and Nurse Practitioner Practice (1996) Board of Registered Nursing, Sacramento, CA. Retrieved from: http://www.rn.ca.gov/pdfs/regulations/npr-b-19.pdf
Health Care Liability and Inju8red Patients and Families Compensation. (2013) State of Wisconsin. Chapter 655. Retrieved from: https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/statutes/statutes/655.pdf
Nursing Guide to Practice (2009) New York Office of the Professions, Division of Professional Licensing Services. Retrieved from: http://www.op.nysed.gov/prof/nurse/nurse-guide-april09.pdf
Applying Open Systems Theory to Google
Open systems theory may be used as one approach to examining an organization. An interesting organization, which was also forth on Fortunes 2011 list of the 100 best companies to work for is Google (Fortune, 2011). Google is a firm where there is a great deal of influence between the internal and the external environments due to the porous boundaries of the firm.
One of the most important and influential components of Google are the employees, they are also one of the most porous elements as the employees may be members of multiple systems and their performance in the workplace may be influenced by many external forces. Motivation theory, such as Maslow Hierarchy of Needs, indicates that employees will have different needs; these may depend on many external influences, based on their personal psychological well being and attitudes, and other factors, such as…
Cowley, MC, (2012), Not A Happy Accident: How Google Deliberately Designs Workplace Satisfaction, ACCESSED AT http://www.fastcompany.com/3007268/where-are-they-now/not-happy-accident-how-google-deliberately-designs-workplace-satisfaction
Fortune, (2011), 100 Best Companies to Work For, accessed at http://archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/bestcompanies/2011/snapshots/4.html
Google, (2014), 10k, accessed at http://investor.google.com/pdf/2013_google_annual_report.pdf
Scott, W.R. (2002). Organizations: Rational, natural, and open systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Family in Health of Our Society
The Family System as a Tool to Promote Health
Family is vital to the health and well being of our society. Only recently have researchers and healthcare providers began realizing that families work as a system to help promote health among family members. Families are more a whole than the sum of individual parts (Friedman, Bowden & Jones, 2003). Thus what affects one family member will ultimately affect others. The health or behaviors of one family member may directly or indirectly affect the health and well being of other family members.
Because families are more widely recognized as systems that can create a healthy or unhealthy environment, nursing researchers are suggesting a more integrative and holistic approach to care that focuses on families as system. Integrative practice suggests that nurse practitioners consider families as systems and work with families in this regard to help…
Denham, S.A. (2003 -- May/June). "Familial research reveals new practice model."
Holistic Nursing Practice, pp. 143- 151.
Friedman, M.M, Bowden, V.R. & Jones, E.G. (2003). Family Nursing Research, Theory
and Practice. Prentice-Hall.
Bioecological Theory and the Family and Community Resource Conceptual Framework)
The Case History
"Kerry" has twin girls who are now 4 years old. he had been living with her defacto "Dean" for the past 6 years. he is a qualified beautician and has previously run a small business from home before the birth of the twins. he undertook schooling until year 12 (equal to UA high school diploma) at a public school, is one of two children herself and has supportive parents in a middle income suburb. he left her defacto 10 months ago after two years of domestic violence brought on by the use intravenous "speed." he has an AVO (Aggravated Violence Order) on "Dean" for 12 months. During the previous two years "Kerry" was subjected to physical and psychological trauma, the twins witnessed this abuse. "Dean" is on a fly in fly out basis working in the mines…
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Caspi, J (2008). Building a Sibling Aggression Treatment Model: Design and Development Research in Action, Research on Social Work Practice, 18: 575
Paquette, D & Ryan. J (2001). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
Prochaska, J.O., & Norcross, J.C. (2007). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis, Sixth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
In reaction, diabetes research looks into pharmacological options and changes in lifestyle to contain the trend. Recent findings point to the need for healthcare professionals to empower diabetes sufferers to take recourse in self-management as the best option at the moment (Kumar).
The purposefulness of a plan and its implementation in assisting a client with diabetes helped fill in her self-care deficit (Kumar 2007). The interpersonal relationship between a nurse and her client minimizes the stress experienced by the latter and her family. This enables the client or patient and her family to act more responsibly in health matters. An assessment and plan of care may use Orem's client-related concepts -- of self-care, self-care agency, therapeutic self-care demand and self-care deficit --, the concepts of nursing agency and nursing system and the basic conditioning factors. Integrating these concepts into other theories on health promotion and family systems may guide effective…
Aldridge, V. (2005). Self-monitoring of blood, glucose invaluable in managing diabetes. 3 pages. Journal of Diabetes Nursing: SB Communications. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOMDR/is_10_9/ai_n27865119?tag=content;col1
Aliha, J.M., et al. (2006). Relation between self-care behavior and self-care needs in patients with heart failure.2 pages. Southern African Journal of Critical Care: South African Medical Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/article/mi_6870/is_1_23/ai_n28450856?tag=content;col1
Bruce, E., et al. (2008). Dorothea Orem's theory of self-care. 38 pages. SlideShare, Inc. Retrieved on October 24, 2008 at http://www.slideshare.net/jben501/dorothea-orem-theory
Cook, a., et al. (2006). Self-care needs of caregivers dealing with stroke. 9 pages.
Grohol J. (2005). Attachment heory. Psych Central. Retrieved October 7, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://psychcentral.com/psypsych/Attachment_theory
Psych Central is a web site which provides free mental health, support and psychology information and resources online since 1992. he site is clustered with numerous links to psychological issues and people related to this field. his article has been written by Dr. John Grohol who is a renowned psychologist and owner of this web portal. he article focuses on the theory of attachment explaining various behavioral patterns observed in the canvas of this theory.
Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and Attachment heory. New York: Routledge.
Jeremy Holmes is a Consultant Psychiatrist/Psychotherapist in North Devon
District Hospital, Barn Staple, United Kingdom. He is also a visiting professor at Psychoanalysis Unit University College London. In this book, Jeremy Holmes provides a focused and coherent account of Bowlby's life and work, based on interviews with…
The web site is an online resource for various definitions and explanation of various terms used in the language. The site contains list of words which are distributed in titles or categories. It is a comprehensive portal of the language.
Pietromonaco P.R. And Barrett L. F, (2000). Attachment Theory as an Organizing Framework: A view from different levels of analysis. Review of General Psychology, 4, No 2,107-110.
Review of General Psychology is a quarterly journal and publishes new theoretical, conceptual, or methodological articles that focus on the traditional sub-disciplines of psychology. It is an approved journal of American Psychological Association (APA). The writers of the article are renowned psychologists. Paula R. Pietrornonaco is teaching at University of Massachusetts at Amherst and Lisa Feldman Barrett at Boston College. The article encompasses most of the aspects of the diverse theory of attachment from its evolution to its present day status.
Imogene King's Attainment Theory
King's Attainment Theory
The thrust of Imogene King's theory of goal attainment is a loosely-coupled partnership between the nurse and the patient that enables communication about the patient's condition, their health goals, and a plan of action to achieve the patient's goals. The conceptual framework is based on systems theory -- and King employs the three classic systems in her representation of her theory: (1) the personal system, (2) the interpersonal, and (3) the social system. As the conceptual framework takes shape for the personal system of the individuals in the schema (Yonge, 2007), several constructs emerge: Body image, self, growth & development, perception, space, and time. As the conceptual framework moves to the interpersonal systems, the constructs take on a more integrated form: communication, interaction, transaction, time, and space. In the last component of the conceptual framework, the constructs of authority, status, power, decision-making, and…
Alligood, M.R. And Tomey, M.A. ( Eds.) (2002). Nursing theory: Utilization and application. (2nd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Black, M., and Hawks-Hokanson, J. (2005). Medical Surgical Nursing: Clinical Management for positive outcomes. St. Louis, Missouri.
George, J. (Ed). (2002). Nursing Theories: The base for professional nursing practice. (5th ed.) Norwalk, CT: Appleton and Lange.
Jukkala, A., Greenwood, R., Ladner, K. And Hopkins, L. (2010, Fall). The clinical nurse leader and rural hospital safety and quality, Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 10(2). Retrieved http://www.rno.org/journal/index.php /online-journal/article/viewFile/238/283' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The theory sees human organizational behaviors and conceptions culturally bound, rather than natural, unlike advocates of systems theory. Systems theory has been more influenced by sociology and linguistics than the natural sciences.
Analyzing symbolic interpretations may be more useful in organizations serving diverse populations: if a public health organization wants to alleviate the prevalence of diabetes in an area, it is not enough to more effectively disseminate information through the existing channels of communication (as systems theory might suggest) or even change the environment to create healthy options for consumption. Rather the people being served may require counseling to change what they consider good foods, a healthy diet, and a positive body image, if their culture tends to reinforce unhealthy practices. An ideological overhaul is necessary to change some behaviors, like the decreased social acceptability of smoking, for example. Organizations are social as well as formal, and cultural in nature…
Hatch, Mary Jo. (1997). Organization theory: Modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives.
Oxford University Press, 2nd edition.
Contextual Family Theory
Following are the foremost suppositions for change in the contextual methodology
Morals and principles are conveyed and transmitted across generations.
All dimensions are tangled and motivate people's relationships and behavioral patterns.
Evidence -- facts like genetic information, physical attributes, ethnic upbringing, fundamental histories, personal events and cycle of life.
Specific psychology: The sphere of most distinct psychotherapies and their effects.
Systemic dealings: The essentials of the traditional systemic family therapy sphere which covers configurations, rules, control, orientations, connections, reactions, etc.
Interpersonal consciences: These usually entail the "justice system" or ethical setup that particularly deals with roles, responsibilities, connectedness, caring, reciprocity, devotion, heritage, culpability, equality, and trust within tight knit relationships (mft2011, 2011).
elational ethics rely a great deal on the level of trust involved in the relationship. If the involved are not trusting or trustworthy, obligations and claims to emotions and time tend to pile…
Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., Grunebaum, J., & Ulrich, D. (1991). Contextual therapy. In A. S. Gurman, & D. P. Kniskern (Eds.), Handbook of family therapy (Vol. II, pp. 200-238). Bristol: Brunner/Mazel.
Fitzgerald, P. (2009, Setptember 28). Invisible Loyalties: Life-Giving 0r Life-Taking? Retrieved from The Bridgemaker: http://www.thebridgemaker.com/invisible-loyalties-life-giving-or-life-taking/
Goldenthal, P. (2005). Helping children and families: A new treatment model integrating psychodynamic, behavioral, and contextual approaches. Wiley.
GoodTherapy. (2015, July 30). Systems Theory / Therapy. Retrieved from GoodTherapy.org: http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/systems-theory-therapy
General grade point averages, SAT scores, and school involvement tend to be lower than their peers coming from two parent homes (Park, 2008).
Lower collegiate attendance is also another major issue that is seen within this growing population. On average individuals coming out of single parent homes go to college less than their counterparts with both parents present (Huan, 2003). This is often associated with the poorer grades that were discussed earlier. However, it is also often tied to spending habits on education (Huan, 2003). Once again, this population is subject to lower income averages, which makes spending so much money on college a difficult endeavor. Moreover, there is another impact which tends to have a negative impact on numbers of children from single parent families going to college (Worth, 1992). According to the research, lower involvement of parents in creating dreams of children going to college (Stage & Hossler,…
Baumgartner, Thomas Martin, Burns, Tom R., & DeVille, Philippe. (1986). The Shaping of Socio-Economic Systems: The Application of the Theory of Actor-System Dynamics to Conflict, Social Power, and Institutional Innovation in Economic Life. Taylor & Francis Publishing.
College Board. (2004). Average SAT scores. College Board.com. Retrieved from http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2004/table_2_average_sat_scores.pdf
Huan, W.J. (2003). Family income on family's educational expenditure and children's college attendance. Journal of Family Issues, 24(6), 753-786.
Jones, K. (2007). Single parent households and childhood academic achievement. Associated Content. Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/365491/single_parent_households_and_childhood.html
Cybernetics in Family Therapy
Family therapy as it is known today has a long and convoluted history. From the days of Freud and Jung, there was a general believe that the individual was solely responsible for whatever has gone wrong in the psyche. Hence, all therapeutic interventions have focused on the individual relationship between therapist and individual. This has been the basis for psychiatric intervention for decades and still forms the basis for many therapies today. In addition to the basic Freudian and Jungian analyses, therapies today include newer philosophies such as seeing the therapy recipient as a "client" rather than a "patient" and regarding the person as a kind of equal with whom to build a therapeutic relationship in order to achieve optimal results. The dynamic of psychotherapy interventions have evolved since the 1920s to include not only an acknowledgement of individual inner conflicts, but also the influence of…
Atkinson, B.J. (2015). Further Thoughts on Second-Order Family Therapy. Retrieved from: thecouplesclinic.com/pdf/Further.thoughts.pdf
Chapter 1. (n.d.) The History of Family Therapy. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/35408_Chapter1.pdf
Cook, S.J. (2006). An Epistemological Journey
Dallos, R. And Draper, R. (2010). An Introduction to Family Therapy: Systemic Theory and Practice. London: McGraw-Hill.
family counseling requires a broad and diverse set of tools and techniques. Those tools and techniques should be adaptable to suit the needs of each family, individuals within that family, and also the contextual or environmental variables that impact families. Using a wide range of exercises and interventions, therapists can provide effective and evidence-based practice, as well as offer ongoing assessments and maintenance.
Techniques and exercises that may be particularly useful for families and couples include the oyal Flush exercise for families with young children, the family-based school interventions for children with behavioral or academic performance problems, and the "altering the abyss" exercise for couples. Each of these exercises is rooted in fundamental family practice theory, and each can also yield measurable outcomes that improve the efficacy of the treatment.
The "royal flush" technique is named as such because it uses picture cards, similar to those used in…
American Psychological Association (2015). Managing stress for a healthy family. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/managing-stress.aspx
Brimhall, A.S. & Gardner, B.C. (n.d.). Altering the abyss.
Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/32947_Chapter1.pdf
Gergen, K.J. (1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. American Psychologist 40(3): 266-275.