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Bowen therapists would respond that all members of the family unit share the same emotional 'skin' in a unique fashion. ithin today's cultural context, because the nuclear family is given such importance, it often must be subject to particular examination. But "each concept in Bowen theory applies to nonfamily groups, such as work and social organizations. The concept of societal emotional process describes how the emotional system governs behavior on a societal level, promoting both progressive and regressive periods in a society" (Societal emotional process, 2009, the Bowen Center). Bowen theory ultimately does take a macro view, and sees the family system as interlocked in a series of family systems that make up a society.
Thus family systems therapy does allow for an analysis of an extended family, when these relationships are sufficiently impactful upon the individuals. The therapy analyzes multigenerational influences upon the family's collective psyche. It examines how…… [Read More]
Dr. Murray Bowen family systems therapy contribution family therapy. Explain the Bowenian
Dr. Murray Bowen's place in family systems therapy is secure and is one of the most prominent of theorists within this field. He has helped to pioneer a number of important concepts within this discipline, which have actually served to revolutionize the field itself and its very conception of not only human nature, but of human interactivity at the family level. In fact, Bowen's work in family systems therapy has transcended this field alone, and has been applied to others aspects of erudition such as crisis situations and how people respond to them -- as denoted by his work with the Environmental Protection Agency (Baege, 2005). In contemporary times, Bowen's theory (alternately referred to as the Bowenian model) serves as the basis for family systems therapy.
Throughout the course of his Bowen's professional career he uncovered numerous theoretical…… [Read More]
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and family systems theory are two schools of counseling and psychotherapy that can be used to treat individuals and groups. Both have been well-researched and are strongly supported with evidence that shows their effectiveness. However, each one has more applicability in certain situations and with certain populations. Understanding the merits of each school within its proper context can help one to apply it in the most relevant circumstances. This paper will compare and contrast the two schools of counseling and psychotherapy, provide an overview of the evidence used to support their applicability, discuss the pros and cons of each for specific populations, address what current research indicates on the applicability of these theories to various cultures, identify the cultures that would best be served by these theories, and provide an original case study that exemplifies the findings of this research.
Comparing and Contrasting Cognitive Behavioral…… [Read More]
Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory ateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors ecvar & evcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).
The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (ecvar & ecvar, 2006). However, the…… [Read More]
Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems
The literal meaning of the word "psychopathology" is a mind disorder or disease. Psychological diagnosticians, while assuming that the illness is located inside a person, always use the medical model in treating or studying patients with 'mental illnesses'. In comparison with the approach they take, I present two converging and related psychopathology perspectives. The two perspectives give an analysis based on context from the family's viewpoint. The first approach, the "family systems" approach, is a conception that came up in the 1950s as a substitute to the traditional focus of psychopathology on individuals (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 1996).
The second approach, "family risk factors" has been in existence in psychopathology but not in the foreground. It tries to identify a couple family aspects of the functioning of the family that are significant in the treatment as well as etiology of patients that have tested positive…… [Read More]
Structural family approach
Major contributors of Structural family approach
Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008()
History of Structural family…… [Read More]
Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems
Considering the reading assignments in both texts, what do you see going on with Pete and his family?
Family dynamics is affecting Pete and his family. The point of focus is the pattern of dynamics apparent in Tim's family, including the impact that the youngsters behavior has on the family members. The following points affect family dynamics:
Intra-parental relationship number of youngsters in the family persona of each of the family member an absence of a parent the assortment of individuals who are living under the same roof level and type of influence from extended family or others a chronically sick individual within the family a veritable assortment of societal and emotional trauma faced in the past by elders, such as an divorce, affair, unemployment, death, homelessness familial attachments, or lack thereof (i.e. insecure, secure)
inherited features of family members through generations…… [Read More]
Napier & Whitaker's (1978) classic The Family Crucible is the benchmark book related to family therapy. The book is thorough, and divided into twenty chapters that cover the gamut of family therapy theory and especially practice. Napier & Whitaker (1978) are family systems theorists, and they openly divulge their appreciation for an approach to individual psychology that takes into account family systems. In other words, no individual can be understood or helped without paying attention to the family situation, its dynamics, and its role in identity formation and coping. The authors discuss dysfunctional family systems via a case study. By focusing on one case study, Napier & Whitaker (1978) show how family systems theory works, and what clients can expect from the process.
The authors weave their personal views and experiences throughout the case study, which clutters and bogs down the narrative, but which also provides a necessary…… [Read More]
Shift From First-order to Second-Order Cybernetics in the Family and Systemic Therapies
The strategic family therapy model came up in the 1950s and was inspired by two primary works: the works of Milton Erickson who came up with revolutionary paradoxical interventions which took advantage of people's resistance to change to help alter psychiatric symptoms first; and the works of Gregory Bateson and the Palo Alto Group that made use of cybernetics in communication patterns of the family. The style of a therapist changes as he or she gets better as a person and as they develop professionally, and also as per what is in fashion at the time. An older person has the chance to look at what happened in their past and see what worked and what failed. This gives them a better perspective of what works and what might not work for a given situation. The path is…… [Read More]
Napier and Whitaker exemplify systems therapy with their presentation of the Brice family case. It is necessary to identify the origins of the systems approach in order to fully appreciate its value in the context of family therapy. It approaches the family unit as a system and therefore borrows heavily from systems theory. Systems theory is a general theory applies across many disciplines and looks at systems that have the ability to self-regulate. The theory applies to biological systems, climate, environment, and the family unit.
Systems approach recognizes the interdependencies that exist in the family as a system. The family unit consists of individuals related to one another forming a complex web that should act in congruence. Therefore, although a part of a system is essential, it is the relationship of the part to the whole that is paramount. The family as a system is dynamic since…… [Read More]
Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach
There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).
Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…… [Read More]
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
Dialectical behavior therapy treatment (DBT) falls within the category of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Its main focus is on psychosocial characteristics. Based on the theory that emotions can trigger intense reactions in some persons (especially in family/friend or romantic situations), DBT proposes that the extreme swings in feeling can be better controlled by enabling the individual to more easily identify the kinds of thoughts and feelings that have an intense impact and prepare the person cognitively to approach these emotional surges in a new way.
Anderson et al. (2015) show that DBT can be an effective strategy for helping young patients with bulimia nervosa, but that because of limitations inherent within the treatment, it can best be applied in conjunction with family-based therapy. The rationale for this is that DBT naturally lends itself to family-based therapy, because it focuses on relationships and the individual's response to them. By incorporating…… [Read More]
This recognition that injury and pain, common accompaniments to illness and medical treatment effect the whole family, not just the person suffering the illness or injury was profound. (Tallian, 2001, p. 119) Going through such an exercise as role playing is invaluable to the care provider as it offers the concepts in such a way that the individual can internalize point-of-view and begin to understand the steps needed to be aware of others needs an feelings.
It is clear that caring for the child, is not simply caring for the child. In a nursing situation or any health care delivery situation the standards that are set by the early impression of the health care situation as FCC supporting can make or break other experiences for the family and profoundly effect the outcomes for children. aofian, even though she and her husband and Omid had had very positive medical experiences in…… [Read More]
Therapeutic Orientation to Counseling
My therapeutic orientation to counseling is based on the eclecticism with which I have always approached life. I have found the human condition to be influenced by a diversity of sources and any hope of understanding and treating that condition depends upon approaching it by diverse means. In one sense, this is called being an integrative therapist. In another sense, it is called being open to the complex patterns and subtle responses of human experience, which may be interpreted and positively treated in any combination of ways. I have chosen the following several theories of therapeutic orientation as examples of my eclectic approach and with each I show how my thoughts, skills, beliefs and values resonate with them.
Supportive psychotherapy is a good starting place for the counselor who believes that every individual's character is a work in process and that structural changes to that work…… [Read More]
Murray Bowen developed a theory of family functioning and individual functioning within the family system. The Bowen theory most importantly takes into account the need to balance individuality with togetherness in tight social systems like families ("Bowenian Family Therapy," n.d.). There are eight basic concepts to the Bowen theory. The first is the differentiation of self, which is important for psychological health and well-being. An example of differentiation of self is when the person is able to hold a different opinion on a political or social issue than a parent without that difference causing a problem in the relationship. When the self is not differentiated, the person might have internalized the beliefs of mother, father, sister, or brother and cannot tell what is really "me" versus what is a result of programming, the desire for approval or absorbing others' beliefs.
The second concept to Bowen's theory is triangulation. Bowen believes…… [Read More]
Psychology of marriage and family systems
Considering the text reading assignments, what do you see going on with Phillip and his family?
Given that Phillip was born to a mother who abused alcohol in the past, it is possible that there are physical issues which are affecting his performance in school. Phillip should be screened for learning disabilities and other issues which could inhibit his progress. Phillip is also struggling with issues which make him 'different' from his peers, including the poverty of his household, the fact that he is being shipped from one home to another as the result of his parents' divorce, and the fact that he might receive negative attention because of his mother's LBGT status as well as the fact he is a Native American.
If Phillip is being sexually molested, however, this could be another source of his withdrawal and anxiety, given…… [Read More]
Family Systems Theory; Application of Family Therapy Theories
The concept of family therapy has over the years has been developed into different approaches that have definite characteristics. These theories have been used to bring forth solutions to different family issues that are experienced on regular basis. It is not easy to understand the structure of a family since there are no universal structures that the family problems or challenges take, this means that even in the application of the family systems theories in bringing solutions to families, the application purely depend on individual unique family challenges and not on a universal template. These unique characteristics that each family challenge takes makes it hard to apply one system theory and have full confidence that it will work, hence the frequent overlapping of the theories, and in this case the strategic family therapy and the structural family therapy will be applied to…… [Read More]
Family of Origin
The origin of the family describes the family in which one is grown up, inter-family interactions and relations between one's parents', siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles and grandparents. The current study examines the origin of a family and determines the systematic research based on the behavior and relation of members and provides evidence-based practices in order to address the relational gap found among the family members.
Attachment Styles in Family
Early Marriage and Divorce
Evidence-Based esearch and Intervention
The family in which one is grown up with the collaboration of adult's economic contribution and influence from parents, siblings and grandparents collectively describes one's family of origin. The origin of one's family tends to effect the systems that are being followed in the family and describes the degree to which they can be adaptive in nature.…… [Read More]
Family elation and Substance Use Disorders
Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider society (Peter 2015). This paper will explore important familial roles, cultural differences in family systems, and how family members can facilitate treatment of a teenage member diagnosed with substance/drug use disorder. Family interventions such as Functional Family Therapy, Brief Strategic Family Therapy, In Family Behavior Therapy, Multi-systemic Therapy and Multidimensional Family Therapy will also be discussed.
In What Way Is The Family A System Of oles?
Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider…… [Read More]
Its business alliances have succeeded because of the past encounter and uncompromising principles of Starbucks. When Starbucks created a licensing contract with Kraft Foods, Inc., it permitted Kraft Foods to begin to make Starbucks' items available in grocery markets, and now because of that attempt their items are available all over Northern U.S. And even the United Kingdom. If Starbucks did not have the primary features of what it is looking for in an alliance, it might not have been as effective in its collaboration with Kraft Foods or any other partner. Starbucks was willing to think about the good and bad in the possible collaboration and choose on whether or not the collaboration would benefit its organization (Davidson & Fielden, 2013). If Kraft Foods, Inc. did not have the same corporate perspective and objectives that Starbucks had, Starbucks would not have engaged in business with them. Starbucks has been…… [Read More]
Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.
Summary and Conclusion
While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…… [Read More]
He has been expelled from three school since he began his education and is currently attending junior high school after last attending a small charter school in his community. The shoplifting incident also caused his mother to ask his father to take him back into his home, he has lived with mostly his mother with infrequent visitation from his father, except for a year period where he lived with his father and stepmother and their other children, which ended at age 12 when he tried to vocalize feelings of concern about puberty to his stepmother and she perceived the conversation as deviant and asked that he be returned to his mother.
Justin's anti-social behavior began at birth but has had periods of extremes, beginning with near constant conflict with his mother over mundane requests as well as other general rejections of authority, including an incident of extreme foul language focused…… [Read More]
Reclaiming Children and Youth.. Retrieved October 02, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-206794465.html Wester, K, MacDonald, C & Lewis, T. (2008). A glimpse into the lives of nine youths in a correctional facility: Insight into theories of delinquency.(Report). Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling. American Counseling Association. 2008. Retrieved October 02,
2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-178713105.html
Gibbs, J., Potter, G.B., DiBiase, a.M. & Devlin, R. (2008). The EQUIP program: Helping youth to see -- really see -- the other person: Youth who present anti-social behavior need powerful interventions that strengthen empathy, counter negative peer influence, and challenge thinking errors. Reclaiming Children and Youth. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-183982220.html
Harkwick, K. & Brannigan, a. (2008). Self-control, child effects, and informal social control: A
direct test of the primacy of sociogenic factors. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Canadian Criminal Justice Association. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research:…… [Read More]
...in the end 'the addict has to want to change' and if the addict does not want to change it does not matter what program..." that the addict is in. (National Institute of Justice, 2005) the National Institute of Justice reports that a woman "often retains legal custody of a child while in prison, and once out, may not have the child immediately returned to her by the family member caring for the child." (2005)
Sarah Samson reports in the work entitled: "Groundbreaking Study Identifies Crucial Factors for Successful Community Reintegration of Ex-Prisoners in altimore" published in 2004, that Programs that help prisoners stay connected with their families, get drug treatment, and work while in prison can increase the chances that they will successfully reintegrate back into society, according to a new study released today by the nonpartisan Urban Institute. The study breaks new ground by recording prisoners' perspectives on…… [Read More]
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family
The main components of structural therapy
Structural therapy is a family treatment model founded on the frameworks of systems theory. The distinctive component of this model is the emphasis it has placed on structural adjustments as the primary objective of the therapy session. This emphasis is prominent over details of adjustments in individual behaviors. This model is distinctive because the therapist is the most active agent and receives much attention in the course of family restructuring (Lock & Strong, 2012).
The main purpose of structural family therapy is prevention of sequences from repetition by coveting the hierarchical structures of families. This encompasses shifts in power distribution among family members by adjusting interaction styles. Nevertheless, structural family therapy operates by making alterations on the dysfunctional family structure through encouragement and promotion of growth among family members with the primary intention of re-building the family (Petridis,…… [Read More]
EFFT and Stepfamilies
Blended families or "step families" have one parent who is not the biological parent of the children in the family. These families will often face unique challenges due to their makeup. Furrow and Palmer (2007) discuss Emotionally Focused Family Therapy (EFFT) for stepfamilies. Furrow and Palmer identify four basic challenges that stepfamilies face:
(1).The past experiences of the different families join compete with the new family's ability to consolidate newer relational commitments.
Typical family boundaries are clouded in stepfamilies (e.g., who disciplines which child, who is the real parent of whom, etc.).
There is an "inheritance of loss" that occurs through remarriage that can affect the parents and the children of both original families. This can interfere with the development of the new stepfamily.
(4). There are different developmental needs in stepfamilies compared to other families.
These four specific challenges can make working with stepfamilies particularly difficult.…… [Read More]
They have grandparents who visit them during the holidays. However, for the most part family members deal with their problems as individuals, not as a family unit.
Information provided by the family is an important source of information about the family. However, one cannot ignore outside sources of information as well. For instance, the worker may contact the school, neighbors, or others who are involved with the family to examine factors that may influence the current situation. The assessment plan will involve contacting the school to find out about Conrad's performance in terms of grades, attendance and overall performance.
The case of the Jarretts is complex, with many individual goals that must be completed on the way to resolution of the systemic problems. In this case, the identified patient is Conrad, as he was the one who tried to commit suicide. The goal of family therapy is the…… [Read More]
According to the O-Net Online Summary Report, marriage and family therapists "diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, whether cognitive, affective, or behavioral, within the context of marriage and family systems." A systems approach is integral to the work that marriage and family therapists do, because they view individual psychological issues as inseparable from the greater family and social system. This enables a holistic approach to treatment interventions, and can be a culturally sensitive, culturally competent facet of psychological counseling.
The primary tasks of a marriage and family counselor include the following. First, communications skills are of the utmost importance because one of the central roles of the counselor is to listen and ask appropriate questions at the right time. A marriage and family counselor meets with more than one member of each family, too, making good communications skills a prerequisite of the profession.
Second, diagnoses should be based…… [Read More]
It is the process of interaction among family members that determines the rules by which the family is governed. This is the family's level of cohesion, its adaptability, and its communication style. Finally, these interactions work together to serve individual members and collective family needs;
(3) Family function is the output of the interactional system. Utilizing the resources available through its structure (input), the family interacts to produce responses that fulfill its needs; and (4) the family life cycle introduces the element of change into the family system. As the family moves through time, developmental and non-developmental changes alter the family structure and/or the family's needs. These, in turn, produce change in the way the family interacts." (Allen, et al., 2007)
Figure 1 -- the Family System
Source: Allen et al. (2007)
The family is stated by Allen et al. (2007) to have many "attitudes, rules and communication patterns which…… [Read More]
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…… [Read More]
Psyco-Social Dynamics of Alcoholic Addiction Family
Alcoholism is a disease.
It affects the entire family and creates an environment of dysfunction and disorganization.
ithin the family, the social and psychological ramifications of alcoholism affect the alcoholic, his or her spouse, and the children.
Children Supporting Paragraph
Children must cope with the effects of an alcoholic on the family (disorganization).
There are five roles which serve as coping mechanisms.
The mascot, placater, acting out child, lost child, responsible child.
Child Roles Supporting Paragraph
Roles either make things better or worse.
The responsible child excels
The mascot and placater child intermediate.
The former does so from foolery, the second from caring.
The lost child disassociates.
The acting out child gets in trouble.
Spouse Supporting Paragraph
A. Spouses are more of a determinant of an alcoholic's behavior than children.
B. Spouses have three perspectives on actions of the alcoholic.
1. They like alcoholism…… [Read More]
Cybernetics in Family Therapy
Family therapy as it is known today has a long and convoluted history. From the days of Freud and Jung, there was a general believe that the individual was solely responsible for whatever has gone wrong in the psyche. Hence, all therapeutic interventions have focused on the individual relationship between therapist and individual. This has been the basis for psychiatric intervention for decades and still forms the basis for many therapies today. In addition to the basic Freudian and Jungian analyses, therapies today include newer philosophies such as seeing the therapy recipient as a "client" rather than a "patient" and regarding the person as a kind of equal with whom to build a therapeutic relationship in order to achieve optimal results. The dynamic of psychotherapy interventions have evolved since the 1920s to include not only an acknowledgement of individual inner conflicts, but also the influence of…… [Read More]
Contextual Family Theory
Following are the foremost suppositions for change in the contextual methodology
Morals and principles are conveyed and transmitted across generations.
All dimensions are tangled and motivate people's relationships and behavioral patterns.
Evidence -- facts like genetic information, physical attributes, ethnic upbringing, fundamental histories, personal events and cycle of life.
Specific psychology: The sphere of most distinct psychotherapies and their effects.
Systemic dealings: The essentials of the traditional systemic family therapy sphere which covers configurations, rules, control, orientations, connections, reactions, etc.
Interpersonal consciences: These usually entail the "justice system" or ethical setup that particularly deals with roles, responsibilities, connectedness, caring, reciprocity, devotion, heritage, culpability, equality, and trust within tight knit relationships (mft2011, 2011).
elational ethics rely a great deal on the level of trust involved in the relationship. If the involved are not trusting or trustworthy, obligations and claims to emotions and time tend to pile…… [Read More]
Established at the outset of the 80s by Dr. Les Greenberg and Dr. Sue Johnson, emotionally focused therapy (EFT) abides by the way of life that relationships are at the center or essence of human experience. It is founded on the principles that emotionally satisfying relationships are basic constituents of mental and physical health, and that interventions that are emotionally oriented have the authority to create and reconstruct helpful connections and ties between persons. The founders of EFT have the belief that each and every individual can take full advantage of their potential if placed in a fostering social setting (Johnson, 2009). Emotion-focused treatment was advanced as an empirically-cognizant method to the exercise of psychoanalysis grounded in present-day psychosomatic philosophies of working. Emotion-focused therapy endeavors to change the emotional or mental or behavioral sense of balance by putting emphasis on the vital role of the familiarity of adaptive emotion in…… [Read More]
Dana is a young and beautiful woman with family members that seem to constantly put her down whenever they get together. They appear to be self-centered and attention seeking. The mother has set expectations she places on her family and seems angry whenever they do not meet those expectations. For example, the mother suggested Dana get breast enlargement surgery to appease her boyfriend Matt. Her sister, Joanie also commented on Dana's appearance, making sure to let Dana know she appeared overweight or had a large rear end. These comments can and do affect people's self-esteem especially when the source of such comments are from people that person loves or is supposed to trust.
Dana takes everything and says nothing, agreeing with the remarks and feeling like she truly is overweight even if objectively people see her as very attractive. She also cannot say how she feels even around her boyfriend.…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been charged with doing a family assessment project. The largest part of this report shall be the genogram and ecogram. The personal version of these two diagrams as authored and put together by the author of this report are shown in the appendix. There will be some additional supporting and complementary information as well. This will include the Calgary Family Assessment Model (CFAM) and the Calgary Family Intervention Model. Both of those models will be discussed and reviewed in this report. Also worthy of mention will be the stages of the family life cycle. The rest of the report will be important information about the family members identified in the genogram. This information will include three generations of information, each family member being identified, the family relationship involved, the current age of the person (or age at death), the martial/relationship status of…… [Read More]
family can have a wide variety of different interpretations based on the individuals and the circumstances. For example, some groups consider themselves as a family while not actually related. Furthermore, not all those families who are actually related by blood form any kind of functional or cohesive group. Thus it is not uncommon to find a non-related group that acts more like a family than an actual traditional family would. In terms of identifying a family for the purpose of providing care however, the family can be thought of as the personal support system that any patient has; whether they are related or not.
Identifying and enlisting the assistance of a patient's family can be a critical success factor in treating the patient. In one study, the inadequate family-centered care was associated significantly in the treatment of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) across many demographics (Ngui & Flores,…… [Read More]
It is felt that an important part of this process is the family since that is where the child spends the majority of their time. The family situation and the experiences that are provided to the child within this situation are critical to a child's development (Bruder, 2000).
Physical Therapy is one type of early intervention that is often used with disabled children. The idea of family-centered care brings many wonderful things to the practice of pediatric physical therapy. Physical therapy is the profession of developing, maintaining and restoring maximum movement and function to a patient. Treatments often focus on improving gross and fine motor skills, balance and coordination, strength and endurance as well as cognitive and sensory processing. For a child with a disability all of these practices are things that they need to work on and improve in order to be able to grow up and care for…… [Read More]
Family therapy believes that problems that the individuals evidence stem from the fact that problems occur within the family unit itself and that the family is divided into several component parts. To address these problems the therapist, as it were, therefore steps into the family unit, becomes "a part of it" and intervenes. His doing so not only enables him to see the family patterns from the inside; thereby understanding faults of fission but also enable him to practice therapy. Intervention in the family is called enactment.
Enactment refers to the therapist encouraging acting of dysfunctional relationship patterns within the family therapy session and him acting out some of this behavior by actually entering the family unit. The therapist thereby learns about the family's structure and interactional patterns and is able to interfere in the process by modifying some of the negative elements, pointing these out, intensifying positive elements, and…… [Read More]
Hypothetical Session: Family Systems Therapy
In the last session with the adolescent Abigail, her mother Grace, and her father Don, all three members of the family were encouraged to talk to me as the therapist, not to one another. This was designed to allow them to speak honestly and to reduce direct confrontation. Abigail and her parents had come to participate in family therapy because Abigail had, according to her parents, been 'acting out' in various ways such as cutting school and acting defiant. I engaged largely with the two parents to discern what conflicts were occurring between the two of them. In keeping with Bowen's techniques I interviewed family members separately, allowing them to listen to the speeches of the other members individually. Grace said that she felt that her daughter was disrespectful to her and was worried about Abigail's future if Abigail did not get better grades. When…… [Read More]
Psychodynamic Therapy vs Bowenian Therapy
Psychodynamic Vs Bowenian Therapist
Psychodynamic and Bowenian Therapist
ole of Psychodynamic Therapist to that of the Bowenian Therapist
ole of the Psychodynamic therapist
Family Systems Theory
Goals of the Therapy
ole of the Therapist
Psychodynamic therapy focuses on helping the patients to explore the feelings and emotions that are deep inside them. These are the emotions that they might not be aware of. Psychodynamic therapy helps the people to understand how these hidden feelings and emotions are effecting there moods and behavior without them knowing about it.
Psychodynamic therapy is also known as Insight-oriented therapy, which makes the people understand the reasons for their current behavior and mood swings which might be the outcome of some past relationships that have been a cause of constant pain for them.
Psychodynamic therapy is the oldest of all the…… [Read More]
Develop your theoretical orientation to the counseling process and identify how this approach compares to Cognitive Behavioral theory
Since its inception nearly fifty years ago, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) has become recognized as perhaps the most effective therapeutic approach. Indeed, CBT has myriad uses, and is applied in a number of situations, including depression, personality disorders, and wellness and rehabilitation. However, there also exist limitations to cognitive behavioral therapy, mainly surrounding treatment with patients from diverse cultures. This paper develops appropriate therapeutic orientations, discussing different therapeutic concerns and approaches. First, attention is paid to the nature of people; next, the role of the individual in families and other systems is addressed. Then, multicultural considerations, wellness and prevention, and the nature of problems are discussed. Finally, the paper addresses the process of change and how the orientations enacted are successful in practice.
The nature of people
People are diverse, not…… [Read More]
Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it Like
COSS CULTUAL THEOIES BASED ON BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM
Cross cultural theories based on bend it like Beckham
Movies are one way in which different issues such as social and cultural backgrounds of different societies are filmed to educate or enlighten the community at large on different life styles as well as cultural diversity. Different films do have different numbers of characters, who act as family members, friends, and business personnel's in order to portray to the different issues to their viewers. With the help of a team comprising of the writer, producer and the directors, the characters are able to follow instructions so as to produce a film with the required themes. Bend it like Beckham, is a comedy-drama film in which the title is derived from a famous England football player David Beckham and his ability to score from…… [Read More]
The Jacques family seems to have functioned very well until the husband began abusing drugs and alcohol. This was a problem before, but things have stabilized when the appropriate help was obtained. The relapse occurred directly after the wife and children left for a visit to the wife's family. Hence, it might reasonably be assumed that the presence of the family has a positive effect upon the maintenance of the treatment regime. Because Jean (the husband) functioned at a very high level before his relapse into the cycle of abuse and the abandonment of the treatment regime, it might be assumed that he will once again respond to intervention. Because there is as yet no physical danger to the family, the treatment and intervention program will be administered under strict official supervision, with regular monitoring sessions. However, while the aim is to keep the family together, a contingency…… [Read More]
However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session
2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a…… [Read More]
real problems faced by real people in the world, it might seem foolish to analyze a fictitious character. But sometimes it is easier to understand human nature when we look to art or fiction, in part because art provides us with some needed distance at times and in part because fictitious characters are often relatively pure distillations of character types. This is the case with the character of Grace from the television show "Grace Under Pressure." This paper provides an analysis of this character using first the Adlerian therapy model, then analyzing her through a behavior model and then finally suggesting a treatment plan for a person with the profile of Grace.
Grace's character - to begin with a thumbnail of her - is presented in the series as a no-nonsense, take-no-guff survivor of a bad marriage that was often abusive (at least in psychological terms). After eight years of…… [Read More]
It took them a while to get used to it but eventually, they were able to communicate with softer words and softer tone.
According to systems theory (Titelman, 1998), it was my duty to work on both Dave and his family so that their communication problem is uprooted from its origins. When his parents began to realize the impact of their meaningless arguments on Dave, they set quite a few rules for themselves. These rules included no harsh words or arguments in front of Dave and increased participation in his social & academic life. They realized the importance of their emotional support and gravity of the condition of Dave.
It was important to make Dave feel that he was needed and appreciated for being wonderful just the way he was. His parents also felt the need for a stable atmosphere at home where Dave could share his thoughts, fears and…… [Read More]
In J. Smith (Ed.), Understanding families into the new millennium: A decade in review (p. 357-381). Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations.
Ferree, M. (1984). The view from below: Women's employment and gender equality in working-class families. In .. Hess, & M.. Sussman (Eds), Women and the family: Two decades of change (p. 57-75). New York: Haworth Press.
Fung, J. (2010). Factors associated with parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems in Chinese immigrant families. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 3993), 314-327.
Hewlett, S., & West, C. (1998). The war against parents: What we can do for America's beleaguered moms and dads. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Hwang, K., Chang, S., Chen, S., Chen, C., & Yang, K. (2001). Chinese relationism and depression. Unpublished manuscript.
Lai, E., & Fang, S. (2001). Sex role attitude and housework participation among men and women in Taiwan. Paper presented at the…… [Read More]
esearch Design. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed in this study. Instruments include self-report measures and personal narratives of 91 native Hindu married couples (182 participants) from three types of living arrangements that I have mentioned earlier. The qualitative part on the other hand was utilized via personal narratives of the participants (ibid, p.82).
esearch Instruments. For the quantitative part, marital happiness was assessed using the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The questionnaire also includes a demographic survey portion which was based on the National Health and Social Life Survey. Quantitative questions on intimacy and conflict can also be found in the questionnaire. For the qualitative part, the instrument devised explored 12 dimensions of the participant's lives: their expectations about their partner, career, self, well-being, intimacy, marital relationship, family living arrangements, in-laws, parents, their conflict history, good times they had shared, and the cultural norms guiding marriage…… [Read More]
The National Council on Family elations (NCF) was founded in 1938. This is a professional organization with a mandate revolving around family research, practice and education -- the family is a key component of what it does (NCF, 2013). As a professional organization, the NCF draws its members from the profession, namely 3400 people who include a wide range of family-related professions. This organization is international, drawing its membership from over 35 countries (NCF, 2013). Some of the professions that are included in the organization are researchers, demographers, those involved in therapy both marriage and family, educators, students, plus social workers, those in the health care profession especially public health, religious professionals and more (NCF, 2013).
The organization is primarily involved in publishing. There are several publishing ventures of the NCF. The main one comes in the form of three scholarly journals that the organization publishes. These journals are…… [Read More]
Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners
ESEACH QUESTION AND JUSTIFICATION
On average, women make up about 7% of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women's Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60% of the population. In fact, over 30% of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men -- issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).
The…… [Read More]
Bioecological Theory and the Family and Community Resource Conceptual Framework)
The Case History
"Kerry" has twin girls who are now 4 years old. he had been living with her defacto "Dean" for the past 6 years. he is a qualified beautician and has previously run a small business from home before the birth of the twins. he undertook schooling until year 12 (equal to UA high school diploma) at a public school, is one of two children herself and has supportive parents in a middle income suburb. he left her defacto 10 months ago after two years of domestic violence brought on by the use intravenous "speed." he has an AVO (Aggravated Violence Order) on "Dean" for 12 months. During the previous two years "Kerry" was subjected to physical and psychological trauma, the twins witnessed this abuse. "Dean" is on a fly in fly out basis working in the mines…… [Read More]
Crisis Counseling and Therapy
The precipitating events that are brought forward in the movie "Girl Interrupted" are the attempted suicide of a young girl on nineteen years. It concerned her parents that she failed to go forward and receive her high school diploma in a prestigious northeastern community. They also got to find out that their daughter was involved with an affair with one of their friend's husband. This involved the granting of sexual favors. She is depressed and also lacks a direction in life even after finishing her high school education in fact she does not want to go to college but instead wants to become a writer. She makes an attempt to get rid of her delusions and does this through the taking of vodka in combination with aspirin even though she denies and fails to consider her actions as being a suicide attempt rather she saw it…… [Read More]
Therapy aims at deterring the criminals from committing crimes in the future. The therapy is where the offender undergoes a counseling and treatment system to help them recover from that mindset of committing the crime. Psychological counseling aims at creating a positive attitude in the criminal. Therefore, in rehabilitation, the justice and correctional system work towards the emancipation of individuals to stop committing criminal acts.
Which method is more effective in reducing crime, Punishment or rehabilitation?
The impact of punishment and rehabilitation in the society help to analyze which of the two methods of the correctional system is more effective. According to the Criminal Justice Statistics, a majority of the American society prefers swift punishment to rehabilitation (Blakely, 2008). In this survey, a resounding three quarters of people have the view that punishment is the primary justification of sentencing. Additionally, a 70% of people believe that, incapacitation is the surest…… [Read More]
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…… [Read More]
A teen might be asked to tell their own story from the point-of-view of other people they know, looking at themselves from other viewpoints. These clients are freed to invent stories and play parts in that serve the purpose of providing a framework of meaning and direction for themselves. The stories are never singled out as "true" or "false," but a recognition that truth is complex and no one story can encompass all of the truth aids the client in seeing him or herself as a complex and meaningful role-player. And in that context, since one story may not be claimed to be the whole truth, no one story may not dominate a person's life. Life, to the client and narrator of these "stories" becomes an adventure in which trials are meant to be overcome and designed to prepare one for the future, rather than to defeat. The religious story…… [Read More]
Tragically, it harms the most vulnerable among us -- children. This must stop
Please, send Senate Bill 1172 to the Assembly floor for a vote. It is the right thing to do. Thank you. (Domi,, 2012 ).
Advocates of conversion therapy are correct in maintaining that as long as the therapy helps a quantifiable amount of people, and these people voluntarily choose that theory, it should be maintained. The question is, however, how many other people has it harmed, and what is the extent and intensity of this harm... As in every other aspect, an approach that is harmful needs to be curtailed by the government. The government restricts smoking and drugs since harmful to the person. Advocates label this system as 'therapy', and therefore, say that a patient can choose the type of therapy that he or she wishes. However, the Ninth Circuit addressed this point in…… [Read More]
Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) radically transforms the therapeutic process and relationship. As the name suggests, solution-focused brief therapy is about "being brief and focusing on solutions, rather than on problems," ("About Solution-Focused Brief Therapy," n.d.). Instead of drawn-out and costly sessions with therapists, the client receives highly focused therapeutic intervals that do not delve into the past other than what is absolutely necessary. Only three to five sessions are generally warranted for solution-focused brief therapy (Iveson, 2002). The underlying principle of being solution-focused is that therapy should be proactive. The Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Association (n.d.) claims, "so much time and energy, as well as many resources, are spent on talking about problems, rather than thinking about what might help us to get to solutions that would bring on realistic, reasonable relief as quickly as possible." In fact, during the intake interview, the client might not even be asked about…… [Read More]
For example, Jones and Charlton note that it is possible to develop appropriate problem-solving techniques in the following four major areas:
1. Identifying the goal which is appropriate and achievable;
2. Identifying exceptions to the usual pattern of problems;
3. Measuring the student's progress towards achieving the goal; and,
4. Providing useful and positive feedback.
Finally, SFBT can be used either as a "stand-alone" counseling approach or in tandem with other techniques. For example, Linton (2005) emphasizes that SFBT ". . . can operate as a stand alone approach or in conjunction with traditional models of treatment. Solution-focused mental health counselors do not view SFBT and traditional models of treatment as incompatible. Collaborating with clients to create counseling goals, be they directed towards abstinence, self-help group attendance, changes in thinking errors, or some other goal of the client's choosing, selves to enhance motivation to change" (p. 298). Likewise, Jones and…… [Read More]
The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.
In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief,…… [Read More]