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Behavior therapy may be referred to as the approach in psychotherapy, in the behavior tradition that focuses on a set of methods designed for reinforcing desired behaviors, and eliminating undesired without concerning the psychoanalytic state of the subject. These methods mainly focus on the behavior, and not the thoughts and the feelings that could be causing them. The behavior therapy is divided into two sections, a narrowly defined sense of behavior therapy and the behavior modification (Barraca 2012). Due to the need of solving this global problem, it was important to conduct group therapies and see how effective they would be. The clinics have not been very effective in handling the large numbers of patients who require behavior Therapy. Their methods have not been working perfectly hence the need for perfection. The society has changed due to different reasons hence the need for behavior therapy.
Barraca, J. (2012). Mental control -- from a third-wave behavior therapy perspective: International Journal of Clinical Health & Psychology, 12(1), 109-121
Beaumont, E., Galpin, A., & Jenkins, P. (2012). 'Being kinder to myself': A prospective comparative study, exploring post-trauma therapy outcome measures, in two groups of clients, receiving Cognitive Behavior Therapy or Cognitive Behavior Therapy & Compassionate Mind Training. Counseling Psychology Review, 27(1), 31-43
Isfahani, M., & Abedi, M. (2012). Comparing three methods of medicine therapy, cognition therapy & behavior therapy in reducing adolescents' depression: Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business. 3(10), 325-33
ehavioral therapy techniques can help to analyze eating and activity patterns, dieting methods and habits, and analyze behaviors that cause stress (ehavioral Therapy Techniques and Other Therapies for Treating ehavioral Problems). y identifying the eating and activity patterns, dieting methods and habits, and analyzing behaviors that cause stress, it helps to understand what is causing these issues and helps to formulate a plan to overcome them. Once the underlying issues are acknowledged, the plan to correct and deal with them can be formulated for a plan to recover from them.
Viewing subjective psychological feelings can help to identify underlying feelings that have been buried possibly for years. Once these feelings are brought to surface, they can be viewed to find underlying causes and solutions to deal with them. Looking at the underlying causes can bring solutions that help to deal with the feelings in the future where…
Behavioral Therapy Techniques and Other Therapies for Treating Behavioral Problems. (n.d.). Retrieved from Pa & Per Med: http://*****/tag/behavioral-therapy-techniques
Chapter 6-Special Populatons. (n.d.). Retrieved from Treatment for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse: Opportunities for Coordination: http://kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals/taps/11g.htm
Fredrick, H. (n.d.). Counseling Techniques Use to Help Victims of Domestic Violence. Retrieved from eHow health: http://www.ehow.com/info_8171320_Counseling-used-victims-domestic-violence.html
Therapy -- Patient Confidentiality and Privilege ights
Therapy & Patient ights
Under the usual conditions of therapy, patient therapy information is protected by legal concept of privilege. Privilege to determine how and when therapy records are disclosed belongs to the patient. A therapist has a professional obligation to maintain confidentiality. Essentially, this means that everything that is discussed in a therapy session must be kept in confidence, and that duty of confidence cannot be revoked by the therapist without the patient's approval. The rights of a patient and the rights of a therapist are absolute, except under certain conditions. The conditions that fall outside of the protection of privilege and confidentiality of psychotherapy are considered to be official exceptions. Under these exceptions, a psychotherapist is either allowed or required to break confidentiality. The exceptions to the confidentiality of psychotherapy discussed below reference the laws in the state of California, a…
California Evidence Code Retrieved http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/calawquery?codesection=evid&codebody=&hits=20
California Civil Code. Retrieved http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/calaw.html
California Penal Code. Retrieved http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/
In order to assure that the FACE interventions were to be successful, before launching the intervention a panel of local and national leaders was assembled to review the strategy in 2006.
The panel, which included psychologists, religious leaders, a leader from the American Academy of Pediatrics, a leader from the Society for Research in Child Development, a person living with HIV / AIDS and an adolescent medicine physician specialist in the care of youth with HIV, the protocol was refined (p. 364). Hence, the literature indicates that a thorough examination -- called "Phase II: Pilot study/feasibility/acceptability" (including trials using competent, trained medical and psychological staff) was conducted prior to the launch of the FACE program. The criteria called for a surrogate to be present for those HIV+ participants who were under 18 years of age and the only exclusion criteria were "severe depression, in foster care, severe developmental delays, psychosis…
Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina, Nabukeera-Barungi, Nicolette, Nostlinger, Christiana, Addy,
Kekitiinwa, and Colebunders, Robert. (2008). Sexual Risk Reduction Needs of Adolescents
Living With HIV in a Clinical Care Setting. AIDS Care, 20(4), 426-433.
Lyon, Maureen E., Garvie, Patricia A., Briggs, Linda, He, Jianping, McCarter, Robert, and D'Angelo, Lawrence J. (2009). Development, Feasibility, and Acceptability of the Family
3. Variables Such as Gender
There are various disparities in the overall demographics of this type of offense. As one report on the demographics of sex offenders in the United States, notes; "… although the vast majority of attention on sex crimes focuses on men as the offenders, an increased awareness of females as sex offenders has surfaced in recent years." (Female Sex Offenders, 2007) This study also adds the important proviso that, "At present, the research and literature about this unique segment of the sex offender population remains in its infancy, and there is no evidence-based guidance or other consensus about the most effective approaches to working with them." (Female Sex Offenders, 2007) Furthermore, research indicates that, with regards to statistics on adolescent sex offenders, "….females are responsible for 3% of forcible rape cases and 5% of other violent sex offenses -- and 19% of non-violent
sex offenses --…
300, 000 People Catch Deadly Infections in Hospital Every Year; 5000 of Them Die as a Direct Result; 15, 000 Others Are Left So Weak They Die from Other Illnesses - So How Many MORE Must Die before Our Nurses Remember to Wash Their Hands? ANGELS IN CRISIS - DAY THREE. (2005, February 3). The Daily Mail (London, England), p. 56. Retrieved June 30, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008534805
Brown, S. (2005). Understanding Youth and Crime: Listening to Youth? (2nd ed.). Maidenhead, England: Open University Press. Retrieved June 30, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111630484
Carrabine, E., Lee, M., & South, N. (2000). Social Wrongs and Human Rights in Late Modern Britain: Social Exclusion, Crime Control, and Prospects for a Public Criminology. Social Justice, 27(2), 193. Retrieved June 30, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001793282
Carrington, P.J. (1995). Has Violent Youth Crime Increased? Comment on Corrado and Markwart. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 37(1), 61-73. Retrieved June 30, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000260816
In order to meet the needs of culturally diverse groups, health care providers must engage in the process of becoming culturally competent. Cultural ability is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or amongst professionals and enables that system, agency or those professionals to work effectively in cross-cultural situations. The idea of competence is used because it entails having the capacity to function effectively (Campinha-Bacote, Josepha, (2003).
It is very important for health care providers to be aware of the differences that exist between themselves and their patients. In order for the physician to be successful they have to be able to treat each patient as an individual. Each patient is different on many levels and each of these needs to be taken into account as a diagnosis and treatment plan in put into place. Health care providers need to be culturally…
Campinha-Bacote, Josepha. (2003). Many Faces: Addressing Diversity in Health Care.
Retrieved February 28, 2010, from the Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Web site:
therapy, also called "Solution-Focused rief Therapy," uses practical strategies to help clients make significant, positive changes in their life as a result of their therapy in a relatively short period of time. rief therapy focuses on what is going on in the client's life at the time of the therapy and does not delve into the subconscious or early childhood experiences. It contrasts markedly with psychoanalytic approaches that may take years and that will explore the entire lifespan of the client. It focuses on current difficulties and uses changes in behavior as goals (Miller and de Shazer, 2000).
Two distinctive ways of thinking about such a therapeutic approach include gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy. In gestalt therapy, the therapist attempts to help the client gain greater awareness of his or her emotions and behaviors as they presently exist in the client. Rather than interpret the client's experiences, the therapist works…
Calhoun, Lawrence G., and Tedeschi, Richard G. June, 1998. "Beyond Recovery from Trauma: Implications for Clinical Practice and Research." Journal of Social Issues.
Carranza, Laura V. Summer 2000. "Links Between Perceived parent Characteristics and Attachment Variables for Young Women from Intact Families." Adolescence.
Custer, Gilbert J., Jr. May 2001. "Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures, Second Edition." (book review). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Doermann, David James. "Gestalt Therapy." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 1995.
therapy in helping veterans to overcome the challenges that they are facing the most notable include: exposure therapy and cognitive restructuring. To determine the effectiveness of these approaches we will be conducting a literature review on: the quantitative approach, qualitative technique, mixed methods and program evaluation. Once this occurs, it will provide us with the greatest insights about how to achieve these objectives.
The article that was written by Parsons (2008) discusses how exposure therapy is a common method in the treatment of anxiety disorders and specific phobias. However, after conducting an extensive investigation of various forms of literature, they determined that while it is effective to a certain extent. More research needs to be conducted, on the various ways that it can be used and its lasting long-term effects. This is important, because it is showing how this could help veterans. Yet, more follow up needs to take place…
Beder, J. (2009). Social Work in the Department of Defense Hospital. Military Medicine. 174 (5), 486 -- 490.
Brenner, L. (2008). A Qualitative Study. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. 20 (3), 211 -- 225.
Feczer, D. (2009). Forever Changed. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 45 (4), 278 -- 291.
Karlin, B. (2010). Dissemination of Evidence-Based Psychological Treatments. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 23 (6), 663 -- 673.
These results have suggested that the blamer softening event has achieved its goal of creating more empathy, acceptance, and understanding in spouses. Furthermore, it has found to be significantly relevant in the complete treatment of outcomes couples face.
Possible reactions/assumptions/counter transferential issues
esearchers have offered many critics for the use of blamer softening in couples' therapy. Bradley and Furrow (2007) argue that the blamer softening may be unsuccessful at certain times. Johnson and Talitman (1997) have suggested that blamer softening has been one of the most difficult interventions for therapists to successfully implement, yet one of the most critical ones because of its relation to recovery from relationship distress (Johnson & Greenberg, 1988). Because critical therapeutic events have sometimes been difficult to implement, it has been important to consider common obstacles to their resolution so that therapists can better understand and successfully implement these events.
There are many obstacles to…
Jacobson, N.S., & Christensen, a. (1998). Acceptance and change in couple therapy: A therapist's guide to transforming relationship. New York: W.W. Norton
Laurenceu, J-P, Barrett, L.F., & Pietromonaco, P.R. (1998). Intimacy as an interpersonal process: The importance of self-disclosure, partner disclosure, and perceived partner responsiveness in interpersonal exchanges. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1238-1251
Ronen T, Freeman a, 2007, Cognitive behavior therapy in clinical social work practice, Springer Publishing Company, U.S.
Thyer B, Wodarski J, 1998, Handbook of empirical social work practice, mental disorders, John Wiley and Sons, U.S.
It was assumed that this shock to the system also would bring a form of therapy in its wake.
As enterprise managers became conscious that they could no longer count on involuntary subsidies from the state budget, they would be required into producing goods that could be sold on real markets, at prices that would cover up their costs. It was anticipated that within a period of one-half of one year or so the changeover should be completed. From there on the ussian economy would be growing at a strong pace, and no more foreign economic support would be needed. By the summer of 1992 it became clearly obvious that the project was failing. Enterprises had acted in response to the government's austerity measures not by refining markets, but by developing a subsequently constant practice of non-payments and losses of government subsidies were met by reduced payments on due taxes…
Klein, N. (2001). The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. New York:
Metropolitan Books, Henry and Holt Company.
Kolodko, G.W. (2000). From Shock to Therapy: The Political Economy of Postsocialist
Transformation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The written record of one's own thoughts, feelings and perceptions, especially of traumatic experiences, can help restore emotional or physical health in that the mind and the body are inseparable in the healing process (Slomski 2001). The person is able to retrieve, externalize and process his or her own trauma by writing about it and psychiatrists and psychologists found that writing or journal therapy plays a significant part in their psychotherapy and recovery programs. Writing about the experience provides the person with a mechanism of expressing it in circumstances where direct or interpersonal expression is not possible or desirable and help bring about healing in the mental or psychological level and then in the physical level.
Psychologists always held that the expression of emotions was essential to good mental and physical health (Slomski 2001). Journals, diaries and biographies have evidenced this. The value of expressive therapy has thus been…
1. Adams, K. (1999). Writing as Therapy. Counseling and Human Development: Love Publishing Company. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3934/is_199901/ai_38830037
2. Finney M.J. (1986). Writing a Contract With Yourself Can Help You Meet Health Goals That You Might Otherwise Put Off. Nation's Business U.S. Chamber of Commerce. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1154/is_v74/ai_4260567
3. Martin L.M. (1995). Healthy Words. Vibrant Life: Review and Herald Publishing Association. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0826/is_n5_v11/ai_17276613
4. Miller, H. (1989). Battling the Beast Within. Saturday Evening Post: Saturday Evening Post Society. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1189/is_n5_v261/ai_7668133
therapy or who was in therapy or thinks that they should be in therapy. Having to seek professional help to come to terms with the psychological damage that has been inflicted on us by our natal families is assumed to be a hazard of modern life.
But in the days before therapy was considered to be almost a requisite for living a well-examined life, people had to find other ways to work through their problems - including art. The four poets that we are studying have each tried to assess the essential relationships in their own childhood through exploration of the meaning of their interactions with their fathers. In each of these poems there is a sense of loss or disappointment (at the least) and a sense of anger even to the point of murderousness (at the most extreme) as each poet considers the ways in which his or her…
Brain, Tracy. The Other Sylvia Plath. New York: Longman, 2001.
A www.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/critical http://endeavor.med.nyu.edu
Brain 119 www.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/critical
The following describes the process of Gestalt therapy:
Gestalt therapy is a phenomenological-existential therapy founded by Frederick (Fritz) and Laura Perls in the 1940s. It teaches therapists and patients the phenomenological method of awareness, in which perceiving, feeling, and acting are distinguished from interpreting and reshuffling preexisting attitudes. Explanations and interpretations are considered less reliable than what is directly perceived and felt. Patients and therapists in Gestalt therapy dialogue, that is, communicate their phenomenological perspectives. Differences in perspectives become the focus of experimentation and continued dialogue. The goal is for clients to become aware of what they are doing, how they are doing it, and how they can change themselves, and at the same time, to learn to accept and value themselves (Gestalt Therapy, http://www.gestalt.org/yontef.htm).
In this way the therapist models to the client what it is like to be fully present in the moment, demonstrating not only that such…
Asay, Ted P. & Lambert, M. (1999). The Empirical Case for the Common Factors in Therapy: Quantitative Findings. In Hubble, Duncan, Miller (Eds), The Heart and Soul of Change: 23 -- 55.
Beisser, A. (1970) The paradoxical theory of change, in J.Fagan & I Shepherd (eds) Gestalt Therapy Now: Theory, Techniques, Applications. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior
Clarkson, P. (1992). Transactional analysis psychotherapy. An integrated approach. London: Routledge.
National Association of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, http://www.nacbt.org/whatiscbt.htm . Retrieved 27-11-2009.
A multi-culturally competent therapist will take all of these aspects of her life into consideration and realize that June's thoughts and actions are a direct result of her social and political culture. Asian culture in itself, Chinese culture, Eastern culture, is very different from Western culture. In Eastern culture, the whole family is taken into consideration for just about anything. When an individual does something, it is because it will benefit the entire group, not just the individual. Western culture on the other hand, emphasizes individualism over anything else. It teaches people to look out for the well being of the self instead of the benefit of the entire community. Before a multi-culturally competent therapist works with June, all these aspects need to be taken into consideration.
Just as a Feminist Therapists would do, a multi-culturally competent therapist will help empower June by letting her realize that her culture has…
Interestingly, Nagel identified these selves based on "because" and "in order to" motivations, which actually translate to two different selves or images: the present self or image of the individual ("because"), and the future self or image -- what the individual aspires/wants to be ("in order to") (243-4). From this typology, it becomes clear that phenomenology uncovered these two selves, which led to the author's understanding that purchase decision-making is influenced by advertising based on how relevant or close the images presented in the ad are to the individual's present and future (aspired) selves.
The social construction of reality based on the qualitative method of phenomenology is just as helpful in the medical field, specifically, occupational therapy. Technically defined, occupational therapy is (WFOT, 2004):
A profession concerned with promoting health and well being through occupation. The primary goal of occupational therapy is to enable people to participate in the activities…
Carroll, M. And E. Tafoya. (Eds.). (2000). Phenomenological approaches to popular culture. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.
Lequerica, A., C. Donnell and D. Tate. (2009). "Patient engagement in rehabilitation therapy: physical and occupational therapist impressions." Disability and Rehabilitation, Vol. 31, No. 9.
"Occupational therapy, 2004 definition." World Federation of Occupational Therapists Official Website. Available at: http://www.wfot.com/office_files/final%20definitioncm20042.pdf .
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A eview
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a form of behavior therapy aimed at treating various different disorders, most commonly major depressive disorder. It developed from an interaction between cognitive therapy and behavior therapy, which is known as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It adds the component of mindfulness, which is more than simply changing what a person perceives, but how those perceptions are made. The goal of MBCT is to increase awareness of thoughts and feelings, so that a person can accurately label his thoughts and separate them from self-image or self-perception. This paper will examine MBCT including: major tenets and historical developments; conceptual and philosophical foundations; therapeutic technique; human development; personality; psychopathology; presumed mode of therapeutic action; goals for treatment; strengths and limitations of the orientation; application in diverse and multi-cultural contexts; and review and critique of the scientific evidence.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is…
Bowen, S., Chawla, N., & Marlatt, G.A. (2011). Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for addictive behaviors: A clinician's guide. New York: The Guilford Press.
Crane, R. (2009). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. New York: Routledge.
Donohue, B., Tracy, K., & Gorney, S. (2008). Anger (negative impulse control). In W.
O'Donohue & J. Fisher (Eds.). Cognitive-behavior therapy: Applying empirically supported techniques in your practice (pp.17-25). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Conjoint Family Therapy
What is Conjoint Family Therapy?
Family therapy, also known as conjoint family therapy is a technique or a subfield of psychotherapy which basically focuses its attention towards helping couples and families cope up with the various kinds of problems they are facing in their relationships. They aim to get to the root of the situation and the reason why problems arise and then systematically resolve these by encouraging the interaction between the family members (Kissane, 2002, p. 26). As part of what such psychologists study, they focus on the importance of family, discussions and keeping in mind what the others feel about the same situation. In their opinion, everyone has different views on a particular subject and it is a great deal of help to have views from all sides of the family so that each one knows what the other has in mind. Their therapy sessions…
Burnham, J.B. (1988). Family Therapy: First Steps towards a Systemic Approach. Routledge.
Coombs, R.H. (2005). Family Therapy Review: Preparing for Comprehensive and Licensing Examinations. Lawrence Elbraum Associates.
Draper, R. (2005). An Introduction to Family Therapy: Systemic Theory and Practice. Open University Press.
Greenlea, D. (2008). Therapeutic Alliances in Couple and Family Therapy: An Empirically Informed Guide to Practice. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy.
Psycho-educational Models of Family Therapy and Transgenerational Models of Family Therapy in Correlation to Physical and Sexual Violence and Abuse
Molestation, commonly known as sexual abuse, is defined as forced sexual behavior by one individual with another. However, sexual assault is one which is not so frequent, lasts for short duration, and is immediate. Pejoratively, sexual abuser or offender is referred as a molester. It also means any act on behalf of an adult in order to arouse child or adult sexually. Any sexual act is referred as child sexual abuse if the age of victim is below the age of consent. Mentioned below are the acts that are included in sexual abuse:
Sexual assault and rape, which is forced and non-consensual.
When a child or adult touches without any need.
Exhibitionism, genitalia's exposure, fondling, sexual kissing, or sexual assault.
Showing pornography to a child.
Child molestation, in which child…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Bowen Center for the Study of the Family (2009). Triangles. Retrieved on October 12, 2011
Ely, A.L., Guerney, B.G., Jr., & Stover, L. (1973). Efficacy of the training phase of conjugal therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 10(3), 201-207.
(eysteher) This is significant, because it shows the impact that the ideas of Freud would have not only the world of psychology, but upon society. Where, these different ideas would become increasingly popular, as way of analyzing the different personalities. ("Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory")
How Freud is Viewed in Modern Times
In modern times, Freud is viewed with increasing amounts of controversy. This is because Freud himself was: known to create controversy when he was alive. With him, calling for people to accept his ideas as fact, those who disagreed with him were: viewed as out of touch with reality or blind to what is happening. This would shape how people would view his ideas in the future. As new forms of psychology developed, these views would create competing fields of study. Over the course of time, this would lead to divisions, as to which thinkers had the most correct analysis…
"The Dismal Theory of Freud's Psychoanalysis." UK Apologies. 2005. Web. 21 Jul 2010-
"Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory." Depression Guide. 2005. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
Beysteher, Kristan. "Psychoanalysis." Personality Research. 2001. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
Houser, Nancy. "Reflections on How Freud's Theories Standup.' Helium. 2010. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
Therapies/Treatments That Can Be Done to Help the Immune System of a Patient 18-55 Diagnosed With Rheumatoid Arthritis
THERAPIES/TREATENTS TO HELP THE IUNE SYSTE OF An 18-55 PATIENT DIAGNOSED WITH RHEUATOID ARTHRITIS
Therapies/treatments that can be done to help the immune system of a patient 18-55 diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Cem Gabay, A, et al. (2013). Tocilizumab onotherapy vs. Adalimumab onotherapy for the Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADACTA): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Phase 4 Trial.
Using a randomized population involving double-blind, Phase 4 superiority and parallel-group, the study used 76 centers found in different countries including the U.S. The patients used were above 18 years and suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis for the last six months and above. The patients were supposed to have shown intolerance to methotrexate or were not appropriate for a continuation of the treatment using this method. With the random assignment of 1:1, the…
Michael Schiff, Michael E. Weinblatt, Robert Valente, Desiree van der Heijde, Gustavo Citera, Ayanbola Elegbe, Michael Maldonado, Roy Fleischmann. (2013). Head-to-head comparison of subcutaneous abatacept versus adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis: two- year efficacy and safety findings from AMPLE trial. Clinical and epidemiological research Journal. 2013-203843v1, Ann Rheum Dis doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013- 203843
Ritika Khandpur1, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera1, Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri, Alison Gizinski1, Srilakshmi Yalavarthi, Jason S. Knight, Sean Friday, Sam Li, Rajiv M. Patel, Venkataraman Subramanian, Paul Thompson, Pojen Chen, David A. Fox1, Subramaniam Pennathur and Mariana J. Kaplan. (2013). NETs Are a Source of Citrullinated Autoantigens and Stimulate Inflammatory Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Science Translational Medicine Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 178, pp. 178ra40, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005580
Scott, D. L. (2012). Biologics-Based Therapy for the Treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics Journal, Vol. 91 No.1 January 2012. doi:10.1038/clpt.2011.278
Evidence has been cited suggesting that ECT is particularly efficacious with psychotic depression. Experimental research and reviews of the literature tend to conclude that ECT is either equal or superior to antidepressant medication in the treatment of severe depression. In one study both depressed men and women were helped by ECT, but women tended to improve more with ECT than with imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. Men tended to improve more with imipramine. Both men and women improved more with ECT than with phenalzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It has been suggested that MAOIs and serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSIs) may be less clinically effective than heterocyclic antidepressants for severe depression. Thus, ECT's favorable comparison with imipramine is a strong endorsement.
The side effect of ECT that has received the most attention is memory loss. ECT results in two kinds of memory loss. The first involves quick forgetting of…
Breggin, P.R. (n.d.). Electroshock: Scientific, ethical, and political issues. Retrieved from http://www.sntp.net/ect/breggin1.htm
Electroconvulsive therapy. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). (2011). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/electroconvulsive-therapy/MY00129
Given the frequency of pressure ulcers, the strategies used in mitigating those wounds must be effective. Sherman reports that 61 ulcers in 50 patients got maggot therapy and 84 ulcers in 70 patients did not receive maggot therapy (instead, those wounds received traditional care). The results showed that "eighty percent of maggot-treated wounds were completely debrided" but only 48% of conventionally-treated wounds were "completely debrided" (Sherman, 208).
(Qualitative) Laura Jean van Veen presents a case in the Journal of ound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing; a 59-year-old woman (a Jehovah's itness) was seriously injured in an auto accident in Vancouver. In order to save her legs (her religion did not permit blood transfusions) the family asked for maggot therapy. After applying maggots weekly for 6 weeks, "…the patient [was] now free of infection" and had skin graft surgery (van Veen, 2008, 432).
(Qualitative) Another case study in the Journal of ound,…
Courtenay, M., Churdh, J.D.T., and Ryan, T.J. (2000). Larva therapy in wound management.
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Vol. 93, 72-74.
Fenn-Smith, P. (2008). Case Study: Maggot Debridement Therapy. Wound Practice and Research, 16(4), 169-170.
Paul, Aaron G., Ahmad, Nazi W., Lee, H.L., Ariff, Ashraff M., Saranum, Masri, Naicker,
A review of the existing scientific literature
The use of magnets in medicine is long-standing. "Physicians from ancient Greece, China, Japan, and Europe successfully applied natural magnetic materials in their daily practice" (Marko 2007). This is "based on the belief that an imbalance of the electromagnetic frequencies or fields of energy can cause illness. By applying electrical energy to the body, the imbalance can be corrected. Many electrical devices are available on the market to treat a variety of symptoms" (Electromagnetic Therapy, 2012, New York Presbyterian Hospital). "With the advent of the commercial availability of electricity during the last 20 years of the Nineteenth Century with a push by inventors and visionaries like Thomas Edison, an increase in experimentation and applied research by means of electromagnetic fields became more intense during the middle of the twentieth century" (Pretorious et al. 2011). However, the therapy's full incorporation into contemporary…
Battisti, E., Albanese, A., Bianciardi, L., Piazza, E., Rigato, M., Vittoria, A., & Giordano, N.
(2007). Efficacy and safety of new TAMMEF (therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields) system in the treatment of chronic low back pain.
Environmentalist, 27(4), 441-445.
Cadossi, R., Setti, S., & Fini, M. (2011). Cartilage chondroprotection and repair with pulsed electromagnetic fields: I-ONE therapy. Environmentalist, 31(2), 149-154
Implications for ongoing research into genetic therapies and side effects/later developments are discussed at length.
Yannaki, E. & Stamatoyannopoulos, G. (2010). Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization strategies for gene therapy of beta thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1202: 59-63.
Though the clinical trial these two researchers are involved in does not yet have results that are ready for publication, the review of the risks they provide regarding the use of stem cell mobilization with G-CSF in patients with sickle cell is highly useful information. So, too, is the practice of pre-treating patients with hydroxyurea before administering the stem cell treatment, which the authors describe in detail and which forms the basis of the related clinical trial. Potential reduction of risks appears to be quite promising, though final results from the clinical trial and other supporting evidence will of course be required.
Magnetic Therapy: Sound Practice or Simple Phooey?
Ever since the Enlightenment and arguably even further back in the history of Western civilization, almost every technological advancement has been accompanied by new ideas about how to medically treat the human body. Many of these technological ideas, especially since the nineteenth century and hugely in the modern era, have led to significant advancements in treatment. Others, however, have been less scientifically successful and are less medical treatments and more mechanisms for sometimes well-meaning but often outright conning "practitioners" to extract profits from gullible patients. The following paragraphs examine the scientific evidence regarding magnetic therapies, coming to the determination that despite strong belief by some adherents the treatment is in almost all cases proven to be ineffective.
Past Use and Current Controversy
Ever since the 1500s, when some of the principles of magnetism began to be more scientifically observed, the use of magnets…
Cepeda, S., Carr, D., Sarquis, T., Miranda, N., Garcia, R. & Zarate, C. (2007). Static Magnetic Therapy Does Not Decrease Pain or Opioid Requirements: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial. Anesthesia & Analgesia 104(2): 290-4.
Livingston, J. (2012). Magnetic Therapy: Plausible Attraction? Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.acemagnetics.com/eduarticles-magsportsbracelets-plausibleatt.html
Ramey, D. (2012). Magnetic and Electromagnetic Therapy. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.skeptically.org/quackery/id4.html
Valbona, C. & Richards, T. (1999). Evolution of magnetic therapy from alternative to traditional medicine. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 10(3): 729-54.
eparative Therapy for Homosexuals
The issue of homosexuality needs to be a major controversy within the social environment. All across the world people are still struggling with the idea that they may or may not be, homosexual, especially within the context of society that tends to look down and discriminate against individuals based on sexual orientation. In the light of this controversy, there are some therapeutic methods which have been created and regarded by many within conservative or religious institution as being effective in helping remold one's sexual identity. Also known as reparative therapies, these are psychological or other style implementations of therapeutic methods designed at rewiring one's sexual identity. Still, the majority of psychologists and professionals view these therapies as more harmful than beneficial; this makes it crucial for pastor therapist to help guide potentially concerned individuals towards more productive use of therapeutic models that would focus on self-acceptance…
Herek, Gregory M. (2012). APA council of representatives passes resolution on so-called reparative therapy. Resolution 97. Web. http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/resolution97.html
National Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues. (2000). Reparative and conversion therapies for lesbians and gay men. National Association of Social Workers. Web. http://www.naswdc.org/diversity/lgb/reparative.asp
Schumacher-Matos, Edward. (2012). The furor over gay conversion therapy. NPR. Web. http://www.npr.org/blogs/ombudsman/2011/08/05/138963061/the-furor-over-gay-conversion-therapy
From this discussion, Dubin (2009) then moves to presenting a new and unique model for implementation in both marriage and family counseling contexts. The current article models the "Basic Needs Genogram" as the primary method to be tested in contemporary therapy structures. This is a genogram that is based off the works of Glasser (1998) and breaks down our complexity of needs into five basic categories: "self-preservation, love and belonging, power or self-worth, freedom or independence and fun or enjoyment" (Dubin, 2009). These needs are interconnected and help drive behavior within the context of relationships, whether those relationships are marriage of familial structures. Dubin (2009) suggests that the Basic Needs Genogram will allow individuals, as well as family members to consider how current and past generational patterns influence the formation of their 'picture albums,'" which then dictate how their own relationships are formed and maintained (Dubin, 2009, p 17). It…
Duba, Jill A. (2009). Introducing the 'basic needs genogram' in reality therapy-based marriage and family counseling. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 28(2), 15-19.
Dysfunctions and Their Therapies
Dysfunctions and emedies involved
Treatment and Control of Dysfunctions
The Thought Focused Treatment System
The thought focused treatment systems are those which narrow down to thought processes and systems of belief. The system believes in the child developing process being the cause of dysfunction. Social learning and modeling of ideas result to the personalities of an individual. The personalities result to experiences such as thoughts and feelings, critical learning, and the imitation of these behaviors. For instance, the child develops thoughts and behaviors from the parents. If the parents hide their feelings and never cry, the child grows knowing that crying is not the solution. The environment directly affects the child's thoughts. Therefore, if an individual's development is distorted in any manner, there is likely to be an experience of dysfunctional issues or poor health. An individual learns how to cope with stress and problems in…
Grohol, J.M. (2004, September 21). Types of Therapies: Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com /therapy.htm
Grohol, J.M. (2011). 15 Common Cognitive Distortions. Retrieved from
Crisis Counseling and Therapy
The precipitating events that are brought forward in the movie "Girl Interrupted" are the attempted suicide of a young girl on nineteen years. It concerned her parents that she failed to go forward and receive her high school diploma in a prestigious northeastern community. They also got to find out that their daughter was involved with an affair with one of their friend's husband. This involved the granting of sexual favors. She is depressed and also lacks a direction in life even after finishing her high school education in fact she does not want to go to college but instead wants to become a writer. She makes an attempt to get rid of her delusions and does this through the taking of vodka in combination with aspirin even though she denies and fails to consider her actions as being a suicide attempt rather she saw it…
Bolyn, M. (2011).Activities for teaching coping skills to the youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/129996-activities-teaching-coping-skills-youth/
Salters-Pedneault, K. (2010). Coping Skills for Borderline Personality Disorder. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from http://bpd.about.com/od/livingwithbpd/a/Coping.htm
Constructivist Perspective of Brief Therapy
Understanding the basis of theories and therapy is a necessary element of the therapist's trade. Without some knowledge of why certain therapies are practiced, or where they came from, it is difficult to develop a personal theory and a personal view of how to conduct therapy. Since one of the basic concepts presently is that of brief therapy, it is necessary to see how that concept was formulated by other concepts. Thus, this paper examines how constructivist perspectives underlie brief therapy. This paper also gives the author the opportunity to voice a personal statement about how these findings coincide with personal constructions of therapy.
It is first necessary to understand the terms that are to be discussed. The two primary phrases to be discussed are constructivism and brief therapy. However, it is also necessary to grasp what brief therapies exist.
Fritscher, L. (2009). Brief therapy. Retrieved from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/brieftherapydef.htm
Levenson, H., Speed, J., & Budman, S.H. (1995). Therapists' experience, training and skill in brief therapy: A bicoastal survey. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49(1), 95-106.
Maturana, H.R. & Varela, F, J. (1998). The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding (Revised Edition). boston: Shambhala
Presbury, J.H., Echterling, L. G, & McKee, J.E. (2008). Beyond brief counseling and therapy: An integrative approach (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson/Merill Prentice-Hall.
Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet thus correspond to the seven chakras located along the spinal column." (Fuller 242) Crystal therapy is therefore based on the control and manipulation of these energies so that there is the "correct" or appropriate and balanced amount of this energy in each of the chakras.
The most touted of New Age healing techniques has been the use of crystals. Enthusiasts claim that because rock crystal is almost entirely devoid of color, it is an almost perfect capacitor of divine white light. Explanations of exactly how crystals wield their healing powers vary from practitioner to practitioner. Some maintain that the unique properties of crystals make them excellent receptors of metaphysical energies.
rief history of crystal therapy
As has already been mentioned, the history of this form of therapy is to be found in many historical documents and in myths, stories and…
Albanese, Catherine L. "Chapter 6 the Magical Staff: Quantum Healing in the New Age." Perspectives on the New Age / . Ed. James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1992. 68-84. Questia. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102478457 .
Bachelor B. Alternative therapies. 11 Mar. 2007. http://www.barcelona- metropolitan.com/Article.aspx?TabID=2&MenuID=8&ArticleID=146
Blanchard a. Alternative medicine and herbal use among university students. Journal of American College Health. 2006. 11 Mar. 2007. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-155567732.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108566203
Bix, Amy Sue. "Engendering Alternatives." The Politics of Healing: Histories of Alternative Medicine in Twentieth-Century North America. Ed. Robert D. Johnston. New York: Routledge, 2004. 153-180. Questia. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108566390 .
Perceptions are generally based on the present, and therefore, the need to explore the past by delving into it in great detail becomes totally unnecessary. Glasser felt that even if the person exhibited bizarre and extremely strange types of behavior at a particular time, it was because of an innate reason of trying and attempting to find the best solution in order to meet the person's needs at that particular time in his life, and therefore, it was logical and sane to him, if not to others who would sometimes label him as strange or insane. (the Use of eality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools) delinquent would make choices based on the best way to meet his basic needs at that time, and therefore, must not be criticized. This, in essence formed the theory of eality Therapy of William Glasser, wherein the concept of 'Choice Theory' was emphasized…
Hazelden, Paul. "Reality Therapy" Retrieved at http://www.hazelden.org.uk/gr01/art_gr003_reality_therapy.htm . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Historic Overview of Psychiatric Care" Retrieved at http://www.jcjc.cc.ms.us/faculty/adn/jmcmillan/psychcl1.html. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "From Reality Therapy to Reality Therapy in Action" Retrieved at http://www.socc.ie/~wgii/articlebl.htm. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "The Use of Reality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools" Retrieved at http://www.ncge.ie/handbook_docs/Section1/Reality_Therapy_Guide_Sch.doc . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.
In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief,…
Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(1): 35.
Diemer, R.A., Hill, C.E., Lobell, L.K., & Vivino, B.L. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1): 99.
Fine, M.A. & Schwebel, a.L. (1994). Understanding and helping families: A cognitive-behavioral approach. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
James, M. & Jongeward, D. (1996). Born to win: Transactional analysis with gestalt experiments. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.
These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:
1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.
2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.
3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. Retrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22, 2003) "Learning theory: A fuller-fuller explanation of CBT" Retrieved at http://www.cognitivetherapy.com/learning.html Accessed on February 15, 2005
Cognitive Therapy for Depression" Retrieved at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/cognitive.htm . Accessed on February 15, 2005
Grohol, John M. (July 21, 1995) "Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists"
Thus, giving the patient a 'bird's eye view' of his/her life gives him/her a chance to reconsider past actions committed and change these to improve his/her relations with a partner or family member. As in family brief therapies, reconstructing a family's life according to each member's interpretation and reflection helps the therapist identify the family member who adopts a constructive or destructive view of the 'reconstructed family life.' Through SFT, the therapist is able to create a therapeutic process that would be time-efficient and beneficial to patients.
itter and Nicoll (2004) elucidated effectively the effectiveness of brief therapy treatment for couples and families (64):
brief therapists seek to establish in their clients a renewed faith in self as well as optimism and hope for their immediate and long-term futures. It is caring, however, that guarantees the client support and a safe return in a future session, now matter how the…
Bury, D. (2000). "Constructivist paradigms in other therapies." Journal of Constructivist Psychology, Vol. 13, Issue 4.
Bitter, J. And W. Nicoll. (2000). "Adlerian brief therapy with individuals: process and practice." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 56, Issue 1.
____. (2004). "Relational strategies: two approaches to Adlerian brief therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 1.
Disque, J.G. And J. Bitter. (2004). "Emotion, experience, and early recollections: exploring restorative reorientation processes in Adlerian therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 2.
It is evidenced that soon after lapse of two months of treatment about 67% of the patients administered with manual therapy and 27% of the patients administered with exercise therapy could return to work revealing substantial difference through the follow up period. The study concluded that improvements are noticed in both the groups. However, the improvements in respect the patients administered with manual therapy are more prominent than that with exercise therapy. (Aure; Hoel Nilsen; Vasseljen, 2003)
Thus even though manual therapies are beneficial, it has been debated upon. However irrespective of the fact that delaying methods taking into consideration the reality that it compels the athlete to a therapeutic machine, still then it is acknowledged to have the significant techniques in alleviating pain, rehabilitating the common range of motion, and treating specialized conditions like myofascial pain syndrome. (Holt, 2004) However, such advantages are to be exploited from the physical…
Aure, Olav Frode; Hoel Nilsen, Jens; Vasseljen, Ottar. (15 March, 2003) "Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Trial with 1-Year Follow-up" Spine. Vol: 28; No: 6; pp: 525-531.
Beeton, Karen. (2003) "Manual Therapy Masterclasses"
Elsevier Health Sciences.
BMJ: Manual therapy beats out traditional treatment." (August, 2003) Journal of the American
Tragically, it harms the most vulnerable among us -- children. This must stop
Please, send Senate Bill 1172 to the Assembly floor for a vote. It is the right thing to do. Thank you. (Domi,, 2012 ).
Advocates of conversion therapy are correct in maintaining that as long as the therapy helps a quantifiable amount of people, and these people voluntarily choose that theory, it should be maintained. The question is, however, how many other people has it harmed, and what is the extent and intensity of this harm... As in every other aspect, an approach that is harmful needs to be curtailed by the government. The government restricts smoking and drugs since harmful to the person. Advocates label this system as 'therapy', and therefore, say that a patient can choose the type of therapy that he or she wishes. However, the Ninth Circuit addressed this point in…
American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx?item=8
Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/State-bans-gay-repair-therapy-for-minors-3906032.php
Domi, T (June 26, 2012 ) UPDATE: Prop 8 Witness Ryan Kendall Testifies on Conversion Therapy; Committee Approves 5-2
Conversion therapy is a topic that has both critics and supporters and has been recently in the news ever since California came out with a law banning conversion therapy for teenagers and children (Buchanan, 2012). Critics say that the therapy is an example of pseudo-science that it forcibly tries to change the gay's person's sexual tendencies and that, since this is unnatural and impossible, only eventuates in guilt and depression. Supporters, on the other hand, maintain that, as like every other therapy, conversion therapy cannot be expected to help all. More so, there are some individuals who do wish to change their sexual tendencies and, therefore, they should be enabled to sign up for conversion therapy would they so wish. Finally, the government has no right to interfere unless conversion therapy has been shown to be destructive to all clients; and this is has not yet evidenced itself to be.…
American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx?item=8
Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/State-bans-gay-repair-therapy-for-minors-3906032.php
Gans, Laura A. (1999) Inverts, Perverts, and Converts: Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy and Liability, The Boston University Public Interest Law Journal 8
Haldeman, Douglas C. (2002), Gay Rights, Patient Rights: The Implications of Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 33 (3): 260
"Briefly, feminists believe the personal is political. Basic tenets of feminism include a belief in the equal worth of all human beings, recognition that each individual's personal experiences and situations are reflective of and an influence on society's institutionalized attitudes and values, and a commitment to political and social change that equalizes power among people. Feminists are committed to recognizing and reducing the pervasive influences and insidious effects of oppressive societal attitudes and society" (Chappell 2000). In its current incarnation, feminist therapy's stress upon liberating individuals from oppressive social attitudes does not just pertain only to gender, but all negative social attitudes. Thus, at its most universal, feminist therapy's central tenant that the personal and political are intermeshed, and that one's political reality creates one's cognitive reality, can be applied to many contexts beyond gender.
Although it deals with the psychology created by oppression, feminist therapy still stresses personal choice…
Chappell, Marcia. (2000). Feminist therapy code of ethics. Feminist Therapy Institute.
Retrieved August 14, 2009 at http://www.feminist-therapy-institute.org/ethics.htm
Reality therapy. (2008). International Journal of Reality Therapy.
Retrieved August 14, 2009 at http://www.journalofrealitytherapy.com/realitytherapy.htm
Counseling Therapy Theories
Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT)
The solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a type of therapy that is used much in counseling and a lot of time referred to as talking therapy that is based on the social constructionist philosophy. This therapy focuses on the aim or goal of the customer rather than the problem that drove him to seek help. It does not focus on the past events but primarily pays attention to the future.
The SFBT at times referred to as solution-focused or solution-building therapy was initiated and developed by Steve Shazer (1940-2005) in collaboration with Insoo Kim Berg (1934-2007) and their colleagues from the late 1970's in Wisconsin. This therapy is future focused, focuses on the goals and the solutions rather than on the problem (Institute for Solution-Focused Therapy, 2011).
Here, it is the duty of the counselor to invite the client to try…
Alan Car, (1998). Michael White's Narrative Theory, Contemporary Family Therapy. Human Sciences Press Inc. http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=j42386l16060v3q0&size=largest
Cynthia Good Mojab, (2006). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy. Retrieved September 6, 2011
Freedman, J. & Combs, G. (1996). Shifting paradigms: From systems to stories. In Freedman, J. & Combs, G., Narrative therapy: The social construction of preferred realities, chapter 1. New York: Norton.
A teen might be asked to tell their own story from the point-of-view of other people they know, looking at themselves from other viewpoints. These clients are freed to invent stories and play parts in that serve the purpose of providing a framework of meaning and direction for themselves. The stories are never singled out as "true" or "false," but a recognition that truth is complex and no one story can encompass all of the truth aids the client in seeing him or herself as a complex and meaningful role-player. And in that context, since one story may not be claimed to be the whole truth, no one story may not dominate a person's life. Life, to the client and narrator of these "stories" becomes an adventure in which trials are meant to be overcome and designed to prepare one for the future, rather than to defeat. The religious story…
Brown, Laura S. Feminist Therapy, Part of the Systems of Psychotherapy, APA Psychotherapy Video Series (2006)
Brown, L.S. (1994). Subversive dialogues: Theory in feminist therapy. New York: Basic Books.
Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, Possible Worlds, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dutton-Douglas, M.A., & Walker, L.E.A. (Eds.). (1988). Feminist psychotherapies: Integration of therapeutic and feminist systems. Norwood NJ: Ablex Publishing.
The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
William Glasser wrote the book reality therapy in 1965. Since its publication, it has gained increasing prominence in the United States, as well as the world. Dr. Glasser developed his ideology to address the limitations he found in the Freudian model of psychology. The methods and practices intrinsic to reality therapy differ substantially from conventional therapy. Dr. Glasser challenges several widely accepted notions of psychiatry, such as mental illness and the role of therapists. Glasser founded the William Glasser Institute to encourage the spread of his ideas into psychiatric practice.
Over the last thirty-five years, Glasser's ideology has proven to be an effective form of therapy, with successes in both institutional settings and private practices.
Reality therapy concentrates on the client's needs and getting them to confront the reality of the world. In Reality Therapy, these needs are classified into power, love and belonging, freedom, fun, and survival.…
Corey (2000). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 6th Ed. Brooks/Cole, 2001.
Glasser, Naomi (1989). Control Theory in the Practice of Reality Therapy. New York: Harper & Row.
Glasser, Carleen and William (2000). Getting Together and Staying Together. New York: HarperCollins.
Glasser, William (1965) Reality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry. New York: Harper & Row.
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
The researcher will gather all of the information collected from the self report questionnaires and analyze using a variety of techniques including summary, interpretation, classifying and describing. The author will use the data to measure change that occurs among the populations using HT therapy.
In conducting the study the researcher will undoubtedly run into some obstacles including determining how to measure change in the participants health and well being, examining the extent of change and the attributes of change for purposes of the study (King, 2001). Measuring change is a key concept vital to longitudinal research design (Kind, 2001). As this study is qualitative in nature the data will be presented via narratives, observations and transcripts from the survey to record and measure data appropriately (King, 2001).
The researcher will attempt to explain change and identify causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Data managing, reading, describing,…
Baldo, T.D., Schneider, M.K, & Slyter, M. (2003). "The impact of menopause:
Implications for mental health counselors." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4): 311.
Gambacciani, M., Ciaponi, M., Cappagli, B., Monteleone, P. Benussi, C., Bevilacqua, G.,
Vacca, F., Genazzani, A.R. (2005, Feb). "Effects of low dose, continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on sleep in symptomatic postmenopausal women." Maturitas, 50(2): 91-7.
It assumes a person is in control of their own fate and not a victim to it. Starting at an early age, a unique style of life is created by the person and that life-style stays relatively constant throughout the remainder of life. Working toward success, connectedness with others, and contributions to society are considered hallmarks of mental health, as well as being motivated by goals, dealing with the tasks faced in life, and social interest. Birth order is considered important in understanding a person's current personality, yet the therapy is future-minded, rather than retrospective. (Psyweb Pro, 2006)
In Adlerian therapy, the therapist will gather as much family history as possible. This data will be used to help set goals for the client and to get an idea of the clients' past performance. This will help ascertain whether the goal is too low or high, and if the client has…
Adlerian Psychology, Psyweb.com 2006, http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
Corey, Gerald (1991) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Carlson, Neil R. (1995) Foundations of Physiological Psychology
CTA: Cognitive Therapy Associates, http://www.cognitive-therapy-associates.com/therapy/adlerian-therapy.php
History Of Occupational Therapy
Frame 1 - Introduction
Occupational therapy is an essential part of the recovery process. It allows the person to engage in meaningful activity that adds structure and purpose to their daily routine. Occupational therapy is now considered an essential part of the treatment process for those with long-term, or severe injuries. The role of the occupational therapist is to help the person we turn to a life where they can be independent and are in there and living, regardless of their condition. Occupational therapy helps a person to adjust to the changes in their lives as result of a severe illness or injury. This presentation will explore the history of occupational therapy with a focus on the changes in paradigm that took place during the 1950s and 1960s.
Frame 2 - Occupational therapy was first conceived in the early part of the 1900s. It was originally…
American Occupational Therapy Associaton. (2010). Occupational Therapist. Health Care
Careers Directory 2009-2010. Retrieved from 0 http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/40/tr01-occup-ther.pdf
Essentials of an acceptable school of occupational therapy. (1950). American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 4, 126-128.
Kearney, P. (2004). The Influence of Competing Paradigms on Occupational Therapy Education:
I would imagine that being a co-therapist for W.M. using person-centered or ogerian technique would present some interesting difficulties. The first thought that occurs to me is instinctual: W.M. is a young man who has experienced some traumatic life events, but also uses (in Karen's words) "dark humor and attention-getting language" to express himself. My instinctive response is to wonder how to respond to W.M.'s humor within the context of ogers's famous "unconditional positive regard" shown by therapist to client (Corey 2013).
In some sense, W.M.'s dark humor is a bit of a trap for the ogerian therapist. Outside of a therapy session, humor is an important social mode for a 21-year-old male. Women his age will frequently say they are searching for a great sense of humor in selecting a boyfriend, and group dynamics among late adolescents frequently center around shared jokes. In some sense, not to…
Corey, G. (2013). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (Ninth Edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Risky behaviors like smoking or drug use could increase because of these assumptions, creating greater burdens of healthcare costs and other social and medical issues. The good that these therapies lead to is thus somewhat tempered by the bad they may encourage.
Other Applications of Regenerative Therapies
Regenerative therapies do not solely consist of age-reversing and life-saving applications. An examination of some other real and imagined uses to which these therapies can be put reveals the true breadth of these therapies' power and scope in everyday life. In the field of dentistry, where artificial implants have become increasingly sophisticated and well-integrated with the natural body, "the therapeutic potential of platelets in promoting and accelerating tissue regeneration" has led to a new trajectory in oral implantology because it allows for the growth of the body's own tissue at a faster rate that incorporates more completely and more efficiently with dental implants…
Cytomedix. Autologel System, 2009. Accessed 20 October 2010. http://www.cytomedix.com/
Fugazzotto, Paul. Implant and Regenerative Therapy in Dentistry: A Guide to Decision Making. Ames, IA: Wiley Blackwell, 2009.
Isaac, James (dir.). Jason X. New Line Cinema, 2002. Film.
Longevity Meme. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, 2010. Accessed 20 October 2010. http://www.longevitymeme.org/topics/stem_cells_and_regenerative_medicine.cfm
Collaborative language systems focuses on the collaborative dialogue between therapist and client, where the two analyze and change the client's use of language about his or her problems to formulate a workable solution (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide).
Another type of postmodern therapies is narrative therapy, which tries to help clients see how cultural narratives have shaped the subject's way of being in the world. By seeing their life narratives as constructed, clients are free to rewrite those narratives in a more positive fashion. Similarly, solution-focused therapy focuses on "the construction of solutions to problems" and building new connections: the focusing past is not meaningful, because the past is always interpreted through the lens of the present, so what is more important is creating a fruitful approach to living today (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide). The therapist acts as a facilitator, and since there are no universal truths, the goal…
Notes: Postmodern therapy. (2009). Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.hsu.edu/uploadedFiles/Faculty/williaw/O-H%20Notes%2013%20Postmodern%281%29.pdf
Postmodern therapy. (2009). Depression Guide. Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.depression-guide.com/postmodern-therapy.htm
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…
Cabaj, Robert Paul, and Smith, Mickey. (2008). Overview of Treatment Approaches, Modalities,
and Issues of Accessibility in the Continuum of Care. Center for Substance Abuse
Treatment. Retrieved August 27, 2011, from http://www.samhsa.gov .
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2008). A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…
Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."
Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related
Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
For example, Jones and Charlton note that it is possible to develop appropriate problem-solving techniques in the following four major areas:
1. Identifying the goal which is appropriate and achievable;
2. Identifying exceptions to the usual pattern of problems;
3. Measuring the student's progress towards achieving the goal; and,
4. Providing useful and positive feedback.
Finally, SFBT can be used either as a "stand-alone" counseling approach or in tandem with other techniques. For example, Linton (2005) emphasizes that SFBT ". . . can operate as a stand alone approach or in conjunction with traditional models of treatment. Solution-focused mental health counselors do not view SFBT and traditional models of treatment as incompatible. Collaborating with clients to create counseling goals, be they directed towards abstinence, self-help group attendance, changes in thinking errors, or some other goal of the client's choosing, selves to enhance motivation to change" (p. 298). Likewise, Jones and…
de Shazer, S. (1979, Summer). Brief therapy with families. American Journal of Family
de Shazer, S. (1986). An indirect approach to brief therapy (Family Therapy Collections, Vol.
19, pp 48-55, Aspen Systems). Milwaukee, WI: Brief Family Therapy Center.
Structural family approach
Major contributors of Structural family approach
Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008()
History of Structural family…
Bobrow, E., & Ray, W.A. (2004). Strategic Family Therapy in the Trenches. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 23(4), 28-38. doi: 10.1521/jsyt.220.127.116.11840
D'Angelo, S.L. (1995). The Milan approach to therapy revisited. PsycCRITIQUES, 40(4), 352-352. doi: 10.1037/003578
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family Therapy: An Overview: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Rosen, K.H. (2003). Strategic family therapy. In L.L. Hecker & J.L. Wetchler (Eds.), An introduction to marriage and family therapy. (pp. 95-121). Binghamton, NY U.S.: Haworth Clinical Practice Press.
Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) radically transforms the therapeutic process and relationship. As the name suggests, solution-focused brief therapy is about "being brief and focusing on solutions, rather than on problems," ("About Solution-Focused Brief Therapy," n.d.). Instead of drawn-out and costly sessions with therapists, the client receives highly focused therapeutic intervals that do not delve into the past other than what is absolutely necessary. Only three to five sessions are generally warranted for solution-focused brief therapy (Iveson, 2002). The underlying principle of being solution-focused is that therapy should be proactive. The Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Association (n.d.) claims, "so much time and energy, as well as many resources, are spent on talking about problems, rather than thinking about what might help us to get to solutions that would bring on realistic, reasonable relief as quickly as possible." In fact, during the intake interview, the client might not even be asked about…
"About Solution-Focused Brief Therapy," (n.d.). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Association. Retrieved online: http://www.sfbta.org/about_sfbt.html
Iveson, C. (2002). Solution-focused brief therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 8. 149-156.
ahman's session with Daniel was fascinating for me to read. Because my own goal in pursuing this degree is to work as a life coach, the fact that Daniel is approaching therapy not because of serious behavioral disturbances but because he is interested in exploring and thinking about the direction his life is taking made him seem precisely relevant to the sort of work I hope to do. His presenting symptom admittedly appears to be anxiety, but it seems like a sort of anxiety we have all experienced, and Daniel's problems sound like ordinary problems. In some sense, the mystery is why someone in Daniel's position wants to seek therapy in the first place. ahman lists his goals as "to be more altruistic, to be open to inspiration, and to be more organized and peaceful." These are all admirable goals in therapy, but I do think it's worth…
Corey, G. (2013). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (Ninth Edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Online Therapy Services
The first online therapy site that this paper will examine is the site known as Betterhelp.com. This site assists people in dealing with some of the obstacles and challenges that life presents them with. This site asserts that these issues can be tough for any individual to face alone, and offers support from professional counselors as a means of helping one create bigger changes. One of the ways that the site pitches itself to potential clients is by the fact that help is discreet and affordable.
The professionals involved are all licensed, accredited, and trained professionals in the field of mental health: there are psychologists, marriage and family therapists, social workers and professional counselors. All of them have graduate degrees in their field and are all certified by their state professional boards, having completed all the requirements for practice. In order to work on the site, the…
Betterhelp.com. (2014). Meet the Counselors. Retrieved from Betterhelp.com: https://www.betterhelp.com/about/
Breakthrough.com. (2014). Why online therapy? Retrieved from breakthrough.com: https://www.breakthrough.com/why
Virtualtherapyconnect.com. (2014). Privacy and Security. Retrieved from virtualtherapyconnect.com: https://virtualtherapyconnect.com/virtual-therapy/security-and-hipaa
1. The term “depth psychology” is appropriate for referring to psychoanalysis, but not for all types of psychotherapy. Any psychotherapy that involves in-depth self-assessments through the exploration of unconscious or subconscious urges, dreams, or childhood memories can be considered depth psychology. As the term suggests, depth psychology presumes that psychological issues have deep roots, requiring a process of systematic digging. Self-awareness is only possible through an understanding of all psychic content that has been and still is being repressed or suppressed (Axelrod, 2012). Depth psychology is therefore important for persons who experienced childhood traumas, or people seeking to understand the causes of their lingering anxiety or depression. Other therapeutic models like cognitive-behavioral therapy or positive psychology do not focus on the subconscious or unconscious but mainly on manifest behaviors.
According to Firestone (2009), depth psychology has its detractors because of the long periods of time required to complete the therapeutic…
He realizes and wants the reader to realize that those roots have merit and modern day approaches simply that the field of mental health to the next step or next level of the industry, but he stresses the importance of action therapy not reflection therapy. Each step is a building block toward the eventual goal of having answers more quickly and more accurate than the past answers, however without Freud and those who came after him the new theories would not be possible.
he book is a refreshing approach and puts Glasser's reality therapy into play by acknowledging the others who have developed theories and giving them their dues before moving on to examine the next step which he believes is his approach.
Glasser's book is based on an individual's power to choose. hey can choose how they react to life, they can choose how they react to people and…
This book is written in a style that a mental health professional can read it and pick up the underlying meanings and ideas but a layman can also read it and gain valuable insight about how to change the way they have been approaching their life. It is an exciting how to for those who are ready to use their power to choose and get their lives on track toward success and happiness.
Glasser, William (1989) Reality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry Harper Paperbacks