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Family Therapy Thoughts and Feelings
Prior to my working on this particular assignment, I actually knew very little about family therapy. Although the name of this branch of psychotherapy certainly describes itself, I have always adhered to a belief in individuality and that the interrelationships between people do not matter so much as the individuals themselves do. However, after learning about family therapy, I believe that my former belief was incorrect. Familial relations play an important role in the health and well being of the individual. In fact, they may actually account for a fair amount of problems even if there is physical and emotional distance between family members. Thus, the insight that I gained through family therapy has helped to revise my personal worldview and to inform it a great deal.
Whereas I previously believed that the individual was the basic unit of human relations, I now tend to…
The objective of this case study was to conceptualize the couple's difficulties from two theoretical perspectives and then describe what the best approach to treating them would be based on the perspective for each theory as it pertains to the causes of the family's difficulties, the type of intervention to be used, how to assess the efficacy of intervention and outcomes (effectiveness and projection testing). The case should also gather all additional types of information needed based on the theory chosen.
Because theoretical perspectives are options into viewing and categorizing reality, they make excellent tools of analysis that provide insights that help an observer to organize, and then interpret what is seen. The theoretical perspective also provides a researcher an opportunity to focus in on the parts of the family issues that are of interest to them. But more importantly, they provide explanations of why certain patterns are…
The roles of various members of the society are a dictate of the culture between the people involved. For instance, culture has always been behind the dictates that have led to the creation of separation among family members. Culture states that it is the responsibility of the family man to provide for the family. Failure to do that will result in conflicts within the family. In essence, many families have been broken because of failure of the family members to respond to what they culture has placed in the shoulders. The differences in these responsibilities are another facet that is considered to be explored as a rudimentary issue that influence the existence and stability of the families globally (Blume, 2006).
Cultural influences differ from one society to another. The society teaches different facets and norms of living. These norms are part of the essential facilities that dictate the dos and…
Blume T.W. (2006). Becoming a Family Counselor: A Bridge to Family Therapy Theory and Practice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons
Goldenberg, H & Goldenberg, H. (2012). Family Therapy: An Overview. New York, NY:
Kottler, J.A., & Shepard, D.S. (2011). Introduction to counseling: Voices from the field.
Hence, Barker claims the trainees need some basic understanding of what causes dysfunction within families, and how to distinguish those families that are undergoing a temporarily destabilizing but time-limited crisis, from which they will reorganize and recover independently, from those families who are seriously dysfunctional and require therapeutic intervention.
More so, the training of therapists' trainees adopt some scientific model which help shape the boundaries of a discipline and set the agenda regarding the subject matter and methodology to be followed in seeking answers. If the individual is the unit analysis, clinical theories regarding human behavior are likely to emphasize internal events, psychic organization, intrapsychic conflict. Methodology in such a situation tends to be retrospective; explanations; tend to have a historical basis and seek our root causes from the past. Typically, they attempt to answer the question of why something occurred.
The family therapy trainees claim that Dr. Imber-Black (1988)…
According to Goldenberg and Goldenberg (1991), the training also greatly expositions the family life cycle framework; offers a more description of major theories and a clearer description of numerous specific therapeutic techniques, and pays closer attention to integrating research findings and clinical practice. Therefore, Goldenberg and Goldenberg; and Barker (2007) agrees that to be effective in helping couples and entire families to change, the therapists' training continue to believe it essential that therapists trainees have to have some grounding in the general principles of family development and a working knowledge of system theory. Hence, Barker claims the trainees need some basic understanding of what causes dysfunction within families, and how to distinguish those families that are undergoing a temporarily destabilizing but time-limited crisis, from which they will reorganize and recover independently, from those families who are seriously dysfunctional and require therapeutic intervention.
More so, the training of therapists' trainees adopt some scientific model which help shape the boundaries of a discipline and set the agenda regarding the subject matter and methodology to be followed in seeking answers. If the individual is the unit analysis, clinical theories regarding human behavior are likely to emphasize internal events, psychic organization, intrapsychic conflict. Methodology in such a situation tends to be retrospective; explanations; tend to have a historical basis and seek our root causes from the past. Typically, they attempt to answer the question of why something occurred.
The family therapy trainees claim that Dr. Imber-Black (1988) is directing them to the larger social systems in which families are embedded. Besides, family therapist trainees claim that she provides them with useful guideless for conceptualizing and responding to the patterns that develop between families and public agencies. While others, particularly in the field of social work, have long paid attention to welfare, health, and other human services in meeting the needs of families, Imber-Black provides family therapy trainees with a meta-perspective, clearly defining the typical problems that develop between systems, as well as the ways that "helping" systems often contribute to the very problems they were established to solve. Dr. Imber-Black (1988) also examines the crucial issues of labeling, stigma, and secrets regarding families' relationships with larger systems. She
An early designation of psychotherapies divided all types of psychotherapy into two major categories: insight-oriented therapy and action-oriented therapy (Woolley, Wampler, & Davis, 2012). This designation was made on the basis of the therapist's main focus in achieving positive change. An insight-oriented therapy focuses on assisting the client develop knowledge or awareness about themselves as a major focus of change. The insight itself leads to positive change in the client. Action-oriented therapies directly focus on changing some behavior as opposed to relying on self -- knowledge or awareness to facilitate the change. The designation is not mutually exclusive; in all action-oriented therapies some insight is gained and in all insight-oriented therapies there is some direct change of behavior. However, the designation is valid when determining the focus of the therapist regarding the main target of the therapeutic intervention.
For example, Experiential Family Therapy attempts to facilitate change by…
Goldenberg, I., & Goldenberg, H. (2012). Family therapy: An overview (9th ed.).
Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Woolley, S.R., Wampler, K.S. & Davis, S.D. (2012). Enactments in couple therapy:
Identifying therapist interventions associated with positive change. Journal of Family Therapy, 34, 284 -- 305.
Then, the therapist challenges these structures and begins restructuring the family by offering alternative, more functional ways of behaving and communicating ("Find out more about family therapy," 2008, DMRTK). Regardless of the efficacy of this therapy in some contexts, this approach may be too intimate for anything other than a therapist's office, with a therapist who is familiar about how to assume a critical role in the family structure in a professional and temporary fashion.
Brief Therapy: MRI
Brief therapy refers partially to the duration of the therapy but also to the intense, focused quality of the therapy. It involves goal-setting for behavioral improvements to solve a specific problem, rather than focusing on the past. It is future-oriented, and can be extremely beneficial to treat individuals where specific, swift solutions are necessary to address immediate behavioral concerns ("Find out more about family therapy," 2008, DMRTK).
Family Psychoeducational Therapy
Find out more about family therapy." (2008). DMRTK. Retrieved 19 Jul 2008 at http://www.dmrtk.jgytf.u-szeged.hu/phare/eng/more.htm#biftt
Bowen Theory." (2008). The Bowen Center. Retrieved 19 Jul 2008 at http://www.thebowencenter.org/pages/theory.html
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." (2003) NACBT. http://www.nacbt.org/whatiscbt.htm
Mitten, Tammy K. & Gary M. Connell. (Oct 2004). "More variables of symbolic-experiential therapy: A qualitative study." Journal of Marital and Family Therapy.
Family Therapy and Anorexia Nervosa
Family Therapy & Anorexia Nervosa
This paper is a literature review and discussion of how family therapy approaches anorexia nervosa. The premise for most of the research conducted using family based therapy is a theory by Salvador Minuchin and Mara Selvini from the 1970s that states in order for a sufferer of anorexia nervosa to recover the "family's structure or style of management [of problems] needs to be corrected." (Lock, & Grange, 2001) A compilation of peer reviewed journal studies as well as other reviews of anorexia nervosa family therapy treatment will be used to illustrate the effectiveness of family therapy for persons under the age of 19 suffering from anorexia nervosa. The literature will also show that more experimental studies are needed in this area of eating disorders, due to the lack of substantial research for eating disorders and their treatment methods. However, since…
Eisler, I. et al. (2005). Family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa: the results of a controlled comparison of two family interventions. The Journal of Lifelong Learning in Psychiatry, 3(4), 629-639.
Eisler, I., Simic, M., Russel, G., & Dare, C. (2007). A randomised controlled treatment trials of two forms of family therapy in adolescent anorexia nervosa; a five-year follow-up. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(6), 552-560.
Hodes, M., Eisler, I., & Dare, C. (1991). Family therapy for anorexia nervosa in adolescence: a review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 84, 359-361.
Lock, J., & Le Grange, D. (2001). Can family-based treatment of anorexia nervosa be manualized?. The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 10(4), 253-261.
Involvement techniques also needed addressing, so that support would be clear without being intrusive, but there were no major behavioral issues reported by the family that caused problems.
Other problems existed in the family's transactional problem, which involved the father becoming too intrusive and aggressive in his attempts to help and reach out to his daughter while the mother withdrew and the daughter felt increasingly more helpless. The mother, too, would end up feeling powerless, and the entire family became sadder as the situation remained unchanged, the therapist shared his assessment with the family, beginning with their strengths, and the identified issues were quickly agreed upon by the family members.
The contracting stage began in the second session, and though the parents initially insisted that they were only their to help their daughter through her depression, which they believed would solve many of the emotional stress issues in the family,…
family therapy models, diagnosis and principles are compared based upon Bowen's Transgenerationaland/Family Systems model with Minuchin's Family therapy. Later on, we will see the link between the two and the relationship of each model to divorce. In the case study, we will attempt to apply the lessons of the Bowen/Ackerman and Minuchin style approaches to get to the underlying causes of a patient's depressive disorder.
The goal of the counseling session from the family therapist would be to aid the psychiatric team. Depression is simply a condition that reflects underlying issues. In this case, the patient's past home life and separation of her parents have caused abuse and bereavement issues to be dealt with more effectively and to break the triggers that bring about the onset of depression. This is especially necessary, since the abuse issues and bereavement caused by the loss (or lack) of a caring father figure in…
First, M.B., Frances, A., & Pincus, H.A. (2004). Dsm-iv-tr guidebook. Arlington, VA:
Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Frances, A., & Ross, R. (2004). Dsm-iv-tr case studies: a clinical guide to differential diagnosis.
Additionally, the communication between these individuals is also generally relying on the same coordinates, these are individuals who communicate the same way for a long period of time. Corroborated, this means that it is easier to analyze such a structure with constant coordinates and to decide on the measures to take.
On the other hand, family systems therapy is based on the assumption that the "the family as a whole is larger than the sum of its parts." While this as a simple sentence is a correct assumption, it may often be the case that the family is almost exclusively regarded as the one and only mean to solve the identified problem. The conditions and variables provided by this particular environment (the family) are not always reflected in the entire society, where rules change and sometimes have a different applicability than in a restrained environment as a family. The rules…
1. Family Therapy. Health a to Z. On the Internet at http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/family_therapy.jsp.
Last retrieved on September 26, 2006
2. Family therapy. On the Internet at http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Family_therapy.Last retrieved on September 26, 2006
Family Therapy. Health a to Z. On the Internet at http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/family_therapy.jsp.
Psychoanalytic therapy happens to be an in-depth conversational therapy whose objective is to accentuate the deep and unconscious feelings and thoughts held inside a person into their conscious mind (Altman, 2012, pp. 39-86). The aim is to ensure that the repressed emotions and experiences that are often associated with childhood are highlighted and evaluated. The client alongside their therapist work together in the attempt to understand how the early repressed memories affect the behavior, relationships, and thinking of the client in their adulthood (Psychology Today, 2019, pp.1).
Psychoanalytic family therapy happens to be a therapy founded on reasoning that any group of people that consider themselves as family in any culture has some level of interdependence existing between the individual units that make up the family. This is based on the generational hierarchy and role distribution within that hierarchy (Gale, 2005, pp.1). The family also has some subjective interdependence within…
Altman, N. (2012). Psychoanalytic therapy. In Contemporary Psychotherapies for a Diverse World: First Revised Edition (pp. 39–86). Taylor and Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203802045
Gale, T. (2005). Psychoanalytic Family Therapy, Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 22 March, 2019 from https://www.encyclopedia.com/psychology/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and- press-releases/psychoanalytic-family-therapy
Kempler, W. (1965). Experiential Family Therapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 15, 57–71. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00207284.1965.11642807?journalCode=uj gp20
Kingdon, D., & Mander, H. (2015). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (pp. 30–32). Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.27011-6
Nhs.uk. (2017). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) - NHS. Https://Www.Nhs.Uk/Conditions/Cognitive-Behavioural-Therapy-Cbt/ (p. 6). https://doi.org/10.1002/smj
Pittman, F. S. (2004). Strategic Family Therapy. Family Process, 20(4), 457–459. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1981.453_4.x
Psychology Today (2019). Psychoanalytic Therapy. Retrieved 22 March, 2019 from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapy-types/psychoanalytic-therapy
Tuttle, L. C. (1998). Experiential family therapy: An innovative approach to the resolution of family conflict in genetic counseling. Journal of Genetic Counseling. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022802006630
Family Systems Theory: Integrative esearch Case Presentation
The family system in the west seems well entrenched and a closely knit unit. Yet, they are not without stigma. Their norms do not align with normative, ethical demeanor and there have been interventions to correct on various occasions. Irresponsible, Feckless and welfare scroungers are some of the adjectives they have often earned for their behavior. The interventionists have also tried to suggest families in the west through subtle messaging via various media forums like advertisements and articles in the magazines, films, TV; and also through measures like the decor at home reminding them about the expectations of a social life. (Dallos & Draper, 2013).
Such interventionists have also tried to spread their messages through professional networks too, making the expectations of the society known through various platforms. Family workers work in different ways to help the western families understand the importance of…
Avc?, R., Colakkad-o-lu, O., Oz, A. & Akba?, T. (2015).Adaptation of the boundary violations scale developed based on structural family therapy to the Turkish context: A study of validity and reliability. Educational Research and Reviews, Vol. 10(2), pp. 145-152.
Barker, P. & Chang, J. (2013).The basic family therapy, (Six Edition). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
Carr, A. (2014). The evidence base for family therapy and systemic interventions for child-focused problems. Journal of Family Therapy. 36: 107 -- 157
Cottam, C. (n.d.). Analysis of Fictional Family - The Malfoys in the Harry Potter Series. Western Carolina University. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu
Family therapy is described as a theory and treatment technique that provides a means for examining clinical problems based on the context of the transactional patterns in a family. Therefore, this theory and treatment measure represents an intervention through which family members receive help in detecting and transforming difficult, maladaptive, and ongoing patterns of relationship as well as self-restricting and self-defeating belief systems (Goldenberg, Goldenberg & Pelavin, 2014, p.373). There are several family therapeutic approaches that have been used to help in examining clinical problems in the context of transactional patterns in a family. One of these approaches is behavior therapy which is based on the premise that cognitive factors like attitudes, expectations, thoughts, and beliefs impact behavior. This approach has contributed to the emergence of cognitive-behavior therapy as part of ordinary psychotherapy processes.
Behavior therapy is based on the belief that normal and abnormal behavior is learned based on…
Goldenberg, I., Goldenberg, H. & Pelavin, E.G. (2014). Family Therapy. In Current Psychotherapies by Danny Wedding and Raymond J. Corsini (10th ed., Chapter 11, pp.373-405).
Strategic Family Therapy
offman, A. (2007). Function at the Junction: evisiting the Idea of Functionality in Family Therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 31 (2): 259-68.
Strategic Therapy -- "The ideas of strategic therapy are deceptively simply. Carrying out these ideas in action is not so simple" (Haley, 2003). Traditional views of therapy hold that the focus should be upon abuse, trauma, and even guilty pleasures or pastimes if they are detrimental to mental health. It directs tasks that follow and uses the past and the future as templates for recovery. Instead, strategic therapy asks: what is happening in one's life now -- in one's environment, and takes the approach that it is the social grouping of the environment that either allows for a predilection to continue the unwanted behavior, or to reinforce the triggers that make that behavior habitual in the first place.
Strategic family therapy then is…
Broderick, C. And S. Schrader. (1991). "The History of Professional Marriage and Family Therapy." In Gurman, A. And D. Kniskern, eds. Handbook of Family
Therapy. Volume 2, Brunner/Mazel.
Haley, J. And L. Hoffman. (1994). Techniques of Family Therapy. Aronson Press.
Haley, J. (2003). The Art of Strategic Therapy. Routledge.
Structural Family Therapy (SFT) was developed by Salvador Minuchin in the latter half of the 20th century and is still considered a viable and effective therapy approach today (Connell, 2010, p.1). It involves encouraging healthy proactive change within the family, with the therapist acting as the agent of change and taking into consideration the multicultural perspectives within a family (Connell, 2010, p.1). Structural family therapists believe that problems within the family are the result of a dysfunctional family structure, therefore, correcting the structure should alleviate the problems (Hecker & Wetchler, 2003, p.78).
Advantages and Disadvantages
Because of its focus on family structure and the roles of individuals within that structure, SFT has proven a promising means of treatment for many childhood and adolescent problems, especially when used to treat young adults who still maintain close contact with their families (Hecker & Wetchler, 2003, p.87). The therapy appears to be effective…
Connell, C. (2010). Multicultural perspectives and considerations within structural family therapy: The premises of structures, subsystems and boundaries. Rivier Academic
Journal, 6(2), 1-6.
Diamond, G.M., Hogue, A., Liddle, H.A., & Dakof, G.A. (1999). Alliance-building interventions with adolescents in family therapy: A process study. Psychotherapy, 36(4), 355-368.
Hecker, L.L. & Wetchler, J.L. (2003). An introduction to marriage and family therapy. Bing-hamton, NY: The Haworth Press, Inc.
Structural Family Therapy
Individuals who plan to spend the rest of their lives together are charged with the task of crafting a life together. Where do they get the blueprints for building this life together? How do two people know how to join together to form a relationship known as a "couple"? The environment in which we are raised contributes a great deal to who we are and to how we interact with one another. It is only natural that we use the paradigms we grew up with as a basis for our future relationships.
However, what if the relationships one uses as a model are so deeply flawed that they ended in divorce? Structural family therapy offers a way to help address this issue by allowing individuals to develop tools that will help them navigate successfully through the confusing and conflicting stages that they will go through as they…
Colapinto, J. Structural family therapy. (1982). In A.M. Horne and M.M. Ohlsen (Eds.),
Family counseling and Therapy. Itasca, Illinois: F .E .Peacock.
Lappin, J. (1988). Family therapy: A structural approach. In R. Dorfman (Ed.), Paradigms of Clinical Social Work. New York: Brunner Mazel.
Minuchin, S. Structural family therapy. (1972). In G. Caplan (Ed.), American handbook of psy chiatry (Vol. 2). New York: Basic Books, 1972.
Psycho-Analytical Family Therapy
This report will offer a brief treatise on psycho-analytical family therapy. However, there will first be a bit of a zooming out to the broader subject and fomulations of psycho-analytical therapy in general. The definition of what the therapy is, what it entails, what it involves and how it all works will all be explained. The ostensible forefathers of the technique will be discussed as well as what happens in the related sessions. While psychoanalytical therapy is not for everyone and/or for all situations, there are times where it can do a lot of good.
In general terms, psychoanalytic therapy is "one of the most well-known treatment modalities." However, it is also one of the most misunderstood and misperceived by those people that analyze and kvetch about it. The overall modality of psychoanalytic therapy was crafted by the notorious work of Sigmund Freud. He was the one…
Cherry, K. (2015). How Does Psychoanalytic Therapy Work?. About.com Education.
Retrieved 24 May 2015, from http://psychology.about.com/od/pindex/f/psychoanalytic-therapy.htm
MCF. (2015). Minuchin Center for the Family -- About Structural Family Therapy.
Minuchincenter.org. Retrieved 24 May 2015, from http://www.minuchincenter.org/structural_family_therapy
Marriage and Family Therapy
Issues and Ethics in Family Therapy:
Psychologist Abraham Maslow once wrote that, 'We may define therapy as a search for value." In providing counseling for our patients not only are we providing a system of healing and value for them but also generating a reflection of our own values, ethical as well as legal, as family therapists. In the case scenario provided a large binuclear family, comprising a divorced couple and both their new step-families, attended six sessions of therapy focusing on multiple custody disputes. One year later, one parent reopened the custody settlement and sought the therapist's records. The therapist dutifully obtained written consent to share the records from both sets of parents, and then submitted the records as requested. This situation, commonplace as it sounds, has significant and challenging moral and legal implications that force the therapist to come up with a plan of…
Corey, G., Corey, M.S., & Callanan, P. (2007). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions (7th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Goldenberg, H. And Goldenberg, I. (1999). Family Therapy: An Overview. New York, NY: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Margolin, G. (1982). Ethical and legal considerations in marital and family therapy. American Psychologist. 37(7): 788-801.
Wilcoxon, S.A., Remley, T.P., Gladding, S.T., & Huber, C.H. (2007). Ethical, legal, & professional issues in the practice of marriage and family therapy (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Structural Family Therapy
Since the mid-20th century, family therapy has assumed systems thinking as a new model of understanding how to help families to understand their problems and resolve them (Sawyer, 2003). Rather than directing the energies of therapy on the individual with the problem, the symptom bearer, family therapists examine the family as a whole, or as a social unit, with complex interactions and patterns of communication. Rather than focusing on the problems in a family system, family therapists assumed that families have within them a basic goal toward health. They are created and sustained for the purpose of helping individual family members do well.
In this paper, structural family therapy concepts and practices will be discussed, as well as the complex interactions and patterns of communication involved in structural family therapy.
The model of structural family therapy is "a therapy of action." When first developed by psychologist…
Fattah, Sabry. (2003). Family and Marital Therapy. The Psychiatric Zone. Retrieved from the Internet on 4/19/03 at http://sabryabdelfattah.tripod.com/docs/FAMILYTH.htm.
Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Minuchin, S. (1981). Family therapy techniques. Cambridge, MA:
Niolon, Richard. (December, 1999). Strategic Family Theory and Therapy. Resources, Psychpage.com. Retrieved from the Internet on 4/19/03 at http://www.psychpage.com/learning/library/counseling/strategic.html .
Marriage Family Therapy Intern
Marriage and Family Therapy
MAIAGE AND FAMILY THEAPY INTEN
Brucker et al. (2005) present an analysis of seven training sites that offer MFT internship opportunities to students. In their analysis, Brucker et al. (2005) discuss the quality of supervision, the environment and context of the training site, the opportunities available to MFT interns for interacting with professionals, supervisors and clients so that they may obtain maximum guidance and practical exposure, as well as the opportunity to pursue education, teaching and research along with their internship. Their study reveals that a number of quality institutions do offer MFT internship opportunities to students by offering direct involvement in the practical environment and sound coaching from the supervisors. Interns are expected to shadow the supervisors and learn from personal application of theory. They should also learn to be self-reliant and schedule their own appointments and other research and teaching…
Barrette, L.M., & Beitin, B.K. (2010). Creating internships in marriage and family therapy: A collaboration between a training program and an offender reentry facility. Journal of contemporary family therapy, 32, 39-51. doi: 10.1007/s10591-009-9109-3.
Bradley, P.D., Bergen, L.P., Ginter, E.J., Williams, L.M., & Scalise, J.J. (2010). A survey of North American marriage and family therapy practitioners: A role delineation study. The American journal of family therapy, 38, 281-291. doi: 10.1080/01926187.2010.493119.
Brucker, P.S., Faulkner, R.A., Baptist, J., Grames, H., Beckham, L.G., Walsh, S., & Willert, A. (2005). The internship training experiences in medical family therapy of doctoral-level marriage and family therapy students. The American journal of family therapy, 33, 131-146. doi: 10.1080/01926180590915518.
Ratanasiripong, P., & Ghafoor, B. (2009). Setting up the on-site marriage and family therapy clinical training course. Journal of instructional psychology, 36(4), 347-351. Retrieved from EBSCO Academic Search
Focusing-oriented experiential therapy, historically grounded in humanistic and experiential psychology traditions, were cultivated from E. Gendlin's collaboration with Carl ogers, the founder of client-centered psychotherapy (Bohart, 2003; ogers, 1957, 1961, as cited in Wagner, 2006). During the 1950s, ogers presented the concept of "unconditional positive regard, empathy, and congruence as therapeutic attitudes central to the process of change" (Wagner, 2006, Background and Development section, ¶ 1). Gendlin expanded the ogerian approach of person-centered therapy by further exploring and analyzing client involvement qualities, which indicative movement and change evolving from therapy. (Wagner) the following Experiencing Scale depicts a number of states, Wagner notes, in Focusing that positively contribute to counseling and holistic health.
Stage 1: The content is not about the speaker. The speaker tells a story, describes other people or events in which he or she is not involved or presents a generalized or detached account of ideas.
References you may want to utilize:
www.blueletterbible.org/Bible.cfm?b=Pro&c=11&v=14&t=KJVPro 11:14 Where no counsel [is], the people fall: but in the multitude of counsellors [there is] safety.
A www.blueletterbible.org/Bible.cfm?b=Pro&c=12&v=15&t=KJVPro 12:15 the way of a fool [is] right in his own eyes: but he that hearkeneth unto counsel [is] wise.
A www.blueletterbible.org/Bible.cfm?b=Pro&c=15&v=22&t=KJVPro 15:22 Without counsel purposes are disappointed: but in the multitude of counsellors they are established.
A www.blueletterbible.org/Bible.cfm?b=Pro&c=19&v=20&t=KJVPro 19:20 Hear counsel, and receive instruction, that thou mayest be wise in thy latter end.
He gives a brief history of the birth of family centered therapy in the 1950's and again compliment Minuchin and his team and credits them for being a major part of this new dawn in psychotherapy. He also agrees with Minuchin that many of the newer "technologies and ad hoc practices," (1998, p. 416) have de-centered the family from center stage in many ways. However he disagrees that post modernism and social constructiveism are to blame. In fact Sluzki believes that many of the techniques of these genres, "include the family as a central contributor in the never ending process of reality construction." (1998, p. 417) He does agree with Minuchin that the shift towards more individual viewpoints may certainly be counterproductive to family therapy on many levels and feels likewise that political centered therapy is not constructive as a whole.
In " A Question of Perspective," author Karl Tomm…
Anderson, A. (1999.) "Reimagining Family therapy: Reflections on Mincuin's Invisible Family." Journal or Marital and Family Therapy. 24(1) pp. 1-8
Combs, G. & Freedman, J. (1998) "Telling and Retellings." Journal or Marital and Family Therapy. 24(4). Pp. 405-408
Minuchin, S. (1998) "Where is the Family in Narrative Family therapy." Journal or Marital and Family Therapy. 24(4), pp. 397 =403
Minchuin, S. (1999). "Retelling, Reimagining and Re-Searching: A Continuing Conversation." Journal or Marital and Family Therapy. 24(1) pp. 9-14
Experiential family counseling focuses on role playing and other multisensory techniques, allowing members of the family to step into the shoes of one another through role play exercises to better understand one another, develop empathy and work out issues together (Tuttle, 1998). This paper will identify leading figures in experiential family counseling, historical and current events, assumptions, development of the theory, concepts, and techniques that relate to my own approach to counseling. Similarities and dissimilarities between the experiential family counseling and other leading theories will be explored and the paper will conclude with a discussion of what new knowledge I acquired.
Carl Whitaker helped to found experiential family therapy in the 20th century. Whitaker emphasized the role of the family in the therapeutic process and showed that the humanistic approach could be used to involve all members of the family and allow them to come together to…
Psychology -- Counseling -- Bowen Family Therapy
Bowen Family Therapy is a system-based treatment. Rather than treating the individual as a completely separate person, Bowen places the person in the context of his/her family. By examining at least three generations of an index person's family, the therapist can develop a strong understanding of the factors that formed and still influence the patient/client. In addition, the system-based intervention for treating an issue helps the individual grasp the underlying issues affecting his/her life and change his/her individual approach or the entire group dynamic to deal with the issue.
Created with (de Boer, 2014).
Overview of Major Experiences, Patterns of Interaction for Family and Effects of Diversity Issues
My family is boring as genograms go. My father's biological parents were Caucasian, Italian, Roman Catholic, working class, lived in New York State and had one child, my father. My paternal grandfather was…
Bowen Center for the Study of the Family. (2016). Eight concepts. Retrieved from www.thebowencenter.org: http://www.thebowencenter.org/theory/eight-concepts / de Boer, I. H. (2014). WinGeno: A free genogram editor. Retrieved from www.wingeno.org: http://www.wingeno.org/download.html
Gehart, D. R. (2014). Mastering competencies in family therapy: A practical approach to theory and clinical case documentation, 2d Edition. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole CENGAGE Learning.
Markowitz, L. M. (1994). Shared passages: Shared passages. Family Therapy Networker, 18(1), 18.
Western Pennsylvania Family Center. (2016). Bowen family systems theory. Retrieved from wpfc.net: http://wpfc.net/bowen-family-systems-theory/
1. Legal and ethical considerations regarding the family circumstances
The man, hit the woman a couple of times because a man called her. He is on probation and was referred by his probation officer. He needs to handle his temper because if he does not and is arrested again or gets in trouble with the law in any way, he could go to jail. Being on probation keeps people in a position where anything could lead to bigger trouble with the law.
2. Multicultural considerations
The client is an African American male. African American males in the United States have experienced unfair treatment by law enforcement in the form of racial profiling and institutionalized racism. Because of this, this population may experience more stress and lower self-esteem that can lead to anger control issues (Chao, Longo, Wang, Dasgupta, & Fear, 2014) He is 21 years-old and stated he is ‘always…
Chao, R. C., Longo, J., Wang, C., Dasgupta, D., & Fear, J. (2014). Perceived Racism as Moderator Between Self-Esteem/Shyness and Psychological Distress Among African Americans. Journal of Counseling & Development, 92(3), 259-269. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2014.00154.x
Frazier, S. N., & Vela, J. (2014). Dialectical behavior therapy for the treatment of anger and aggressive behavior: A review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(2), 156-163. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2014.02.001
McKay, M., & Wood, J. C. (2011). The dialectical behavior therapy diary: Monitoring your emotional regulation day by day. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
Miller, A. L., Carnesale, M. T., & Courtney, E. A. (2014). Dialectical Behavior Therapy. Encyclopedia of Counseling, 385-401. doi:10.4135/9781412963978.n183
Neacsiu, A. D., Lungu, A., Harned, M. S., Rizvi, S. L., & Linehan, M. M. (2014). Impact of dialectical behavior therapy versus community treatment by experts on emotional experience, expression, and acceptance in borderline personality disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 53, 47-54. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2013.12.004
Tomlinson, M. F., & Hoaken, P. N. (2017). The Potential for a Skills-Based Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program to Reduce Aggression, Anger, and Hostility in a Canadian Forensic Psychiatric Sample: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 16(3), 215-226. doi:10.1080/14999013.2017.1315469
Valentine, S. E., Bankoff, S. M., Poulin, R. M., Reidler, E. B., & Pantalone, D. W. (2014). The Use of Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training as Stand-Alone Treatment: A Systematic Review of the Treatment Outcome Literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 71(1), 1-20. doi:10.1002/jclp.22114
Structural family approach
Major contributors of Structural family approach
Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008()
History of Structural family…
Bobrow, E., & Ray, W.A. (2004). Strategic Family Therapy in the Trenches. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 23(4), 28-38. doi: 10.1521/jsyt.188.8.131.52840
D'Angelo, S.L. (1995). The Milan approach to therapy revisited. PsycCRITIQUES, 40(4), 352-352. doi: 10.1037/003578
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family Therapy: An Overview: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Rosen, K.H. (2003). Strategic family therapy. In L.L. Hecker & J.L. Wetchler (Eds.), An introduction to marriage and family therapy. (pp. 95-121). Binghamton, NY U.S.: Haworth Clinical Practice Press.
Cybernetics in Family Therapy
Family therapy as it is known today has a long and convoluted history. From the days of Freud and Jung, there was a general believe that the individual was solely responsible for whatever has gone wrong in the psyche. Hence, all therapeutic interventions have focused on the individual relationship between therapist and individual. This has been the basis for psychiatric intervention for decades and still forms the basis for many therapies today. In addition to the basic Freudian and Jungian analyses, therapies today include newer philosophies such as seeing the therapy recipient as a "client" rather than a "patient" and regarding the person as a kind of equal with whom to build a therapeutic relationship in order to achieve optimal results. The dynamic of psychotherapy interventions have evolved since the 1920s to include not only an acknowledgement of individual inner conflicts, but also the influence of…
Atkinson, B.J. (2015). Further Thoughts on Second-Order Family Therapy. Retrieved from: thecouplesclinic.com/pdf/Further.thoughts.pdf
Chapter 1. (n.d.) The History of Family Therapy. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/35408_Chapter1.pdf
Cook, S.J. (2006). An Epistemological Journey
Dallos, R. And Draper, R. (2010). An Introduction to Family Therapy: Systemic Theory and Practice. London: McGraw-Hill.
Psychology -- Counseling -- Structural Family Therapy Model
"Juno" is a refreshingly nonjudgmental look at teenage pregnancy and a family's ultimately positive, supportive response. Addressing the situation from a systematic therapeutic perspective, the counselor can accept Juno, her family and the adoptive family as they are and help them reach their agreed upon goals. The movie's portrayal of a teenager's situation that is normally deemed problematic in a positive human light makes the happy outcome of this film readily achievable and believable.
"Juno" (Reitman, 2007) is a film about teenage pregnancy, an aspect of life that frequently positively and negatively confronts modern American families. hen 16-year-old Juno irresponsibly becomes unexpectedly pregnant by her teenaged best friend, Bleek, she decides against abortion and chooses to give the baby to an as-yet-unknown infertile couple. hen she tells her father and stepmother, they are initially rattled but quickly become supportive because after…
Chenail, R. J. (2009). Learning marriage and family therapy in the time of competencies. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 28(1), 72-87.
Gehart, D. R. (2014). Mastering competencies in family therapy, 2nd edition. Balmont, CA: Brooks-Cole Cengage Learning 978-1-285-07542-6.
Gerhart, D. (2011). The core competencies and MFT education: Practical aspects of transitioning to a learning-centered, outcome-based pedagogy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 37(3), 344-54.
Reitman, J. (Director). (2007). Juno [Motion Picture].
Dana is a young and beautiful woman with family members that seem to constantly put her down whenever they get together. They appear to be self-centered and attention seeking. The mother has set expectations she places on her family and seems angry whenever they do not meet those expectations. For example, the mother suggested Dana get breast enlargement surgery to appease her boyfriend Matt. Her sister, Joanie also commented on Dana's appearance, making sure to let Dana know she appeared overweight or had a large rear end. These comments can and do affect people's self-esteem especially when the source of such comments are from people that person loves or is supposed to trust.
Dana takes everything and says nothing, agreeing with the remarks and feeling like she truly is overweight even if objectively people see her as very attractive. She also cannot say how she feels even around her boyfriend.…
Arendt, K., Thastum, M., & Hougaard, E. (2015). Homework Adherence and Cognitive Behaviour Treatment Outcome for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders. Behavioural And Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44(02), 225-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1352465815000429
Gingerich, W. & Peterson, L. (2013). Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Controlled Outcome Studies. Research On Social Work Practice, 23(3), 266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049731512470859
Hayes, S., Levin, M., Plumb-Vilardaga, J., Villatte, J., & Pistorello, J. (2013). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of a Distinctive Model of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy. Behavior Therapy, 44(2), 180-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2009.08.002
Hofmann, S., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I., Sawyer, A., & Fang, A. (2012). The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy And Research, 36(5), 427-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1
Hritek is a 14-year-old boy who is psychologically impaired by Asperger's. He is the only child of Abdon (father, male), aged 41 and Padma (mother, female), aged 39. Abdon is a college graduate who works for a biotech company. His mother is a high school graduate and does not work. She serves as the primary caregiver for Hritek since she and Abdon divorced.
Reason for Referral
Hritek's mother has presented Hritek because he cries uncontrollably when asked to do something he does not want to do, reads about murder stories on the Internet, fantasizes about killing people, and throws wild hysterics in order to avoid leaving the house.
Hritek's academic performance was so poor that he was going to be held back a year in 6th grade, but his mother decided to home school him so as to avoid that. Since then, his grades have…
Family & Sociology of Marriage
The purpose and social function of marriage has changed. While marriage was once a binding declaration of commitment and love to another person of the opposite gender, avowed and proclaimed in a holy ceremony, today marriage has become a catch all; a legally binding contract between two people who, for any reason, can choose to end the marriage without stigma or difficulty. Today, half of marriages end in divorce (CDC, 2010). And yet, millions of people remain happily married in America. Why? How? What is it that enables some couples to remain not just married, but happily so? Sociologists have analyzed the social, cognitive, and emotional consequences and detriments to failed marriages on the family. esults seem to indicate that successful marriages are not successful by chance, but rather, the product of hard work, compromise and mutual respect. While these criteria do not guarantee a…
Dankin, J., Wampler, R. (2008). Money Doesn't Buy Happiness, but It Helps: Marital Satisfaction, Psychological Distress, and Demographic Differences Between Low- and Middle-Income Clinic Couples. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 36:300 -- 311.
Freeman, C., Carlson, J., & Sperry, L. (1993). Adlerian marital therapy strategies with middle income couples facing financial stress. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 21(4), 324 -- 332.
Reis, H.T., and Collins, N. (2000).Measuring relationship properties and interactions relevant to social support. In S. Cohen, L.G. Underwood, & B.H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 136 -- 194). New York: Oxford University Press.
Rogers, S.J. (2004). Dollar, dependency, and divorce: Four perspectives on the role of wives' income. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 59 -- 74.
Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.
Summary and Conclusion
While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…
Sandelowski M. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing; as cited by Joan Engebretson in Document entitled Hands-on: The Persistent Metaphor in Nursing, Holistic Nursing Practice Vol.16 No.4 07-01-2002 ISSN 09979311.
The Ecological Theory (nd) Online available at www.unt.edu/cpe/module1/blk1.htm
The Theoretical Matrix for a Rogerian Nursing Practice" by E.A.M.Barrett 2000, Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory, 9 (4) p.3-7. Copyright 2000 by the Swedish Society for Nursing Theories in Practice, Research, and Education. Reprinted with permission. http://medweb.uwcm.ac.uk/martha/theory.htm
Meyers, S.A. An Ecological Approach to Enhancing Parenting Skills in Family Therapy "http: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/coft/1998/
In terms of the theories that are put forward in the book by Simon et al. (2004), Gary's profile conforms to a number of theoretical perspectives. In general however this profile tends to concur with the point made by the authors that the criminal behavior is largely a result of lax or ineffective parenting. (Simon et al., 2004, p.15) as this book states, there are numerous studies that refer to the importance of family and home environment as well as problematic parenting in the development of developmental antisocial tendencies. This also refers to larger problems when these become permanent behavior patterns and extend into later life. (Simon et al., 2004, p.15)
Furthermore, parents are seen as "primary argents of socializations" of children and therefore they play a major role in the creation of negative and "abnormal "tendencies in developing children. (Simon et al., 2004, p.16)
Theorists like Gleuck and others…
Simon R., Simon L. And Wallace L. (2004) Families, Delinquency and Crime:
Linking Society's most Basic Institution to Antisocial Behavior. Roxbury Publishing.
Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems
The literal meaning of the word "psychopathology" is a mind disorder or disease. Psychological diagnosticians, while assuming that the illness is located inside a person, always use the medical model in treating or studying patients with 'mental illnesses'. In comparison with the approach they take, I present two converging and related psychopathology perspectives. The two perspectives give an analysis based on context from the family's viewpoint. The first approach, the "family systems" approach, is a conception that came up in the 1950s as a substitute to the traditional focus of psychopathology on individuals (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 1996).
The second approach, "family risk factors" has been in existence in psychopathology but not in the foreground. It tries to identify a couple family aspects of the functioning of the family that are significant in the treatment as well as etiology of patients that have tested positive…
Ackerman, N.W. (1958). The psychodynamics of family life. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Ackerman, N.W. (1962), Family Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis: The Implications of Difference. Family Process, 1: 30-43.
Ackerman, N.W. (1962). Family Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis: The implications of difference. Family Process, 1(1): 30-43.
Ackerman, N.W. (1966). Treating the troubled family. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems
Considering the reading assignments in both texts, what do you see going on with Pete and his family?
Family dynamics is affecting Pete and his family. The point of focus is the pattern of dynamics apparent in Tim's family, including the impact that the youngsters behavior has on the family members. The following points affect family dynamics:
Intra-parental relationship number of youngsters in the family persona of each of the family member an absence of a parent the assortment of individuals who are living under the same roof level and type of influence from extended family or others a chronically sick individual within the family a veritable assortment of societal and emotional trauma faced in the past by elders, such as an divorce, affair, unemployment, death, homelessness familial attachments, or lack thereof (i.e. insecure, secure)
inherited features of family members through generations…
Adkins, K.S. (2010). A Contextual Family Therapy Theory Explanation for Intimate Partner Violence (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University).
Australian Counseling Association (n.d). Code Of Ethics and Practice.
Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., & Krasner, B. (1986). Between give and take: A clinical guide to contextual therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Bubenzer D. L & West J.D. (1993) Counseling Couples Volume 8 of Therapy in Practice. SAGE.
Murray Bowen developed a theory of family functioning and individual functioning within the family system. The Bowen theory most importantly takes into account the need to balance individuality with togetherness in tight social systems like families ("Bowenian Family Therapy," n.d.). There are eight basic concepts to the Bowen theory. The first is the differentiation of self, which is important for psychological health and well-being. An example of differentiation of self is when the person is able to hold a different opinion on a political or social issue than a parent without that difference causing a problem in the relationship. When the self is not differentiated, the person might have internalized the beliefs of mother, father, sister, or brother and cannot tell what is really "me" versus what is a result of programming, the desire for approval or absorbing others' beliefs.
The second concept to Bowen's theory is triangulation. Bowen believes…
"Bowenian Family Therapy," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.psychpage.com/learning/library/counseling/bowen.html
Vermont Center for Family Studies (n.d). What are the eight interlocking concepts of Bowen Family Systems Theory? Retrieved online: http://www.vermontcenterforfamilystudies.org/about_vcfs/the_eight_concepts_of_bowen_theory/
Shift From First-order to Second-Order Cybernetics in the Family and Systemic Therapies
The strategic family therapy model came up in the 1950s and was inspired by two primary works: the works of Milton Erickson who came up with revolutionary paradoxical interventions which took advantage of people's resistance to change to help alter psychiatric symptoms first; and the works of Gregory Bateson and the Palo Alto Group that made use of cybernetics in communication patterns of the family. The style of a therapist changes as he or she gets better as a person and as they develop professionally, and also as per what is in fashion at the time. An older person has the chance to look at what happened in their past and see what worked and what failed. This gives them a better perspective of what works and what might not work for a given situation. The path is…
Asen, E. (2004). Outcome research in family therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, vol. 8, pp. 230-238
Asen, K.E., Berkowitz, R., Cooklin, A., et al. (1991). Family therapy outcome research: a trial for families, therapists and researchers. Family Process, 30, 3-20.
Baron, P. (2007). Ecosystemic psychology; first and second order cybernetics.
Baucom, D., Shoham, V., Mueser, K., et al. (1998). Empirically supported couple and family interventions for marital distress and adult mental health problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 53-88.
Family of Origin
The origin of the family describes the family in which one is grown up, inter-family interactions and relations between one's parents', siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles and grandparents. The current study examines the origin of a family and determines the systematic research based on the behavior and relation of members and provides evidence-based practices in order to address the relational gap found among the family members.
Attachment Styles in Family
Early Marriage and Divorce
Evidence-Based esearch and Intervention
The family in which one is grown up with the collaboration of adult's economic contribution and influence from parents, siblings and grandparents collectively describes one's family of origin. The origin of one's family tends to effect the systems that are being followed in the family and describes the degree to which they can be adaptive in nature.…
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001).First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage.In National Center for Health Statistics.
Carr, A. (1999). Evidence-based practice in psychotherapy and counseling. Journal of the Irish Association of Counseling and Therapy, 2(9), 15-34.
Dattilio, F.M. (2005). Introduction to the special section: The role of cognitive -- behavioral interventions in couple and family therapy. Journal of marital and family therapy, 31(1), 7-13.
Engels, F. (1942).The origin of the family.Current Book Distributors.
Family Systems Theory; Application of Family Therapy Theories
The concept of family therapy has over the years has been developed into different approaches that have definite characteristics. These theories have been used to bring forth solutions to different family issues that are experienced on regular basis. It is not easy to understand the structure of a family since there are no universal structures that the family problems or challenges take, this means that even in the application of the family systems theories in bringing solutions to families, the application purely depend on individual unique family challenges and not on a universal template. These unique characteristics that each family challenge takes makes it hard to apply one system theory and have full confidence that it will work, hence the frequent overlapping of the theories, and in this case the strategic family therapy and the structural family therapy will be applied to…
Nichols M.P., (2009). Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods.
family counseling requires a broad and diverse set of tools and techniques. Those tools and techniques should be adaptable to suit the needs of each family, individuals within that family, and also the contextual or environmental variables that impact families. Using a wide range of exercises and interventions, therapists can provide effective and evidence-based practice, as well as offer ongoing assessments and maintenance.
Techniques and exercises that may be particularly useful for families and couples include the oyal Flush exercise for families with young children, the family-based school interventions for children with behavioral or academic performance problems, and the "altering the abyss" exercise for couples. Each of these exercises is rooted in fundamental family practice theory, and each can also yield measurable outcomes that improve the efficacy of the treatment.
The "royal flush" technique is named as such because it uses picture cards, similar to those used in…
American Psychological Association (2015). Managing stress for a healthy family. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/managing-stress.aspx
Brimhall, A.S. & Gardner, B.C. (n.d.). Altering the abyss.
Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/32947_Chapter1.pdf
Gergen, K.J. (1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. American Psychologist 40(3): 266-275.
Family elation and Substance Use Disorders
Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider society (Peter 2015). This paper will explore important familial roles, cultural differences in family systems, and how family members can facilitate treatment of a teenage member diagnosed with substance/drug use disorder. Family interventions such as Functional Family Therapy, Brief Strategic Family Therapy, In Family Behavior Therapy, Multi-systemic Therapy and Multidimensional Family Therapy will also be discussed.
In What Way Is The Family A System Of oles?
Families have multiple reasons to exist. The key reason, however, is nurturing, and fulfilling the present as well as long-term wants and needs of all members. A secondary motive is contributing, as a participant and consumer, to the wider…
Marcia .C. (2011). Culture and Family Dynamics. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from http://www.dimensionsofculture.com/2010/11/culture-and-family-dynamics/
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014, January). Family-Based Approaches. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment-research-based-guide/evidence-based-approaches-to-treating-adolescent-substance-use-disorders/family-based-approaches
Novella .R. (2014, January). Family-Based Approaches. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from
Family Therapy Treatment of Mental Illness
There has been a growing movement towards the use of family therapy methods for the treatment of mental illness in recent years. To determine the facts about this trend, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning family therapy treatment of mental illness in three sections. In Section 1, a discussion concerning the views of O'Hanlon and owan's (2003) and Zeig and Munion (1999) for working with clients with chronic or severe mental illness is followed by an analysis of the extent to which they succeed in making a strong case for "brief therapy" with intensive clients. An assessment concerning the contribution of Milton Erickson to the assessment and treatment of different mental health diagnoses is followed by an analysis of their respective approaches and the corresponding benefits and limitations of each of these models. Section II provides a discussion concerning the…
Daroff, R. B. (2005, Fall). Solution-oriented therapy for chronic and severe mental illness. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice Research, 8(4), 318.
Gurman, A. S. & Messer, S. B. (2003). Essential psychotherapies: Theory and practice. New York: Guilford Press.
McFarlane, W. R., Dixon, L., Lukens, E., & Lucksted, A. (2003): A review of the literature about psychoeducation and schizophrenia. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 29(2), 223-227.
Simoneau, T., & Miklowitz, D. (2001): The sights and sounds of schizophrenia.
The Jacques family seems to have functioned very well until the husband began abusing drugs and alcohol. This was a problem before, but things have stabilized when the appropriate help was obtained. The relapse occurred directly after the wife and children left for a visit to the wife's family. Hence, it might reasonably be assumed that the presence of the family has a positive effect upon the maintenance of the treatment regime. Because Jean (the husband) functioned at a very high level before his relapse into the cycle of abuse and the abandonment of the treatment regime, it might be assumed that he will once again respond to intervention. Because there is as yet no physical danger to the family, the treatment and intervention program will be administered under strict official supervision, with regular monitoring sessions. However, while the aim is to keep the family together, a contingency…
Brown, J. (2010, Oct.). Psychotherapy Integration: Systems Theory and Self-Psychology. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. Retrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3658/is_201010/ai_n56230129/
DePfanfilis, D. (2006). Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention. U.S. Dept. Of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/neglect/neglect.pdf
Moore, B.C. (2005). Empirically Supported Family and Peer Interventions for Dual Disorders. Research on Social Work Practice. Vo. 15. Retrieved from: http://www.reachoflouisville.com/meath/meath/Empirically%20Supported%20Family%20and%20Peer%20Interventions%20for%20Dual%20Disorders.pdf
He has been expelled from three school since he began his education and is currently attending junior high school after last attending a small charter school in his community. The shoplifting incident also caused his mother to ask his father to take him back into his home, he has lived with mostly his mother with infrequent visitation from his father, except for a year period where he lived with his father and stepmother and their other children, which ended at age 12 when he tried to vocalize feelings of concern about puberty to his stepmother and she perceived the conversation as deviant and asked that he be returned to his mother.
Justin's anti-social behavior began at birth but has had periods of extremes, beginning with near constant conflict with his mother over mundane requests as well as other general rejections of authority, including an incident of extreme foul language focused…
Greene, R.R. (1999). 5 Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Approach. In Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice (2nd ed., pp. 145-161). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Loeber, R., Farrington, D.P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W.B. (1998). Antisocial Behavior and Mental Health Problems: Explanatory Factors in Childhood and Adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Van Lier, P.A., Vuijk, P., & Crijnen, a.A. (2005). Understanding Mechanisms of Change in the Development of Antisocial Behavior: The Impact of a Universal Intervention. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(5), 521.
-Mother can attend cancer support groups and receive advice and education through other channels regarding proper methods of providing care and improving quality of life for her husband
-Son can explore employment options as well as discuss various needs and responsibilities with his parents in order to determine his most effective utilization within the changed family dynamic
-Father can provide the levels of self-care that come easily, but should educate himself regarding his condition and ease care by allowing others to help when necessary
-Provide educational materials/answer questions for both mother and father
-Assist son with psychological transition of increased responsibility/familial dependence
-Instruction of proper care techniques for mother and father regarding father's condition
Levels of comfort and competence in new family roles should be easily assessed in regular visits through brief questioning. Monitoring father's health through standard vital sign and other appropriate tests will…
Reclaiming Children and Youth.. Retrieved October 02, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-206794465.html Wester, K, MacDonald, C & Lewis, T. (2008). A glimpse into the lives of nine youths in a correctional facility: Insight into theories of delinquency.(Report). Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling. American Counseling Association. 2008. Retrieved October 02,
2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-178713105.html
Gibbs, J., Potter, G.B., DiBiase, a.M. & Devlin, R. (2008). The EQUIP program: Helping youth to see -- really see -- the other person: Youth who present anti-social behavior need powerful interventions that strengthen empathy, counter negative peer influence, and challenge thinking errors. Reclaiming Children and Youth. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-183982220.html
Harkwick, K. & Brannigan, a. (2008). Self-control, child effects, and informal social control: A
direct test of the primacy of sociogenic factors. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Canadian Criminal Justice Association. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research:…
...in the end 'the addict has to want to change' and if the addict does not want to change it does not matter what program..." that the addict is in. (National Institute of Justice, 2005) the National Institute of Justice reports that a woman "often retains legal custody of a child while in prison, and once out, may not have the child immediately returned to her by the family member caring for the child." (2005)
Sarah Samson reports in the work entitled: "Groundbreaking Study Identifies Crucial Factors for Successful Community Reintegration of Ex-Prisoners in altimore" published in 2004, that Programs that help prisoners stay connected with their families, get drug treatment, and work while in prison can increase the chances that they will successfully reintegrate back into society, according to a new study released today by the nonpartisan Urban Institute. The study breaks new ground by recording prisoners' perspectives on…
Baltimore Prisoners' Experiences Returning Home," by Christy Visher, Vera Kachnowski, Nancy La Vigne, and Jeremy Travis, has been made possible by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, OSI-Baltimore, the Abell Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Maryland Governor's Office of Crime Control and Prevention, and the John D. And Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
Community Supervision and Reentry (2008) Urban Institute Prison Reentry Portfolio. Online available at http://www.urban.org/projects/reentry-portfolio/community-supervision.cfm
Pelissier, Bernadette (2004) Gender Differences in Substance Use Treatment Entry and Retention Among Prisoner with Substance Use Histories. Research and Practice. American Journal of Public Health August 2004. Vol. 94 No. 8. Online available at http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/94/8/1418.pdf
Powell, M. Anne; and Nolan, Clare (2003) California State Prisoners with Children:
Multiple Therapeutic Models of a Family
The main components of structural therapy
Structural therapy is a family treatment model founded on the frameworks of systems theory. The distinctive component of this model is the emphasis it has placed on structural adjustments as the primary objective of the therapy session. This emphasis is prominent over details of adjustments in individual behaviors. This model is distinctive because the therapist is the most active agent and receives much attention in the course of family restructuring (Lock & Strong, 2012).
The main purpose of structural family therapy is prevention of sequences from repetition by coveting the hierarchical structures of families. This encompasses shifts in power distribution among family members by adjusting interaction styles. Nevertheless, structural family therapy operates by making alterations on the dysfunctional family structure through encouragement and promotion of growth among family members with the primary intention of re-building the family (Petridis,…
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family therapy: An overview. Australia: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Lock, A., & Strong, T. (2012). Discursive perspectives in therapeutic practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Peterson, G.W., Steinmetz, S.K., & Sussman, M.B. (2009). Handbook of marriage and the family. New York: Plenum Press.
Petridis, N., Pichorides, S.K., & Varopoulos, N. (2010). Harmonic analysis, Iraklion 1978: Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Crete. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Napier and Whitaker exemplify systems therapy with their presentation of the Brice family case. It is necessary to identify the origins of the systems approach in order to fully appreciate its value in the context of family therapy. It approaches the family unit as a system and therefore borrows heavily from systems theory. Systems theory is a general theory applies across many disciplines and looks at systems that have the ability to self-regulate. The theory applies to biological systems, climate, environment, and the family unit.
Systems approach recognizes the interdependencies that exist in the family as a system. The family unit consists of individuals related to one another forming a complex web that should act in congruence. Therefore, although a part of a system is essential, it is the relationship of the part to the whole that is paramount. The family as a system is dynamic since…
Napier, A.Y., & Whitaker, C. (1978). The family crucible: The intense experience of therapy. New York: HarperCollins.
In J. Smith (Ed.), Understanding families into the new millennium: A decade in review (p. 357-381). Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations.
Ferree, M. (1984). The view from below: Women's employment and gender equality in working-class families. In .. Hess, & M.. Sussman (Eds), Women and the family: Two decades of change (p. 57-75). New York: Haworth Press.
Fung, J. (2010). Factors associated with parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems in Chinese immigrant families. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 3993), 314-327.
Hewlett, S., & West, C. (1998). The war against parents: What we can do for America's beleaguered moms and dads. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Hwang, K., Chang, S., Chen, S., Chen, C., & Yang, K. (2001). Chinese relationism and depression. Unpublished manuscript.
Lai, E., & Fang, S. (2001). Sex role attitude and housework participation among men and women in Taiwan. Paper presented at the…
Beutell, N. & Wittig-Berman, U. (2008). Work-family conflict and work-family synergy for generation X baby boomers, and matures: Generational differences, predictors, and satisfaction outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(5), 507-523.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Contexts of child rearing: Problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 34(10), 844-850.
Carlson, J. (2009). Family therapy techniques: integrating and tailoring treatment. Florence, KY: Brunner-Routledge.
Chen, F. & Li, T. (2007). Marital enqing: an examination of its relationship to spousal
EFFT and Stepfamilies
Blended families or "step families" have one parent who is not the biological parent of the children in the family. These families will often face unique challenges due to their makeup. Furrow and Palmer (2007) discuss Emotionally Focused Family Therapy (EFFT) for stepfamilies. Furrow and Palmer identify four basic challenges that stepfamilies face:
(1).The past experiences of the different families join compete with the new family's ability to consolidate newer relational commitments.
Typical family boundaries are clouded in stepfamilies (e.g., who disciplines which child, who is the real parent of whom, etc.).
There is an "inheritance of loss" that occurs through remarriage that can affect the parents and the children of both original families. This can interfere with the development of the new stepfamily.
(4). There are different developmental needs in stepfamilies compared to other families.
These four specific challenges can make working with stepfamilies particularly difficult.…
Furrow, J. & Palmer, G. (2007). EFFT and blended families: Building bonds from the inside out. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 26(4), 44-58.
esearch Design. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed in this study. Instruments include self-report measures and personal narratives of 91 native Hindu married couples (182 participants) from three types of living arrangements that I have mentioned earlier. The qualitative part on the other hand was utilized via personal narratives of the participants (ibid, p.82).
esearch Instruments. For the quantitative part, marital happiness was assessed using the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. The questionnaire also includes a demographic survey portion which was based on the National Health and Social Life Survey. Quantitative questions on intimacy and conflict can also be found in the questionnaire. For the qualitative part, the instrument devised explored 12 dimensions of the participant's lives: their expectations about their partner, career, self, well-being, intimacy, marital relationship, family living arrangements, in-laws, parents, their conflict history, good times they had shared, and the cultural norms guiding marriage…
City University of Hong Kong Website. (n.d.) Chapter Three: Research Methodology.
Retrieved from http://www.is.cityu.edu.hk/staff/isrobert/phd/ch3.pdf on Sept. 16, 2009.
Kroelinger, M. (2002). The Research Problem. Retrieved from http://www.public.asu.edu/~kroel/www500/the%20Research%20Problem.pdf on Sept. 16, 2009.
Nachmias C.F. & Nachmias, D. (1996). Research Methods in the Social Sciences.
The author of this paper is about to offer a brief literature review of what has come to be known as solution-focused therapy. Included in that literature review will be several specific topics or examples that are within the solution-focused therapy paradigm. These include the history of the theory, the use of language to help create a solution-focused therapeutic environment, the role of family history when it comes to solution-focused therapy, the shift from a problems focus to a solutions focus in a way that benefits the client, the development of a short vignette that is based on a family situation, global goals of the treatment method using the language of theory, interventions that should be used at each stage of treatment (those being beginning, middle and end) and a succinct summary of all of the above. There are certainly other methodologies that can be used when treating…
Carr, S.M., Smith, I.C., & Simm, R. (2014). Solution-focused brief therapy from the perspective of clients with long-term physical health conditions. Psychology,
Health & Medicine, 19(4), 384-391. doi:10.1080/13548506.2013.824594
Cotton, J. (2010). Question Utilization in Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Recursive
Frame Analysis of Insoo Kim Berg's Solution Talk. Qualitative Report, 15(1), 18-
They have grandparents who visit them during the holidays. However, for the most part family members deal with their problems as individuals, not as a family unit.
Information provided by the family is an important source of information about the family. However, one cannot ignore outside sources of information as well. For instance, the worker may contact the school, neighbors, or others who are involved with the family to examine factors that may influence the current situation. The assessment plan will involve contacting the school to find out about Conrad's performance in terms of grades, attendance and overall performance.
The case of the Jarretts is complex, with many individual goals that must be completed on the way to resolution of the systemic problems. In this case, the identified patient is Conrad, as he was the one who tried to commit suicide. The goal of family therapy is the…
Bowen Center for the Study of the Family. (2010). Bowen Theory. Retrieved April 13, 2010
Missouri Department of Social Services. (2007). Child Welfare Manual. Retrieved April 13,
2010 from http://www.dss.mo.gov/cd/info/cwmanual/section7/ch1_33/sec7ch25.htm
My work as a research assistant in a cognitive psychology lab added to my theoretical knowledge by giving me practical experience in encoding and analyzing data. This experience provided me with the opportunity to use analytical tests and interpret statistical data. Bookkeeping of participants' demographic information also further developed my organizational skills. Having been a research assistant, I have gained a reasonable understanding of research design and the statistics needed to conduct research. For my senior major project, I wrote a research paper on an empirical study that investigated the role of change detection in studies of visual attention in the field of cognitive psychology. This paper was awarded the Sharon Borine award for the best major project in Psychology because of its successful presentation of research and adherence to American Psychology Association guidelines. I strongly believe my research experience will help me attain success in conducting graduate research as…
According to the O-Net Online Summary Report, marriage and family therapists "diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, whether cognitive, affective, or behavioral, within the context of marriage and family systems." A systems approach is integral to the work that marriage and family therapists do, because they view individual psychological issues as inseparable from the greater family and social system. This enables a holistic approach to treatment interventions, and can be a culturally sensitive, culturally competent facet of psychological counseling.
The primary tasks of a marriage and family counselor include the following. First, communications skills are of the utmost importance because one of the central roles of the counselor is to listen and ask appropriate questions at the right time. A marriage and family counselor meets with more than one member of each family, too, making good communications skills a prerequisite of the profession.
Second, diagnoses should be based…
"Marriage and Family Therapist." AllPsychologySchools. Retrieved online: http://www.allpsychologyschools.com/psychology-careers/career/marriage-family-therapist
O-Net Online. "Summary Report for Marriage and Family Therapists." O-Net code: 21-1013.00. 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/21-1013.00
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. "Marriage and Family Therapists." Retrieved online: http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211013.htm
Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach
There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).
Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…
Caldwell, K., & Claxton, C. (2010). Teaching Family Systems Theory: A Developmental-
Constructivist Perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy, 32(1), 3-21.
Gruber, K.J., & Taylor, M.F. (2006). A Family Perspective for Substance Abuse: Implications
from the Literature. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6(1), 1 -- 29.
Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) radically transforms the therapeutic process and relationship. As the name suggests, solution-focused brief therapy is about "being brief and focusing on solutions, rather than on problems," ("About Solution-Focused Brief Therapy," n.d.). Instead of drawn-out and costly sessions with therapists, the client receives highly focused therapeutic intervals that do not delve into the past other than what is absolutely necessary. Only three to five sessions are generally warranted for solution-focused brief therapy (Iveson, 2002). The underlying principle of being solution-focused is that therapy should be proactive. The Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Association (n.d.) claims, "so much time and energy, as well as many resources, are spent on talking about problems, rather than thinking about what might help us to get to solutions that would bring on realistic, reasonable relief as quickly as possible." In fact, during the intake interview, the client might not even be asked about…
"About Solution-Focused Brief Therapy," (n.d.). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Association. Retrieved online: http://www.sfbta.org/about_sfbt.html
Iveson, C. (2002). Solution-focused brief therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 8. 149-156.
Bioecological Theory and the Family and Community Resource Conceptual Framework)
The Case History
"Kerry" has twin girls who are now 4 years old. he had been living with her defacto "Dean" for the past 6 years. he is a qualified beautician and has previously run a small business from home before the birth of the twins. he undertook schooling until year 12 (equal to UA high school diploma) at a public school, is one of two children herself and has supportive parents in a middle income suburb. he left her defacto 10 months ago after two years of domestic violence brought on by the use intravenous "speed." he has an AVO (Aggravated Violence Order) on "Dean" for 12 months. During the previous two years "Kerry" was subjected to physical and psychological trauma, the twins witnessed this abuse. "Dean" is on a fly in fly out basis working in the mines…
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Caspi, J (2008). Building a Sibling Aggression Treatment Model: Design and Development Research in Action, Research on Social Work Practice, 18: 575
Paquette, D & Ryan. J (2001). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
Prochaska, J.O., & Norcross, J.C. (2007). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis, Sixth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
Thus, giving the patient a 'bird's eye view' of his/her life gives him/her a chance to reconsider past actions committed and change these to improve his/her relations with a partner or family member. As in family brief therapies, reconstructing a family's life according to each member's interpretation and reflection helps the therapist identify the family member who adopts a constructive or destructive view of the 'reconstructed family life.' Through SFT, the therapist is able to create a therapeutic process that would be time-efficient and beneficial to patients.
itter and Nicoll (2004) elucidated effectively the effectiveness of brief therapy treatment for couples and families (64):
brief therapists seek to establish in their clients a renewed faith in self as well as optimism and hope for their immediate and long-term futures. It is caring, however, that guarantees the client support and a safe return in a future session, now matter how the…
Bury, D. (2000). "Constructivist paradigms in other therapies." Journal of Constructivist Psychology, Vol. 13, Issue 4.
Bitter, J. And W. Nicoll. (2000). "Adlerian brief therapy with individuals: process and practice." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 56, Issue 1.
____. (2004). "Relational strategies: two approaches to Adlerian brief therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 1.
Disque, J.G. And J. Bitter. (2004). "Emotion, experience, and early recollections: exploring restorative reorientation processes in Adlerian therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 2.