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Farewell to Arms
Ernest Hemingway was indelibly impacted by his experiences both with war and romantic love, which is why love and war feature together prominently in novels like A Farewell to Arms. The double meaning of the title of this novel refers to the protagonist Lieutenant Henry's saying goodbye both to the arms of war and also to the arms of his love. In Henry's experience, both war and love are linked to death. ar and love make strange bedfellows, but each does bring out a mixture of hope and devastation. The confluence of love and war remains the prevailing theme in A Farewell to Arms. This theme creates opportunities for the main characters to grow and change, or to stagnate and die. In the case of Lieutenant Frederic Henry, war and death cause him to grow and change even though in the end he is left feeling bitter…
Benson, Jackson J. Hemingway: The Writer's Art of Self-Defense. University of Minnesota, 1969.
Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. New York: Scribner, 2012 (1929)
Meyers, Jeffrey. Hemingway: A Biography. De Capo Press, 1999.
Oldsey, Bernard. Hemingway's Secret Craft.
Farewell to Arms," by Ernest Hemingway. Specifically, it will discuss rain throughout the story. ain and water are two reoccurring themes woven through the story. Hemingway uses water and rain as a subtle warning of the characters ultimate fate.
FAEWELL TO AMS"
Hemingway wrote "A Farewell to Arms" after his own service in World War I as an ambulance driver for the Italian ed Cross. Many people believe "A Farewell to Arms" is really his own story, for he spent some time in an Italian hospital after a bomb exploded near him, and he may have fallen in love with his nurse. "A Farewell to Arms" is more than a tragic love story, it is a story about the ultimate horrors of war, and how the people fighting do not really matter. "The world breaks every one and afterward many are strong at the broken places. But those that will…
Adair, William. "Hemingway's 'A Veteran Visits His Old Front': Images and Situations for the Fiction." ANQ 8.1 (1995): 27-31.
Bloom, Harold, and Ernest Hemingway. Ernest Hemingway's a Farewell to Arms. New York: Chelsea House, 1987.
Dow, William. "Hemingway's a Farewell to Arms." Explicator 55.4 (1997): 224-225.
Hatten, Charles. "The Crisis of Masculinity, Reified Desire, and Catherine Barkley in a Farewell to Arms." Journal of the History of Sexuality 4.1 (1993): 76-98.
Farewell to Arms -- Hemingway
Hemingway's well-critiqued novel, A Farewell to Arms is always a subject of intense literary examination because the structure of the novel has great lessons and examples for the reader and the critic as well. The narrative structure of Hemingway's book is almost considered a textbook example of exposition, rising action, climax, falling action and resolution / denouement. Those literary tools used by Hemingway will be presented in this paper.
A Farewell to Arms
There are many great novelists from English and American history and there are many even in contemporary society. Students that are studying literature and the tools that make good literature are often attracted to Hemingway because not only is he a worthy talent to learn from but his narrative represents different voices based on the conflict that is occurring, or on the character that is being developed. In A Farewell to Arms…
And Catherine's pains during labor and her death, all show how misfortune, distress, and death particularly plague and affect these protagonists. They are fated to die and suffer because they cannot feel at home in military, in religion, or even in any particular state. Catherine cannot get over the death of her fiancee, just as Henry cannot get over the inability of Catherine to purely and totally give herself over to him.
Both Henry and Catherine are outsiders because they are always 'once removed' from society. Catherine is too much in love with the dead to be truly wed to Henry and truly part of his life. Henry cannot, despite his affection for some of his comrades, feel truly in touch with the army, because he always views his status as a national and as a soldier with a certain degree of distance and irony.
This is also true of…
Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. New York: Scribner Reprint, 1995.
It is the climax and turning point in the novel because he is making his decision about whether to continue in the miserable war, or to stay with his lovely woman Catherine. Frederick shoots the Italian sergeant because the sergeant had deserted his unit, but ironically Frederick has made his climactic decision and he deserts as well. Clearly Frederick has become totally disheartened by the madness of this war; bravery on the battlefield can't possibly match the warm glow of his love for Catherine.
Readers experience the falling action in any novel after the climax has been reached. In the Hemingway novel, Frederick and Catherine have a lovely time in the Italian town of Stresa; this is in effect his reward for making the decision he did in the climax. He fishes, he has quality time with Catherine, and the relationship is a delight even though Frederick knows he could…
2. Discuss the green light in The Great Gatsby and the rain in A Farewell to Arms as symbols of fertility and death.
In F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby, the green light represents hope, renewal, and (since Gatsby associates the green light with Daisy) Gatsby's desire for her, as well as (in Gatsby's mind) Daisy's fecundity and fertility. In nature, green is the color of life: trees, grass, and other living things. As such, the green light symbolizes Gatsby's own hopes and wishes for the future, which revolve around Daisy. Since Gatsby associates the green light so much with Daisy, it also represents for him a sort of beacon leading him toward her.
Although within The Great Gatsby the green light symbolizes hope, life, fecundity, and fertility, in Ernest Hemingway's novel A Farewell to Arms, rain, which occurs often, symbolizes the opposite: impermanence, dissolution, and death, thus foreshadowing…
Life sucks and then you die, is a popular saying among Gen-Xers to describe the futility of it all. The phrase may be original, but the sentiment certainly is not. Long before Generation X came on the scene, Ernest Hemingway was writing about heroes who faced the harsh unfairness of finite life with dignity and grace. This "grace under pressure" became known as the Hemingway Code.
Hemingway scholar Philip Young explains that the code "is made of the controls of honor and courage which in a life of tension and pain make a man..." (63). Feminist scholars have suggested that this definition of the code is sexist and that women in Hemingway's work, too, display honor and courage (Tyler 29).
Rovit and Brenner agree with Young's basic definition and add an additional component. Hemingway's code, they say, also has to do with "learning how to make one's passive vulnerability (to…
Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. 1929. New York, NY: Scribner Paperback Fiction, 1995.
Nagel, James. "Catherine Barkley and Retrospective Narration." Critical Essays on Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms. Ed. George Monteiro. New York, NY G.K. Hall & Co., 1994. 161-174.
Oldsey, Bernard. "The Sense of an Ending in A Farewell to Arms." Modern Critical Interpretations: Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms. Ed. Harold Bloom. Modern Critical Interpretations. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. 77-96.
Rovit, Earl and Gerry Brenner. Ernest Hemingway. Rev. ed. Twayne's United States Authors Series. New York, NY: Twayne Publishers, 1995.
Hemingway is classified as a modernist in fiction. Modernism rejected traditions that existed in the nineteenth century and sought to stretch the boundaries, striking out in new directions and with new techniques. More was demanded of the reader of literature or the viewer of art. Answers were not presented directly to issues raised, but instead the artist demanded the participation of the audience more directly in finding meaning and in seeing the relationship between technique and meaning. In literature, writers developed new structures as a way of casting a new light on such accepted elements as character, setting, and plot. Much of modernist fiction shows this increased demand on the reader. Ernest Hemingway gives the illusion of moving in the other direction by simplifying language to the point where it seems ascetic, but in truth his language is complex in its way, building meaning into every word and the placement…
Aldridge, John W. "The Sun Also Rises?
Sixty Years Later." The Sewanee Review XCIV (2)(Spring 1986), 337?45.
Baker, Carlos. Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1969.
Baker, Carlos. Hemingway: The Writer as Artist. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956.
In the letter, those were rooms 112 and 113 (in the play, 108-109); "It seemed eminently more sensible to live in a part of a hotel which you knew would not be struck by shell fire" the author wrote in the letter (ashington, 2009, p. 1). The point ashington makes vis-a-vis Column is that room 109 wasn't just a "safe" place, it was a place with "good things" like sex, perfume, alcohol, hot water, and yes, food.
The brilliance of Hemingway's narrative -- not just in war themes but also throughout his work -- cannot be over-emphasized. In A Farewell to Arms Hemingway uses the character Frederic as narrator, and Frederic's narration is mainly descriptive, but in its simplicity, it packs a punch. Critic Katie Owens-Murphy explains that when Frederick -- an ambulance driver, not a soldier -- is asked about the war by a bartender, he first replies, "Don't…
Capshaw, Ron. (2002). Hemingway: a static figure amidst the red decade shifts. Partisan Review, 69(3), p. 441.
Fantina, Richard. (2003). Hemingway's masochism, sodomy, and the dominant woman. The Hemingway Review, 23(1), p. 84.
Hewson, Marc. (2003). "The Real Story of Earnest Hemingway": Cixous, gender, and 'A
Farewell to Arms.' The Hemingway Review, 22(2), p. 51.
watching a James ond film, one often wonders. If the ond character were real, would he be able to experience a traumatizing situation -- killing a villain or escaping with his life -- and then straightening the lapels of his dinner jacket proceed to seduce a beautiful woman? While ond's celluloid heroics transport us as long as the movie lasts, we know that it is unrealistic, and comes from the imagination of Ian Fleming, who like most authors and novelists, probably sat at his desk tapping away at his Remington, letting his mind do the wandering or the conjuring, as was necessary for the plot.
Ernest Hemingway, we know, has lived his novels. He was larger than life, and he lived larger than life E.L. Doctorow, in a tribute to Hemingway, describes a day in Florida when Hemingway persevered after hooking a huge marlin to snag and capture it. ut…
Baker, C. (1963). "Ernest Hemingway: The Writer As Artist." Princeton: Princeton
University Press. p. 127.
Contemporary Literary Criticism (2000). "Ernest (Miller) Hemingway: A brief review of the author's life, works and critical reception." Contemporary Literary Criticism
Gale Literary Database. Retrieved on 6 April 2000 at http://www.galenet.com/servlet/GLD/
Ernest Hemingway may not have been a deliberate or conscious chauvinist but the manner in which he presented his characters suggests that the "Hemmingway hero" is the focus of all his stories and the 'heroine' is somewhat lost in the aura of the man. Though the women in his books re represented as having strong characters there is an inherent division between the two genders that identifies the hero as struggling for survival in hard world while the woman is merely a shadow in the background.
In a rapidly changing world it has been seen that Hemingway is treated as a misogynist as his woman are presented as a mere reflection of the men. Their characteristics come out when the men need the support and they develop through the experiences of the men. This suggests that Hemmingway did not support feminism. Yet, this statement could be wrong as…
1. Busch, Frederick. "Reading Hemingway Without Guilt." The New York Times Book Review. Jan. 12, 1992: pp. 1, 17-19.
2. Prescott, Jeryl J. "Liberty for Just (us): Gender and Race in Hemingway's To Have and Have Not." College Language Association Journal 37:2 (1993): 176-88.
4. Comley, Nancy R., and Robert Scholes. Hemingway's Genders: Rereading the Hemingway Text. New Haven: Yale UP, 1994.
He considers his nationality an asset and doesn't feel ashamed when British officers try to belittle him. "The English may have seen war, but I have lived with Pa, so I have seen Hell." But it all turns against him when he is accused of murder, rape and crimes he never committed. He is accused without any proof and even the ones he considered his friends side with the accusers. The whole war scene gets even more bleak and darker as Stanhope finds himself among enemies on his own front.
The story turns from depiction of external horrors to delusions of inner world that Stanhope experiences as war progresses. These delusions have a strong bearing on him as begins seeing an imaginary graveyard. The delusions turn even stranger when he notices that he is capable of seeing ghosts of dead soldiers that roam around in the battlefield not knowing they…
Patricia Anthony Flanders, Ace Publishers, 1998
He is more interested in "things," than what those things will bring. "Nick went over to the pack and found, with his fingers, a long nail in a paper sack of nails, in the bottom of the pack. He drove it into the pine tree, holding it close and hitting it gently with the flat of the axe. He hung the pack up on the nail. All his supplies were in the pack. They were off the ground and sheltered now" (as quoted in Vernon)
However, with time Nick is able to find some semblance of his early self. He overcomes challenges and moves forward the best he can. Despite the fact that he is walking uphill through burned land with a backpack that is too heavy, he is now in a familiar place and happy to be here:
Nick slipped off his pack and lay down in the shade.…
Crane, Stepen. Red Badge of Courage. New York: Modern Library, 2000.
Hemingway, Ernest. Big Two Hearted River. In Hemingway, Ernest. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Scribner's, 1987.
O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York: Random House, 1998.
Stewart, Matthew. Hemingway and World War I: Combatting recent psychobiographical reassessments, restoring the war. Papers on Language and Literature. (2000) 36, 198-217
In Italy, Mussolini exploited the state of confusion and malaise to seize power. From this cradle, Fascism emerged into the world. In Germany, it morphed into Nazism, a more virulent and transformed fascism feeding upon race mysticism as well as extreme nationalism and dictatorship. Both countries took this highway to the Hell of World War II. During this second installment of Great War, European countries groaned under the Fascist boot heel and fought back under native partisan movements in the underground resistance.
Ironically, the European Federal movement was midwifed by Italian political theorist Alberto Spineless. After the Second World War, the people of Europe wanted human rights, an end to despotism against both and human freedom and dignity.
he Union of European Federalists was formed in December of 1946. In the wake of two world wars, theorists such as Spineless were convinced that Federalism in Europe would save Europe by…
The Union of European Federalists was formed in December of 1946. In the wake of two world wars, theorists such as Spineless were convinced that Federalism in Europe would save Europe by transcending nationalism much as the multinational Resistance had in World War II. In this movement, Communists, Socialists, and Christian Democrats resisted Fascisim in a united front. Spinelli and contemporary E. Rossi wrote the Ventone Manifesto, encouraging a federation of European States to make way for the European Union body. Union of European Federalist concluded that the existing political system could not creatre the new Europe. Federalist advocates thought that Europe integration was a process of building for the politics of a new Europe.
After achieving freedom from the Nazi tyranny, the people of Western Europe developed a consensus that a united Europe was the best way to bring peace and prosperity. Opposition forces like Resistance movement veterans thought they should overcome nationalism. Uniting Europe was the first task in its post war recovery. Federalism provided the theoretical basis of these for this movement. As the result, Federalism plans appeared as a blueprint to prevent future European wars.
The federal ideas were first concretely represented in the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951 in the Treaty of Paris. The ECSC paved the way for the integration of Europe, followed by the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957 and the European Union (EU) of 1993 based upon the Matriarchs Treaty. Transnational organizations now are paving the way for a Europe that will be one state.
Sentiments of the "Lost Generation"
Sentiments of "Lost Generation"
Before the beginning of the Great ar Era an optimistic attitude championing technological and educational progress was pervasive on a global scale. However, with the commencement of orld ar I, destruction was visited upon the world on a scale never before seen. In its wake, came a cultural realization that the progress made was not entirely for the good. This new sentiment is reflected in the poetry and literature of the time, a barometer for the true feelings of the "Lost Generation."
Many youths were drawn to the new war by a sense of adventure. Among them were many well-known poets and writers such as Ernest Hemingway and John Dos Passos. arfare (prior to and during the early stages of orld ar I) was viewed by many as "romantic and noble…a struggle for honor and glory." (Nash p. 750) A prime…
http://ok.essortment.com/whatlostgenera_nkj.htm -- retrieved February 11, 2002
Gary Nash & Others, The American People, Vol 2, 2nd ed., Harper Collins, 1990
Attributed to Gertrude Stein.
"essortment" ¶ 2.
Burke as a Disciple of Hemingway
In interview, New York Times best-selling novelist James Lee Burke (2002) has been quoted as identifying Ernest Hemingway as among his favorite authors. This is in clear evidence in the first of 19 books which would go on to feature Dave Robicheaux, a Vietnam veteran, a recovering alcoholic and a renegade Louisiana Sheriff's Deputy. In Robicheaux, and in the world that we are introduced to with 1987's The Neon Rain, Burke truly betrays his affinity for Hemingway's thematic and stylistic impulses.
As Lowe (2012) observes, "Burke's novels are painted with vivid descriptions of the land, pithy dialogue and sudden acts of physical violence. The combination of action, description and dialogue makes for a page-turning read. The common criticism made against his work is that there is too much violence." (Lowe, p. 1)
This is a criticism perhaps not unlike that often visited…
Burke, J.L. (1987). The Neon Rain. Pocket Books.
Burke, J.L. (2002). The Man Behind Dave Robicheaux. Reesefuller.com.
Burke, J.L. (2011). Thoughts on Faulkner and Hemingway. Facebook.com.
Lowe, J. (2012). James Lee Burke Interview. Jonathanlowe.wordpress.com.
Taking Jeanine Basinger at her word would leave us with far fewer war films than we think we have. Basinger is a 'strict constructionist,' accepting as war films only those that have actual scenes of warfare (Curley and etta, 1992. p. 8; Kinney, 2001, p. 21). That means that the four films that will be considered here, and especially the two orld ar II films, are not war films. By Basinger's yardstick, neither Casablanca nor Notorious, neither Born on the Fourth of July nor Coming Home would qualify as war films.
On the other hand, films such as hite Christmas, a lightweight Bing Crosby-Danny Kaye-Rosemary Clooney-Vera Ellen comedy about the aftermath of war for an old soldier might well be a 'war' movie. The opening scene is one in which the old soldier, Dean Jagger, is reviewing his troops when, somewhere in Italy during the Christmas lull, bombs…
Canby, Vincent. Review/Film; How an All-American Boy Went to War and Lost His Faith. (1989, December 20). Online.
http://movies2.nytimes.com/mem/movies/review.html?title1=& ; title2=BORN%20ON%20THE%20FOURTH%20OF%20JULY%20%28MOVIE%29& reviewer=Vincent%20Canby& pdate=19891220& v_id=6747& oref=login
Coming Home (1978). Online. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0077362/
Dirks, Tim. Casablanca, 2005. Online. www.filmsite.org and www.greatestfilms.org)
With him, this vital energy goes its own way, independent of the pessimism and the disillusionment so typical of the age.' Hemingway did not go to the awards ceremony due to illness, some time before that same year his plane crashed and he lived to read his own obituaries. y then he was already experiencing the results of his fast paced lifestyle and at the end of his life he dealt with sicknesses such as mental depression, and eventually a form of paranoia. This was written of his last days 'After Hemingway began talking of suicide his Ketchum doctor agreed with Mary that they should seek expert help. He registered under the name of his personal doctor George Saviers and they began a medical program to try and repair his mental state. The Mayo Clinic's treatment would ultimately lead to electro shock therapy. According to Jefferey Meyers Hemingway received "between…
1. We didn't start the Fire, Billy Joel, http://www.teacheroz.com/fire.htm
2. Frederick W. Turner III, 1971
3. Morgan Kathryn, Associate Director for Special Collections Alderman Library, University of Virginia / Charlottesville, Virginia / 22903
4. Shelton Robert, Bob Dylan: "20-year-old singer is bright new face at Gerde's Club" September 29, 1961 New York Times.
Now that he is dying, Harry thinks that he has waited too long to write the things he really wants to write, and that he will never be able, now, to write all that he has left for a later time. As the article "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" (ikipedia, August 31, 2006) suggests "This loss of physical capability causes him to look inside himself - at his memories of the past years, and how little he has actually accomplished in his writing." He realizes that although he has seen and experienced many wonderful and astonishing things during his life, he had never made a record of the events; his status as a writer is contradicted by his reluctance to actually write.
As the now pain-ridden and dying Harry thinks to himself bitterly, for example:
So now it [his writing career] was all over... So now he would never have a…
Evans, Oliver. "The Snows of Kilimanjaro: A Revaluation." PMLA. Vol. 76, No. 5 (Dec. 1961). 601-607.
Excerpt from 'The Snows of Kilimanjaro'" [online text]. Powell's Books. 2006.
Retrieved September 8, 2006, from: http://www.powells.com/biblio?show=
Driven (Principi & Task Force)
pplication Essay: Results Driven
In the Department of Veterans ffairs where I work, getting results is highly valued. There are various examples that could be used to point out how important results are in this organization and how I go about ensuring that I get results when I am asked to do something. There are two examples that are important to discuss here. The first of these is the Farewell Ceremony that I took part in. In late 2004, I was directly asked by those high-up in my organization to plan and execute a Farewell Ceremony for the Honorable nthony J. Principi, the 4th Secretary of Veterans ffairs. This particular event took place at the Veterans conference center at the V headquarters located in Washington D.C. Many members of the President's Cabinet were leaving the administration at this time. The ceremony had a strong impact…
A second example of this results driven issue was my participation in the Secretary's task force for the employment and advancement of women in 2002. This was designed to develop a comprehensive plan that would help to correct some of the imbalances that were seen between men and women in their employment opportunities and the advancements that they were able to make. In December 2002 the task force met in Washington D.C. In order to begin work and identified that there were several major categories that the comprehensive plan would need in order to address the current situation. These included data collection and analysis, business case, and an implementation plan that was related to the Department's strategic plan. A great deal of data and feedback was collected and analyzed by the task force from many different sources regarding the task force efforts.
The task force met again in January 2003 to help develop a draft report and refine the efforts for data collection in order to ensure not only accuracy and validity but relevance to the VA as well. Focus groups were conducted in March 2003 in Los Angeles, New York, Washington D.C., and Little Rock. These cities were selected to ensure representation of both men and women from as many departmental organizational elements as was possible. These focus groups helped to validate the concerns that were raised during the first meeting that took place in 2002 with the Secretary and helped to assist the task force further in developing strategies that would succeed.
Personally, I led the subcommittee on researching best practices for the report that was ultimately created by the task force. I led focus groups, researched relevant information, and developed the best practices section that went in the final report. At that time, the committee had been in existence for one year. The report was accepted as a blueprint throughout the Department and this indicated that the task force report provided meaningful and effective strategies for success that were not only feasible but were cost-effective and cross-functional to other minority groups as well. The report also helped to link this information to the VA's organizational goals and objectives. By implementing these strategies, measurable improvements and results will be seen which will help individuals assess their behaviors and identify different and better approaches that they might take in the future.
paintings by David and Raoux would have to begin by pointing out that, although both painters dealt with scenes from classical antiquity, they did so almost 100 years apart. As a result, each artist brought to whatever story he was illustrating the preferences and styles of his own generation, not to mention a hint at the political situation in which he found himself.
Raoux (born 1677, died 1734) lived during The Enlightenment, an intellectual movement associated with the 18th century. Paris was, along with London, a center for the growing belief that human reason "could be used to combat ignorance, superstition, and tyranny and to build a better world." (SU eb site) Particularly, the thinkers of The Enlightenment wanted to be free of the constraints of religion as practiced then, and of the domination of society by an hereditary aristocracy. (SU eb site)
Raoux, in his painting Orpheus and Eurydice,…
Jean Raoux." Biography, retrieved 12 April 2004 at http://www.getty.edu/art/collections/bio/a197-1.html
Vidal, Mary. "David's Telemachus and Eucharis: Reflections on Love, Learning, and History."
The Art Bulletin, 1 December 2000.
The Enlightenment." Retrieved 12 April 2004 at http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~brians/hum_303/enlightenment.html
these little slivers of plastic provide commerce at the swipe of a wrist, but every time that card is swiped, the time, date, location, value, and often the items of a purchase are recorded several times over, by banks, credit card companies, superstores, fashion chains, transport industries, and many other points on the economic tree (Trango, n.d.). These details, over time, can and are used to create a 'picture' of you and your buying habits; Can you be trusted to pay back a loan? What times do you usually come into a store? Do you take public transport because you can or because its cheaper? What bra size are you? All of these details can be correlated over time, and can often then be sold onto third parties for marketing purposes, and, depending on where you are, that information can all be sold including your name and address. (The EU…
1. Schenkel, G. (2009, September 17). Livewave cctv system. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_pia_ice_livewave.pdf
2. Trango, . (n.d.). Wireless surveillance systems & homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.trangobroadband.com/solutions/security-surveillance-cctv-systems.aspx
3. Ng, K. (2010, April 20). Why Cctv is a priority for asian homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2010/apr/20/cctv-priority-asian-govts/
4. Post, . (2002). Cctv. POSTNOTE, (175), Retrieved from http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn175.pdf http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23412867-tens-of-thousands-of-cctv-cameras-yet-80-of-crime-unsolved.do
limiting free speech ID: 53711
The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.
Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…
Curtis, M.K. (1995). Critics of "Free Speech" and the Uses of the Past. Constitutional Commentary, 12(1), 29-65. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Dan, W. (1989). On Freedom of Speech of the Opposition. World Affairs, 152(3), 143-145.
Reflections and Farewell. (2002). Social Work, 47(1), 5+. Retrieved August 5, 2005, from Questia database,
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
They are only trying to justify their actions; they are handing excuses, telling the events as they happened. And in the end maybe these characters do find an excuse, the one that they are both human, bound to fail and to be influenced, sharing the same planet and dealing with the same kind of people. The two personages enjoyed having power and realized in the end that having power doesn't necessary make them omniscient.
oth Robert McNamara and Yuri Orlov had the lives of numerous people in their hands. Maybe these characters felt the need to retell all their stories, in order to let all the demons trapped inside their conscious out.
The characters presented in the two movies were able to depict the laws and needs of man and rose above law; they become a sort of demigod. In Yuri's case this was shown during his tramping across west…
1. The Fog of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_fog_of_war
2. Lord of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_of_war
3. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower
4. Military-industrial complex. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/military_industrial_complex
When thee Lady says that's he wants both the men to keep their hands off their respective swords and sit down to discuss the matter in a civil and proper manner, and states that's he does not want to hear any more raised voices, Brodie loses his temper and says "Guidsakes Woman! You're no addressin' twa weans." (Farewell Ploy)
When Lady Kate responds by saying "at times I wonder," the entire audience cannot help but burst into laughter at this comment aimed at two elderly men who have been quarrelling and arguing over nothing very serious enough to warrant the drawing of swords and other such actions. Another similar comical moment comes when Sir Henry Milburn says that yes, Brodie Broadsword had indeed kidnapped his son and was keeping him against his will in an unknown place, and he had indeed sent Sir Henry a ransom note with various demands…
Alan Richardson. Retrieved at http://www2.bc.edu/~richarad/hpage.html. Accessed on 14 June, 2005
Brodie the Broadsword. Retrieved at http://www.playsbyalanrichardson.co.uk/ brodie.htm. Accessed on 14 June, 2005
Brodie the Broadsword: Scottishplays.co.uk. Retrieved at http://www.scottishplays.co.uk/cgi-bin/showplay.asp?playno=254Accessed on 14 June, 2005
Farewell Ploy. Retrieved at
scholar and poet Xu Zhimo developed a style that challenged the traditional poetic styles of china but more importantly challenged the ideas of freedom, morality and love. Xu demonstrated a modernity that included the self as the object of poetic works and he wrote largely without regard for the linguistic constraints of classic Chinese poetry in what would later become known as a free form style. A careful analysis of a few of Xu Zhimo's selected poems will demonstrate for the reader the innovative new ways Xu Zhimo dealt with anxieties and solitudes, hesitations and doubts, nostalgia and expectancy, exile and dreams, all constant themes in romantic minds and works.
In his work Chance, one can his demonstration of the ideals of love and longing, a chance meeting in the night with the language of nature. In and out of one another's lives, with no real authority to remain:
Gunn, Edward M. Style and Innovation in Twentieth-Century Chinese Prose Style and Innovation in Twentieth-Century Chinese Prose. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991.
Ohio State University "Xu Zhimo (1895-1931): Biography" Retrieved May 30, 2004 at http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/denton2/courses/c503/xzm.htm.
Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature -1995 "Xu Zhimo"
Xu Zhimo: "Chance" and It's A Coward World" Retrieved May 30, 2004 at http://search.able2know.com/Books____Literature/Poetry/X/Xu_Zhimo/index.html .
Beyond Separation of Powers
As high school students we all learned about the Constitutional separation of powers. With each of the three branches of government -- the judicial, executive, and legislative -- having the power to limit the power of the others, no one aspect of government could hold the American people hostage. This was the structure that the Framers put into effect to ensure that Americans would have an efficient, but humane, system of government. It was also, from its inception, an idealistic one. Indeed, perhaps too idealistic, for while it is good for democracy to have power divided among many rather than only a few, it is in human nature to want to concentrate power within oneself.
Thus over the over two-and-a-quarter- centuries of our nation's history, people have devised various extra-Constitutional methods for accumulating power. This paper examines three different ways in which individuals and political and…
deHaven-Smith, L & Van Horn, C. (2005). Subgovernment conflict in public policy. Policy studies journal 12(4): 627-642.
Frank, T. ( 24 June 2009). Obama and 'regulatory capture'.
Jones, M. & Jenkins-Smith, H. (2009). Trans-subsystem dynamics: Policy topography, mass opinion, and policy change. The policy studies journal 37(1).
Otter and Crocket
Crockett considered life as an absolute saga, coupled with the added charisma of undeniable reality and his virtue was that he was willing to devote his life for his loved ones and fellow countrymen. However in spite of his virtues there were also dubious elements involved in Crockett's activities, hence he cannot be considered as a completely virtuous person. Again with regard to William Otter, virtue was in relation to setting things right. However he attempted to dubious means to achieve his ends which raises doubts about his idea of virtue. Finally we shall attempt to have an understanding of the antebellum period and discuss Crockett and Otter in relation to it.
We shall first have a discussion about David Crockett and his understanding of virtue and whether he was virtuous. Crockett considered life as an absolute saga, coupled with the added charisma of undeniable reality and…
Andrew, Paul Hutton. A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett of the State of Tennessee.
University of Nebraska Press, 1987
Stott, Richard B. ed. William Otter: History of My Own Times. Ithaca: Cornell University
Many young people voted for Reagan as he represented rebellion against the authority figures in society but was a rebellion characterized by valiance and effectuated through skillful communication. The approval rating of Reagan was approximately 42% when 1982 began but dropped to the record low 35% later that same year. The U.S. entered a recession. If one is to set their focus upon obtaining a chance at being the President of the United States, then that individual must take a political stance and hold a view that is somewhat differential from the opposing party. In the case of Ronald Reagan, who had been a democrat for most of his life, it was the democratic party that he must debate against in the attempt to establish a better public platform that the opposing candidate. Ronald Reagan may be viewed as a 'come-lately' at the time he entered the political scene at…
Jordan, C. (2003) Movies and the Reagan Presidency: Success and Ethics. Praeger June, 2003.
McChesney, R.W. And Nichols, J. (2002) Our Media, Not Theirs: The Democratic Struggle against Corporate Media. Seven Stories Press, 2002.
Curry, Tom (2004) Ronald Reagan, 1911-2004: An Indefatibable optimist who set American on a Consdervative Course: MSNBC Online avaialble at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3638299/
Kashani, Tony (2004) Hollywood as an Agent of Hegemony: The War Film. Dissendent Voice Online available at http://www.dissidentvoice.org/Aug04/Kashani0807.htm
The Search for the Truth in Rwanda, an argumentative essay
There are those who claim that elgium is the perpetrator in the extermination methods used in Rwanda however, there are those who claim that the Rwandan government itself may be to blame with ties to a loan from the IMF World ank. Among all the arguments leveled the most likely perpetrator of these crimes can be traced back to the Roman Catholic Church, who was the entity to first set a seal upon the Hutus and Tutsi people. This paper will explore the many arguments set forth in the Rwandan genocide event as to who is to blame for the atrocities that occurred.
A rief History of the HUTU & TUTSI of Rwanda:
The genocide, which occurred in Rwanda, has been and still is a hotly debated issue. Over 100 years ago Catholic missionaries created a bogus "pedigree"…
DeSouza, Leo J. (1997) Washington Monthly: Assigning blame in Rwanda: how to break the cycle of revenge in ethnic conflict Washington Monthly [Online] located at: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1316/is_n9_v29/ai_19757663/pg_2
Toussaint, Eric (2004) "Rwanda: The Financiers of the Genocide" [Online] available at: http://www.cadtm.org/article.php3?id_article=611
TOUSSAINT, Eric. 1996. -- Nouvelles revelations sur les ventes d'armes --, 2
p., CADTM 19, Bruxelles, 1996
America was finding its footing, Americans were finding their identity. The spark of revolution trickled down the vine where three men decided to take arms. One took arms by defending the country against the British and securing the role of president of a new country. A second took pen and wrote to inspire the reluctant to declare independence from an unfair Britain. A third took brush and art to establish a painted history of the American revolution along with the first museums to showcase them in.Three notable figures, George Washington, Charles Willson Peale, and Thomas Paine became some of the most influential men of their time.
George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 or February 11, 1731 and died December 14, 1799. He was alive during the time of the American evolution and played a pivotal role in America's victory over Great Britain.He became the first President of the…
Burns, J.M., & Dunn, S. (2004). George Washington. New York: Times Books.
This source discusses the life anf career of George Washington.
Greene, J.P., & Bailyn, B. (1967). The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. American Historical Review, 11(3), 588-90. doi:10.2307/1849163
This is a journal source that discusses the reasons behind the American Revolution.
Executive ranch Authority to Conduct Foreign Affairs
Executive Power is vested in the President of the United States by Article II of the Constitution. Article II, Section 1, Clause 1 of the American Constitution, called the 'Executive Vesting Clause' has been the constant focus of constitutional analysis, even at the time of its ratification. James Madison and Alexander Hamilton famously debated this clause in 1793, on the specific issue of residual authority given to the President above and beyond powers as enumerated in the Constitution. The power and authority of the President affects not only the President himself, and the two arms of the Congress, but also the freedoms and rights of U.S. citizens. The precise delineation of executive power has been the subject of notable Supreme Court cases particularly with respect to foreign affairs and war. In the United States now, due to the 'War on Terror', issues of…
Article II, Section 2 of the United States Constitution
Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution
Binder, Sarah A. ( Spring 2001).The Senate as a Black Hole: Lessons Learned from the Judicial Appointment Experience. The Booking Review 19.
Bliss, Howard and Johnson, M. Glen. (1975). Beyond the Water's Edge: America's Foreign Policies. (Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott Company).
Then she suffered them, with her two women, to disrobe her of her chain of pomander beads and all other her apparel most willingly, and with joy rather than sorrow, helped to make unready herself, putting on a pair of sleeves with her own hands which they had pulled off, and that with some haste, as if she had longed to be gone.
All this time they were pulling off her apparel, she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, 'that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.'
Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin. She, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, 'Ne crie…
Adamson, John. "The queen ruled by others Traitor to some, martyr to others - John Adamson on the extraordinary life of Mary Queen of Scots," the Sunday Telegraph London, January 4, 2004. 22 July 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-8914626.html .
Colburn H.; Strickland, Mary Agnes. 1845; Digitized Sep. 6, 2005. Letters of Mary, Queen of Scots: Now First Published from the Original. Harvard University. 22 July 2008 http://books.google.com/books?id=lttUoiwDd5AC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Mary,+ueen+of+Scots .
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 22 July 2008 http://www.bartleby.com/66/85/38185.html .
Fraser, Lady Antonia, 2008.. "Mary Queen of Scotland." Encyclopedia Britannica 22 July 2008 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/367467/Mary#tab=active~checked%2Citms~checked&title=Mary%20 -- %20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia.
Although the events and characters' reactions to them have their differences in the interest of plot variety, similarities between the cases far outweigh the differences.
Not only are the events that Nel and Crowe experience and their reactions to them similar, but also both characters have striking revelations at the end of their stories that suggest the importance of the events. In Nel's case, the remembering "the death of chicken little" allows her to "[reconfigure] a number of long-held memories" (Matus, 69). One of those memories, and probably the most poignant is that of Sula. After coming back to the Bottom, Nel is less than friendly with her former confidant. In fact, she joins the rest of the town in labeling Sula and her wild ways as evil, a predicament that helps unite the town. Although Nel and manage a brief reconciliation before Sula's death, the force of the reconciliation…
Matus, Jill. Toni Morrison: Contemporary World Writers. New York: Manchester
University Press, 1998.
Wesselman, Debbie Lee. "Sula." Mostly Fiction. 2006. June 30, 2008. http://www.mostlyfiction.com/contemp/morrison.htm/
Winsbro, Bonnie. Forces: Belief, Deliverance, and Power in Contemporary Works by Ethnic Women. Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993.
The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to show compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. (Tacitus, Book V, a.D. 70). Some of the Jewish customs, such as the burying of the dead instead of burning them, unlike the Romans, are presented by Tacitus as borrowed from the Egyptians. Tacitus describes the Jewish customs and ways of expressing their religion without pretending to understand it. Although disgusted by most of their habits completely strange to him, he is also showing his admiration for these people who proved to be able to stick together at all times and endured since immemorial eras. He is also critical to some of what the…
Tacitus, Cornelius. The Annals of Imperial Rome. Trans. Michael Grant. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1956.
Tacitus Cornelius. Histories. Trans Alfred John Church and William Jackson. Retrieved Nov.30, 2007. 2004 available at http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/t/tacitus/t1h
It is rather like a feud in this respect -- the one who commits the final act of revenge is declared the winner.
Hector is the Trojan warrior whose character differs greatly from that of Achilles and who has very different reasons for fighting. here Achilles fights for glory, Hector sacrifices himself or his family, his country, and his ideals. His dedication to family is apparent as he visits his wife and children while delivering a message away from the battlefield, a clear contrast with the way Achilles ignores family obligations. Hector places himself in harm's way knowingly in service to his city, a contrast with Achilles, who sulks in his tent because of his own pride and not because of any concern for his country. At the same time, both men tend to be reckless, as seen in hector when he is advised by Polydamus to retire from the…
Benjamin, S.G.W. Troy: Its Legend, History and Literature. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1880.
Fagles, Robert (tr.). The Iliad. New York: Viking, 1990.
Scott, John a. The Unity of Homer. New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1965.
great warrior civilizations of antiquity the name "Spartan" invariably arises. Stephen Pressfield in the impressive novel "Gates of Fire" stirringly resurrects these ancient warriors and their society.
Describe the General Storyline of this book.
As the book begins, a captured Spartan squire named Xeones (the sole survivor of the last stand at Thermopylae) is recounting the compelling story of the 300 Spartans who fought to their death at Thermopylae to the Persian King. Xeones's narrative does not restrict itself to just an accounting of the battle but also reflects the trials experienced in his own life, the day-to-day life of Spartan society, and the humanity, compassion, and grief of his fallen brothers in arms.
How does Pressfield present the Spartans and their Society? hat attributes
Characteristics) does he claim that the Spartans exhibited. How did the other Greeks perceive the Spartans?
Pressfield, obvious from the outset of the accounting, justly…
Pressfield, Steven. Gates of Fire. New York: Double Day, 1998
Pop Art on Society
During the fifties, America experienced tremendous growth in many aspects of society. As a result, technological advancements led to sophisticated aspects of American life. Media and advertising became mass media and the invention of the television paved the way to a new generation of communication. This was also an era of exploration among generations. Traditional forms of art began to experience growth and "culture" expanded into many sub-cultures.
Some of the trends that surfaced were New York City turning into an "international center for painting and architecture" (Davidson 1147), mass circulation of paperback books, network television suddenly becoming the world's most powerful form of mass communication, and rock and roll becoming the language of youth (Davidson 1147).
The explosion of such artistic expression was greeted with optimism, but mostly with pessimism, "warning against moral decadence and spiritual decline" (1147). On one had, the "highbrow intellectuals" argued…
Davidson, Gienapp, Heyman, Lytle, and Stoff. Nation of Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1990. 17 December 2002.
Metrailler, Edouard. High in Saccharine, Low in (Moral) Fiber. The Harvard Salient. 7 October 1996. http://www.digitas.harvard.edu/~salient/issues/961007/mediocrity.html17 December 2002.
Morse, Margaret. Pop Art. Biddingtons. 17 December 2002. http://www.biddingtons.com/content/pedigreepop.html17 December 2002.
Myers, Ken. What Distinguishes "popular" Cultures From Other Varieties of Culture? Modern Reformation. http://www.modernreformation.org/mr97/janteb/mr9/01distinguishes.html17 December 2002.
Bob Hope was born Leslie Townes Hope in Eltham, England in 1903; when he was a child, his family moved to Cleveland, Ohio. He died in California in July, 2003, a few months after his 100th birthday. (Fagan, A01) Amazingly, he performed in his last TV special in 1996 at the age of 93.
Bob Hope started out as a young man as a vaudeville song-and-dance man, but moved rapidly to comedy. By 1930, Hope had reached vaudeville's pinnacle, the Palace, and moved on to leading roles in Broadway musicals such as Roberta and Red, Hot and Blue. Next, he began appearing on radio, and then moved to Hollywood, where he starred in 50 films, and had cameos in 15 more. (Fagan, A01) His first movie was The Big Broadcast of 1938 and his last appearance was a cameo in Spies Like Us in 1985.
He also influenced other comedic…
Arnold, Gary. (2003) Bob Hope leaves legacy of memories. The Washington Times, July 29, B05. Retrieved May 5, 2004 from Questia database, www.questia.com.
Fagan, Amy. (2003) Bob Hope dies, leaving a century full of memories; Legendary career included shows for U.S. troops. The Washington Times, July 29, A01. Retrieved May 5, 2004 from Questia database, www.questia.com.
Honeycutt, Kirk. (2003) Film was natural medium for fast-talking quipster. (Bob Hope: 1903-2003). (Biography) Hollywood Reporter, July 29, no page given. Retrieved May 5, 2004 from Highbeam Research database, www.highbeam.com.
George Strait's the Cowboy Rides Away Tour
In January, I had the opportunity to see a musical legend perform. Country singer George Strait has announced that he will be retiring from touring, though he has not announced a retirement from recording new music. His farewell tour is scheduled to last more than a year, with the final concert to occur in Arlington, Texas this summer. One of his scheduled stops was in Austin, Texas in January, 2014. Due to a friend who joined his fan club specifically to be eligible for early ticket sales, I was able to attend this concert. We had been cautioned by the person at the front desk at the hotel where we were staying that traffic was predicted to be very bad and to leave ourselves plenty of time for travel to the venue, despite being within just a few miles of the concert. It…
Hannah Hoch was an artist most known for her work in between the wars—the Weimar period, in which the Dada Movement came to the fore to challenge the sensibilities and pretensions of the early 20th century. Dada was as much a protest against the bourgeois as it was a slap in the face of the rising Fascist Movement. Hitler despised the Dadaists and the Dadaists despised him. Hoch counted herself as one among the Dadaists during the Weimar period—a period in which art and life came into intense conflict, while the universal stage was being set for the final showdown between the new and the old in WWII. For that reason—and for the reason that Hoch’s art gets to the heart of the changes that society was undergoing during that time of upheaval—I have selected Hannah Hoch as the focus of this paper. She is important to our textbook…
Spade walking down to examine a murder makes use of shadows as well as high black-white contrast in order to convey drama and suspense. This is commonly referred to as the film noir lighting technique because it conveys a sense of mystery and danger. The lighting highlights the most extreme contours of the character's faces, but none of the moderating details such as texture or color. This makes the facial expressions look much more dramatic than they would under normal lighting.
The costumes are also very typical of the film noir genre. Spade is wearing a black wool overcoat and a fedora and his counterpart from the police station is wearing the same outfit. This is a style of dress associated with detectives, who sometimes had to conceal their identity and not stand out. The overcoat conceals much of the person's figure and could conceal weapons or other objects.
Male ithout Female
In the classic films of the 1940s and 1950s, filmmakers tended to use very strict representations of gender in their characters. omen could be either virgins or tramps and men could be either heroes or villains. There was very little transgression of the stereotypical boundaries of character. Society as a whole during this period was heavily masculine. Men made up the executives and the politicians and of course the majority of the powerful filmmakers. Consequentially, the perspective of most films and literature of the era was decidedly masculine. Female characters were heavily marginalized and forced into one of the two categories listed above. In two works from the period, The Big Sleep and The Maltese Falcon, the women characters are portrayed as useless or as venomous and evil. Some scholars have speculated that the reason behind such portrayals is the basic male fantasy which is a world…
Ahearn, William. "The Mystery of the Maltese Falcon." 2008. Print.
Chandler, Raymond. The Big Sleep. New York: Vintage, 1992. Print.
"Marlowe, Carmen and Vivian: An Interpretation of The Big Sleep." Word Press. Web. 2012.
Leading Change and Leading People
For more than 20 years, I have been a leader in both the government and in the private business environment. This encompasses both work in the United States Army as a noncommissioned officer, and work in the civilian world within the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs. Leading change requires a great deal of initiative and more than just having a vision for the future. This is an important lesson that I have learned through the experiences in my life and the work that I have done for myself and others throughout my career.
I have been fortunate enough to have been mentored by some very outstanding individuals during my career, and have been promoted 10 times to attain my current grade of GS-15, which indicates that I am able to lead both people and change, get support for programs, influence resources,…