Fda Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Understanding Drugs

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70171420

FDA Drug Approval Process

In order for a pharmaceutical company to obtain FDA approval for a new drug, a long sequence of detailed testing and clinical trials must be administered. The approximate cost of putting a new drug through the approval is $500 million, and it takes an average of fifteen years for a drug to make it from initial testing to being available for patients. Furthermore, of every 5000 compounds that go through pre-clinical testing, only five advance to the human testing phase, and only one of these compounds will actually be approved. There are six key phases of testing that potential drugs go through on the path to FDA approval. These phases are early research / pre-clinical testing, clinical trials (phase I, phase II and phase III), FDA approval, and post-marketing testing.

The first phase of the drug approval process is pre-clinical testing. This consists of laboratory and…… [Read More]

References

Siegfried, J. The Drug Development and Approval Process.

Class notes, Development and Marketing of Drugs.
View Full Essay

Dietary Supplements

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53766866

FDA egulations

The FDA is responsible for the regulation of both dietary supplements and dietary ingredients. They are not regulated as food products, but are governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). The companies that market these products are responsible for ensuring that they are correctly branded and that they are unadulterated. However, the FDA does not regulate them as drugs (FDA, 2014).

I believe that this approach is adequate. I do not believe that supplements should be regulated in the same way that drugs are. There are several reasons for this. The major reason is the cost-benefit. The FDA exists to protect the public. The cost of the new drug approval process is tremendous -- it can take years and millions to bring a new drug to market, and the costs to the FDA are not inconsequential. With pharmaceuticals, this is a necessary process…… [Read More]

References

ACS (2015). Dietary supplements: What is safe? American Cancer Society. Retrieved March 31, 2015 from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/dietarysupplements/dietary-supplements-intro

FDA. (2014). Dietary supplements. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Retrieved March 31, 2015 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/DietarySupplements/
View Full Essay

Robins and Robins

Words: 1013 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2042389

Robins & Robins

THE RIGHT THING TO DO

Robbins & Robbins

Possible Defenses by Casings, Inc.

It was the primary responsibility of Robbins & Robbins to have foreknown the risk of explosives getting into its medication before it entered into any formal agreement with Casings, Inc. Although both companies share the ethical responsibility, Robbins & Robbins should have had the greater interest in avoiding the risk. Second, the accounting firm, which worded the clause, was selected by Robbins & Robbins and was necessarily partial towards the company. And the clause was written in small 9-point font and on page 285, signifying the minimal significance given by the framer of the contract and agreed to by Robbins & Robbins. And lastly, Robbins & Robbins had known about the contamination two months before making the recall.

lanchard and Peale Analysis

Their first of three ethics checks to determine whether a decision is…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Evers, S. (2009). Business ethics and social responsibility. Chapter 4. Reindance

Productions LLC: University of Carolina Wilmington. Retrieved on February 25,

2014 from  http://www.csb.uncw.edu/people/eversp/classes/BLA361/Powerpoint/361-4a.Ethics.pdf 

Lankard, B. (1991). Resolving ethical dilemmas in the workdplace: a new focus on adult career. ERIC Digests: ERIC Clearinghouse and Vocational Education. Retrieved on February 25, 2014 from http://www.ericdigests.org/pre_9220/focus.htm
View Full Essay

PDUFA - New Drug User Fees

Words: 714 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38013007

Future egulatory Improvements (FDA)

The Prescription Drug User Fee Act allows the FDA to collect fees from drug manufacturers to fund the new drug approval process. The new drug approval process is costly for both drug companies and for the FDA. The latter is funded primarily through the federal government, so this law allowed the FDA to be more self-funded. Theoretically, this would also allow it to charge fees that reflected the costs associated with conducting new drug approvals. The legislation also contained a provision that requires the FDA to conduct its approvals at a certain speed. Essentially, the bill came about because there was the risk that the FDA was going to be very slow in approving new drugs, because it was short on money. The FDA in particular was concerned at the pace Congress was providing it with more funding, during the eagan years. This was resulting in…… [Read More]

References

Berndt, E., Gottschalk, A., Philipson, T. & Strobeck, M. (2004). Assessing the impact of the Prescription Drug User Fee Acts (PDUFAs) on the FDA approval process. NBER Working Paper No. 10822.

Kronquist, A. (2011). The Prescription Drug User Fee Act: History and Reauthorization issues for 2012. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved March 31, 2015 from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/12/the-prescription-drug-user-fee-act-history-and-reauthorization-issues-for-2012
View Full Essay

Direct to Consumer Advertising History of Drug

Words: 16271 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71118969

Direct to Consumer Advertising

HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING

THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN

CREATING DEMAND

DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING

CAUSE F DEATH

PRFIT

UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS

LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS

LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC

RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS

In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.

Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]

On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.

Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.

In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
View Full Essay

Syringe in My Pepsi Can

Words: 2051 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51386054

Yet, the benefits of the technique above could have turned into disadvantages if the spokesperson lost his temper, didn't know what to answer or provided details that shouldn't have reached the media.

Fourthly, the corporation established non-stop toll-free numbers. These offered two major benefits: the softening of the corporate image (PepsiCo appeared as an entity open to dialogue and concerned about the safety of its consumers) and the permanent feedback provided by consumers. Yet, the main drawback is that some joking callers could use a false identity and report untrue events just to put the company on the wrong track and make it lose time. However, benefits are heavier than drawbacks, in this case.

Fifthly, the corporation used a slogan at the end of the crisis - "Pepsi is pleased to announce...nothing." This was a witty remark suggesting that the company remained the producer of the same qualitative beverage and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Gordon, K.T. (2001). Under Fire - How a Small Business Can Handle a PR Problem. On the Internet at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DTI/is_4_29/ai_73121444.Retrieved July 6, 2007.

2. Richardson, K. (2006). Public Relations in a Crisis: How to Make the Web Work for You. On the Internet at: www.sideroad.com/Public_Relations/public_relations_crisis.html. Retrieved July 6.

3. Internet Usage Statistics - the Big Picture (2007). On the Internet at: www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Retrieved July 6.
View Full Essay

Food and Drug Law in

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77408681

S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)

The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.

Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Medical Devices

Words: 1016 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54098253

MedSun

Patton-Fuller Community Hospital

The need for reporting on adverse events related to medical device usage has never before been more salient. Medical technology has certainly been responsible for improving the quality of care, the quality of life, as well as health outcomes. However, at the same time, medical devices are being developed and released at a much faster rate than ever before. To monitor the progress and the safety of these devices, it requires a centralized monitoring system to evaluate outcomes; especially the adverse outcomes. This can allow the monitoring of devices that have issues associated with them in an efficient and effective manner and would give regulators a better opportunity to stop the usage of devices with questionable track records.

The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Engleman, D., Rish, S., Powell, T., & Flack, M. (2008). Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) Collaborates with Medical Product Users to Create Specialty Subnetworks . Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Volume I.

FDA. (N.d.). MedSun: Medical Product Safety Network. Retrieved from U.S. Food and Drug Administration:  http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/Safety/MedSunMedicalProductSafetyNetwork/default.htm 

FDA. (N.d.). MedSun: Subnetworks. Retrieved from U.S. Food and Drug Administration: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/medsun/news/subnetworks.cfm

MedSun. (2014, September). Highlighted Reports. Retrieved from MedSun: Newsletter #99, September 2014: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/medsun/news/newsletter.cfm?news=99#5
View Full Essay

Sugar Substitutes Sweet but Deadly Health Concerns

Words: 4359 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62558376

Sugar Substitutes

SWEET BUT DEADLY?

Health Concerns and isks of Using Sugar Substitutes

Sweets and sugar-sweetened pop or soft drinks have recently been blamed for an increasing number of negative health conditions, such as overweight and diabetes. This has led solid soft drink consumers to turn to artificially sweetened soft drinks as substitutes. The safety of artificial sweeteners or sugar substitutes has been questioned but the impact of high intakes of artificial sweeteners on pregnant women has hardly been addressed.

The association between intakes of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and preterm delivery will be investigated.

Prospective cohort analyses of 20,000 women from the Buenos Aires national birth cohort (2012-2014) will be conducted. Their soft drink intake for more than 10 years will be assessed in mid-pregnancy through the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. The primary outcome measure will be preterm delivery at less than 37 weeks. Other information…… [Read More]

Reference: National Center

for Biomedical Communication. Retrieved on September 29, 2012 from http://www.ghr.nol.nih.gov/condition/tetrahydrobiopterin-deficiency

- (2012). Phenylketonuria. Retrieved on September 29, 2012 from http://www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition-phenylketonuria

Islam, M.S. (2011). Effects of xylitol as a sugar substitute on diabetes-related parameters in non-diabetic rats. Vol 14 # 5 Journal of Medicinal Foods: S. Karger AG, Basel. Retrieved on September 29, 2012 from   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /pubmed/21434778 

Islam, M.S. And Indrajit, M. (2012). Effects of xylitol on blood glocuse tolerance, serum insulin, and lipid profile in a type 2 diabetes model of rats. Vol 61 # 1 Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism: S. Karger AG, Basel. Retrieved on September 28, 2012
View Full Essay

Therac-25 Relevant Stakeholders the Patients

Words: 1587 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30336947

Thus, if any of us was one of the "actors', we would be tempted to judge each alternative in a subjective manner. If we were the patients, the AECL board or the hospitals we would want Therac-25 to be approved. If we were the public or FDA we would want the equipment out of the market.

The main alternative to the reality would have been for AECL to take under consideration a software error. One other alternative would have been for the company to assign more accurate probabilities for hazard occurrence, while running the Fault Tree Analysis. Finally, the third alternative would have been to use a better method to determine hazard occurrence. A better method is a method that would have been capable to return higher risks associated with the use of Therac-25 and which would have determined AECL to adjust the equipment. The first alternative is superior to…… [Read More]

Reference List

Bentham J. (1996) "The Principles of morals and legislation," Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.

Griffin J. (1986), "Well Being," New York: Oxford University Press.

Margolis H. (1996), "Dealing with risk: why the public and the experts disagree on environmental issues," Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Roberts, M.J. & M.R.Reich (2002), "Ethical analysis in public health," the Lancet, Vol. 359: pp. 1055-1059.
View Full Essay

Adverse Effects Associated with Hyland Teething Tablets

Words: 723 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98121663

Hyland's Teething Tables

What evidence exists about the adverse events associated with Hyland's teething tablets?

According to investigations conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding the Hyland's teething tablets in 2010, it was established that the drug does contain belladonna. Belladonna is a substance known to cause serious harm when consumed in huge doses. The FDA recognized whenever such a product was being used there should be careful controls in place to ensure that the amount being used is properly measured and controlled. According to the FDA laboratory results, it was established that Hyland's teething tablets contained inconsistent amounts of belladonna (Food and Drug Administration, 2016). This shows that the amounts specified by the company on its website is not true and each dosage of the drug could have too much or too little. Therefore, it would not be wise to use the drugs until there is…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Ethical and Legal Issues Related to Product Safety Marketing and Intellectual Property

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34100951

Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property

Legal and ethical considerations

Ethical issues

PharmaCAE intentionally bypassed the Food and Drug Administration when it established CompCAE a compounding pharmacy. This was done in order to avoid FDA scrutinization, which indicates that the company was aware of the side effects that the drug would have on patients. By evading FDA scrutiny and approval, PharmaCAE was able to sell the new formulation on a prescription basis without the need to seek approvals. CompCAE was not supposed to market directly to consumers, but it still conducted direct marketing to consumers and hospitals. Furthermore, the company encouraged doctors to fax them lists of fictitious patient names. This was done to demonstrate that the company was not selling directly to consumers, but rather it was doctors who were prescribing the drug to the patients.

When reports started surfacing indicating that the drug was causing heart attacks, the…… [Read More]

References

Halbert, T., & Ingulli, E. (2011). Law and ethics in the business environment. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Kim, Y.K., Lee, K., Park, W.G., & Choo, K. (2012). Appropriate intellectual property protection and economic growth in countries at different levels of development. Research policy, 41(2), 358-375.

Liu, W., KNOx, C.A., & Brushwood, D.B. (2013). Discretion of the Food and Drug Administration to enforce compounding rules. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH-SYSTEM PHARMACY, 70(17), 1538-1543.

Peffer, S.L., Bocheko, A., Del Valle, R.E., Osmani, A., Peyton, S., & Roman, E. (2013). Whistle Where You Work? The Ineffectiveness of the Federal Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 and the Promise of the Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 0734371X13508414.
View Full Essay

Dietary Pills and Dietary Supplements

Words: 2207 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78892272

Any weight loss, say doctors, is good weight loss. If there is some minor contribution the medication gives to the whole process, then that's positive. If taken strictly according to instructions, at worst, diet pills are harmless for the most part.

Effects of Dietary Supplements

The FDA regulates dietary supplements only in that it is required to ensure their safety. A manufacturer is not required to register a supplement or have it approved prior to going to market with it. They must only make certain the product is safe. It is the FDA's post-sales responsibility to keep them safe. Manufacturers must ensure that the label on the product is accurate and not misleading in any way.

There are definite benefits in taking dietary supplements per directions. They can assist anyone in obtaining nutrients not consumed through a balanced diet. And some can reduce the risk of certain diseases even though,…… [Read More]

Bibliography faqs.org. "Dietary Supplements." 2008. Internet FAQ Archives. 19 July 2009 .

Foodanddiet.com. "pills." n/d. Foodanddiet.com. 19 July 2009 .

Saper, R.B., D.M. Eisenberg and R.S. Phillips. "Common Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss." 1 November 2004. American Academy of Family Physicians. 19 July 2009 .

Tank, C. "Should I use over-the-counter diet aids?" 14 May 2008. WebMD.com. 19 July 2009 .

Zeratsky, K. "Nutrition and Healthy Eating." 14 February 2008. Mayo Clinic. 19 July 2009 .
View Full Essay

Energy Drinks Should the Powerful

Words: 1145 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28675408

The Living Essentials company claims it markets its high-powered beverage (which is sold in a 2-oz bottle as a "shot") to "…hardworking adults who need an extra boost of energy" (Meier, p. 2).

Another article in the respected New York Times reports that in addition to the 13 fatalities linked to 5-Hour Energy, another 5 deaths have been linked to "Monster Energy" (Meier, 2012). These data were released by the FDA in November, 2012, because, according to spokeswoman Shelly Burgess, the FDA is making "…an effort to be transparent" (Meier, p. 1). hile the FDA did not officially find the product at fault -- at this point there are linkages but no empirical proof that the deaths were a direct result of consuming the energy drinks -- Burgess added that if a "relationship between the consumption of the product and harm" can be proved, the FDA will take "appropriate action…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Huffpost. "Energy Drinks Hire Lobbyists to Fend Off Regulation." Retrieved March 6, 2013,

from  http://www.huffingtonpost.com .

Meier, Barry. "Caffeinated Drink Cited in Reports of 13 Deaths." The New York Times.

Retrieved March 6, 2013, from  http://www.nytimes.com . 2012.
View Full Essay

Safety as Prescribed by the

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58233193

S. Department of Health and Human Services et al., 2006). This first study will involve limited human exposure and extreme caution.

Most significantly, the study itself has to be based on sound scientific principles with a thorough knowledge of the properties of the chemical, and the potential results on the human subject. Standard clinical safety evaluations will include serial assessment of patient symptoms, physical signs, and clinical laboratory tests amongst other tests monitoring possible adverse effects. These tests will be of sufficient duration in order to catch potential negative effects. Safety hazards for patients and health care workers during and after administration of the radio labeled product will also be identified, evaluated and appropriately managed.

Finally, as prescribed by Section 505(d) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) (21 U.S.C. 355(d)), adequate tests must be taken on the drug first before applying to a human individual. The…… [Read More]

References

Farde, L. et al., 2007 Using Positron Emission

Tomography (PET) microdosing. Focus, The Organisation for Professionals in Regulatory Affairs,1-8

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services et al. (2006). Guidance for Industry, Investigators, and Reviewers Office of Training and Communication, http://www.fda.gov/cder/guidance/index.htm

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration et al. (2004). Guidance for Industry Developing Medical Imaging Drug and Biological Products Division of Drug Information HFD-240 http://www.fda.gov/cder/guidance/index.htm.
View Full Essay

Integrating Theory and Needs Assessment

Words: 1864 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76917577

Integrating Theory and Needs Assessment

A major challenge that a number of health care facilities are facing is accidents related to medical devices. This is from many providers becoming overwhelmed with larger amounts of patients. As a result, the odds have increased of overworked staff members making some kind of error. Evidence of this can be seen in a study that was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) along with the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). They found that between 1999 and 2000 there was a total of 454,383 injuries. ("Estimated 454,383 People," 2004) To deal with these issues the FDA has implemented the MedSun project. This was launched in 2002 with the regulators working in conjunction with hospitals to reduce the number of errors from medical devices. Moreover, the program is built upon the principals of the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990, the Medical Devices Amendments…… [Read More]

References

Estimated 454,383 People. (2004). News Medical. Retrieved from:  http://www.news-medical.net/news/2004/09/10/4655.aspx 

Medical Devices. (2012). FDA. Retrieved from: http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/Safety/MedSunMedicalProductSafetyNetwork/ucm112683.htm

Medical Devices. (2012). FDA. Retrieved from:  http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/Safety/ReportaProblem/default.htm 

Preventing Medication and Medical Device Errors. (2011). WSNA. Retrieved from: http://www.wsna.org/Topics/Patient-Safety/Adverse-Events/Errors/
View Full Essay

Government Created a Committee an Electronic Health

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3030372

Government Created a Committee

An electronic health record is a digital record of a patient's health information generated from every medical visit a patient makes. This information includes the patient's medical history, demographics, known drug allergies, progress notes, follow up visits, medications, vital signs, immunizations, laboratory data and radiological reports. The EH automates and streamlines a clinician's workflow. (Himss, 2009)

Due to the multiple advantages of an EH, health care agencies have been aiming to push up this technology. In 2004, the FDA approved of an implantable EH microchip into patients. Each microchip has a specific code which is identified through sensors. The device is implanted under the skin, in the back of the arm, requiring a twenty minute procedure, without needing the use of sutures. ("Fda approves computer," 2004)

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, deaths due to preventable medical errors rank as the fifth most…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (2011, October 24). Deaths and mortality. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/deaths.htm 

Fda approves computer chip for humans. (2004, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6237364/ns/health-health_care/t/fda-approves-computer-chip-humans/

Himss. (2009, September 2). Implanet using ibm software to protect patients in the event of medical device recalls. Retrieved from  http://www.healthcareitnews.com/press-release/implanet-using-ibm-software-protect-patients-event-medical-device-recalls 

Prutchi, D. (2011, December 30). Verimed's human-implantable verichip patient rfid. Retrieved from  http://www.implantable-device.com/2011/12/30/verimeds-human-implantable-verichip-patient-rfid/
View Full Essay

Alzheimer's Disease The Onset as

Words: 3283 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31971086

What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions

There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…… [Read More]

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.

Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002

Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
View Full Essay

Marketing Product Safety and Intellectual Property Legal

Words: 2675 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46206825

Marketing

Product Safety, And Intellectual Property

Legal and Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual

Ethics and legal issues refer to the morals and principles that govern the behavior and conduct of individuals or organizations. These legal principles and ethics serve to guide and offer directions on how to act or respond when faced with moral dilemmas. Marketing, advertising and product safety are areas of importance to everyone in the community. Production, distribution and use of products or services are areas guided by the laws of the land. The laws function to protect the community from exploitation or mishandling by the participants in the above sectors. In the marketing and advertising framework, the concept of ethics deals with personal moral principles and values. Under this framework, the society understands that laws are values and standards that are enforceable in the court. In the production of goods and services, the…… [Read More]

References

Ventola, C.L. (2011). Direct-to-Consumer Pharmaceutical Advertising. Journal List, 36 (10), 669-674,681-684. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov > Journal List > PT > v. 36 (10); Oct 2011

Hurd, H.M. (1996). Deontology of Negligence, The. BUL Rev., 76, 249.

Carden, S. (2006). Virtue ethics: Dewey and Maclntyre. New York: Continuum International

publishing group
View Full Essay

Cranberries Vaccinium Macrocarpon Are Indigenous

Words: 1750 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92232797

A., eynolds, Y., odriguez, G., Camesano, T.A. (2008). Cranberry changes the physicochemical surface properties of E. coli and adhesion with uroepithelial cells. Colloids Surf B. Biointerfaces. 2008 Feb 26 [Epub ahead of print]. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378432?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum

Mirkin, G. (2003). Acid/Alkaline Theory of Disease Is Nonsense. Quackwatch. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryelatedTopics/DSH/coral2.html

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Cranberry. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://nccam.nih.gov/health/cranberry/

Natural Standard esearch Collaboration (2006). Cranberry. MedlinePlus. etrieved April 6, 2008 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-cranberry.html

az, ., Chazan, B., Dan, M. (2004). Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 15;38(10):1413-9. Epub 2004 Apr 26. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15156480?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum

Schmidt, D.. & Sobota, a.E. (1988). An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios. 1988;55(224-225):173-81.

Sobota, a.E. (1984). Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment…… [Read More]

References

The Cranberry Institute. Emerging research. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.cranberryinstitute.org/emerging.htm

Duthie, S.J., Jenkinson, a.M., Crozier, a., Mullen, W., Pirie, L., Kyle, J., Yap, L.S., Christen, P., Duthie, G.G. (2006). The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur J. Nutr. 2006 Mar;45(2):113-22. Epub 2005 Jul 20. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /pubmed/16032375?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA

Greenberg, J., Newmann, S.J. & Howell, a.B. (2005). Consumption of sweetened dried cranberries vs. unsweetened raisins for inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesion in human urine: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):875-8. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at
View Full Essay

Market Driven Management

Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32150042

Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
View Full Essay

People in Every Walk of

Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71668136

Instead, the research shows that the faster pace of the review process was due to where financial resources went -- to FDA staffing -- not where it came from. The more funding for review scientists there is, the more scientists are on staff, and more work gets completed at a faster rate. The study found that the decrease in turnover time from application submission to completed review began a few years before the passage of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, thus before the collection of those user fees started (Carpenter et al., 2003).

The question for us to consider is whether the increased efficiency observed by Carpenter et al. means that the FDA is moving back toward a Type I error orientation from the Type II orientation observed by Miller et al. Viewing the drug review process along the dimension of rate of review alone might suggest that a…… [Read More]

References

Carpenter, D., Chernew, M., Smith, D.G., & Fendrick, a.M. (2003, December 17). Approval

times for new drugs: does the source of funding for FDA staff matter? Health Affairs, w3

- 618-623.

Miller, R.L., Benjamin, D.K., & North, D.C. (2005). Terrible trade-off. In R.L. Miller, D.K.
View Full Essay

Teenage Breast Augmentation This Is

Words: 5573 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60862518

In the case of breast augmentation, the parent must guide the minor to the right decision -- and that is usually not to have the surgery unless it is necessary for the teen's overall health. It is up to the adult to think responsibly. There are dangers to any surgery and infections are not among the least of them. Perhaps low self-esteem is a reason for counseling by a professional, but not necessarily reason to alter one's body artificially.

The ethical responsibilities of the parent in a discussion with their underage teen regarding whether or not to have her breast augmented, are even greater and more impacting than the legal issues.

The 1800 girls under the age of 18 who had their breasts augmented last year alone are under the ethical (and rational) reasoning of the parent. These are the parents who are taking out financing to do the surgery…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agence France-Presse Newswire Service. Germany to Ban Cosmetic Surgery for Children. Paris, 23 April 2008.

Annas, George. The rights of patients: The basic ACLU guide to patient rights. New York City: Humana Press, 1992.

Clough, Craig. "Doc Urges Caution on Teen Breast Implants." 4 April 2008. lifewhile.com. 3 August 2009 .

Duenwald, Mary. "How Young is Too Young to Have a Nose Job and Breast Implants." New York Times 28 September 2004: F5.
View Full Essay

Pharma Parallel Trade

Words: 1456 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7055403

Healthcare

Making Prescription Drugs Affordable?

Parallel Trade and the Pharmaceutical Industry

The skyrocketing cost of prescription drugs remains one of the most contentious issues in America. In this presidential election year, especially, politicians are continually debating ways to make life-saving drugs more affordable. Alone in the world, the United States prohibits the free importation of prescription medications from abroad. Yet, as is so often pointed out by those in favor of changing the law, such drugs are nearly always much less expensive in foreign countries - even medicines that are actually manufactured by American corporations. Of central importance in the argument is the precise rationale for current pricing levels. The pharmaceutical companies and their allies claim that high prices are necessary to finance the continuing innovation of American medicine. Foreign nations, they say, artificially control drug costs, thereby depriving corporations of the sizeable funds required for new research. New medications…… [Read More]

References

Barry, Patricia. "States in Revolt Look to Canada for Rx Drugs: States Defy Federal Laws, Industry on Drug Purchases." AARP Bulletin Online. AARP, November 2003. URL: http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/Articles/a2003-11-05-states_revolt.html.

Statement of William K. Hubbard, Associate Commissioner for Policy and Planning, U.S. Food and Drug Administration before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 14 July 2004.

Would Prescription Drug Importation Reduce U.S. Drug Spending?" A Series of Issue Summaries from the Congressional Budget Office. 29 April 2004.

Patricia Barry, "States in Revolt Look to Canada for Rx Drugs: States Defy Federal Laws, Industry on Drug Purchases," AARP Bulletin Online, AARP, November 2003. URL: http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/Articles/a2003-11-05-states_revolt.html.
View Full Essay

Legal and Ethical Considerations in Marketing Product Safety and Intellectual Property

Words: 3091 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88383960

Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property

Ethical issues relating to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of product safety

Various organizations often find themselves in the wrong side of the law when undertaking their various business practices relating to marketing and advertisement. It is the desire of every company to have its product known to as many consumers as possible. This often drives them to employ diverse marketing and advertisement strategies that raise some critical ethical issues. The same also applies to the protection of someone's intellectual property and enhancing product safety. This study focuses on deceit, unfairness, and advertising and children as some of the critical ethical issues related to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of product safety

Deceit

The Federal Trade Commission is a government branch established to battle deception in advertising. As illustrated in the FTC Act of 1914, the FTC is answerable for…… [Read More]

References

Cheeseman, H.R. (2010). The legal environment of business and online commerce: Business ethics, e-commerce, regulatory, and international issues. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Dukes, M.N.G. (2006). The law and ethics of the pharmaceutical industry. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Palmer, D.E. (2010). Ethical issues in e-business: Models and frameworks. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference.

Keillor, B.D., & Wilkinson, T.J. (2011). International business in the 21st century. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
View Full Essay

Health Concerns in the Food

Words: 1396 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29408852

In the UK for instance, there are no guidelines on the issue of nutritional labeling. In some cases nutritional information is ether missing totally or is present in a form which is too complex to be comprehended by the general public.

Therefore, the ongoing discussion between the industry players, health groups and regulators has a focus on making nutritional labeling compulsory as well as making the current system simpler to read and understand. This would the enable the consumers to make their own independent judgments on the type of food that they would like to purchase.

Several proposals have been advanced by the health regulators and watch groups. They include the placing of warning on food and beverages with high energy density as well as linking of the calorie consumption to the energy output by effectively stating how much exercise would be needed to burn off the 'extra' calories in…… [Read More]

Works cited

Ethical Investment Research Services. Obesity concerns in the food and beverage industry (2006) <  http://www.eiris.org/files/research%20publications/seeriskobesityfeb06.pdf >

Greene, Michael ., Menu labeling laws: the right to nutritional information? Prepared as an academic requirement for the agricultural law course at the Pennsylvania state university's Dickinson school of Law Spring semester (2010)

Lackson, Lucas. Most obese countries. Reuters < http://www.reuters.com/news/pictures/slideshow?articleId=USRTXT3DK#a=1>

NIDDK. Overweight and Obesity Statistics (2010). http://win.niddk.nih.gov/publications/PDFs/stat904z.pdf
View Full Essay

Alliance Strategy Analysing the Continuous

Words: 783 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34210009

" Concerning the type of complementary strategic alliance, it is a horizontal one, because it is formed "when partners who agree to combine their resources and skills to create value in the same stage of the value chain," it is focused "on long-term product development and distribution opportunities" and "the partners may become competitors which requires a great deal of trust between the partners."

The answer to the second question is "no," it's not a "competition response strategy" because the two companies are not really competitors, even if the profile for both company is pharmaceutical. Excel research can be consider in this case as an ally, a support for Century Pharmaceuticals, and even as a consultancy company that works for C.P.

The answer to the third question is "yes," it can be an" uncertainty reducing strategy" because if it functions as it is established, it can reduce the uncertainty about…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Hitt Michael a., Ireland R. Duane, Hoskisson Robert a. "Cooperative Strategy." Power Point Presentation by Charlie Cook, the University of West Alabama, and ©2007 Thomson South - Western. All right reserved.

Hitt Michael a., Ireland Duane R., Hoskisson Robert a."Cooperative Strategy" ppt, pg. 9-8

Hitt Michael a., Ireland Duane R., Hoskisson Robert a."Cooperative Strategy" ppt, pg. 9-2

Hitt Michael a., Ireland Duane R., Hoskisson Robert a."Cooperative Strategy" ppt, pg. 9-3
View Full Essay

Sucromate Being a Cattle Breeder

Words: 1270 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45113197

There is proper way of using Sucromates. Firstly, we need to shake it well before use. One dose accounts for 1 ml of Sucromate, which is to be injected 48 hours before desired ovulation. Sucromate Equine is a suspension of deslorelin and so with the passage of time it will settle down (Equine, pg. 9). Therefore, for this we need to warm the product for atleast 2 minutes so that it can reach room temperature. arming is done by rolling the vial between two palms. e should at least wait for 30 more minutes by keeping the vial at room temperature. After this, we need to shake the vial forcefully one minute before use. Then we inject 1 ml of the vial in the neck through an intra-muscular injection.

Sucromate has proven to be quite effective as it advances the ovulation process in the mares within 48 hours after the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bioniche. "Bioniche Obtains Exclusive U.S. Rights to Equine Reproductive Product from CreoSalus." 30-11 2010. Bioniche. 18-09 2012 .

Equine, Sucromate. "SucroMate Equine." 4-07 2011. SucroMate. 18-09 2012 .

Equine, SucroMate. "SucroMate Equine." 12-06 2011. HVS. 18-09 2012 .

-- . "SucroMate Equine (deslorelin acetate) - Veterinarians." 2-09 2011. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 18-09 2012 .
View Full Essay

Business Law During the Consumer Movement of

Words: 1307 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49860033

Business Law

During the consumer movement of the 1960s and 1970s, Congress enacted a substantial amount of legislation to protect "the good of the people." There is only one problem with consumer protection laws -- they are slow to react and even harder to enforce. As a result of this situation, corporations are allowed to profit at the expense of consumers' health. The resistance comes in a number of stages. The first is denial of the problem, wherein the corporations argue that there is not enough evidence to link their products with the negative outcomes that are being reported. Then there is the lobbying that causes politicians to defer action until a later date, or ignore the call to action altogether. Too often, when statutes are enacted, corporations fight them to the end, resulting in flawed legislation that either has loopholes, require interpretation from the judicial branch or is difficult…… [Read More]

References:

Bray, G., Nielsen, S. & Popkin, B. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 79 (4) 537-543.

Goldberg, C. & Zimmerman, R. (2011). What's making us fat? Researchers put food additives on suspect list. Common Health. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from  http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2011/08/food-additives-obesity 

Hellmich, N. (2009). Rising obesity will cost U.S. health care $344 billion a year. USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2009-11-17-future-obesity-costs_N.htm

Miller, R. & Jentz, G. (2010). Business law today: 9th edition. South-Western/Cengage Learning.
View Full Essay

Tylenol Case Analysis Johnson and

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83393004

Johnson and Johnson issued a public relations response immediately naming their number one priority: to aggressively protect any consumer from the potential hazards that may be present in any of their family of products.

Symptoms of the Problem -- Quickly, the crisis reached epic nationwide coverage. The panic that ensued, somewhat as the result of the twenty-four hour media coverage, fueled this panic into a frenzy. One hospital in Chicago, for instance, received 700 calls in one day; while Johnson and Johnson received averaged almost 150 calls per day. Across the country people were admitted into hospitals on suspicion of cyanide poisoning (Tifft, 18). Johnson and Johnson worked rapidly and decisively with the media to disseminate information. When the news spread, copycat criminals began to tamper with the products on the shelves of stores, which only deepened the crisis. ndeed, the FDA confirmed more tampering had taken place, but this…… [Read More]

Identification of Goals - in 1982, Tylenol controlled 37% of the pain killer market, approximately $1.2M and was the leading painkiller in the American market, outselling Anacin, Bayer, Bufferin, and Excedrin. Seventeen to eighteen percent net earnings of Johnson and Johnson were from Tylenol sales. Profits placed Johnson and Johnson in the top half of the Fortune 500 (Berg, 1998). The company had been doing well for years. Stock analysts had actually predicted that Tylenol's market share was poised for up to a 15% growth. In fact, Tylenol was to the product that would lead this company to further success- hat is until the Tylenol laced cyanide crisis came to be. This calamity changed the strategic plan, management goals, and parent to subsidiary goals across the organization -- within a 24-hour period. Instantly, an immediate crisis mode was assumed and a reassessment and reprioritization of their goals and immediate actions required jolted every executive, manager and employee in the organization (Mikkelson, 2004).

Immediate Goals once Crisis was Revealed-

Reacting to the news, when Johnson and Johnson was faced with the initial situation; it had to make some tough decisions that would severely impact the future of the company. Rather than think in financial terms only, CEO James Burke immediately turned to the
View Full Essay

Pharma Joan Busfield N D Explores

Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90770935

Demand is dependent on the frequency of a condition in the population. This number, for most conditions, is generally known. Thus, the equilibrium point can be determined that would deliver the cost recovery and markup pharma companies seek, without allowing costs to escalate to gouging levels. The problem is that once the monopoly has been granted there are no serious cost controls beyond market controls.

There are two problems with this. The first is that without cost controls, it is difficult to improve bargaining power. First, buyers have little bargaining power because most buyers -- even insurance companies -- lack size to bargain over prices. Only Medicare and Medicaid have the size to drive prices down, because pharma companies are dependent on their money even with the monopoly. The second is that there is information asymmetry, which reduces the bargaining power of buyers. Again, only the largest and most sophisticated…… [Read More]

References:

Busfield, J. (no date). Pills, power, people. In possession of the author

Abraham, J. (no date). The sociological concomitants of the pharmaceutical industry and medications. Handbook of Medical Sociology. In possession of the author.

Carmon, I. (2013) How one company controls your breast cancer choices. Salon. Retrieved May 17, 2013 from  http://www.salon.com/2013/05/14/how_one_company_may_control_your_breast_cancer_choices/
View Full Essay

Sexual Liberation in Addition to Sexual Intercourse

Words: 1334 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51575450

Sexual Liberation

In addition to sexual intercourse and its variations, sexual liberation refers to the universe of human issues affecting all genders. America was propelled from the sexual enslavement of the 1950's to considerably increased sexual liberation of the 1980's and beyond. Two significant events of the 1960's that contributed to sexual liberation were the FDA approval of The Pill and the birth of the omen's Liberation Movement.

Sexual Suppression of the 1950's

An examination of liberation should begin with the sexual slavery of the 1950's. By current standards, sexual suppression was a numbing fact of 1950's America, particularly for women. For example, the legendary "Good ife's Guide" (Housekeeping Monthly, 1955) spouts standards that are otherworldly by today's norms. Perhaps its most oppressive statement is "A good wife always knows her place" (Housekeeping Monthly, 1955), though the guide serves up plenty of other now-hilarious goodies. "Assisting" housebound married women in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dekkers, O. (1971, December 12). National Women's political caucus. Retrieved on June 15, 2012 from proquest.umi.com Web site: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=23&did=659219891&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1339792329&clientId=14844

Henry, A. (1978, February 28). Reproductive thinking. Retrieved on June 15, 2012 from proquest.umi.com Web site: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=2&did=659235281&SrchMode=2&sid=6&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1339792863&clientId=14844

Housekeeping Monthly. (1955, May 13). The Good Wife's Guide. Retrieved on June 15, 2012 from www.democraticunderground.com Web site: http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=105x1067598

Jansen, L. (1979, September 30). National women's political caucus convention. Retrieved on June 15, 2012 from proquest.umi.com Web site: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=4&did=659256351&SrchMode=2&sid=4&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1339792068&clientId=14844
View Full Essay

Neuro Star Tms Marketing Plan

Words: 2450 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57716964

The healthcare costs associated with major depression are astronomical. Compared to antidepressants, costs for treatments with NeuroStar are economical. One session is expected to cost approximately $400 per treatment session, with typical patient needing four to six treatments (Neuronetics, Inc., 2008). Compared to ongoing medicine and therapy sessions, this is a quite cost effective alternative. This will be another key selling point for the device. However, it is expected that clinicians will see the potential to increase their clientele as a more important factor than the initial costs of the device.

The NeuroStar TMS is already in use in a few treatment centers around the country (Neuronetics, Inc., 2008). This provides credibility that others find the device to be beneficial. Testimonials from doctors and patients would be another supportive element to add to the marketing campaign. However, this element is not expected to hold as much weight as clinical evidence…… [Read More]

References

Brainsway. (2009). Deep TMS -- A unique technology for non-invasive treatment of brain disorders. Retrieved July 16, 2009 from http://www.brainsway.com/

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (NAMI) (2009). Major Depression. Retrieved July 16,

2009 from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness&template=/ContentManagement

/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=7725
View Full Essay

New Pharmaceuticals From the Time

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10212654

These are called inclusion/exclusion criteria, and not only protect the participants from harm but also allow the researchers to be sure that the studies they do provide reliable data on the safety and efficacy of the drug. Each person who takes part in a drug study must go through an informed consent process. The potential participant will be given facts about the study, and is allowed to make a good decision regarding whether or not to participate. Even if the participant agrees to join a study, the participant can quit the study at any time. Participants may join a study for many reasons: they may want to try an experimental treatment, or want to help in medical research. Often time's participants will receive some sort of financial benefit for participating in studies, usually based upon the risk or requirements of the study.

The funding for clinical trials comes from many…… [Read More]

References

Data obtained from the internet at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/info/new

No Author Listed, (2008), Protecting the Right of Human Participants. Accessed via the NIH website at http://phrp.nihtraining.com/users/login.php
View Full Essay

Procter & Gamble Sustainability Strategies

Words: 2632 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9659894

P&G is looking to make the Supplier Environmental Sustainability Scorecard methodology a global standard (P&G, 2010). To support this effort to make the scorecard a global baseline of sustainability measurement, P&G freely distributes Microsoft Excel models of the methodology and baseline analysis tools from their website. The foundations of the methodology can be seen in Figure 2: Procter & Gamble's Supplier Environmental Sustainability Scorecard Methodology. The key metrics measured include energy, emissions, waste, water and an environmental management system performance ranking that can be used for evaluating supplier performance within and across product categories.

P&G has also differentiated this model by rewarding excellent business performance as measured by the key performance indicators (KPIs) first, while also using the methodology to evaluate areas where performance can be improved. The use of incentives and rewards for the top 400 suppliers at P&G have been announced and are actively being applied to supplier…… [Read More]

References

Jacobs, B., & Jordan, M. (2011). Green is the new color of the supply chain. Area Development Site and Facility Planning, 46(4), 29-31. Retrieved from http://www.areadevelopment.com/logisticsInfrastructure/July2011/collaboration-it-green-supply-chains-33638.shtml

Joseph, D. (2010, Score two for sustainability. Fast Company, (150), 54-54. Retrieved from http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/150/score-two-for-sustainability.html

Keyes, B.A., & Sykes, B. (2009). Sustainability's triple bottom line. Chief Executive, (243), 43-45,50. Retrieved from http://www.allbusiness.com/environment-natural-resources/pollution-monitoring/13877640-1.html

P&G launches supplier environmental sustainability scorecard. (2010a, May 12). PR Newswire, pp. n/a. Retrieved from  http://news.pg.com/press-release/pg-corporate-announcements/pg-launches-supplier-environmental-sustainability-scorecard
View Full Essay

Radioimmunotherapy for the Treatment of

Words: 6684 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44678591

This has been the traditionally used mode of treatment for non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, but the fact remains that there have not been many clinical trials conducted that would reveal the benefits of CHOP in comparison to various other chemotherapy options for the treatment of CLL, which is a very slowly growing form of cancer and is therefore conversely very difficult to treat and cure because of the fact that all the traditional methods of treatment, whether chemotherapy or radiation, are meant to quickly and rapidly destroy the fast growing cancerous cells. (Cancer Treatment and Prevention)

Curing a patient with the CLL or SLL forms of cancer is considered to be highly unusual, but it is true that these patients will b able to lead productive lives even after 6 to 10 years after the cancer have been diagnosed for them. A patient when he is making the choice of treatment for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bischof, Delaloye a. (2003) "The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)" Leuk Lymphoma. Volume: 44 Suppl 4; pp: S29-36

Cancer Treatment and Prevention" Retrieved at http://patient.cancerconsultants.com/treatment.aspx?id=782Accessed on 26 December, 2004

CHOP - complementary considerations. Lymphoma-tion" (2 October, 2004) Retrieved at  http://www.lymphomation.org/chemo-CHOP.htm . Accessed on 26 December, 2004

CHOP Patient Information Sheet" Newcastle General Hospital, Northern Center for Cancer treatment. (June, 2005) Retrieved at http://www.newcastle-hospitals.org.uk/v2/PDF/patientleaflets/NCCT/Standard/CHOP.PDFAccessed on 26 December, 2004
View Full Essay

Internet Information Quality Whitehouse gov vs Whitehouse net Whitehouse Gov

Words: 536 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1332518

Internet Information Quality

hitehouse.gov vs. hitehouse.net

hitehouse.gov, under first impressions is accurate, far more professional, and updated. In fact, whitehouse.net is outdated and still has George . Bush as the President. hitehouse.gov is extremely informative, but focused on the current President, Barak Obama, and his agenda. The site is divided into photos and videos of conferences, appearances, and there is a briefing room that focuses on the major issues of the day. The site is appropriate for education, it has information about the way the government worlds, and about the topics that are in the news -- immigration, gun violence, energy policy, and more. The site is current with top political news of the day, the visits, and the travel plans of the President and his staff. There is a link for email updates, contact information, and a way to receive answers back from various departments of the government. Ironically,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Harris, R. (2007, June). Evaluating Internet Research Sources. Retrieved from:

http://radnortsd.schoolwires.com/cms/lib/PA01000218/Centricity/ModuleInstance/2137

/Evaluating_Internet_Research_Sources.pdf

Sanchez, C., et al. (2006). ICLS 2006 Proceedings of the 7th International Condernce
View Full Essay

Institutional Pharmacy

Words: 514 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81278718

Institutional Pharmacy

According to various research and countless newspapers, institutional pharmacy has an undoubtedly positive role in our society. By definition, institutional pharmacy is that which provides "a range of services to residents of nursing homes, hospitals, or hospice environments which do not have an on-site pharmacy." As such, and without this service, long-term care facilities, such as nursing homes, would not be able to function smoothly nor take care of patients properly. Thus, due to institutional pharmacies, the facilities that utilize them can play a role in helping the patient firsthand with important matters. [1: "Institutional Pharmacy." Gerson Lehrman Group. Web. 20 Sept. 2011. .]

It is important to note, however, that there are various rules regulating these pharmacies. This is due to the fact that, in addition to providing pharmaceuticals, these entities also provide consulting services, and these can include the following:

monitoring control of drugs monitoring the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Managerial Finance - Johnson &

Words: 3790 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86395992

76), ROE has ranged from 21.6% to 28.3% in recent years, with the 2007 figure being 25.6%. This reflects outperformance of both the industry and the market. The ROA has exhibited similar outperformance of both industry and market. The return on assets for JNJ over the past several years has ranged from 13.1% in 2007 to 17.l% in 2005. The industry five-year average is 8.85% and the market five-year average is 7.50%.

SWOT Analysis

Strengths

Net Income increased despite decline in revenues

Growth in each business segment

R&D expense growing slower than revenues

2-year upward trend in net income

Upward trend in cash levels

Upward trend in cash flow from operations

Current ratio 46.36% higher than industry

Interest coverage 80.09% higher than industry

Net margin 14.04% higher than industry

Return on Equity 1414.79% higher than industry

Return on Assets 48.02% higher than industry

Weaknesses

Decline in revenue this year (1st…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Nsf Nfd Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis or

Words: 1110 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51068504

NSF occurs only in patients with advanced kidney disease. ven though the cause-and-effect link is not proven, the association of NSF with gadolinium exposure is strong enough for the FDA to issue a warning. If an MR study with contrast is absolutely required, a nongadodiamide contrast using the lowest possible dose is preferable." It would also seem prudent to perform hemodialysis to enhance gadolinium elimination and to identify other potential cofactors (Busko, M.2007).

There are many issues that impact MR safety that should be considered during site planning for a given MR installation. These have historically not been dealt with in the prior versions of the ACR MR Safe Practice Guidelines. For the first time, we include in this article, as separate appendices, sections that address such issues as well, including cryogen emergency vent locations and pathways, 5-gauss lines, siting considerations, patient access pathways, etc. Yet despite their appearance herein,…… [Read More]

Each site will name an MR medical director whose responsibilities will include ensuring that MR safe practice guidelines are established and maintained as current and appropriate for the site. It is the responsibility of the site's administration to ensure that the policies and procedures that result from these MR safe practice guidelines are implemented and adhered to at all times by all of the site's personnel (Kanal, E., 2007)

Procedures should be in place to ensure that any and all adverse events, MR safety incidents, or "near incidents" that occur in the MR site are reported to the medical director in a timely fashion (e.g., within 24 hours or 1 business day of their occurrence) and used in continuous quality improvement efforts. It should be stressed that the Food and Drug Administration states that it is incumbent upon the sites to also report adverse events and incidents to them via their MedWatch program. The ACR supports this requirement and feels that it is in the ultimate best interest of all MR practitioners to create and maintain this consolidated database of such events to help us all learn about them and how to better avoid them in the future (Kanal, E., 2007).

NSF/NFD is a painful, debilitating, and deadly condition that has no cure or treatment. Therefore, people are becoming affected with an incurable disease that is related to a common medical procedure performed daily (Some Kidney Patients Suffer MRI Poisoning 2007).
View Full Essay

Certified Organic

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34819610

Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm.

Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.

Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.

Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214.
View Full Essay

Nursing Is Changing Recent Healthcare Legislation Is

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42584620

nursing is changing. Recent healthcare legislation is projected to increase the need for nurses at an exceedingly high rate. Improvements in technology and equipment are providing newer forms of treatment; the role of nurses is expanding to include more diagnostic and rehabilitative work, particularly in light of current demands on physicians. The day in which nurse practitioners can provide patients with holistic treatment augmented by the most innovative technological advancements and discoveries is soon approaching, making this profession one of the most valued throughout the healthcare industry. As a student who has recently completed the first year of a three-year program to earn a Master's of Science in Nursing as a family nurse practitioner, I fully expect to play an important role in the elevation of patient care at a time in which our country needs it most.

My interest in this profession spans well beyond the past 12 months…… [Read More]