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Agency Theory and the Limitations of Representative Government
Words: 3159 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26643855
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The Political Nature of the Federal Budget Process
The federal budget process is overseen by US Congressmen, who are fundamentally immersed in the political nature of government. As Elwood (2008) notes, members of Congress are influenced in three ways: 1) by money that is used to finance their political campaigns; 2) by obtaining the votes necessary for reelection; and 3) by obtaining expert advice on topics that are of personal importance to them. The federal budget process is particularly impactful on the first two and vice versa. For example, “the ability to funnel money into a congressional district or state provides an excellent opportunity for a legislator to remain in office” (Elwood, 2008, p. 3). This ability creates a conflict of interest among the politicians overseeing the budget process. On the one hand they are tasked with producing a budget resolution and allocating funds based on the duty to…

Federal Reserve and How to
Words: 1526 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52702579
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ather than propping up "bad blood" and allowing the "illusion" of wealth to continue to be fostered, the Federal eserve should allow the market to flush out the "bad blood" and operate the way it is intended.


In conclusion, the good that the Federal eserve does is to monitor economic policy, encourage maximum employment and long-term stability. The way it does so, however, especially in times of crisis such as the world is currently experiencing is highly criticized by economists who do not support managerial decisions made by Bernanke and others. As on Paul states, the Federal eserve could better itself by putting an end to fractional reserve banking and allowing institutions, which are filled with bad debt, to collapse rather than continuing to prop them up at taxpayers' expense. Doing so only helps bring down the value of the dollar, which it is supposed to protect.

eference List…

Reference List

Halloran, M. (2009). Systemic Risks and the Bear Stearns Crisis. The Road Ahead for the Fed. CA: Hoover Institution Press.

Kohn, D. (2009). Monetary Policy in the Financial Crisis. The Road Ahead for the Fed.

CA: Hoover Institution Press.

Mission. (2009). Federal Reserve. Retrieved from  

Budget Problem Health Care Is
Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92902059
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S. debt.


Health care is a large part of the federal budget and it is increasing in importance. The rate of growth in health care outlays is greater than the rate of growth in the budget itself. The poses a problem, because the federal budget deficit is increasing in size. Debt service is going to be the most rapidly growing component of the federal budget over the next several years, highlighting the need to control costs in all aspects of the budget. The challenge, however, is that both demographic trends and health care cost inflation trends signal a dramatic increase in health care costs in the coming couple of decades. Health care reform is expected to help with cost containment, primarily through shifting some eligibility requirements, but greater solutions are required. Privatizing health care would take if off the government's books, but would have significant negative externalities with respect…

Works Cited:

Budget of the U.S. Government, fiscal year 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from 

CBO. (2010). HR 4872. Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from 

Klein, E. (2010). Rep. Ryan proposes radical solution to budget problem. Washington Post. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from

Federal Student Aid Funding Department
Words: 2728 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65926229
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Despite increased student fees, the UC still encountered a $500 million shortfall or $2,500 per student. It has been undergoing severe pressure from the impact of the cuts. The quality of education at the U.S. has remained high, but there have been disturbing signs of erosion, nevertheless. The widening gap between the UC and the best private university has been alarming because the UC competes for the top teachers and students with these private universities. This widening gap should be a critical concern to the state and the federal governments because even excellent private universities are too small to meet California's or the nation's needs for a well-educated workforce in the future, to come up with innovations needed to fuel the economy and to generate jobs, and to introduce medical advances for the use and care of the sick and disabled. In the past decade, California's private research universities, Stanford,…


Clinton, P. (2002). The student aid conundrum. University Business: 4 pages.

Professional Media Group LLC

Darling, B.B. (2005). Hearing testimony. 5 pages. California Senate Subcommittee on Higher Education. Retrieved January 26, 2007 at 

Dervarics, C. (2006). Congress approves cuts to student loan programs. 1 page. Diverse Issues on Higher Education: Cox, Matthews and Associates

Budget Doing This Activity Provided Me With
Words: 449 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13541958
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Doing this activity provided me with information I was unaware of before doing the assignment. It seems amazing to me that more than half of the federal money is going to the military. Yet only 4% of the federal budget goes to education. his is a very sad state of affairs. Since September 11, 2001, the government of the United States has spent $635.9 billion on just homeland security. his doesn't even include the amount of money that has been spent in the war on terror. he website states that since 9/11, the government has spent $7.6 trillion on the military. his is a huge amount of money.

he budge projection for 2012 is that the United States government will spend another $3.7 trillion. hat means that the government will spend the same amount in one year that they have spend in the five years before. his is an…

The budge projection for 2012 is that the United States government will spend another $3.7 trillion. That means that the government will spend the same amount in one year that they have spend in the five years before. This is an obscene amount of money, especially since the country's economy is in such bad shape. Many people are out of work in this country. Higher education is costing so much money that people are having to drop out of college. Health insurance costs keep climbing so that very few people can afford health care. The country is in very bad shape and yet the government keeps investing in the war in another country instead of fixing the problems at home.

While I can see that spending money on security of the nation is important, I cannot imagine how the government could have used so much money on the war. Also, it seems to me that the budget should be redesigned. Education should take up far more than 4% of the federal budget money. The government's budgetary plans for the upcoming future are severely flawed. Not enough is being invested in the future of the American people and in their education. This is leading to further problems in the country.

The United States is a nation built upon the idea of individual freedoms. It is also based upon the idea that anyone can achieve the "American Dream." This is the idea that anyone can come from even the most poverty-affected background and through hard work and diligence, become a millionaire. One of the ways you pull yourself up from the dregs is by investing in your education. Consequently, those who do not take advantage of the education system have only themselves to blame for their failures. At least that was how the country was intended to function. In the United States, there is a correlation between education and criminality, education and poverty, and education and eventual hardship in adulthood. So, by not providing funds to help education, the United States is becoming part of the problem rather than helping people.

Budget Cycle of the U S
Words: 1322 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70551006
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S. Government to make future or immediate monetary outlays. In the second subcomponent, the reporting and outlay phase lasts for the duration until the funds are canceled or until the funds are totally disbursed. One should note that these cancellations are in no way connected with cancellations that are connected with budget reductions. These are a separate congressional activity (ibid).

Sometimes spending adjustments are needed during the fiscal year. They may require special reporting and approval procedures by both Congress and OMB. In some instances, an agency can request supplemental funding by submitting a request to the Congress. Mostly, the departments and agencies are required to manage their funds according to their available resources and have only a limited monitoring by the OMB and the Congress during this particular phase of the budget process (Government Printing Office, 29-30).

hat is the effect of this system in theory as well as…

Works Cited

Government Printing Office, the budget cycle. Washington, DC: GPO. Retrieved


Keith, Robert. U.S. Congress, Congressional Research Service. (2008). Introduction to the federal budget process (CRS Publication No. 98-721 ). Washington DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from .

Keith, Robert. U.S. Congress, Congressional Research Service. (2008). Suspension of budget enforcement procedures (CRS Publication No. RL31068). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from .

Budgeting Prior to the Classical
Words: 1212 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56011190
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.. discretion as a practical matter" (1988, p. 78).

Wildavsky's was not critical of classical budgeting theory. He was more in favor of the concept of incrementalism that was a vital part of classical budgeting. He felt that incrementalism was superior to other budgeting approaches because it "increases agreement among the participants" (1984, p. 136) and also because it could reduce "burden of calculation" (1984, p. 136). Wildavsky went on to say that: "Clinging to last year's agreements is enormously economical of critical resources . . . which would be seriously depleted if all or most past agreements were reexamined yearly." (1984, p. 217).

The classical budgeting model proved efficient and practical for many decades but it lost its appeal in mid-20th century when a general trend towards excessive spending took over. This trend was observed all over the world and the main reason for the scope of government's responsibilities…


1. Caiden, Naomi. 1982. "The Myth of the Annual Budget." Public Administration Review 42 (6):516 -- 523.

2. Meyers, Roy T. 1997, Late Appropriations and Government shutdowns: Frequency causes, consensus and remedies. Public Budgeting and Finance. 25:38-45

3. Schick, Allen. 1980. Congress and Your Money. Washington: Urban Institute.

4. Schick, Allen. 1990. The Capacity to Budget. Washington: Urban Institute.

Budget Outlook Projections and Implications
Words: 401 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34859510
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This type of policy is aimed at "stimulating total spending in the economy," through cutting taxes to leave businesses and individuals with more money to buy goods, thus raising demand and increasing production and generating increased spending (Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia).

Importantly, the authors note that these budget imbalances will have a significant negative impact on the general economy. They will reduce living standards and damage the economy, and bring the nation to a "real risk of a fiscal crisis" (p. 5). In large part, these effects will come from reducing national saving.

The authors note, however, that all is not lost if action is taken immediately to reduce budget deficits. Gale and Orszag write, "Significant changes in fiscal policy are needed to deal preemptively with the costs from low national saving and the risk of a fiscal crisis. The sooner we begin, the better" (p. 6).


Gale William…


Gale William G. And Orszag, Peter R. 2004. The Budget Outlook: Projections and Implications. The Economists' Voice: Vol. 1: No. 2, Article 6, October 27, 2004. November 2004. 

Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. 2004. Fiscal Policy. © 1997-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. 04 November 2004.

budget analysis of Affordable Care Act
Words: 3557 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40836351
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Affordable Care Act decreased the number of Americans without health insurance by the millions, which was its primary objective. It used three different mechanisms to achieve this goal -- the expansion of Medicaid, the insurance exchanges, and the extension of coverage to young adults up to age 26. These changes have also helped to stem the growth of health care costs, and have delivered greater health care savings throughout the system, even private insurance customers, than was originally expected. There were some initial costs to the ACA, running from 2014-2019 but after the point the Congressional Budget Office expects the ACA will have a net benefit in terms of its impact on the budget, because of the new taxes it created.

The incoming government is expected to unwind the ACA, as this has been a stated goal of Trump, and of the epublican party. What this means has been studied.…


Abbott, R. K. (2015). The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Large Employers: A Retrospective. Benefits Quarterly, 31(1), 8-14.

CBO (2016) Budgetary and economic effects of repealing the Affordable Care Act Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from 

CBO (2016) Payment of penalties for being uninsured under the Affordable Care Act Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from (2016). The Affordable Care Act is working. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from

Government Budget
Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4789517
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Budget Deficit

Government Budget

What are the consequences of an ever-burgeoning federal deficit and debt? Will there ever be a solution or compromise?

One of the most hotly-contested issues in contemporary American political life is how to deal with the current budget deficit. Despite running surpluses during the 1990s, the current budget is widely considered out of control by both Democrats and epublicans. The reasons for the deficit include two costly wars abroad and increased defense spending overall after 9/11; tax cuts, and the recent recession which required federal spending in the form of unemployment assistance and assistance to the states (who are legally required to balance their budgets); and less income tax revenue because of job losses. There also systemic factors that have contributed to high budget deficits (Amadeo 2012). Overall, "mandatory spending has increased. Spending to pay benefits for Social Security, Medicare and other mandated programs has been…


Amadeo, Kimberly. (2012). U.S. Federal Budget deficit. Retrieved at: 

Economic effects of a budget deficit. (2012). Economics Help. Retrieved at:

Federal Government Over the Last
Words: 773 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36133987
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This means that Congressional officials and the White House are reluctant to make the necessary adjustments (in order to address these issues). Instead, they have been utilizing various gimmicks to demonstrate how they are dealing with the problem. During the course of their reelection campaign, they can show how they helped to tackle the federal government's fiscal challenges and increased the number of projects / funding for various programs. It is at this point that they are improving their chances of being reelected. (Kakutani, 2012)

Are they really political solutions in disguise or creating more problems than solutions?

As a result, these actions are creating more problems in the future. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Greenberg (2012) who said, "Congress remains deeply divided about how to deal with the fiscal cliff's combination of automatic government spending reductions and expiring tax cuts, amounting to nearly 5% of…


US National Debt Statistics. (2012). Statistic Brain. Retrieved from: 

Greenberg, E. (2012). Political Leadership. Biz Journal. Retrieved from: 

Kakutani, M. (2012). NY Times. Retrieved from:

Federal Contracting Activities and Contract Types- Dell
Words: 1390 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35364712
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Federal Contracting Activities and Contract Types-

Dell Inc.

Dell Inc. was founded by Michael Dell who ventured into business as a freshman at the University of Texas in Austin. He realized that the branded models of computers were expensive and not many could afford them. He ventured into the business of buying the computer parts which he assembled in clones of IBM computers and sold to the consumers directly through the mail. The computer market was already dominated by the big players in the market but against the odds Dell faced competition and emerged the best brand sold through the direct-mail market. Customers recognized the brand through his aggressive marketing and the quality of his computer products that earned him a bigger market share compared to the other little known companies. It became incorporated in 1984 where it has been the world's leading seller of computer systems.

Dell offers a…


Advameg, (2012).Dell Inc.-Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History,

Background Information on Dell inc. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from 

Nick Wakeman, (2010). Dell Wins $120 Million outsourcing pact with DHS. Retrieved June 8,

2012 from

Budgets in Order to Address
Words: 1145 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58811411
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125% to 6.0% would increase the estimated revenues by approximately $300 million, bringing this revenue to its highest level in history. This rate would still be lower than the state sales tax rate in neighboring Southwest states such as Arizona (6.6%), Texas (6.25%), Nevada (6.85%) and California (7.25%) (Sales Tax Clearinghouse, 2010). ith this increase, personal income tax rates would not need to be increased. Corporate income tax rates would also remain the same, as they are not a significant component of general revenues. hile the move to increase the state sales tax would prove unpopular, it would allow New Mexico to build for a more stable budget future, less reliant on federal transfers, while remaining competitive in terms of corporate and personal income taxes.

Appropriations will also need to be cut in order to save money. The main problem with appropriations in the budget is that a looming and…

Works Cited:

Massey, B. (2010). NM revenues weaken, more state budget cuts loom. Business Week. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from 

McCaffrey, S. (2010). State budget shortfalls may reach $180 billion this year. Boston Globe. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from 

McNichol, E.; Oliff, P. & Johnson, N. (2010). States continue to feel recession's impact. Center of Budget Policy Priorities. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from 

New Mexico 2011 Budget. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from

Budgeting Financing Strategy for the
Words: 2463 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39273196
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We do not anticipate success is securing a non-voted debt issue. Given the time frame for the completion of the Commons project, the city will weigh our request vs. The upcoming needs for school repairs and roadwork. Education is a touchstone issue for voters, and roadwork affects all voters in the city. hould council decide to issue any of their remaining non-voted debt capacity, it is unlikely they would choose to use it for the Commons project ahead of those two other priorities.

Voted debt, however, they can issue. If the public votes 60% in favor, council will not face the same concerns about opportunity cost. We will not be competing for money with schools. A voter-approved special levy would function in much the same way (financed through property tax increases) but requires only a 50% vote in favor. Although the capacity for such special levies is only $90 million,…


Johnson, Gerry. (2005). New Life Emerges in the Wake of Seattle Commons Failure. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved June 20, 2008 at 

Jacobson, Arthur Lee. (1995). The Seattle Commons, an Editorial Opinion. Olmsted Parks. Retrieved June 21, 2008 at 

No author. (1995). The Commons: Time Line. Seattle Times. Retrieved June 21, 2008 at 

History of Washington State votes at

Federal Government Improvement of the
Words: 2066 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56620148
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The Office exacts a new level of accountability, which encourages a broader range of competitions and new organizations to enter these competitions. Congress authorizes the Office to develop the franchise funds pilots and to expand the competitive environment. It also invites the private sector to participate in new markets and at new levels of commercial workload. At the same time, it encourages the public to compete for the same work on a level playing field. To insure that the taxpayer continues to get the best out of the deal, the Office suggests a re-examination of outsourcing, cross-servicing and in-house performance decisions. The ultimate goal of the Office is to restore public faith in Government through a more effective management of its resources and by giving citizens and taxpayers greater value for their dollar. Federal employees have been found to be extremely cost competitive. Its Revised Supplemental Handbook expressly prefers private…


Florida, Richard. The New American Dream. The Washington Monthly: The Washington Monthly Company, March 2003

Gates, Bill. How to Keep America Competitive. The Washington Post: The Washington Post Company, February 25, 2007

Hawkins, William R. Uncoordinated Federal Technology Policies Put Nation at Risk. GAO Report. American Economic Alert: U.S. Business and Industry Council, March 4, 2007

Koskinen, John. The Freedom from Government Competition Act. Office of Management and Budget, June 18, 1997. Retrieved April 14, 2007 at

Federal Reserve System More Commonly
Words: 2752 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91591570
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" (Structure of the Federal eserve System)

The 12 Federal eserve Banks extend banking service to the depository institutions and also to the federal government. To the financial institutions it takes the responsibility of maintaining reserve and clearing out accounts and entails various payment services incorporating checks, electronically transferring funds and circulating and receiving coins and currency notes. As the banker of the Federal Government they function as fiscal agents. They maintain the Treasury Department's transaction account; they pay treasury checks; enable to process electronic payments and issue transfer and redeem U.S. government securities. (eserve Bank Services)

The functions of Federal eserve start with the formulation of the Monetary Policy in accordance with the needs of the national economy. The Federal eserve System provides three basic tools for conducting the monetary policy such as open market operations, discount rate and reserve requirements. The Open Market Operations is used as the…


Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis: Historical Overview. Retrieved at . Accessed 11 November, 2005

Ferguson, Robert. W. The Evolution of Central Banking in the United States. Retrieved at  

Federal Government Healthcare Programs the
Words: 1664 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74783782
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The problems facing Medicare recipients and the federal government almost seem to be overwhelming. There are proponents of a plan to privatize Social Security and health insurance, placing the onus on the individual to pay for his own health care through savings specifically for this. Some others would have the program go through the private HMOs who have, in the past, contained the costs of care by having primary care physicians manage a patient's care and purposely keeps the costs of care down.

As with Medicaid, the recipients of Medicare would have difficulty obtaining health care without this program. The recipients would most likely have no other health insurance. The trend being what it is, a lot of individuals retiring today are fortunate to have pensions from their companies, much less health benefits. ithout a national health insurance plan, like Medicare, those individuals would have to pay for health care…

Works Cited

Kay, Joseph. "Bush Plans renewed Assault on Medicaid." World Socialist Website. 8 Feb. 2005.

13 Aug. 2005. .

Kay, Joseph. "U.S.: States, Federal Government Prepare Massive Medicaid Cuts." World

Socialist Website. 11 May 2005. .

Federal Communications Commission FCC
Words: 2107 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99965591
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Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

Communications have always been critical to humankind's existence and the absence of which means there would have never been the development and evolution of groups, organizations, societies and even nations. The reason being is there be no ways and means of passing messages, information, and knowledge amongst each other. Thus, humankind would have still been living in the Stone Ages without headways made in the development of communications. ut communications though did not remain stagnant and confined to oral and written ones. Throughout the centuries various improvements have made communications faster and more sophisticated especially with the contributions provided by scientific and technological discoveries and innovations. Fast forward to the 19th and 20th centuries and modern communications have been enabled via radio, telephone, and television. A further boom in communications innovations came with the advent of computers and the Internet where humankind is now living in…


Cannon, Robert. "The Legacy of the Federal Communications Commission's Computer Inquiries." Federal Communications Law Journal 55: 167-206. 05 Mar. 2003. 2000. 18 Jul. 2011. .

Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The FCC. 2011. 18 Jul. 2011. .

Messere, Fritz. Analysis of the Federal Communications Commission. 2002. 18 Jul. 2011. .

Net Industries. Communications Act of 1934 -- Evolution of the Act, Design of the Act, Major Amendments to the Act. 2011. 18 Jul. 2011. .

Budget Project Outline Environment the
Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63235339
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S. This has partially continued during the 90s as well, so protectionist barriers is one of the things Nissan needs to consider when exporting to its main partners.

There are two different actions Nissan may consider in the future in this sense. The first one refers to the fact that Renault, an European company, still holds a significant part of Nissan shares, which may facilitate exports on the European market. On the other hand, trade barriers can generally be avoided by direct implementation in the respective country, a measure which Japanese companies, especially Toyota, have successfully applied in the U.S. during the 80s.

2. Internal competencies

A. General Motor seems to be currently both the most important producer and the sales leader. However, this should come with several amendments. If we are referring to the market leader, there are several criteria worth mentioning. First of all, the number of cars…

Bibliography  /  

National Budget Simulation Exercise the
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73149278
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In addition, just over $41 billion was removed from 2001 and 2003 tax cuts. The cuts in military spending will affect a wide variety of citizenry. Specifically, military personnel will be affected with reduced budgets across the board. This will result in a reduced readiness of the military to protect the United States, in the short-term and the long-term. This reduction in spending will also negatively affect civilian contractors and other companies that provide products and services to the military. This will result in lost revenues and decreased profitability for these organizations. A secondary effect of this could result in lost jobs and reduced tax revenues for the city, state and national governments, as well as reduced revenues for other businesses in the community, if these organizations implement worker layoffs.

Social Security cuts will negatively affect the growing population of Baby Boomers and those already receiving Social Security benefits. However,…

Public Budgeting With the Talk
Words: 860 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37281215
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The problems with the budget are said to arise from politicians who are unable to make difficult decisions. The problem with these laws is that they do not explicitly force politicians to make those decision. GRH provides targets for the politicians to work towards, creating motivation, and the BEA provides a framework for penalizing inaction, but neither truly forces politicians to make the tough choices.

Real political solutions involve actually making those tough choices. This is not to discount the value of having these frameworks to guide the negotiations and hold Congress to the outcomes of those negotiations, but the negotiations themselves are the critical component to the budget problem. For example, if the sequester is initiated, Congress can follow it up with laws to build back some of those spending cuts, and it would likely do so quickly. There are no provisions in the BEA, for example, that call…

Works Cited:

Bancroft Library. (2011). 1985 Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act. University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from 

Mitchell, D. (1989). Sequestration Gramm-Rudman's potent weapon for spending restraint. Cato Institute. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from 

Reischauer, R. (1993). CBO Testimony. Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from 

Sahadi, J. (2012). What's in the fiscal cliff? CNN. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from

Yearly Budget Is an Integral Step in
Words: 3300 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76000821
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yealy budget is an integal step in the administation of the ciminal justice system in the United States. The budget is the souce of funding fo all pogams and agencies administeed though the Justice Depatment and the success o failue of such pogams is dependent upon the budgetay pocess. This pape will assess how public policy affects the budgetay pocess and how each the Executive and Legislative banches of the U.S. Govenment teat policy in making decisions egading how the budget is oganized.

The ecent histoy of the budget pocess and its effects on the ciminal justice system in the United States is examined. Pat of this examination includes an explanation as to easons fo why the ciminal justice system has failed in ecent yeas to accuately eflect public policy and suggestions as to how changes in the budgetay pocess might alte the path and diection of the nation's ciminal…

references Towards Criminal Justice Spending Priorities. Justice Quarterly, 317-335.

Mikesell, J.L. (2011). Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector. Boston: Wadsworth.

Office of Management and Budget. (2008). Circular No. A-11 General Information. Washington, D.C.: Office of Management and Budget.

U.S Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. (1993). The Role of General Government Elected Officials in Criminal Justice. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Advisory Commission.

Criminal Justice Budget

New Hampshire State Budget New
Words: 2033 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38963312
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The Category Totals for the 2006-2007 Biennial State Operating Budget, found in Chapter 176, Laws of 2005, are as follows:

Chapter 176 - Laws of 2005 - NH Operating Budget

Fiscal Year 2006

Fiscal Year 2007

Total Appropriation for Category 01


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.01-403,003,676 416,233,183



FEDEAL FUNDS 17,924,517 17,918,180

OTHE FUNDS 106,867,295 105,489,779

GENEAL FUND 278,211,864 292,825,224

TOTAL 403,003,676 416,233,183

Total Appropriation for Category 02


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.02-420,003,205 424,638,566


FEDEAL FUNDS 52,837,182 50,445,675

OTHE FUNDS 152,998,319 155,855,692

GENEAL FUND 213,213,595 217,790,891


TOTAL 420,003,205 424,638,566

Total Appropriation for Category 03


AS INCLUDED in SECTION 1.03-222,979,010 217,030,487



Hall, D.E.. (Sep 2002). Six Programs Fueled State Spending Increases, 1993-2003. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at 

Norton, S.A. (Dec 2006). Fiscal Feast and Famine. New Hampshire Center for Public Policy Studies. Concord, NH. Retrieved on February 7, 2007 at .

Operating Budget for the State of New Hampshire (2004-2005). (2005). About the LBA-Budget Division. State of New Hampshire Office of Legislative Budget Assistant. Concord, NH. Retrieved February 7, 2007 at

President George W. Bush (07 Feb 2005). President Bush's Budget and New Hampshire: FY Budget. The White House. Retrieved February 8, 2007, at .

Economic and Practical Consequences of Balanced Budgets
Words: 923 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76760886
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Balanced Federal Budgets

The federal government has a wide variety of responsibilities, most of which stem from programs that the government has created. Some of these outlays are discretionary, but many are not. The trade-offs for the federal government are usually not a question economics, but politics. The current federal budget for FY2016 shows a deficit of $474 billion. The largest outlays are for social security ($891 billion), other mandatory programs ($627), defense ($589), Medicare ($529) and non-defense discretionary, which covers a wide variety of different programs. Finding $474 billion to cut there -- or some of that money in conjunction with tax increases -- is inevitably going to be a challenge. Much of government spending in the budget is in the form of mandatory programs. Further, many of these are impossible, politically, to reduce. One does not simply cut Medicare payouts without losing a strong voting bloc, for example.…


Government Finance Officers Association. (2014). Distinguished Budget Presentation Award Program (Budget Awards Program). Retrieved from 

Mikesell, J. L. (2014). Fiscal administration: Analysis and applications for the public sector (9th

ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

Obama FY 2016 Budget
Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37924197
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Presidential Budget

The 2016 federal budget as submitted but the office of the President of the United States is listed and summarized on the White House website. The overall theme of the budget is middle class economics. This is the main idea and concept behind the fiscal year 2016 federal budget. This brief report will list the budget details including the revenue and tax policies as well as the spending priorities and new initiatives. While middle class economics are the focus, there are lots of other things mentioned.

Initiatives of New Budget

The federal budget includes the following:

Improving access to high-quality child care and early education for parents with young children. The budget is supposed to ensure that children have access to high quality learning starting at birth by making several key investments (White House, 2015).

It would expand access to quality and affordable child care. The budget would…


White House,. (2015). Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Overview. The White House. Retrieved 17 May 2015, from

Government Budget Process Over the
Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37867704
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("ender," 2010)

Evaluate how Public Policy Decisions Affect the Receipt of Revenues

Politics and attitudes about where the various revenues should be spent can create heated amounts of debate. In the case of the Department of Defense, this can mean that periodic reviews could occur that can have an impact upon a host of different spending programs. At the same time, various assessments will take place with Secretary of Defense. Where, they will review the size and necessity of the various bases / personnel. A good example of this can be seen when the Secretary of Defense will recommend various base closures and force adjustments. As politics and changes in the Department's needs / availability of funds will affect what programs are going to receive the most appropriate amount of revenues.

Analyze the Economic Conditions that Affect Revenue Projections

The economic conditions will play a major role in determining how…


Base Closure List. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved from: 

The Numbers. (2010). Tax Policy Center. Retrieved from: 

Bender, B. (2010). Spending Critic Brown. Boston Globe. Retrieved from: 

Dupy, T. (2010). Defense Secretary Wants Spending Cuts. Huffington Post. Retrieved from:

Public Budgeting There Have Been
Words: 828 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32139250
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This demographic understands how investment markets work and is likely to make the smart and responsible choices with these investment funds to ensure that they have a good retirement.

The demographic that is least likely to benefit from such a plan is the demographic at the lower end of the income scale, blue collar workers with less education, minorities, new immigrants, and rural people. These demographics are generally less wealthy to begin with, so they rely more on the Social Security benefits than the demographic that benefits most from having a defined contribution plan for Social Security.

A partially-privatized social security system therefore primarily benefits the type of consumer that is in the best position not to need Social Security at all. Such consumers can use their knowledge of financial markets to enhance their wealth or better protect it. Consumers that are less likely to benefit, having little knowledge of…

Works Cited:

Ohlemacher, S. (2012). Social security adds to budget deficit. Huffington Post. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from 

Hiltzik, M. (2012). Proposal to privatize Social Security rears its ugly head. LA Times. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from

Public Budgeting in America Advisory
Words: 4933 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 63407320
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In terms of similarities, each of these budgets contains roughly the same basic format. hile the specific charts may differ, each budget separates revenue sources and attempts to break those down. The budgets also explain the expenditures, and typically break these down to each individual program within the department.

A similarity between three of the budgets (Federal, Florida and Newark) is that they rely heavily on tables and written explanations. hile these tables are necessary in any budget, it is interesting to note that the Newark budget is significantly more visually-oriented than any of the other budgets. The graphic representation of some of the figures makes for a more user-friendly presentation. The other budgets are less likely to be understood by those without some financial training.

Each of the budgets is produced to unique specifications. There appears to be no standard with respect to the production of public budgets, so…

Works Cited:

United States 2010 Federal Budget Summary Tables. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from

State of Florida 2009-10 "People's" Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from

City of Newark 2009 Proposed Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from 

Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Budget. Retrieved July 24, 2009 from

Gfoa Criteria Budget Evaluation
Words: 1919 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49543686
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GFOA (Government Financial Officers Association) publishes criteria for awards that it uses as a means of enticing government agencies and their financial officers to improve the caliber of financial reports. In the private sector, consistency and usefulness in financial statements is enforced through different accounting standards that are set by a body and to which all publicly-traded companies must adhere. There is no government equivalent with respect to financial reporting. The GFOA awards are one of the only means by which some consistency in government reporting is done. The awards approach the issue in terms of defining best practices that the government agencies can use in their financial reporting. In order to analyze according to the GFOA criteria, the budget for the U.S. Department of Agriculture will used, as this was the basis for a prior budget analysis.


The call for more consistency and higher quality in government budget…


GFOA (2016). Distinguished budget presentation award program. Government Financial Officers Association). Retrieved January 10, 2016 from 

Holliman, A. & Bouchard, M. (2015). The use of management by objectives in municipalities: Still alive? Review of Public Administration and Management.

Lehan, E.(1996). Budget appraisal: The next step in the quest for better budgeting? Public Budgeting & Finance. Vol. 16 (1996) 13-20.

Rivenbark, W. & Allison, G. (2003).The GFOA and professionalism in local government. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Financial Management. Vol. 15 (2) 228.

Budget Compare and Contrast
Words: 5190 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16976181
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budgets of any major size will get most, but not necessarily all, of their money from taxpayers of several many sorts but the main goal of the agencies regardless of size and structure is to provide basic and needed services to the area they serve, whatever and wherever that may be.

While all budgets are quite similar in one form or another, they are all different in their own ways and this can include the aim(s) of the money to be spent, where the money will come from and the overall fiscal policy exercised within the budget including investment, tax rates and savings strategies.

Basic Description of each budget

Differences and similarities of each budget

Sources of evenues of each budget

Change of revenue accounts in the future

e. Budget's fit with mission of the domain

f. How to improve budget and/or revenue estimation for each budget


Budget Comparison…


HHS. (2014, June 1). HHS Budget in Brief. Department of Health & Human Services.

Retrieved June 28, 2014, from -


IRS. (2014, June 26). Forms and Pubs. Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from

Budget Process for Las Vegas Metropolitan Police
Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11927155
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budget process for Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD). LVMPD was formed in 1973 as a result of the merger of the Las Vegas Police Department with the Clark County Sheriff's Department. LVMPD serves the city limits of Las Vegas along with unincorporated areas of Clark County.

LVMPD is funded by the City of Las Vegas and Clark County. Police department funding is based on a complex formula determined by population, calls for service, and the number of felony crimes from the previous year. Both city and county governments must approve not just the annual operating budget, but also their respective percentage of the budget. In addition to funding supplied by the two governments, the department itself generates approximately one-third of its funds though property tax and the charging for certain services, such as special events. A special sales tax to fund commissioned positions generates additional funding.

The Law Enforcement…

Works Cited

Haynes, B. (2011). Board votes to tap Las Vegas police reserves. Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (2011). Amended Final Budget FY 2011- 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (n.d.). About Us Consolidation. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (2011). Fiscal Year 2011-2012 Budget-in-Brief. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from:

Federal Government Has Increased Its Presence in
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Federal Government has increased its presence in many ways in the last decade and has supplied much of the economy with its own purchases. These government acquisitions are important because they represent the collective buying power of the American people. The purpose of this essay is to examine the system of regulation that supplies the rules to government purchase entitled the Federal Acquisition egulation (FA). To demonstrate the practical usage of this regulation this essay will use four different types of contracts and investigate the details of these rules creating effective, efficient and accountable acquisition planning.

Fixed Price Contracts

The FA's Subpart 16.2 supplies the necessary information about these types of purchases. According to the text, " Fixed-price types of contracts provide for a firm price or, in appropriate cases, an adjustable price. Fixed-price contracts providing for an adjustable price may include a ceiling price, a target price (including target…


Ashline, L. (2012). Contracting 101: Cost Reimbursement and Cost Plus Contracts.Gov Win Network, 27 Mar 2012. Retrieved from - costplus/423992

"Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR)." Viewed 3 May 2013. Retrieved from 

US Small Business Administration. "Federal Acquisition Regulations." Viewed 3 May 2013. Retrieved from

Budgeting Whether for the Household
Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 66033541
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If we take the former approach, we must now combine men and women together demographically; women now work far more outside the home than they did in 1935. According to the United Nations, this is now roughly 80 years, meaning the retirement age should be pushed to 70, allowing 5-8 more years of pay ins, and far fewer years of pay outs (World Population Prospects, 2006). In addition, if we follow the original mandate, Social Security is a supplemental or emergency program, not meant for those who do not need it.

So, if we take a two-pronged approach; moving the retirement age to at least 70 and recategorizing those who take retirement benefits based on their savings and investment programs, we are in more of a fiscal position to tweak the system already in place. While this may seem unfair to some, if we think about it logically, those "baby…


"Life Expectancy for Social Security," (2010). Social Security Office. Cited in: 

"World Population Prospects -- Highlights." (2006). The United Nations Office of Economics and Social Affairs. Cited in:

Budget Analysis of School System
Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96028640
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5. What are the top 3 in monetary costs for capital improvement projects recommended for the ensuing fiscal year?

The top 3 costs for Special Warrant Articles for the upcoming budget are: The GMS site de-watering study (including design and cost) at $86,000, GMS/LMS safety locks and video surveillance at $56,431 and finally LMS Emergency Access Road at $44,000.

6. Excluding food service sales what are the top 3 revenue budget lines for the year 05/06?

The top three revenue line for the school year were: Federal Program Grant at $239,042, State School Building Aid at $238,392.16 and revenue from Other Local Sources at $165,049.

7. What is the total dollar amount for appropriations recommended by the School Board?

The total amount recommended by the School Board for the upcoming year is $19,514,314. This includes the $259,854 appropriated to Special Warrant Articles as well as the $19,254,460 appropriated for all…

Budgets When Discussing the Budgets
Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62275520
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Encourage more school districts to implement school breakfast programs by providing a 50% increase in the state's reimbursement rate for school breakfasts. (WG, 2006)

The California budget includes $400 million to implement a broad strategy to ensure that California is ready for public health emergencies and is properly equipped to handle them. This funding will enable the state to increase patient care capacity (also known as "surge capacity") to achieve the levels recommended by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Health esources and Services Administration (HSA). In the past, California has responded to "moderate" local or regional public health emergencies, such as a fire, flood, explosion, or earthquake, with up to 10,000 casualties over a limited period. Measured against federal HSA benchmarks, California needs to increase response capacity in some areas. Emergency planning experts agree that the most critical element in preparing for surge needs…


California Government (2006, May). Revised Budget Summary 2006-2007. Retrieved 9/7/06, at 

Wisconsin Government (2006, may). Wisconsin executive budget 2006-2007. Retrieved 09/07/06, at

Budgeting for the Social Services Project
Words: 1312 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Grant Proposal Paper #: 41932221
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Grant: Strengthening the Family Unit

Grant -- Strengthening the Family Unit


The program expenses described in this budget narrative are for the Year 1 Pilot. Subsequent years of program are dependent on the provision of additional funding, to be determined at the close of the Year 1 and upon satisfactory evaluation of the Pilot program.


Costs attributed to personnel with project coordination and budget oversight duties are assigned to this category. Two positions with direct project responsibilities are funded from this category: Project Coordinator, Project Trainer, and Project Administrator. The Project Coordinator and the Project Trainer are scheduled to work the equivalent of .50 FTE, and the Project Administrator is scheduled to work the equivalent of .35 FTE. The salary calculations are provided for 20 hours per week for the Project Coordinator and 15 hours per week for the Project Administrator.


Annual Salary

% of Time…

Budget an Old Alliterative Adage
Words: 1112 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 32431090
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"Put it on paper," Cintron advises, and adds, "The first step to creating a budget is simple: put down on paper what you are spending your money on. That sounds easy, but it takes discipline and honesty -- in other words, do not omit anything, no matter how small" (76). In fact, many of the clients who seek out Cintron's advice simply guess at how much money they are spending each month without ever committing a single item to paper. By listing all expenses, though, even the trivial ones, people can make a decision concerning how important these expenditures are to their lifestyles and eliminate those that can add up without people realizing it. For example, Cintron also notes that, "Cut unnecessary expenses. Once you see [what you are spending] in black and white, you can figure out what you can cut. I call it going on a money diet"…

Works Cited

Cintron, Ivan. 2000, May. "The Art of Savvy Budgeting." Black Enterprise 30(10): 76.

Budget Components Policy Document Financial Plan Operating
Words: 2813 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88811460
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budget components (Policy Document, Financial Plan, Operating Plan, Communications Device), rank them in order of importance in your opinion and justify your rank order.

ank 1: Policy Document: The Policy Document is synonymous with a Budget Document. The budget document can be a line item detailed listing of every expenditure for every department within the government operation. The document conveys the policies and procedures of the administration and outlines its funding.

The expenditure amount is a further clarification of the entity's commitment to their underlying cultural and operating practices which complement their specific organizational goals and organizational strategies. Organizational strategies in accordance to the Policy Document include the Strategic Planning Document which details how the organization will propel itself into the coming years as a strategic city seeking to attract the best and the brightest to start businesses and to be residents. As the underlying specific goals to the macro…


Blocksidge, Charles. "The Art of the Budget." The American City & County 110.3 (1995): 6-. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2011.


Thomas, John. "Operational Plan Framework: A Step Toward Sound Management." Optimum 15.2 (1984): 76-.ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 18 July 2011.

Federal Reserve System
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Federal eserve System is.

The Federal eserve System

The Federal eserve serves as the central bank of the United States. It was founded by the Congress in 1913 to serve the function of provide the nation with a secure and committed monetary and financial system.

Today the Federal eserve holds the responsibilities in four areas: (1) conducting the nation's monetary policy; (2) supervising and regulating banking institutions and protecting the credit rights of consumers; (3) maintaining the stability of the financial system; and (4) providing certain financial services to the U.S. government, the public, financial institutions, and foreign official institutions.

The Federal eserve System is controlled by the Board of Governors of the Federal eserve System who formulate the initial margin requirements under egulations T, U, and X. Margin loan increases and decrease in aggregate value and relative to market capitalization, affect margin requirements instrumentally affecting the prices of common…


Assess the Effectiveness of the Federal Statistical System in Providing Relevant, Reliable, and Timely Information that Meets Federal Program Needs, available at , accessed on: October 28, 2003

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, available at , accessed on: October 28, 2003

Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis -- the Region -- the Future of Rural America (June 1995), available at , accessed on: October 28, 2003

Margin requirements, margin loans, and margin rates: practice and principles, available at, accessed on: October 28, 2003

Federal Deficit and Entitlement Programs
Words: 2565 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20967692
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What this shows is how the current financial crisis / recession have placed a drag on both programs that are facing severe challenges from the large numbers of uninsured. Where, the lack of health insurance is indirectly forcing people to turn to both programs, once their condition becomes so severe that it can no longer be ignored. At which point, the costs increase to treat these people which causes the overall levels of the national debt to increase.

However, the current recession is also having a direct impact on both entitlement programs. This is because a large number of aby oomers are approaching retirement age, which means that many will often look to both programs as way to supplement their income and health insurance. Then, when you combine this with the fact that the current recession is causing incomes to decline and health insurance premiums to increase, means that…


Annuity. 2010. Free Dictionary. Online. Available from the Internet, , accessed 7 May 2010.

Estimating the Number of Uninsured. 2009. Medical News Today. Online. Available from the Internet, , accessed 7 May 2010.

Life Expectancy. 2004. Office of National Statistics. Online. Available from the Internet, , accessed 7 May 2010.

Senate Lifts Debt Ceiling by $1.2 Trillion. Fox News. Online. Available from Internet, , accessed 7 May 2010.

Federal Reserve IMF CBO Forecast Aggregated Supply and Demand Is-Lm-Bp Models
Words: 3667 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88601341
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Alan Greenspan's testimony starts with a comparison between the state of the U.S. economy in July 2004, time of his present testimony, and the state of the economy in February 2004, the time of his previous testimony in front of the U.S. Congress.

In February 2004, the main problem of the U.S. economy, as identified by Greenspan, was the fact that the company's increase in income and net profits were related to a better use of human resources rather than on an increase in employment. In other words, despite the fact that the economy was on the rise, it failed to produce new jobs. This was a direct consequence, in Greenspan's opinion, of the risks associated with increased employments, more notably "corporate accounting and governance scandals," a "decline in stock prices" and the overall "geopolitical tensions"

As compared to the unemployment situation in February 2004, the period up to July…


1. Testimony of Chairman Alan Greenspan Federal Reserve Board's semiannual Monetary Policy Report to the Congress. July 2004. On the Internet at  

Budget Proposal on the Cost
Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37023495
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Environmental Impact Requirements. As noted above, many citizens maintain that the aesthetic impact of cellular towers lowers their residential property values, but there are other concerns involved in such installations as well. According to Crowell (1996), there have been a number of concerns voiced about the potential health and environmental problems that electro-magnetic radiation from cellular communications towers and their supporting facilities may create. In an effort to protect the aesthetics of these communities as well as to ensure public health and safety, local governments have increasingly applied zoning powers to regulate tower installations by requiring setbacks from residential or commercial structures, imposing height restrictions, and requiring safe zones in the event the tower collapses or debris falls from the tower; in fact, some municipalities have specifically established setback requirements for towers based on health and environmental concerns (Crowell 6). Still other local governments have imposed moratoriums on issuing facility…

Works Cited

Cellular Tower Installations through Public/Private Partnerships." (2005). WEL Associates, LLC. Available:

Clark, Martha L. (2005). "Massachusetts: The Land." In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].

Crowell, Anthony. (1996, June). "Local Government and the Telecommunications Act of 1996." Public Management, 78(6):6.

Czerniawski, June. (2000, March 19). "Fence Post: Police station needed." Daily Herald, 15.

Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Budget Plan
Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72196725
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Budget Proposal

Agency: Oregon Park and ecreation Department (OPD)

Agency's Mission: "To provide and protect outstanding natural, scenic, cultural, historic, and recreational sites for the enjoyment and education of present and future generations" (OPD, 2011).

To attain its mission, the agency organizes its operations into six work areas; direct services, community support and grants, park development, central services, Oregon exposition center, and director's office (OP, 2011). The agency operates a total of sixteen programs scattered across the six work areas. Of the sixteen, Park Experiences takes up the largest amount of funds - approximately 36% of the total lottery revenues - and accounts for 39% of the agency's total budget (OPD, 2011)

Proposal: Cut down spending on Interpretative program.

Identified Need: OPD does not receive any funding from the General Fund Tax kitty, and only relies "on a mix of Other Funds, Lottery Funds and a small amount of Federal…


OPRD. (2011). 2011-2013 Means and Ways Budget. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from 

Oregon Parks and Recreation Commission. (2014). Parks and Recreation Department. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from 

Rocco, K. & Hill, D. (2013). Legislative Fiscal Office. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from

10 Million Fund Allocation Budget Plan
Words: 4256 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61902064
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Budget Plan for $10 Million Fund Allocation

Positive economic development in any city in the United tates relies on the provision of effective, efficient, and strong infrastructures that will attract investment to generate job opportunities in the city. A central goal of any city is also to improve health outcomes for the residents to improve their health outcomes. City public officials should also provide safety and securities, and improve students achievements to enhance quality of human developments . However, a city officials are required to keep proper accounts of all income and expenditures to deliver high quality financial resources.

As a newly elected public official of the city of between 50,000 and 250,000 population, our goal is to attract investment opportunities in the city through effective use of budgetary control to meet the economic and health needs of the residents in order to enjoy 100% federal funds. Our goal is…

Sources of Payment, and Incremental Costs, Health Affairs.

Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). Financial Controls: A Safeguard Against Misuse of Public Funds. National Forum of Educational Administration & Supervision Journal. 27(4).

Nkuah, J.F. Tanyeh, J.P. & Asante, J.(2013). The Relationship between Financial Control Systems and Public Sector Efficiency in Ghana. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences.2(7):209-235.

Malloy, L.C & Merkowitz, S.P. (2015). The Economic Impact of Expanding Medicaid. Healthy Economy.

Popovcic-Avric, S. Mizdrakovic, V. & Djenic, M.(2014). Budget Control and Fund Accounting. International Conference: XIV International Symposium .

Los Angeles Budget Assessment L A
Words: 2822 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 82555002
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The reason for this shortfall, as noted by the Balance Budget website, emanates from pension costs, previously agreed to cost of living pay increases, rising health care costs overall and a general weakness in the overall economic recovery that has ensued, albeit very slowly, since the end of the so-called "Great ecession" period that ended in approximately 2009 for the nation as a whole. The balance budget website notes that the shortfall in question is equivalent to 20% of the total police officer salary budget, 60% of the total firefighter budget and over 100% of the city's expenses for their libraries and parks (L.A. Budget Challenge, 2013).

Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, in this budget summary document, notes that budget shortfalls will be addressed through expenditure cuts and increase efficiency. He makes mention of "painful" layoffs but not addressing the real problem of employee-level costs per person being the issue…


City of Los Angeles. (2012, October 29). The City of Los Angeles: LA City Controller: Adopted Budget. The City of Los Angeles: LA City Controller: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles. The City of Los Angeles: Office of Mayor: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The City of Los Angeles. The City of Los Angeles. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from 

City of Los Angeles. (2013, April 16). The City of Los Angeles: City of Los Angeles Council Committees: Budget and Finance. The City of Los Angeles: City of Los Angeles Council Committees: Home. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from

Public Budgeting
Words: 6131 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64152660
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public budgeting comparisons of the federal, state and local budget distributions. This thesis will be focused on whether or not the increased budget allocations for transportation in the federal, state and local government will enhance travel security, efficiency, performance measures and &D development in the domain. The thesis will start off with a proposal for an agency that works across and is allocated budget in all the federal, state and local legislatures. The agency chosen for the thesis is the United States Department of Transportation. The proposal will include a detailed overview of the chosen agency inclusive of some financial data in recent years for the agency and a comparative analysis of the performance measures accomplished with those measures that were not completed. This will be followed by the details and comparative analysis of the budgetary performances of the federal, state and local budget departments in the United States which…


Budget.Gov. 2012. Fiscal year 2012: Historical tables -- Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.

Budget.Gov. 2012a. Fiscal year 2012: Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.

Dinapoli, T.P. (2011). Report on the State Fiscal Year 2011-12 -- Enacted Budget. New York State Comptroller

Leigland, J. And Russell, H. 2009. Another lost decade? Effects of the financial crisis on project finance for infrastructure, Grid Lines No. 48. Washington, PPIAF.

National Budget Stimulation the Debate
Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62895070
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The final step in decrease law enforcement budgets was the cut of 20% federal prison system. As of right now, prisons take up millions of dollars to house drug offenders and other non-violent criminals. These funds are needed elsewhere, and so they must be taken from keeping up the building and regulation of so many unnecessary prisons in the United States.

In terms of protecting consumers much needed to be done. To ensure consumers protection on investments, deposit insurance increased by 10%. This will allow people to renew faith in the banking system in they have more insurance on their deposits. Additionally, I cut 20% of tax cuts for the richest 1% of tax payers, 10% for the second two richest. Hold even for the third, and an increase of 10% for the bottom tax payers. Furthermore, I cut 20% of untaxed foreign profits and 10% of tax benefits for…

School Budget Is Designed the
Words: 1488 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23005154
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"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).

3. Key Budget Terminology

There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are


The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:

Local source,

Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.


Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…


Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.

State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.

New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.

Public Admin General Budget Allocation
Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12974938
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Public Admin General Budget Allocation

Budget Area


Health Care

Social Insurance (aid to the elderly, disable, unemployed)

Job Training

Disaster Relief

Public Education (K -- Universities)

Environmental Management (regulate clear and clean water; regulate the handling & disposal of hazardous & radioactive wastes)

Support of Cultural Institutions (e.g. libraries, museums, zoo, etc.)

Conservation of Natural Resources

Management of National Parks % Lands

Manage Law and Order

Regulate Business

Build and Maintain Roads, Dams, & Other Infrastructure


A critique of the general thought process used to reach a consensus on the various public policy categories

In choosing the public policy category, it is crucial to determine the necessary resources and measures that should prioritize the percentage budget allocation for the federal government. Security of the federal government is crucial to the development and growth of the nation. This makes security reasonable to command large portion of the budget allocation.…

FY2012 President's Budget for Health Human Services
Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31081331
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FY2012 President's Budget For Health Human Services

One of the most prominent roles of the federal government in health care is as a purchaser of health insurance and third-party payer for health care. The federal government serves in this capacity for almost forty million elderly and disabled persons, nine million federal government employees and their dependants, and six million active members of the military and their families. It finances, in combination with the states, state-run insurance programs for the poor and near-poor children. It runs a health care delivery system intended to serve military veterans. Additionally, the federal government influences the health system by serving as a main locus for collecting health data and the principal source of funding for health services research. Notably missing is a national health planning task, although various federal agencies track health system characteristics, trends and aspects of performance (Public and private sector roles…


Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Public and private sector roles in the U.S. health system. (2002). OECD Economic Surveys:

United States, 222.

The Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Public Budgeting the Idea of
Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46291404
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A sales tax is particularly regressive because low income people spend a greater percentage of their income. They might spend 100% of their income, which means they would pay a sales tax on all of that money. A wealthy person will spend more in terms of dollars on a sales tax, but will also not spend 100% of his or her income. Some of that income will be saved, meaning that not all of the wealthy person's income will be subject to this tax.

For poor people a higher portion of income will be taxed, and there is also less margin for tax increase in their budgets. A wealthy person can afford to pay a little more tax and still have a roof over his or her head, and food on the table. At lower income levels, even a moderate sales tax like 5% is going to put those things…

Works Cited:

Investopedia. (2012). Regressive tax. Investopedia. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from 

McKinnon, J. (2011) Huckabee presses for national sales tax. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from 

Montgomery, L. (2009). Once considered unthinkable, U.S. sales tax gets fresh look. Washington Post. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from

Agency Budgets
Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 14874372
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Some of the key budget components for the FY 2015 include, but they are not limited to, administration of non-Stafford Act disasters, allocations to the Office of Advocacy and the Office of the Inspector general, and funding for business loan subsidies and non-credit programs (SBA, 2014).

The Most Appealing Budget

Two budgets in this case appeal to me most; that of the U.S. Small Business Administration and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, for purposes of this discussion, I will limit myself to one budget; i.e. that of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In addition to having significantly sliced its budget request (in relation to that of the previous period), the agency clearly identifies its key funding priorities for the financial year 2015. One could therefore conclude that the FY 2015 budget request for the concerned agency is justified on the basis of this marginal change from the FY 2014's…


McCaffery, J. & Jones, L.R. (Eds.). (2001). Budgeting and Financial Management in the Federal Government. New York: IAP.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). FY 2015 EPA Budget in Brief. Retrieved from 

U.S. Small Business Administration. (2014). U.S. Small Business Administration FY 2015 Congressional Budget Justification -- Budget Request in Brief. Retrieved from

Government Budgeting for Kelsey Budget Changes Needed
Words: 2104 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83456162
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Government Budgeting for Kelsey: Budget Changes Needed to Better Protect and Serve the Community

"We're not going to use the budget as an excuse. We're not crying about it. But I'm going to push as hard as I can to get as many people on the streets as I can. We need all hands on deck," so were the words of the Philadelphia Police Chief when faced with a similar situation to what Kelsey faces now (Steele 2010 p 2). Police strength is an absolute necessity in the effort to fight crime, both on local and larger federal levels. Without the appropriate funding resources, many local police forces around the country are beginning to suffer in terms of just how effective they are at fighting crime overall. Limited budgets mean limited capabilities, and that is exactly what the city of Kelsey is experiencing right now. Essentially, the budget is already…


Budget of the United States Government. (2004). Budgets and taxes. Almanac of Policy Issues. Web.

City of Kelsey. (2006). Annual Budget for the Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of Phoenix. Web. 

City of Kelsey. (2009). Kelsey profile. City Government. University of Phoenix. Web. 

DeWeese, Adrianne. (2011). Police say safety tax is needed to help alleviate 'blackout.' The Examiner. Web.

Municipal Budget
Words: 1550 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95401588
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Municipal Budget Analysis

The objective of this work in writing is to assess the budget of the Municipality of Chicago, Illinois in terms of how well budget documents and auxiliary information address each of these functions. The assessment will be substantiated with examples and information from documents studied. This work will examine a variety of sources including the most recent approved budget of Chicago, Illinois.

The City of Chicago 2011 budget includes provisions of no property tax increases and no new tax, fee, or fine increases to balance the budget. This is to effect that there will be no additional budget to residents already impacted by the recession. Secondly, included is the preservation of $576 million in asset lease funds to protect Chicago's future, which is inclusive of maintaining the entire $500 million Skyway long-term reserve. Third stated is the maintenance of the commitment to provide critical services to Chicago…


City of Chicago 2011 Budget. City of Chicago Organization Online Retrieved from: 

2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from: 

Chicago Central Area Plan Foresees the Future (2002) Inside. 17-23 July 2002. Retrieved from: 

2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from: