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Federal government has placed an admirable program in place for dealing with terrorist accidents. Firstly it has split itself up into distinct departments that will be there for dealing with the disaster depending on its specific nature. The FBI deals with a terrorist related incident and it is helped both by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and by the U.S. Department of State and U.S. Department of Defense each with their different capabilities. The U.S. Department of Energy provides technical and scientific assistance whilst the Public Health Service and the enters for Disease ontrol and Prevention responds with technical and medical-related assistance and data.
There are two ways managing an emergency situation. The first is to develop plans and to deal with the crisis as it is unfolding. The second is to draft preventions and contingent plans beforehand and to apply these -- if necessary and if appropriate --…
Carlson, J (1999) Critical Incident Management in the Ultimate Crisis. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Mar1999, Vol. 68 Issue 3
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (2006)
Though to that point, the Chinese had been readily utilized and badly exploited as laborers in the United States, their growing numbers provoked a typically xenophobic response from many citizens and lawmakers. The result would be the Chinese Exclusion Act, which determined that "the coming of Chinese laborers to the United States be, and the same is hereby, suspended; and during such suspension it shall not be lawful for any Chinese laborer to come, or, having so come after the expiration of said ninety days, to remain within the United States." (U.S. Congress, 1)
Making as the basis for this virulently anti-Chinese legal doctrine the prevention of 'disorder' in the American labor market, the drafters of the policy exploited the genuine racial mistrust which permeated the public in order to shift blame for widespread economic woes. The wounds sustained in the Civil ar were still gaping throughout the nation, with…
Freehling, W. (2001). The South Vs. The South: How Anti-Confederate
Southerners Shaped the Course of the Civil War. Oxford University Press.
Murrin, J.M. (2007). Liberty, Equality, Power, Vol. 1. Wadsworth, 5th Edition.
United States Congress. (1882). Chinese Exclusion Act. The 47th Congress of the United States. Online at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/chinex.htm .
S. have a culture of poverty?
Understanding poverty in the U.S. requires looking beyond the current generation. Viewed more broadly, poverty today is directly linked to the opportunities enjoyed and challenges faced by previous generations (Ehrenreich, 2009). Minority communities, (especially those composed of individuals whose ancestors were enslaved and discriminated against) still suffer economically from the corresponding lower wealth of their parents and grandparents (Ehrenreich, 2009). Those raised in poverty have fewer opportunities for advancement and typically depend on low-income employment within a perpetual cycle that can be impossible to break free from (Ehrenreich, 2009).
4. At least 200 words - Health care is an issue of considerable public interest. In particular, access and costs are key issues. Identify the challenges of a national health care reform.
On one hand, the current health care situation is untenable because it already absorbs 17% of the entire gross domestic product and is…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Simon & Schuster.
Ehrenreich, B. (2009). Nickel and Dimed: on (Not) Getting by in America. New York,
NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.
The Changing Role of the Federal Government
The federal government has changed dramatically from its 18th century origins, and the writing of the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution of the United States. The role of government has grown tremendously, as the concerns of the citizens grew to expect certain labor and health protections from the government. Also, the threats to American democracy and interests in the world have necessitated a greater role of security and military than ever imagined by the founding fathers. The economic power of American business has meant that the federal government has had to enlarge its financial institution safeguards, as well as the role of American currency and the Federal Reserve have changed over time as well.
The Great Depression was a financial shock to the United States that nearly destroyed the entire economic system, if not for a few important individuals. The…
Blinder, A. (2008). Keynesian Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/KeynesianEconomics.html .
NASA. (2008). The Birth of Nasa. Retrieved from: http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/whyweexplore/Why_We_29.html .
Federal Government Response to Protect Americans From Attacks Targeting Civilians
ith the rise of the Islamic state, many more people are becoming aware of global Islamist terrorism. The group's ability to carry out attacks on estern capitals is also causing concerns among security policymakers all over the world (Usher). One of the key objectives of America's national policy is to make Americans less vulnerable to terrorism and to deter terrorist attacks both home and abroad. The federal government has put in place several measures to achieve this objective (Patel). The best defense strategy is offense. The government knows this as it has come up with initiatives to prevent radicalization of American youths and thus preventing attacks that could have been carried out by such youths, had they been turned into terrorists.
Preventing VERLT (Violent Extremism and Radicalization that Lead to Terrorism), is something that requires a multiagency approach. The Justice…
Bjelopera, Jerome P. Countering Violent Extremism in the United States. Congressional Research Service, February 19, 2014. Web.
Capellan, Joel A. Lone Wolf Terrorist or Deranged Shooter? A Study of Ideological Active Shooter Events in the U.S., 1970-2014. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 38, no.6 (2015): 395-413. Web.
Patel, Faiza. Rethinking Radicalization. New York: Brennan Center for Justice, 2011. Web.
Ramirez, Deborah A., O'Connell, Sasha Cohen, and Zafar, Rabia. The Partnering for Prevention and Community Safety Initiative, A Promising Practices Guide Executive Summary, 2004, p. 2. Web.
In years to come, the slavery system would be abolished and African-Americans would eventually achieved equality in their own country and with their fellow white Americans, demonstrating the 'balanced' role that the U.S. government assumed in ensuring that Americans' interests are taken into consideration without causing detriment to other groups and individuals (pro or against the slavery system).
Slavery is just one aspect of America's history wherein balanced representation of socio-political views is recognized. Under the federalist form of government, states are given the right 'proportion' of representation, wherein each state's socio-political interests are made known to other states, and through fair, legal and systematic processes, these interests are addressed and decided upon by representatives of each state, elected by U.S. citizens who entrust their rights to these state representatives (politicians).
In addition, not only socio-political views are given the proper venue to be known, discussed and decided upon in…
Citizens have over the past years grown weary of politicians and their brand of politics and are therefore increasingly sidestepping their representative system by putting their own laws to popular vote. Their recent resolve to come up with ballot initiatives to bar government from passing legislations that prohibit discrimination on basis of sexual orientation is a pointer on what the future holds for civil rights legislations (Gamble, 1997).
Widespread same sex marriage can have devastating effects on the American culture. American laws were written based on certain world views and to be precise, the Judeo-Christian world-view. This is clearly depicted in laws that touch on marriage. Marriage, according to this world-view, is supposed to be a sacred union between a man and a wife. The Judeo-Christian world-view on marriage underscores the uniqueness of marriage. In fact, it posits that marriage is the foundation of civilization itself. It is an emotional,…
Anonymous (2011). Constitutional role of federal government. Retrieved August 30, 2012 from http://conservatives4palin.com/2011/05/the-constitutional-role-of-the-federal-government.html
Craven, S.M. (2008). In Defense of Marriage. Retrieved August 30, 2012 from http://www.crosswalk.com/11578872/
Gamble, S.B. (1997). Putting civil rights to a popular vote. American Journal of political
Science, 41(1), 245-269.
VIII. The "State Action" Requirement
In the provisions of the Constitution that protect individual rights, primarily the application of the Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights, the acts that are prohibited require governmental involvement in some form and thus the Courts have fashioned a concept identified as state action. State action is distinguished from private action and the protection of the rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights and applied to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment only applies when the government is involved in some fashion. Without government involvement there can be no state action and thus the rights are not afforded protection. This involvement by the Government might be minimal or only tangential but it must be demonstrated conclusively in order for the Courts to consider the aggrieved party's complaint.
IX. Congressional Power to Enforce Constitutional Rights
The Constitution in the form of the Necessary and Proper…
Mary Landrieu, the senator from Louisiana is known for her radical stand concerning various aspects that are handled by the federal government and she has always expressed her views very openly without fear of reprimand or political pressures. Her stand about the role that the federal government should play in the development of the Louisiana state is apparent. She has constantly criticized the dismal participation of the federal government in the development of this state and has always insisted that the budget of the federal government should reflect first the values and the priorities of the American people and not the foreign lands (Brainy Quotes, 2012).
Landrieu also maintains that the federal government has not done enough in the development of the South Louisiana as well as the gulf region, especially in reference to the health care and education. She is also known to be very critical of the federal…
Brainy Quotes, (2012). Mary Landrieu Quotes. Retrieved February 24, 2012 from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/m/mary_landrieu.html
On The Issue, (2008). Louisiana Senator Mary Landrieu on the Issues. Retrieved February 24, 2012 from http://www.issues2000.org/Senate/Mary_Landrieu.htm
On The Issues, (2011). Mary Landrieu on Education. Retrieved February 24, 2012 from http://ontheissues.org/Social/Mary_Landrieu_Education.htm
United States Senate Media Center, (2012). Landrieu Encourages Jindal to Focus on Charters, Teacher Quality in Education Reform. Retrieved February 24, 2012 from http://landrieu.senate.gov/mediacenter/pressreleases/01-19-2012-01.cfm
adio spots should be broadcast every five minutes in order to hit the maximum audience.
The characteristics that the messages contain differ in amount of material presented, the speed of the presentation, the number of arguments, the repetition, style, clarity, order of events, forcefulness, specificity, accuracy and extremity of the position advocated. Some characteristics can be measured objectively as to effectiveness.
Hazard awareness programs in a community can have different themes. Some programs are designed to attract the attention, others designed to give additional information may have an animal or cartoon mascot or utilize celebrity endorsements.
The content of the messages attract differing audiences. When one wants to address adults, scientific information programs may give technical data about a hazard. This information is processed only by those familiar with the terminology used. Practical instructions on exactly what to do in case of an approaching danger, may focus more on protective…
Effective Disaster Warnings." (November 2000). Report by the Working Group on Natural Disaster Information Systems Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction, National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment and Natural Rresources. Retrieved November 18, 2006 at http://www.sdr.gov/NDIS_rev_Oct27.pdf .
FEMA (2006) "Mapping Information Platform." Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved November 18, 2006 from FEMA website at https://hazards.fema.gov/femaportal/wps/portal/!ut/p/.cmd/cs/.ce/7_0_A/.s/7_0_CM9/_s.7_0_A/7_0_CM9 .
Mileti, Dennis S. (2004). Disasters By Design, Washington D.C.: Joseph Henry Press. pp. 152-154.
OSHA (1999). "OSHA Software: Expert Systems." U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrieved November 18, 2006 at http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/oshasoft/hazexp.html .
This means that Congressional officials and the White House are reluctant to make the necessary adjustments (in order to address these issues). Instead, they have been utilizing various gimmicks to demonstrate how they are dealing with the problem. During the course of their reelection campaign, they can show how they helped to tackle the federal government's fiscal challenges and increased the number of projects / funding for various programs. It is at this point that they are improving their chances of being reelected. (Kakutani, 2012)
Are they really political solutions in disguise or creating more problems than solutions?
As a result, these actions are creating more problems in the future. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Greenberg (2012) who said, "Congress remains deeply divided about how to deal with the fiscal cliff's combination of automatic government spending reductions and expiring tax cuts, amounting to nearly 5% of…
US National Debt Statistics. (2012). Statistic Brain. Retrieved from: http://www.statisticbrain.com/us-national-debt/
Greenberg, E. (2012). Political Leadership. Biz Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/blog/guest-comment/2012/10/political-leadership-needed-to-avoid.html?page=all
Kakutani, M. (2012). NY Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/08/books/the-price-of-politics-by-bob-woodward.html?pagewanted=all
Federal Government Tax
The main source of government income is taxes. The government taxes various organizations in the economy differently to ensure that adequate revenue is collected. Corporate use loopholes in the tax system to reduce the tax paid to the federal government. The government should eliminate these loopholes to improve tax collection. Some taxes such as gift and estate tax as they are counter productive. Changes made to the federal tax collection systems will increase the tax collected by increasing compliance.
esearch the most common tax loopholes used by corporations and partnership to avoid paying federal income tax. Discuss two (2) loopholes identified and what strategies you would recommend to the federal government for closing these loopholes.
The federal government gets most of its revenue from collection of tax used to fund most of the expenditure. The government should ensure that the tax collection avenues are free from loopholes…
Gans, J. (2011). Principles of economics. South Melbourne, Vic: Cengage Learning.
Ganghof, S. (2006). The politics of income taxation: A comparative analysis. Colchester: ECPR Press.
Conklin, D.W., St.-Hilaire, F., & Institute for Research on Public Policy. (1990). Provincial tax reforms: Options and opportunities. Halifax, N.S: Institute for Research on Public Policy = Institut de recherches politiques.
Pechman, J.A. (1987). Federal tax policy. Washington, D.C: Brookings Institution.
The Office exacts a new level of accountability, which encourages a broader range of competitions and new organizations to enter these competitions. Congress authorizes the Office to develop the franchise funds pilots and to expand the competitive environment. It also invites the private sector to participate in new markets and at new levels of commercial workload. At the same time, it encourages the public to compete for the same work on a level playing field. To insure that the taxpayer continues to get the best out of the deal, the Office suggests a re-examination of outsourcing, cross-servicing and in-house performance decisions. The ultimate goal of the Office is to restore public faith in Government through a more effective management of its resources and by giving citizens and taxpayers greater value for their dollar. Federal employees have been found to be extremely cost competitive. Its Revised Supplemental Handbook expressly prefers private…
Florida, Richard. The New American Dream. The Washington Monthly: The Washington Monthly Company, March 2003
Gates, Bill. How to Keep America Competitive. The Washington Post: The Washington Post Company, February 25, 2007
Hawkins, William R. Uncoordinated Federal Technology Policies Put Nation at Risk. GAO Report. American Economic Alert: U.S. Business and Industry Council, March 4, 2007
Koskinen, John. The Freedom from Government Competition Act. Office of Management and Budget, June 18, 1997. Retrieved April 14, 2007 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb
The problems facing Medicare recipients and the federal government almost seem to be overwhelming. There are proponents of a plan to privatize Social Security and health insurance, placing the onus on the individual to pay for his own health care through savings specifically for this. Some others would have the program go through the private HMOs who have, in the past, contained the costs of care by having primary care physicians manage a patient's care and purposely keeps the costs of care down.
As with Medicaid, the recipients of Medicare would have difficulty obtaining health care without this program. The recipients would most likely have no other health insurance. The trend being what it is, a lot of individuals retiring today are fortunate to have pensions from their companies, much less health benefits. ithout a national health insurance plan, like Medicare, those individuals would have to pay for health care…
Kay, Joseph. "Bush Plans renewed Assault on Medicaid." World Socialist Website. 8 Feb. 2005.
13 Aug. 2005. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/feb2005/medi-f08.shtml .
Kay, Joseph. "U.S.: States, Federal Government Prepare Massive Medicaid Cuts." World
Socialist Website. 11 May 2005. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/may2005/medi-m11.shtml .
I do not believe that the health component is adequately addressed in the planning for a WMD incident. This is because the Homeland Security Planning Scenarios are unrealistic in trying to envision threats to the homeland. These envisioned threats are "worst-case" scenarios, which are good to demonstrate good leadership. However, they are not good for making resourcing decisions which would include the heath component and health care funding. These worst-case scenarios maximize the threat only because that is the only way to get a large number of leaders together for a yearly national exercise. Since what homeland security anticipates is a long shot, the health component and health care funding are not adequately addressed in the planning for a WMD incident.
The basic objective that oversees the identification and quantification of hazards that can affect system, whether they are natural or derive from human activity is flawed. Furthermore,…
federal government has expanded through the years to develop stronger political, social, and economic structures. Social and economic issues brought about by the social issues in years prior to the Civil War and the legislation in years after the Civil War in an attempt to resolve the issues expanded the authority of the federal government. The black race was enslaved in the South, but free in the North. The role of the federal government became stronger to influence the political, social, and economic issues in an effort to build freedom and a stronger economy.
Impressment was the legislated policy to seize food, fuel, slaves, and the other commodities for armies during the Civil War. The tax-in-kind law, passed a month later, allowed the government to impress crops from farmers at a negotiated price. (DeCredico, 2011) ecause of insufficient enforcement, prices below market value, and abuse of labor, citizens hoarded goods…
Congress, M.A. (2004). Civil Rights Act of 1875. Retrieved from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3407400042.html
DeCredico, M. (2011, Dec 3). Confederate Impressment During the Civil War. Retrieved from Encyclopedia Virginia: http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Confederate_Impressment_During_the_Civil_War
Law, W.E. (2005). Fourteenth Amendment. Retrieved from Encyclopedia.com: http;//www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Fourteenth_Amendment.aspx
States, T.O. (2005). Fifteenth Amendment. Retrieved from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O184-FifteenthAmendment.html
Federal Government has increased its presence in many ways in the last decade and has supplied much of the economy with its own purchases. These government acquisitions are important because they represent the collective buying power of the American people. The purpose of this essay is to examine the system of regulation that supplies the rules to government purchase entitled the Federal Acquisition egulation (FA). To demonstrate the practical usage of this regulation this essay will use four different types of contracts and investigate the details of these rules creating effective, efficient and accountable acquisition planning.
Fixed Price Contracts
The FA's Subpart 16.2 supplies the necessary information about these types of purchases. According to the text, " Fixed-price types of contracts provide for a firm price or, in appropriate cases, an adjustable price. Fixed-price contracts providing for an adjustable price may include a ceiling price, a target price (including target…
Ashline, L. (2012). Contracting 101: Cost Reimbursement and Cost Plus Contracts.Gov Win Network, 27 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://govwin.com/lindleyashline_blog/contracting-101-costreimbursement-and - costplus/423992
"Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR)." Viewed 3 May 2013. Retrieved from http://acquisition.gov/far/index.html
US Small Business Administration. "Federal Acquisition Regulations." Viewed 3 May 2013. Retrieved from http://www.sba.gov/content/federal-acquisition-regulations-far
Federal Government in Dealing with Homelessness
Over time, the United States of America has experienced what can in some quarters be referred to as surprising levels of homelessness. This is regardless of the fact that the U.S. remains one of the most powerful countries in the world. With that in mind, the need for the government to take a larger role in providing an effective program to address the issue of homelessness cannot be overstated.
Homelessness in America: An Overview
According to a report formulated and prepared for Congress by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, although the federal government has made significant progress in reducing the number of homeless veterans and the chronically homeless, "it probably will not reach its goal of ending homelessness among these two populations by 2015" (Lowrey, 2012). This is a clear indicator that the government needs to double its efforts in an…
Lowrey, A. (2012, December 10). Homeless Rates in the U.S. Held Level Amid Recession, Study Says, but Big Gains are Elusive. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from The New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/10/us/homeless-rates-steady-despite-recession-hud-says.html?ref=housingandurbandevelopmentdepartment
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (2013, Feb 5). Affordable Housing. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Department website: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/affordablehousing
Federal Government's Impact on the Rise of Student Loans
On the surface, student loans seem like such a beneficial and risk-free government program that there appears to be no reason to object to them. After all, the purpose of federally subsidized student loans is to give students who might not otherwise have a chance to get a post- high school education the chance to get that education. College degrees, vocational certificates, and graduate degrees all expand a person's earning potential, and, theoretically increase the likelihood that the person will elevate, not only his or her own financial status, but also the status of his immediate family. Therefore, the federal government subsidizing student loans seems like an efficient and responsible use of government money. However, further investigation suggests that student loans may simply be a way of shifting a tax burden into groups that are basically tax-immune. Therefore, the appropriate policy…
It is the pursuit of happiness that the Constitution guarantees with respect to a person's right to pursue a free life. The words are written this way (Von Eckardt, Ursula M., 1959, p. 2):
e hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are empowered by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
These words should dissuade the most adamant lawmaker from proposing, or creating a federal law that would ban same-sex unions. Likewise, those seeking same-sex unions should look long and hard at the legalities involved in what they are seeking. "One way to destroy the spirit of anything is to sanctify that thing. Sanctify the code, the institution, the constitution, or the doctrine, and it is thereby arrested. It becomes unchangeable, incapable of development, resistant to new influences, rigid (Maclver, R.M., 1955,…
Stewart, James Brewer, ed. The Constitution, the Law, and Freedom of Expression, 1787-1987. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987. Questia. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105724725 .
Von Eckardt, Ursula M. The Pursuit of Happiness in the Democratic Creed: An Analysis of Political Ethics. New York: Praeger, 1959. Questia. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9863747 .
As a result many government contractors struggle to remain profitable over the life of their contracts. Third, the federal government requires contractors to create a Project Management Office (PMO) that acts as the coordination point of all activities. The PMO is a requirement in larger government contracting projects including the building of aerospace and defense vehicles and systems.
Despite the costs and challenges of selling to the federal government, the annuity-oriented contract renewals and the potential of becoming a prime contractor make the investment an attractive one. Many companies initially begin pilot programs that concentrate on selling a specific set of products or services that can be tailored and customized to the governments' needs. By taking a pilot-based approach, a company can minimize risk but also gain insight into how to better work with the federal government.
uben Berrios (2006). Government Contracts and Contractor Behavior. Journal of Business…
Ruben Berrios (2006). Government Contracts and Contractor Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 63(2), 119-130. Retrieved October 9, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 964489041).
Privacy and Security: Apple vs. Federal Government
With increased usage of smartphones and other mobile devices, concerns over unauthorized access to private and confidential data stored in the devices have soared. In recent times, Apple Inc., one of the largest manufacturers of smartphones in the U.S. and worldwide, resorted to robust cryptographic techniques in an attempt to protect data customers store on its devices. The move has led to a fierce battle between Apple and the federal government, with the latter citing national security concerns. The government's concerns over national security have gained further momentum following the discovery that one of the masterminds of the December 2015 San Bernardino terrorist attack owned an iPhone 5C (Stavridis). Unable to unlock the device due to Apple's strong encryption software, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) sought the intervention of the courts to compel Apple, under the premise of All Writs of 1789,…
The new affordability of e-readers makes them a viable option for the classroom.
Parette and Stoner (2007) emphasize that teachers share a critical responsibility for "effectively preparing all young children [emphasis theirs] to develop important readiness and literacy skills enabling them to successfully participate in public school settings." The AT tookit is one means to ensure that educators have the skills they need to help their students. Parette and Stoner also described the effectiveness of AT user groups, which allow teachers and paraprofessionals to meet with their peers and exchange ideas. Educators can talk about their professional development needs as well various AT applications and their implementation into the curriculum. The groups provide a forum for individuals to learn new skills, enjoy some guided practice, and perhaps explore new products in a setting other than their own classrooms. The authors reported that, although more research is needed, teachers who attended…
National Center on Accessible Instructional Materials (2011). California. Retrieved from http://aim.cast.org/learn/policy/state/california
Pass It On Center. (n.d.). California. Retrieved from http://passitoncenter.org/locations
Alberta province of Canada is considered one of the strongest economies in North America, being culturally diverse as well as politically and environmentally stable. Its varied landscape, sunny climate and varied geography make it a most ideal locality and provide its people an excellent quality of life. Alberta is endowed with abundant natural resources, natural sceneries, and capable manpower that altogether make it the perfect place to live and work in. These outstanding features are collectively referred to as the Alberta advantage (Government of Alberta 2002). Its people are vibrant, resourceful and productive entrepreneurs, whose goods and services rank among the most excellent in the world. This level of excellence draws from the inherent pioneering spirit of the earliest settlers of the province. The present principal industries of the province are agriculture and related industries, forestry, telecommunications, oil and gas. Its oil and gas industry, which began in the late…
Brown, Jim. 2003: Canada's Chretien Downplays Kyoto Economic Impact. CNEWS. http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Politics/2003/10/20/23/511-cp.html
CBCNews, 2002: Consumers Will Feel Pinch of Kyoto, Say Opponents. CBC. http://www/cbc/ca/stories/stories/2002/09/03/ab_kyoto020903
CTV News Staff. 2003:Three-quarters of Canadians Support Kyoto: Poll. CTV.ca. http://www/ctv/ca/servlit/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/10340/4051181_29423251/:hub=Canada
Government of Alberta. 2002: Canadians Divided on Kyoto Ratification. http://www.gov.ab.ca/home/index.cfm "Page=332.
Covered entities must develop and implement written privacy policies that are consistent with the Privacy Rule (OCR, 2003). This policy must address several components. One is that there must be a privacy official. The privacy official is responsible for developing and implementing privacy policies. There must also be a contact person responsible for the receipt of complaints (Ibid.).
The written policy must also cover other key areas. These included workforce training, which should also include any employee under the direct control of the covered entity, even if they are under contract and not an employee of the entity. There must be data safeguards as well, so the written policy needs to include specific procedures for verification of identity, release of information and disposal of PHI.
There must also be a policy with respect to the handling of complaints. This procedure must be outlined in the notice that…
Office for Civil Rights: Health Information Privacy. Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/index.html
No author. (2003). What is HIPAA? HIPAAps.com. Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://www.hipaaps.com/main/background.html
Francis, Theo (2006). Spread of Records Stirs Fear of Privacy Erosion. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06362/749444-114.stm
Office for Civil Rights: HIPAA Privacy Rule FAQ. Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/familyhealthhistoryfaqs.pdf
They are occasionally informed too poorly to make an opinion, or are simply uninterested in some aspects of politics. Public opinion used to be measured through voting, letter writing, and demonstrating. However, those who write letter and demonstrate generally have views that are more extreme than those of the public (166-168). Thus, the public opinion poll was introduced. Examples of public opinion polling include President Barack Obama's approval rating, which is currently 68%, and the 72% that believe the U.S. will be "better off in four years" (Gallup). Public opinion polls are important because they "keep the public well informed," as well as keeping the public in touch with important shifts in public opinion" ("Are opinion polls useful?").
Using a random sampling method, the public opinion poll uses probability to reflect the views of the public. That is, by using a random selection of the population, the opinions of the…
Are Opinion Polls Useful?" American Historical Association. 25 January 2008. http://www.historians.org/projects/GIRoundtable/Polls/Polls5.htm
Gallup. "Obama Starts with 68% Job Approval." Gallup. 24 Jauary 2008. 25 January 2008. http://www.gallup.com/Home.aspx
An ongoing concern at the NASA Ames esearch Center pertains to the human factors in the safety of aviation, which was considered to a great extent during the development of the ASS. The data analysts, who are principally experts in air traffic control and aircraft operations, give insight relating to the nature of human errors and other fundamental factors regarding the incidents. Even though the reports are encoded in detail, the entire narrative text of all the reports is preserved, in case they are needed for evaluation at a later stage. (Office of Technology Assessment, United States Government Printing Office, 1988)
The effectiveness with which the data is collected and stored by a program like ASS is just one part of the reporting side of the incident. More important is the potency of the feedback loop, of the reporting system, to the industry and the reporters to whom its serves.…
N.A. (n. d.) "ASRS: The Case for Confidential Incident Reporting Systems"
Retrieved 28 April, 2008 at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/docs/rs/60_Case_for_Confidential_Incident_Reporting.pdf
N.A. (n. d.) "Aviation Safety Reporting System: Program Briefing"
Retrieved 28 April, 2008 at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/overview/summary.html
My political ideology is based on my reading of the early Federalist and Anti-Federalist Papers. When I read these papers I realized that the way our country works today was really shaped by events back then during the days of the founding of the country's constitution. I used to be a Constitutionalist and identify with the libertarians led by on Paul, who pushes to uphold the Constitution. But after reading the Anti-Federalist Papers, I realized that the Constitution itself was never really a good thing: it was essentially designed to take power away from the states and place it in the hands of a central government, an idea promoted by Alexander Hamilton in the Federalist Papers (Federalist No. 6, n.d.). The Anti-Federalists viewed this as a violation of the freedom and autonomy they had just won from England in the evolutionary War (Brutus No. 1, 1787). If the…
Brutus No. 1. (1787). Retrieved from http://www.constitution.org/afp/brutus01.htm
Federalist No. 6 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed06.asp
Jamieson, A. (2016). Brexit Poll: Majority of Brits want to leave EU as referendum looms. NBCNews. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/brexit-referendum/brexit-poll-majority-brits-want-leave-eu-referendum-looms-n593441
There are several kinds of contracts that are commonly used at the federal level, including fixed-price and cost-reimbursement contracts. In order to understand them more clearly, and in order to compare them with other contracts, it is important to discuss them thoroughly. Fixed-price contracts are exactly what their name implies. They are set up based on a fixed and agreed-upon price, and that price cannot be changed (Barnett, 2003). There are both benefits and drawbacks from the perspective of the contractor when it comes to this type of contract. The most significant benefit is that the contractor knows how much he or she will be paid when the job is completed. The drawback, of course, is that there is the possibility that the job will cost much more than the contractor anticipated. With that being the case, the contractor may find that he or she is not getting…
Barnett, R.E. (2003). Contracts. New York, NY: Aspen Publishers
McKendrick, E. (2005). Contract law - Text, cases and materials. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
Stanberry, S.A. (2008). Federal contracting made easy (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Management Concepts
Federal and State Government
An Analysis of Powers in Federal and State Government
The debate over having a strong central government or strong state government in the early days of the epublic seemed to fall on the side of the states. But as the years have proven, the Constitution, which extended very specific powers to the U.S. government, has come to be interpreted in ways that would extend even more power to the central government than at first seemed possible or even permissible. This paper will show what powers are actually extended to the federal government (according to the Constitution), what powers are extended to the state governments, the power limitations of both, and the powers that overlap.
As Ellis Katz (1996) states, "The Constitution, as written and ratified, creates a system of dual federalism in which both the national government and the states are sovereign in their respective spheres…
Katz, E. (1996). United States of America. Retrieved from http://www.federalism.ch/files/categories/IntensivkursII/USAg2.pdf
McClellan, J. (2000). Liberty, Order, and Justice. IN: Liberty Fund.
U.S. Constitution. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html
There are two basic methods for providing goods and services to the federal government. One is through existing and required sources of supply where the other is an open market acquisition using simplified acquisition techniques or formal contracting methods (14 FAH-2 H-200 Acquisition asics, 2011). The simplified acquisition method falls into the threshold of $3,000 to $150,000 category and is done with procedures such as, imprest fund, purchase card, purchase orders, or blanket-purchase agreements. They follow the procedural guidelines of the Federal Acquisition Regulation Part 13 (FAR13).
When a contract, like $500,000, exceeds the threshold, the sealed bidding or negotiation methods must be used. The Sealed idding Process (IF) is characterized by competitive bids that are sealed by the respective vendors, only opened by government officials in a public ceremony, and awarded to the lowest-price acceptable bidder. Sealed bids are considered when time permits the solicitation, submission and…
14 FAH-2 H-200 Acquisition Basics. (2011, June 06). Retrieved from U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs: http://www.state.gov/documents/organizations/89066.pdf
Contract Administration Issues. (2011, May 16). Retrieved from Victorian Government Health Information: http://www.capital.dhs.vic.gov.au/capdev/ProjectDelivery/Construction/ContractAdministration/ContractAdministrationIssues/
Subpart 15.2-Solicitation and Receipt of Porposals and Information. (n.d.). Retrieved from U.S. Government: http://www.acquisition.gov/for/current/html/Subpart%2015_2.html
Perhaps this will always be an issue for the U.S. federal government because under the existing political system there are few substantial options for making policy decisions that can extend across political elections. Situations that represent a problem for one politician or political party will be ignored by the next, making consistent, proactive responses difficult if not outright impossible. From an emergency management position, this means that agencies will always have to be designed to react to the worst-case scenarios, instead of more reasonable, proactive affects that could control potential problems before they escalate out of control.
Farazmand, a. (2001). Crisis in the U.S. administrative state. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida Atlantic University.
Nice, D.C. And Grosse, a. (2001). Crisis policy making: some implications for program management. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida…
Farazmand, a. (2001). Crisis in the U.S. administrative state. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida Atlantic University.
Nice, D.C. And Grosse, a. (2001). Crisis policy making: some implications for program management. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida Atlantic University.
Federal Tort Claims Act
Federal Tort Claims
The Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) (P.L. 79-601, 60 Stat. 842) was enacted by U.S. Congress in August 1946, according to which any individual can sue the federal government for personal damages, like loss of money and property, physical injury or any other such situation caused by federal organization and its employees, while working within the limits of employment. The person can file claims against the government and the expenditure must be repaid to him if falls under the liabilities of FTCA. The FTCA is authorized for the recovery of any financial damage caused by some misunderstanding or mistreatment of the rules and regulations set by federal government, since the act falls under negligence and intolerable behavior which can highly cost the other person. According to this act, "The United States shall be liable, respecting the provisions of this title relating to tort…
Cecchine, G. (2004). Triage for civil support: Using military medical assets to respond to terrorist attacks. Santa Monica, CA: National Defense Research Institute and RAND Health.
Cohen, H and Burrows, V. (December 11, 2007). Federal Tort Claims Act. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved on 24/7/2012 from:
Matthews, D.E. Federal Tort Claims Act - The proper scope of the discretionary function exception. The American University Law Review, Volume 6. Retrieved on 24/7/2012 from: www.wcl.american.edu/journal/lawrev/06/matthews.pdf
Government Regulations and Hospice
Government Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Impact of rules on Hospice services
This paper focuses on how government regulations impact hospice. The paper starts off with an introduction to the hospice system that was revived by a nurse, Cecily Saunders, who then went on to become a physician, establishing one of the first modern hospices. The concept of total pain is explained in some detail. The body of the paper then includes the studies that have been conducted on patients and caregivers in hospice systems as well as on people who died after they were diagnosed with terminal illness resulting in death in six months following the prognosis. The overall conclusion that can be drawn here is that while in Japan there is a marked need for improving the Day hospice system, the American hospice industry…
American Medical Directors Association. (n.d.). White Paper on Palliative Care And Hospice In Long-Term Care. Retrieved March 10, 2012, from American Medical Directors Association: http://www.amda.com/governance/whitepapers/palliative_care.cfm
Carlson, M.D., Morrison, R.S., Holford, T.R., & Bradley, E.H. (2007). Hospice Care: What Services Do Patients and Their Families Receive? Health Services Research, 42(4), 1672-1690.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2008). Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Hospice Conditions of Participation; Final Rule. Federal Register, 73(109), 32088-32220.
Christakis, N.A., & Escarce, J. j. (1996). Survival of Medicare patients after enrollment In hospice programs . The New England Journal of Medicine, 172-179.
There are limitations on the destruction of wiretap records. The numbers of crimes for which wiretaps can be used, the types of judges who can authorize taps have both however, been expanded.
What Does the Constitution Say?
The United States Constitution states many principles of constitutional law that must be present in for Democracy to truly exist. Democracy is characterized by freedom and liberty to think and believe individually and the freedom to express those beliefs through speech that does not trod upon or offend others. The travesties against justice n committed in the name of Democracy is an affront to all that was intended, fought, and died in attaining in America.
Freedom, liberty and justice not only in America indeed, for the entire world. ut there are limitations within the realm of freedom and justice, for it is not freedom or justice in the forcing of what is termed…
Preamble to the Constitution of the United States (nd) Legal Information Institute [Online] available at; http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.preamble.html
Dirck, Brian R. (2002) Posterity's blush: civil liberties, property rights, and property confiscation in the confederacy. Civil War History; 9/1/2002 [Online] available at; http://www.highbeam.com/library /doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:92589648&num=38&ctrlInfo=Round9a%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Federal Tort Claims Act
Traditionally, the federal government was immune from lawsuits by its citizens under a doctrine known as sovereign immunity. Theoretically, this immunity was justified because people would necessarily have disagreements with the government and resorting to the court system to help resolve those disputes could have resulted in a tremendous waste of time and energy. However, the situation left people with no solution when they were harmed by a person acting for the government, even if the action had nothing or little to do with the government's sovereignty. For example, under strict sovereign immunity, a person is unable to recover harms for routine torts such as slip-and-falls. Perhaps even more worrisome was the fact that, under strict sovereign immunity, people were unable to recover for intentional harms and torts inflicted by the government or government agencies, even when those harms violated federal laws. The Federal Tort Claims…
Chang, A. (2010, March 27). High court rules U.S. government can be sued over actions of prison guards. Retrieved April 4, 2013 from the National Public Radio website: http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2013/03/27/175494286/high-court-rules-u-s-government-can-be-sued-over-actions-of-prison-guards
Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 U.S.C.S § 2680 (2006).
Fuller, D. (2011). Intentional torts and other exceptions to the Federal Tort Claims Act.
University of St. Thomas Law Journal, 8(3), 375-397.
Despite increased student fees, the UC still encountered a $500 million shortfall or $2,500 per student. It has been undergoing severe pressure from the impact of the cuts. The quality of education at the U.S. has remained high, but there have been disturbing signs of erosion, nevertheless. The widening gap between the UC and the best private university has been alarming because the UC competes for the top teachers and students with these private universities. This widening gap should be a critical concern to the state and the federal governments because even excellent private universities are too small to meet California's or the nation's needs for a well-educated workforce in the future, to come up with innovations needed to fuel the economy and to generate jobs, and to introduce medical advances for the use and care of the sick and disabled. In the past decade, California's private research universities, Stanford,…
Clinton, P. (2002). The student aid conundrum. University Business: 4 pages.
Professional Media Group LLC
Darling, B.B. (2005). Hearing testimony. 5 pages. California Senate Subcommittee on Higher Education. Retrieved January 26, 2007 at http://www.ucop.edu/uersvp/speeches/Speier_Hearing_Nov_9_2005.pdf
Dervarics, C. (2006). Congress approves cuts to student loan programs. 1 page. Diverse Issues on Higher Education: Cox, Matthews and Associates
Federal Contracting Activities and Contract Types-
Dell Inc. was founded by Michael Dell who ventured into business as a freshman at the University of Texas in Austin. He realized that the branded models of computers were expensive and not many could afford them. He ventured into the business of buying the computer parts which he assembled in clones of IBM computers and sold to the consumers directly through the mail. The computer market was already dominated by the big players in the market but against the odds Dell faced competition and emerged the best brand sold through the direct-mail market. Customers recognized the brand through his aggressive marketing and the quality of his computer products that earned him a bigger market share compared to the other little known companies. It became incorporated in 1984 where it has been the world's leading seller of computer systems.
Dell offers a…
Advameg, (2012).Dell Inc.-Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History,
Background Information on Dell inc. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/68/Dell-Inc.html
Nick Wakeman, (2010). Dell Wins $120 Million outsourcing pact with DHS. Retrieved June 8,
2012 from http://washingtontechnology.com/articles/2010/04/14/dell-citizenship-contract-win.aspx
Federal Contracts Awarded to Boeing Company:
Boeing Company is the largest aerospace company across the globe and the leading manufacturer of commercial defense and jetliners, space and security systems. In addition to being a top exporter in America, the Boeing Company supports airlines and the United States and allied customers in 150 nations worldwide. The company's position in the aerospace industry originates from its long tradition of aerospace innovation and leadership. Boeing continues to expand its product line and services in order to meet the emerging needs of its customers. Boeing's broad range of capabilities include developing new and more efficient members of its commercial airline family, developing advanced technology solutions, integrating military platforms, and organizing innovative customer-financing options.
History of Boeing Company:
Boeing Company has a history that stretches back to 1916 when the United States timber merchant, William E. Boeing, founded the aero products firm after he and…
"About Us." (2012, January). Boeing Company. Retrieved September 6, 2012, from http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/aboutus/brief.html
Capaccio, T. (2011, June 24). Boeing Projected to Face $300 Million Overrun on Tanker
Contract. Retrieved September 6, 2012, from http://seattletimes.com/html/businesstechnology/2015420023_tanker25.html
Dimascio, J. (2011, February 24). Boeing Gets $35 Billion Air Force Tanker Contract. Retrieved September 6, 2012, from http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0211/50145.html
Federal Legislation and Impact to the eal Estate Market
Federal Legislation and Impact to the eal Estate
The Constitution was written to outline the limits of the federal government, to protect the people and to protect the people from government. The government is also obligated to ensure that all people have the opportunity to acquire property by ensuring the housing market is free from discriminatory and predatory practices. For these reasons I support federal government efforts to regulate the housing arena to ensure fairness, accessibility and equity in the market. I also support the federal government role in efforts to restore the market and to provide resources and assistance to help avoid foreclosure. For example, the Fair Housing Act was enacted in 1968 to "remove the walls of discrimination which enclose minority groups" to address the rampant issue of racial segregation in both public and private housing. I believe this…
Collins, Michelle. "Opening Doors to Fair Housing: Enforcing the Affirmatively Further Provision of the Fair Housing Act Through 42 U.S.C § 1983" Columbia Law Review Vol. 110:2135-2010: 2137-2183.
Washington, DC. Department of Treasury. Reforming America's Housing Finance Market: A Report to Congress. 2011.
Developing a Federal Acquisition Team: everse Engineering a Standard Forestry Project to Determine Team equirements
The selected project is controlled by the Forestry Department, which is part of the Department of Agriculture, placing the project under the auspices of Chapter 4 for the Federal Acquisition egulations, which themselves make up Title 48 of the Code of Federal egulations (e-CF, 2012). elevant paragraphs include a provision that all Head of Contracting Activities (HCAs) comply with FA 7.103, detailed further below (e-CF, 2012, Title 48, Chapter 4, Part 407, par. 407.103). In addition, paragraph 407.503 of the same chapter provides provisions for the determination of whether or not a proposed contracting function is "inherently governmental" according to FA 7.503(e), and also sets out rules for settling disputes when there is not agreement on this issue (e-CF, 2012). It is not expected that this will be of issue in…
e-CFR. (2012). Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Accessed 22 April 2012.
PAYCO NSFR #2210 (2012).
PAYCO NSFR #2210 Recons. Drawing. (2012).
Evaluate how Public Policy Decisions Affect the Receipt of Revenues
Politics and attitudes about where the various revenues should be spent can create heated amounts of debate. In the case of the Department of Defense, this can mean that periodic reviews could occur that can have an impact upon a host of different spending programs. At the same time, various assessments will take place with Secretary of Defense. Where, they will review the size and necessity of the various bases / personnel. A good example of this can be seen when the Secretary of Defense will recommend various base closures and force adjustments. As politics and changes in the Department's needs / availability of funds will affect what programs are going to receive the most appropriate amount of revenues.
Analyze the Economic Conditions that Affect Revenue Projections
The economic conditions will play a major role in determining how…
Base Closure List. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved from: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7834939/ns/us_news
The Numbers. (2010). Tax Policy Center. Retrieved from: http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/briefing-book/background/numbers/revenue.cfm
Bender, B. (2010). Spending Critic Brown. Boston Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2010/04/08/spending_critic_brown_backs_mass_weapons_bid/
Dupy, T. (2010). Defense Secretary Wants Spending Cuts. Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tina-dupuy/defense-secretary-wants-d_b_571906.html
45, for instance, where he argues that "the State governments may be regarded as constituent and essential parts of the federal government; whilst the latter is nowise essential to the operation or organization of the former. ithout the intervention of the State legislatures, the President of the United States cannot be elected at all." (Rossiter, 287) This is a position which suggests not only that the Federalists felt that significant power had already been entrusted to leaders at the state level, but also that this power is seen primarily as a function of the power of the federal government. Thus, we are given further confirmation that the Constitution was inherently a federal document.
In key segments of the debate such as that shown in the Anti-Federalist Paper No. 17, we can see that those who stood in opposition to the empowerment of federal authority derived from the Constitution were a…
Mansfield, Harvey C. Jr., (1979). Selected Writings Jefferson. Harlan Davidson Press.
Rossiter, Clinton. (1961). The Federalist Papers. Signet Classics.
Storing, Herbert J. (1985). The Anti-Federalist. The University of Chicago Press.
The Nation (TN). (2008). The Antifederalist Papers. This Nation.com.
The Federal reserve realized the big negative impact of MBS and announced a 600 billion program in November 2008 to purchase these securities and this helped to bring back some liquidity into the market. In March 2009, it added another $750 billion to bring the total to $1.25 trillion.
The Fed has the power to create or print more money to increase money supply in the market and this is exactly what it did. Though the downside of this measure is inflation and an increased balance sheet for the Fed, Ben Bernanke, the chairman of the Federal eserve felt it was imperative to boost the economy. Through this tool, the Fed generated money and provided it to large corporations that depend on loans to ensure that their growth was not drastically affected. The Fed executed this policy through the lending institutions to increase economic activity and the dependent employment numbers.…
Spriggs, William; (June 2006). Getting to Know the Nation's Central Bank. Crisis. Vol 113(4). pp17-19.
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (2012). Retrieved from: federalreserve.org
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov
No author. (June 8, 2009). Ben Bernanke's Greatest Challenge. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/03/12/60minutes/main4862191.shtml
" (Structure of the Federal eserve System)
The 12 Federal eserve Banks extend banking service to the depository institutions and also to the federal government. To the financial institutions it takes the responsibility of maintaining reserve and clearing out accounts and entails various payment services incorporating checks, electronically transferring funds and circulating and receiving coins and currency notes. As the banker of the Federal Government they function as fiscal agents. They maintain the Treasury Department's transaction account; they pay treasury checks; enable to process electronic payments and issue transfer and redeem U.S. government securities. (eserve Bank Services)
The functions of Federal eserve start with the formulation of the Monetary Policy in accordance with the needs of the national economy. The Federal eserve System provides three basic tools for conducting the monetary policy such as open market operations, discount rate and reserve requirements. The Open Market Operations is used as the…
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis: Historical Overview. Retrieved at http://minneapolisfed.org/info/mpls/history/overview.cfm . Accessed 11 November, 2005
Ferguson, Robert. W. The Evolution of Central Banking in the United States. Retrieved at http://www.federalreserve.gov /boarddocs/speeches/2005/20050427/default.htm. Accessed 11 November, 2005
Frequently asked Questions: Federal Reserve System. Retrieved at http://www.richmondfed.org/faqs/index.cfm?faq=Federal%20Reserve%20System . Accessed 11 November, 2005
How the Fed works. Retrieved at http://www.clevelandfed.org/about/threefrs.htm . Accessed 11 November, 2005
One of the important procedures involved in Federal taxation is the apprehension of those persons and firms and trusts and others who evade tax payment and thereby break the law. This means that these entities may either conceal facts and/or misrepresent them so that the result would be beneficial to them. Such individuals may under declare their income levels and the earnings and profits that they may have earned during the course of their jobs. They may even over declare the deductions so that any losses would be made up this way. These are all the methods of tax evasions generally used by dishonest individuals who wish to avoid paying taxes to the federal government. However, tax avoidance is another issue wherein individuals and firms exploit the entire tax regime so that they will gain the ultimate advantage.
This way, they break the legal laws that govern taxation…
'Criminal Tax Case Procedures" Retrieved from http://www.usdoj.gov/usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usam/title6/4mtax.htm#6-4.010 Accessed on 18 November, 2004
"Grand Jury Proceedings" (May 6, 1998) Retrieved from http://www.usdoj.gov/ust/ustp_manual/vol5ch11.htm Accessed on 18 November, 2004
"Judicial Subpoenas" Retrieved from http://www.irs.gov/irm/part42/ch03s01.html#d0e28222 Accessed on 18 November, 2004
"Letters Rogatory" Retrieved from http://www.irs.gov/irm/part42/ch03s02.html Accessed on 18 November, 2004
Government Changes post-Revolution ar vs. post-Civil ar
Close examination of the reasons for and the results of the Revolutionary ar and the Civil ar forces me to disagree with McPherson's position that more radical change in government occurred due to the Civil ar than the Revolutionary ar. In order to understand how this is true, one must look at several issues, such as the causes of each of the wars, the purposes and intentions, and the ultimate results.
The Revolutionary ar was based on the struggle to become independent from Great Britain and this struggle began due to a series of taxes forced upon the citizens. So "taxation without representation" was the initial call to arms however, it grew to include other freedoms as well.
The Civil ar was utterly a different process of situation. hile claims by the South of freedom it was always an economic issue tightly woven…
Abraham Lincoln, Cooper Union Address, New York City Presidential Campaign
Confederate States of America-Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union, December 1860, South Carolina
Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address." Washington D.C. Mar. 1861. Address.
Ordinance of 1787
The Japanese Government to usiness Model
The Japanese government has more direct control of private business. The difference is that it is doing so, as a partner to ensure that the business is able to maintain successful long-term economic growth. The government does not offer subsidies or any kind of bail outs. Instead, they help companies through loans, tax breaks and other forms of assistance. This helped to contribute to the success of the Japanese auto industry by allowing executives to focus on how their organization can grow in the future. (Johnson, 1985)
usiness, government and the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan
The Liberal Democratic Party helped to liberalize the relationship that the government would have with the auto industry. As it would be successful in helping Japan to eliminate protectionism; this is something that would allow Japanese cars to become more competitive in markets around the world.…
Automobile Industry Introduction. (2010). Retrieved May 6, 2010, from Plunkett Research website: http://www.plunkettresearch.com/Industries/AutomobilesTrucks/AutomobileTrends/tabid/89/Default.aspx
CAFE Overview. (2010). Retrieved May 6, 2010, from NHTSA website: http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/cafe/overview.htm
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Guidelines. (n.d.). Retrieved May 6, 2010 from NHTSA website: http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/import/fmvss/index.html
G8's Gradual Move. (2008, January 25). Retrieved May 6, 2010, Council of Foreign Relations website: http://www.cfr.org/publication/13640/
What they did not anticipate was the levees breaking nor were they aware of the level of immediate need of the people. He also says that with Hurricane Andrew, about two million residents were evacuated and only about 10% we left homeless whereas with Hurricane Katrina approximately the same number of residents were evacuated yet over 90% were left homeless (Halton, 2006). This was much more of a burden than FEMA had anticipated and it was a result of poor emergency response at lower levels of government.
Even still, FEMA should have been better prepared to handle the situation. They should have been called in earlier than they were and if this were the case they situation would have been easier to manage. Paulison says that FEMA was not fully aware of what was needed and where. This is a result of poor communication. y the time they were called…
Halton, B. (2006). FEMA's response to Hurricane Katrina. Fire Engineering, 159(5), 213-218.
Kelley-Romano, S. And Westgate, V. (2007). Blaming Bush: An analysis of political cartoons following Hurricane Katrina. Journalism Studies, 8(5), 755-719.
Perry, R.W. And Lindell, M.K. (2003). Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for emergency planning process. Disasters, 27(4), 336-350.
S. growth will proceed at a crawl in 2008, which will provide little comfort for the dollar" and most certainly call for intervention again by the Fed. "In some fashion the dollar will continue to decline," according to Adnan Akant, a specialist in currency at Fischer Francis Trees & atts, money managers in New York City. For investors, Slater continues, having a weaker dollar offers choices; to wit, if you believe the decline has further to go before it bottoms out, buy stocks in currencies that are hot right now. If the dollar weakens, the returns from those stocks will be more valuable when they are converted back into dollars, Slater assures.
Baker, Gerald. (2007, November 25). Beauty deals a beastly blow to the U.S. Dollar. The Times. Johannesburg South Africa. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2007, at http://www.thetimes.co.za.
Federal Reserve System. (2007). Purposes & Functions. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2007,…
Baker, Gerald. (2007, November 25). Beauty deals a beastly blow to the U.S. Dollar. The Times. Johannesburg South Africa. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2007, at http://www.thetimes.co.za .
Federal Reserve System. (2007). Purposes & Functions. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2007, at http://www.federalreserve.gov /pf/pdf/pf_1.pdf.
Slater, Joanna. (2007, November 24.). Falling Dollar Takes Investors for a Ride. The Wall
Street Journal Sunday, p. D3.
No implementation issues are anticipated once the appropriate legislation is promulgated.
The second suggested alternative strategy is to require that federal agencies conduct mandatory telework awareness training for all federal employees and offer specific telework training for all eligible employees who wish to participate. The criteria for this strategy are that it must: (1) publicize the change effectively internally; (2)
include all eligible employees; and (3) inform federal employees how to address any difficulties encountered in applying for telework opportunities. No implementation issues are anticipated once the appropriate legislation is promulgated.
The third suggested alternative strategy is to publicize the change effectively externally to increase federal recruitment. The criteria for this strategy are that it: (1)
effectively increase public awareness of the policy; (2) provide comprehensive information sufficient to achieve its objective; and (3) exploit multiple communications media. The only conceivable implementation issue with regard to this strategy is the…
Liverhant, C. (2009). Telephone interview conducted on April 13, 2009 with former U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (Federal
Region II) Writer/Editor.
Losey, S. (2008). "Obama to Expand Benefits, Unionize TSA, Curb Outsourcing, Review
It might seem strange that despite its central role in government affairs, that it is still somewhat privately owned. There are also regional branches, located in 12 states. This allows the Federal eserve to protect and stimulate regional economies all over the nation. The Federal eserve was created in a very unique way which sets it apart from the control of Congress and the Senate. When it was established, the creators wanted to make sure that no administration could have too much control, or to use it for their own good. So the bank was established independent of the Federal Government, running itself. This keeps greedy hands in the Government from reaching too far into the nation's reserves for their own selfish purposes. Congress has recognized that it is an independent financial institution, and therefore with no interests in arty politics or election years.
Federal eserve Bulletin. "The Federal…
Federal Reserve Bulletin. "The Federal Reserve in the Payments System - Policy
Statement Update." Bnet. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4126/is_n5_v76/ai_9038455 . May 1990.
Government Performance esults Act
The General Accounting Office (GAO) may be one of most essential agencies in the federal government, because of its investigative oversight, but to the average American citizen, it may also be among the lesser known agencies. That is because the average hard-working nine-to-five person - whose contact with "news" is a few sound bites on television after work - might never dig into newspapers deep enough to read up on how taxpayer dollars are spent in Washington D.C. It's regrettable that the average person complains loudly about taxes, and "politicians" - yet knows little of the GAO's pivotal work. Meanwhile, this paper will focus upon the GAO report on the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), titled, "Status of Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges" - which is clearly a wise use of taxpayer monies, whether taxpayers know about the GAO or not.
American Civil Liberties Union (2003). "ACLU Demands Truth From Justice
Department: New Report Details False Claims about SCOPE, Impact of PATRIOT Act." http://www.aclu.org/SafeandFree/SafeandFree.cfm?ID=13100&c=206 .
Kast, Sheila (2001). "Terror probe raises concerns about civil rights." CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2001/U.S./10/22/inv.civil.rights/
Perry, Tony (2002). "Immigration Attorney for 7 Detainees Lashes Out At INS:
Solutions for the Future
Even a quick look at budget documents for the next few decades indicate a system burdened with exploding costs of Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare; the latter the powder keg of the debt explosion. A reform of Medicare in which there is "only $1 in Medicare taxes for every $3 in benefits likely to be received in retirement" (Appelbaum & Gebeloff 6) must be a Congressional and Presidential priority. eturning the program to a role of insurance rather than a direct coverage program would be a start; Paul yan's proposal of premium support is a working model. Social Security must also be strengthened with common sense adjustments in payroll tax collection and age eligibility.
Those are the entitlement reforms however; these changes also forego the numerous tax expenditures which increase the government tab. The earned income tax credit, home mortgage deduction, and education credits are tax…
Appelbaum, B. & Gebeloff, Robert. "Even Critics of Safety Net Increasingly Depend on it." The New York Times. The New York Times, February 11, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/us/even-critics-of-safety-net-increasingly-depend-on-it.html
Government Funds for Internet ducation
The government has a duty to provide the best possible education to our future leaders. It is imperative that the school environment is conducive to learning. Textbooks should be up-to-date, teachers should be well qualified and the curriculum should teach children the skills they need to succeed in the world, no matter what career path they choose. Denying funding to connect our children to the Internet is to deny them an adequate education. The purpose of the Internet far surpasses that of instant messages and email, the Internet is a useful tool for just about anything. Learning how to navigate the World Wide Web is not an option; it has become mandatory for anyone who wishes to thrive in this century and for the rest of time.
Brian Goldfarb, a student at Canyon High School in Anaheim, California whose ingenuity, computer savvy and his realization…
Ehlert, Bob. Technology Skills. Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from Web site: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1041/6_77/54635441/p1/article.jhtml
Pedroni, Gulliermo. The Importance of the Internet in K-12 Education." Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from Web site: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/5461/paper_1.html
Government at all levels drive the Reinvention of Schools." Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from Web site: http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/techgap/navigate.cgi
Governments neutralize the monetary impacts of their foreign exchange activities. This sterilization seeks to prevent foreign exchange transactions from posing as obstacles to the domestic monetary policy objectives. The underlying disturbance is likely to cause conflict between governments. When the underlying disturbance to exchange rate originates from the domestic government, it is likely to pursue inflation objectives through non-sterilized foreign exchange interventions (Auerbach & Kotlikoff, 2009).
While other governments have boundaries on investments relating to international financial markets in different currencies, some governments factor objectives of nominal exchange rates into their financial policy decisions. For instance, the federal government occasionally alters the rate of federal funds while it undertakes compatible foreign exchange activities. Erecting the required monetary policy changes across the sale or purchase of foreign currency has a bigger impact on the foreign exchange rate. This is contrary to initiating this move through open market activities in state securities.…
Auerbach, a.J., & Kotlikoff, L.J. (2009). Macroeconomics: An integrated approach. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: MIT Press.
Madura, J. (2011). International Financial Management. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning, Inc.
Yotopoulos, Pan a. (2010). Exchange Rate Parity for Trade and Development: Theory, Tests, and Case Studies. Cambridge Univ Pr.
Government-Mandated Microchip Implantation
Government-Mandated Chip Implantation in Citizens:
Technological Breakthrough or Privacy Disaster?
Government-Mandated Chip Implantation in Citizens:
Technological Breakthrough or Privacy Disaster?
In a world in which new technology turns over nearly every day, individuals around the world, and particularly in the United States, continually jump at the chance to integrate these new technologies into their own lives. Generally, we as Americans view technology as a convenience, created to make our lives easier. From GPS systems in our cars to GPS systems on our children, it seems that no technology is off-limits. Perhaps, though, our continual interest in these technologies lies in our ability to take them or leave them. Some may view the placement of a GPS tracking chip in a child's coat as a dream come true, while others may find it excessive. How then, would a technologically-obsessed nation react if our choice to consume was taken…
Herbert, W. (2006). No direction home: will the law keep pace with human tracking technology to protect individual privacy and stop geoslavery? IIS: A Journal of Law and Policy. 2.2: pp. 417. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Miliard, M. (2011 March 22). Barcoding is simple, but effective. Healthcare IT News.
Web. Retrieved from: http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/barcoding-simple-effective . [Accessed on 19 January 2012].
Westin, A. (1967). Privacy and Freedom. New York, NY: Atheneum. Print.
Government Accounting Office in America (GAO)
This is an examination of the Government Accounting Office in America. The writer discusses the history, purpose and background of the GAO as well as the duties that the office is charged with performing. The writer then analyzes literature that illustrates the office in action. The final discussion revolves around the question, "Is the office effective or is it a waste of money." There were four sources used to complete this paper.
During the last few years there has been a public outcry and demand to investigate government spending. The public was brought stories by the media about the government paying thousands of dollars for toilet seats, and spending hundreds of dollars on a screwdriver and other such tools. When the reports began to surface about wasted government spending the public became angry. Lobbyists across the nation began to demand an accounting of not…
Bibliography for a listing of non-GAO publications.) It should be noted that, as with any effort to put current events into historical context, alternative interpretations are possible. Often debated are the intent and motivation of the framers of the Constitution who created the census. In this report, we have quoted the Constitution and various laws relating to the decennial census and have attempted to place their language in an historical context. We are not, however, providing our own independent review or interpretation of the constitutional and statutory issues discussed in this report, which, unless otherwise noted, are based primarily on the analysis contained in the various publications and documents we relied upon in preparing this report.
Short answers to some frequently asked questions about the decennial census are in appendix 1. Appendix 11 contains information on changes in the apportionment of the membership of the House of Representatives between the 1920 and 1990 Decennial Censuses by region of country and on changes in the nation's population and its undercount by race and ethnicity between the 1950 and 1990 censuses, as well as a snapshot of the growth and cost of census-taking since the first decennial census in 1790. Major contributors to this report are identified in appendix III.
L. Nye Stevens Director, Federal Management and Workforce Issues
Why Take the Census?
B. In market economies, governments are supposed to provide economic conditions for private enterprises to function effectively. However, the main purpose is to create an environment for a healthy national economy, in which all the parties are prosperous, not only private enterprises (USINFO, 2007). The main difference between market economies and planned economies lies on whether the influence of the government is used to preclude private decision (Wikipedia, 2007). The fact that the Mercedes bidding process took place at the state and local level of governments probably influenced the inducements for this project. In other words, a federal government probably would not have offered such favorable tax condition for the Mercedes plant implementation, being more preoccupied on the social welfare.
C. The state and local governments were definitely in favor of the Alabama Mercedes project, and the enormous amounts of money invested in this project by the Alabama government prove…
Hirschey, Mark. Case Study: Oh, Lord, Won't You Buy Me a Mercedes-Benz (Factory)? Fundamentals of Managerial Economics.
Government in a Market Economy (2007). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 17, 2007 at http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/market/mktec8.htm.
Market Economy Introduction (2007). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved July 17, 2007 at http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/market/mktec1.htm.
Market economy (2007). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved July 17, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_economy#Government_intervention .
PPSPA bills would have enabled federal regulation to perform this more efficiently than present regulation efforts exerted by the States and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education or ACGME. Restrictions to the ACGME self-regulation will be a problem only it they already exist. The problem is really that Congress is reluctant to pass laws to federally mandate these restrictions. Opponents to these restrictions teem the political milieu at Washington DC. Federal regulation of resident work hours should nonetheless remain in the major agenda for Congress, especially if and when ACGME regulatory efforts turn futile and ineffective (Lee).
Into Medical Debt
Adverse consequences have followed the lack of definite government regulation of federal hospitals. A new report from The Commonwealth Fund said that some patients incur unimaginable medical bills and go into long-term debts as a result of unclear federal laws and regulations (Mahon & Pryor, 2003). Whatever rules are…
Brown, S. (2011). Federal hospitals. American Hospital Association. Retrieved on May
29, 2011 from http://www.aha.org/aha/member-center/constituency-sections/Federal-Systems/fed-index.html
Lee, C.J. (2006). Federal regulation of hospital resident work hours: enforcement with real teeth. Journal of Health Care Review Policy: University of Maryland. Retrieved on May 29, 2011 from http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/cgi/viewcontent.dgi?article=1001&content=student_pubs&sci_redi=1#search= "federal+hospitals+regulations"
Mahon, M. And Pryor C. (2003). Government regulations contribute to medical debt of uninsured and underinsured. The Commonwealth Fund. Retrieved on May 29, 2011