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Federal Funds Rate the Federal Fund Rate
Words: 3201 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31382085
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Federal Funds Rate

The federal fund rate was part of the solution, comprised in the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, to centralize the banking system and gain public control of the money supply, inflation, and economic growth. The banking crisis of 1907 was a result of decentralized, unregulated banking that caused confusion with private bank notes being used as currency. There were occasional episodes of monetary mismanagement where the money supply was not appropriate to fulfill the needs of the economy. Too much money caused rapid inflation where too little money stunted economic growth by hindering production and the exchange of goods and services. There were no nationally consistent banking policies and no one entity had control to implement policies until the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 became a national law.

The Federal Reserve System was created with the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 with a oard of Governors to…


Amadeo, K. U.S. Economy. 24 Jan 2012. Article. 14 Aug 2012. How the federal funds rate affects finance. n.d. article. 15 Aug 2012.

Bofah, K. What Effect does the Fed Fund Rate Have on Stock Prices. n.d. Article. 15 Aug 2012.

Madrick, J. "Paul Volcker, Jimmy Carter, and Ronald Reagan." Madrick, J. Age of Greed. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2011. 160-176. Book.

Federal Government Improvement of the
Words: 2066 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56620148
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The Office exacts a new level of accountability, which encourages a broader range of competitions and new organizations to enter these competitions. Congress authorizes the Office to develop the franchise funds pilots and to expand the competitive environment. It also invites the private sector to participate in new markets and at new levels of commercial workload. At the same time, it encourages the public to compete for the same work on a level playing field. To insure that the taxpayer continues to get the best out of the deal, the Office suggests a re-examination of outsourcing, cross-servicing and in-house performance decisions. The ultimate goal of the Office is to restore public faith in Government through a more effective management of its resources and by giving citizens and taxpayers greater value for their dollar. Federal employees have been found to be extremely cost competitive. Its Revised Supplemental Handbook expressly prefers private…


Florida, Richard. The New American Dream. The Washington Monthly: The Washington Monthly Company, March 2003

Gates, Bill. How to Keep America Competitive. The Washington Post: The Washington Post Company, February 25, 2007

Hawkins, William R. Uncoordinated Federal Technology Policies Put Nation at Risk. GAO Report. American Economic Alert: U.S. Business and Industry Council, March 4, 2007

Koskinen, John. The Freedom from Government Competition Act. Office of Management and Budget, June 18, 1997. Retrieved April 14, 2007 at

Federal Deficit and Entitlement Programs
Words: 2565 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20967692
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What this shows is how the current financial crisis / recession have placed a drag on both programs that are facing severe challenges from the large numbers of uninsured. Where, the lack of health insurance is indirectly forcing people to turn to both programs, once their condition becomes so severe that it can no longer be ignored. At which point, the costs increase to treat these people which causes the overall levels of the national debt to increase.

However, the current recession is also having a direct impact on both entitlement programs. This is because a large number of aby oomers are approaching retirement age, which means that many will often look to both programs as way to supplement their income and health insurance. Then, when you combine this with the fact that the current recession is causing incomes to decline and health insurance premiums to increase, means that…


Annuity. 2010. Free Dictionary. Online. Available from the Internet, , accessed 7 May 2010.

Estimating the Number of Uninsured. 2009. Medical News Today. Online. Available from the Internet, , accessed 7 May 2010.

Life Expectancy. 2004. Office of National Statistics. Online. Available from the Internet, , accessed 7 May 2010.

Senate Lifts Debt Ceiling by $1.2 Trillion. Fox News. Online. Available from Internet, , accessed 7 May 2010.

Federal and State Government
Words: 943 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13202182
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Federal and State Government

An Analysis of Powers in Federal and State Government

The debate over having a strong central government or strong state government in the early days of the epublic seemed to fall on the side of the states. But as the years have proven, the Constitution, which extended very specific powers to the U.S. government, has come to be interpreted in ways that would extend even more power to the central government than at first seemed possible or even permissible. This paper will show what powers are actually extended to the federal government (according to the Constitution), what powers are extended to the state governments, the power limitations of both, and the powers that overlap.

As Ellis Katz (1996) states, "The Constitution, as written and ratified, creates a system of dual federalism in which both the national government and the states are sovereign in their respective spheres…

Reference List

Katz, E. (1996). United States of America. Retrieved from 

McClellan, J. (2000). Liberty, Order, and Justice. IN: Liberty Fund.

U.S. Constitution. Retrieved from

Federal and State Websites State Federal Research Project
Words: 3989 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88386708
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Federal and State Websites

State/Federal Research Project

State Websites

Employment raining Panel

Employment training panel (EP) is a business and labor supported Californian State agency, which funds the vocational training costs. EP clearly outlines its programs, and can only involve in fund provision for training employers who are subject to the payment of Employment raining ax. he eligible entities in this case may include single employers who are subject to the UI (unemployment insurance tax), and holding a California Employment Account with a prefix number of 699 or below. Similarly, a group of employers may be eligible. Such groups include Joint Apprenticeship Committees, Chambers of Commerce, Economic Development Corporations and rade Associations. raining Agencies come in as the third group, including educational institutions such as university foundations, community colleges, adult schools, or the regional occupational programs. Additionally, workforce investment boards also contribute in the list of the primary audience to…

This board was established under an Executive Order in response to the decree from the federal Workforce Investment Act of 1998. The board aids the Governor to set and guide policies within the field of workforce development. The governor appoints all the board members, representing the multifaceted workforce including labor, business, higher education, public education, youth activities, economic developments, training, employment, as well as the legislature. This website thereby addresses all members of the public from the entire nation as its audience. The Board conducts meetings on a regular basis, an event during which it encourages the public to attend workforce meetings, and to be positive towards every individual's line of career or work. Inclusively, the website encloses everyone, especially the adults within any area of workforce together with the youths within Youth Associations, which inspire and model them towards their lines of career.

The State Board (California Workforce Investment Board) assists the Governor to set and guide state policies within the workforce development area. The board is responsible for assisting the governor perform the required duties and responsibilities by the federal Workforce Investment Act-1998. The Board thereby formulates a strategic plan that directs its activities in the provision of guidance and support to the statewide system of workforce investment. The Board has got an executive branch agency known as the LWDA (Labor and Workforce Development Agency) that oversees seven main departments, panels, and boards that serve the Californian businesses and employees/workers. Moreover, the board ensures assistance and support to small businesses within California. It created a system of Small Business Liaison that assists business owners and employers through job trainings and hiring employees. The liaison responds to complaints from small businesses and reports the concerns of small businesses to the Secretary of Labor and Workforce Development Agency.

The California Workforce Investment Board accrues its funds from a number of sources including grants, tax credits, rebates and reimbursements. Grants come from diverse sources including the automotive industry of transportation and logistics. The hybrid bus and truck voucher incentive projects accelerates the deployment of firsthand hybrid and zero emission buses and trucks. As at October 2012, the program had fund approximation of $18 million. As well, it gets funds provided for the cleaner prerequisite engines, equipment as well as other pollution sources that address the reduction of extra or early emissions. Alternatively, funds from the tax credits equal the percentage of wage payments to the qualified employees.

Federal Antifederal the Framing of
Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36347727
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45, for instance, where he argues that "the State governments may be regarded as constituent and essential parts of the federal government; whilst the latter is nowise essential to the operation or organization of the former. ithout the intervention of the State legislatures, the President of the United States cannot be elected at all." (Rossiter, 287) This is a position which suggests not only that the Federalists felt that significant power had already been entrusted to leaders at the state level, but also that this power is seen primarily as a function of the power of the federal government. Thus, we are given further confirmation that the Constitution was inherently a federal document.

In key segments of the debate such as that shown in the Anti-Federalist Paper No. 17, we can see that those who stood in opposition to the empowerment of federal authority derived from the Constitution were a…

Works Cited:

Mansfield, Harvey C. Jr., (1979). Selected Writings Jefferson. Harlan Davidson Press.

Rossiter, Clinton. (1961). The Federalist Papers. Signet Classics.

Storing, Herbert J. (1985). The Anti-Federalist. The University of Chicago Press.

The Nation (TN). (2008). The Antifederalist Papers. This

Rate Adjustments by the Federal
Words: 1375 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99243237
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But when the Fed declared a moratorium on its consistent hikes in 2006, not everyone cheered. Said one economist: "According to their statement, the main reason is that the Fed believes inflation is destined to fall even in the absence of further monetary tightening. I find both good news and bad news in that rationale. The good news is that the Fed is looking ahead, acting on a forecast, rather than just opening the window, taking the economy's temperature and deciding what to do. The bad news is that inflation forecasts are not very accurate. And the other bad news is that if the Fed expects a weak economy to drag inflation down appreciably, it must be pessimistic about the outlook for growth" ("Commentary: The pros & cons of unchanged interest rates," Nightly Business Report., 2006). Little had really changed in the economy, said some economists, the Fed was…

Works Cited

Commentary: The pros & cons of unchanged interest rates." Nightly Business Report. 14 Aug 2006. [18 Jul 2007]

Fed lifts interest rate to 3.75%" BBC News: Business. 20 Sept 2005. [18 Jul 2007]

Economic and Financial Crisis 2008-2009 the Federal
Words: 1521 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6097338
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economic and financial crisis (2008-2009), the Federal Reserve took exceptional measures in order to combat the effects of the crisis on the American economy. These measures translated into an expansionary policy that included pumping money in the economy and purchasing assets that were in trouble. Through its expansionary work, the government was able to balance some of the effects of the crisis.

The question that seems to be on everybody's mind (and lips) today is where does it all end? One thing everyone can agree on is that this type of expansionary policy cannot last forever. The United States economy functions as a free market economy where the laws of supply and demand govern the realities of the market. A continuous and permanent intervention of the Federal Reserve is neither possible, nor healthy. What nobody can agree on, however, is when the expansionary approach should stop: now, in the near…


1. Krugman, Paul. The Conscience of a Liberal. The New York Times. November 2013. On the Internet at . Last retrieved on December 13, 2013

2. Mankiw, Gregory. In Fed Policy, the Exit Music May Be Hard to Hear. The New York Times. November 2013. On the Internet at . Last retrieved on December 13, 2013

3. Spicer, Jonathan, Lange, Jason. Fed officials signal next policy battle: rate guidance. Global Post. On the Internet at . Last retrieved on December 13, 2013

4. Expansionary Policy. Investopedia. On the Internet at . Last retrieved on December 13, 2013

Monetary Policy Recently the Federal
Words: 344 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90782008
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" Andrews, 2004)

The Fed has always been most concerned about the economy growing too fast, outpacing real development, than other, more publicly influenced government agencies, which are apt to look upon growth with purely rose colored glasses, as consumers wish to see more jobs and retailers wish to see more immediate short-term sales to generate profits. Also, consumers wish to borrow more money for durable goods. and, despite the recent strong economic numbers regarding job growth, "the economy is still showing signs of fragility." There is a fear that "temporary factors," such as seasonal factors and deep discounts offered by makers of cars and other durable goods, rather than permanent and long-lasting improvements in the American economic infrastructure. (Andrews, 2004)

orks Cited

Andrews, Edmund L. (November 8, 2004) "Fed expected to stay the course for now." The New York Times. Business Section.

Monetary Policy

Works Cited

Andrews, Edmund L. (November 8, 2004) "Fed expected to stay the course for now." The New York Times. Business Section. 

Monetary Policy

Euro as Reserve Currency the
Words: 3457 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80301425
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In demonstration, Gross notes the anecdote of a drug mule traveling from pain to Colombia, in whose stomach officials found $197,000 in euro notes (Gross 2007).

While the underground economy serves as an indicator of stability and value for the currency market, this stability and value are influenced by a confluence of further economic factors in addition to the ones already mentioned above. Chinn & Frankel (2005:15) focus on four specific factors that influence the future probability of euro dominance over the dollar.

The first of these is patterns of output and trade. This relates to the already-mentioned amount of market presence of a certain currency. Currently, the U.. dollar enjoys the greatest presence in the world economy. Interestingly, the authors hold that, if output and trade are regarded as measures of a country's economy, Japan should be the second in the world. However, other factors such as economic size…


Chinn, Menzie & Frankel. 2005. Will the Euro eventually surpass the Dollar as leading international reserve currency? National Bureau of Economic Research, July. 

Galati, Gabriele & Wooldridge, Philip. 2006. The Euro as Reserve Currency: A challenge to the pre-eminence of the U.S. Dollar? Bank for International Settlements: Monetary and Economic Dept., October. 

Gross, Daniel. 2004. Euro Trash: Even drug dealers are giving up on the dollar. Slate Magazine, Dec. 28. 

Nielsen, Bo. 2007. Dollar may extend rally on Bets U.S. To contain subprime losses., Dec. 18. /apps/news?pid=20601101&sid=aFeKleEvhHtI&refer=japan

Fed Should Raise Reserve Requirements
Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92997413
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The Fed's assets will also increase due to the strong dollar globally stabilizing it as a trading currency with leading partners including China. All of these factors will lead to a stronger asset base for the Fed.

7. The Fed will keep from selling these assets if the dollar does not gain in strength relative to other currencies globally, and would also not sell them if the economy did not reach a growth level that would ensure excess reserves were not needed.

8. Reverse repos are when "the Fed lends securities to banks in exchange for cash for a set period. At maturity, the securities are returned to the Fed, and the cash goes back to the primary dealers. By doing this repeatedly, the Fed can contract the money supply "(Calomiris, a.15.). The author says that in large financial transactions involving reverse repos the effects are unknown and therefore unreliable.…

Works Cited

Calomiris, Charles. "An Insurance Policy Against Inflation." Wall Street Journal: A.15. ABI/INFORM Complete. Mar 12-2012. Web. 26 Mar. 2012 .

Federal Courts
Words: 1361 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93222908
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1070, the ACA, and Federal Preemption

S.B. 1070, the ACA, and Federal Preemption

Tenth Amendment

The Tenth Amendment was intended to limit the scope and power of the federal government, thereby preserving some measure of state autonomy (Lash, 2006). The Tenth Amendment accomplishes this by stating explicitly that the federal government can only exercise those powers enumerated within the U.S. Constitution. All other powers are left to the states. In James Madison's words, a Federalist, the "… powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite." (p. 166). The Tenth Amendment therefore allows states to retain their freedom, sovereignty, and right to self-determination, as long as it does not conflict with the powers conferred to the federal government by the Constitution.

Madison, however, never viewed the…


Arizona et al. v. United States, 567 U.S. ____ (2012).

Lash, Kurt T. (2006). James Madison's celebrated report of 1800: The Transformation of the Tenth Amendment. George Washington Law Review, 74, 165-200.

LII (Legal Information Institute). (2010a). Supremacy Clause. Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2013 from .

LII (Legal Information Institute). (2010b). Preemption. Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2013 from .

Reserve Personnel Management Officer Evaluations
Words: 4371 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 1940124
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eserve Personnel Management Systems Division: Officer Evaluations

This paper engages in a thorough assessment of the culture, organization and technology of the reserve personnel management that operates as a branch within the Personnel Service Center of the United States Coast Guard: specifically the Officers Evaluation Systems. The method used to assess this particular branch relies heavily on ethnographic skills and related techniques. According to the official website of the U.S. Coast Guard, this is the division which handles "boards, panels, promotions, evaluations, advancements, retirements, resignations, discharges and separations for all reserve officer, chief warrant officers, and enlisted members" (, 2013). This is the division which deals with assignments, copies of records, medical issues and disability, individual ready reserve, promotions, separations, reserve retirement requests, policy waives and a host of other connected factors.

By scrutinizing closely factors like culture, organization, technology and related issues, one is able to obtain an accurately…


Boisjoy, R. (2013). Professional Responsibility and Conduct (Ethical Decisions - Morton Thiokol and the Challenger Disaster) . Retrieved from 

Goldstein, H. (2005, September 1). Who Killed the Virtual Case File? Retrieved from 

Howard, A. (2012, February 22). Data for the public good. Retrieved from

Israel, J. (2012). Why the FBI Can't Build a Case Management System. Computer, 73-80.

Canada's Federal System Affect Economic
Words: 1705 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25918488
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Mediocre material will, likely, thus be introduced into the market, and fledgling authors discouraged. This may in a matter of fact not only prove detrimental for general culture but also for the store itself, since discouraged with the level of prevalent reading matter, potential customers may frequent other locations for their desires.

Conclusively, as an example of Mr. Flaherty's impact on the book-selling business, relaxation of tax demands on private investment may profit the business depending on its projects and ambitions. The more ambitious its projects, likely the more it may profit. I am unsure, however, how much 3 's Used Books can make itself independent from dealing with the U.S. Or with other countries; a bookstore, by nature, has to have international dealings in order to succeed. As regards the economic policies, particular to Ontario, passed in 2009, the bookstore, can with provisos, mostly benefit form their implementation.



Bloomberg. "Comfortable Business will replace Stimulus." Business Week, Oct. 23, 2010. 

Howlett, K. & Curry, B. "Canadian Finance Ministers to Target Debts and Deficits in New Year." Tuesday's Globe and Mail, Dec. 21, 2010.

Ontario Chamber of Commerce. "Economic renewal and Business Competitiveness."  / Web. 2009

Rates Indicators the Effective Federal Funds
Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 73273138
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8 for August, 2008, the most recent available (next release is October 20th). This represents a decline over the previous month, and the lowest level of the year. Over the past three months, this index has trended down. In June this was at 102.0, then 101.3 in July. Prior to that the level it had been stable all year (either 101.9 or 102.0).

In terms of individual components, the following components were up: average weekly unemployment initial claims, stock prices, manufacturing new orders (consumer goods) and index of consumer expectations. Of these, it should be noted that the stock prices are lower than at any other point this year except for July. Average weekly unemployment initial claims rising is a negative component, so a rise will reduce the leading indicators index. Manufacturing orders represented a slight increase but is well down for the year. Therefore, only consumer expectations made a…

Sources: /releases/h15/data.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

U S Federal Policy on Abortion
Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47096029
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While abortion is not banned, it is not encouraged either. Its lack of acknowledgment at the state and local policy level demonstrates the lack of priority or evasion of the government to acknowledge abortion as a healthcare service that must be stated specifically as a subsidized service by the federal government.

Interestingly, with the approval and passage of the Affordable Care Act (or "Obamacare"), federal policy on abortion remains vague if not directly banned or discouraged. While abortion is not explicitly stated as a health service that will be subsidized under this new healthcare law, it is contended that abortion services and its funding are "always included unless it's explicitly excluded" (O'Neil, 2012). Thus, women can avail of abortion services as a healthcare and preventive service subsidized by the federal government and covered in health insurance plans.

This new development in the federal policy on abortion is a step forward…


"Federal and state bans and restrictions on abortion." (2012). Planned Parenthood Action Center. Retrieved 28 July 2012. Available at: 

O'Neil, T. (2012). "Obamacare and abortion: Health overhaul could lead to federal subsidy of abortion, critic says." The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 28 July 2012. Available at: 

Santelli, J., M. Ott, and M. Lyon. (2006). "Abstinence and abstinence-only education: a review of U.S. policies and programs." Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 38.