Federalist Essays (Examples)

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Factions and the Effectiveness of

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2387645

" Of course, he expressed opposition to the first method, simply because it defeats the purpose of the American Revolution, which was to gain independence and autonomy as a nation composed of individuals with free will and liberty. The second method, however, is not also feasible, since to grant the interest of one faction would force the government to grant the other's interest, and the resulting state is a government in conflict with different factions who want to govern the people.

These problems will be resolved, according to Madison, through a republic. In the republican form of government, "a scheme of representation takes place, opens a different prospect, and promises the cure for which we are seeking." This form of government will provide an avenue or platform in which all factions, groups, and individuals will be able to voice out their concerns, opinions, and arguments regarding important issues about governance…… [Read More]

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American Founding and Its Legacies

Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6732336

Baltimore Advertiser, 18 Mar 1788)

(2) the second class was reported as comprised by "those descriptions of men who are certainly more numerous with us than in any other part of the globe. First, those men who are so wise as to discover that their ancestors and indeed all the rest of mankind were and are fools. We have a vast overproportion of these great men, who, when you tell them that from the earliest period at which mankind devoted their attention to social happiness, it has been their uniform judgment, that a government over governments cannot exist - that is two governments operating on the same individual - assume the smile of confidence, and tell you of two people travelling the same road - of a perfect and precise division of the duties of the individual." (No. 10 -- on the Preservation of Parties, Public Liberty Depends, 18 Mar…… [Read More]


The Anti-Federalist Papers (1788) Farmer No. 10. On the Preservation of Parties, Public Liberty Depends. 18 Mar 1788 )Baltimore Maryland Gazette. Retrieved from:  http://www.barefootsworld.net/antifederalist.html 

The Anti-Federalist vs. The Federalist. Polytechnic.org. (nd) *Based on the American Journey: A History of the United States by Goldfield, et al. Retrieved from:   http://faculty.polytechnic.org/gfeldmeth/chart.fed.pdf
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Hobbes Locke & Federalism One of

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72126103

So, who was right? Well, it seems that history has taught us again and again that in certain conditions, humans do express their evil and competitive natures (e.g. fascism, genocide, etc.); but that in other situations, the species can be incredibly giving and benevolent (think of Mother Theresa, people helping people). The complexity is that humans are not all one type or another, but a combination. Most sociologists believe that it is culture and society that form the basis for behavior. For example, the Kung! Bushmen of South Africa have no crime, very little disagreement, and understand they must cooperate for the good of the tribe. owever, if we look at the Epic of Gilgamesh or the Code of ammurabi, we find that the earliest civilizations had to provide structure and that evil nature was as much a part of humanity as goodness. The debate remains -- is the cup…… [Read More]

Hobbes looked around, and saw a sewer of urban life; poor people struggling, disease, trash, pestilence and believed that without control mankind was nothing more than animalistic. Locke thought otherwise, that humans, given a chance to actualize, would cooperate, work towards a common good, and provide a generalized and goal-oriented society. So, who was right? Well, it seems that history has taught us again and again that in certain conditions, humans do express their evil and competitive natures (e.g. fascism, genocide, etc.); but that in other situations, the species can be incredibly giving and benevolent (think of Mother Theresa, people helping people). The complexity is that humans are not all one type or another, but a combination. Most sociologists believe that it is culture and society that form the basis for behavior. For example, the Kung! Bushmen of South Africa have no crime, very little disagreement, and understand they must cooperate for the good of the tribe. However, if we look at the Epic of Gilgamesh or the Code of Hammurabi, we find that the earliest civilizations had to provide structure and that evil nature was as much a part of humanity as goodness. The debate remains -- is the cup 1/2 empty or 1/2 full -- or is it both?

The Federalist movement surrounding the writing and eventual ratification of the U.S. Constitution focused on one basic premise: how much power and authority should the national, versus State, government control. Certainly, once can view that if the Articles of Confederation were deemed to be too weak and inappropriate for the new Republic, then the Federalist faction won. Rhode Island and North Carolina especially opposed the Federalist view, but eventually the Bill of Rights seemed to satisfy most of the delegates who realized that the alternative would be suicide. This did not stop individual States from wanting to secede long before the Civil War, and indeed, the actual finality of the issue of State's rights was not really solved until the mid-20th century, when the Supreme Court issued several decisions requiring that the tenets of the Bill of Rights be established in all 50 States.

If one considers the political issues of the Jeffersonian Era up to the War Between the States, then one might say that although the Constitution provided a legal means for a strong centralized government, that was on paper and States tended to act and react in their own ways to a point. There was consternation during the 1812 issues with the British, when new States entered the Union there were issues on whether they would be Slave or Free States. Thus, the Federalists really only had the appearance of victory after the Constitutional Convention, not the buy in and acceptance of the policy for decades afterwards.
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U S Political Party System

Words: 1132 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73022279

Anti-Federalists and the Constitution in the Development of Political Parties

The Development of Political Parties

The Constitution and Political Parties

The Changing Ideology of Political Parties

Even before the adoption of the Constitution, political parties were beginning to form. Those who favored the Constitution were called Federalists, and were led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. Another group, led by Thomas Jefferson, opposed the adoption of the Constitution and was known as Antifederalists. The Antifederalists broke up after the Constitution was ratified, but they set the stage for the development of other political parties, resulting in the two party system that we have today.

The Development of Political Parties

The debate over the Constitution split people into two groups. Those who favored ratification believed that a strong federal government that would dominate the individual states. Hamilton particularly argued that the future of the country depended on the development of a…… [Read More]


Brief History of the Democratic Party." 2003. Democratic National Committee. 30 April 2003 http://www.democrats.org/about/history.html.

Elkins, Stanley and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788-1800. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. Chapel

Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1961.
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Jefferson a Talk With Thomas Jefferson Understanding

Words: 1267 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32082


A Talk with Thomas Jefferson: Understanding and Explaining the U.S. Government from a Centuries-Old Perspective

TJ: Did it work? Am I here? Did I make it as far as I intended? I told Sally to turn the crank as fast as she could, but I'm not sure my temporal advancement device is functioning properly and that Hemmings girl has a mind of her own, sometimes.

ME: Umm if you mean you built a time machine to take you to the twenty-first century, then yeah, it worked. It's 2012, to be exact. And you are…..

TJ: Thomas Jefferson, Agrarian Democrat, at your service. As you are at my service. And as we are both at service to society at large, and as society at large is at service to use, all equal in our powers, positions, rights, and responsibilities. Just how a democracy is supposed to work.

ME: Technically the…… [Read More]

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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 1163 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Federalist Papers, the U.S. Constitution was ratified in the late 1780's by the original 13 states. But this new nation would experience a myriad of other changes by the turn of the century. With a new political system, westward expansionism and manifest destiny would guide the new American spirit. Of the most significant transformations on the American landscape of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were the parallel phenomena of the Industrial Revolution and the Second Great Awakening. One an unbridled attempt to expand the material world, the other a fanatical endeavor to revive religious sentiment, these movements were uniquely positioned in time. They would also pull the American psyche in two opposing directions.

The Second Great Awakening was a never-before seen Protestant revival movement that swept through the new nation. Preachers sought converts and converts sought church membership in record numbers. On the other side of the equation,…… [Read More]

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Madison's Role in Trying to

Words: 9173 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78854304

In fact, during the 1787 Constitutional Convention, Slonim notes that the need for a bill of rights was not even a topic of discussion until Virginian delegate George Mason raised the issue just several days before the Convention was scheduled to rise on September 17; Mason suggested that a bill of rights "would give great quiet to the people." Following this assertion, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts moved that the Convention add a bill of rights to the Constitution and Mason seconded his motion to no avail: "The Convention unanimously rejected the proposal by a vote of 10 to 0, with one state absent. Failure to heed Mason's counsel was to plague the Federalists throughout the ratification campaign" (emphasis added).

The first major confrontation concerning the ratification of the Constitution involving the need for a bill of rights occurred in Pennsylvania several weeks after the close of the Constitutional Convention; at…… [Read More]


Banning, Lance. The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Binkley, Wilfred E. And Malcolm C Moos. A Grammar of American Politics: The National Government. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1949.

Bernhard, Virginia, David Burner and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese. A College History of the United States, St. James: Brandywine Press, 1991.

Brant, Irving. The Bill of Rights: Its Origin and Meaning. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.
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Gaining Their Independence What Were the Principal

Words: 1523 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43217925

gaining their independence, what were the principal concerns Americans had about constructing a frame of government, and how were these concerns addressed in the structure of the Constitution?

After Americans gained their independence from England the next step was to structure the frame of a new government. In 1787 it was determined that the Articles of Confederation would be tossed out and an entirely new government frame would be constructed which would reflect the new views of the nation. he delegates from each state argued and debated behind closed doors about what the framework of the new government would include (he Constitution of the United States (http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/charters_of_freedom/constitution/constitution.html).here were several chief points of concern to those who were developing the frame. One of the most important aspects of the debate was how much power each state should be allowed to have. his included debates on how many members each state should…… [Read More]

The Pope of Liberty


The Transportation Revolution http://www.dur.ac.uk/h.j.harris/3MR/mr04.htm
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Federal Antifederal the Framing of

Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36347727

45, for instance, where he argues that "the State governments may be regarded as constituent and essential parts of the federal government; whilst the latter is nowise essential to the operation or organization of the former. ithout the intervention of the State legislatures, the President of the United States cannot be elected at all." (Rossiter, 287) This is a position which suggests not only that the Federalists felt that significant power had already been entrusted to leaders at the state level, but also that this power is seen primarily as a function of the power of the federal government. Thus, we are given further confirmation that the Constitution was inherently a federal document.

In key segments of the debate such as that shown in the Anti-Federalist Paper No. 17, we can see that those who stood in opposition to the empowerment of federal authority derived from the Constitution were a…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Mansfield, Harvey C. Jr., (1979). Selected Writings Jefferson. Harlan Davidson Press.

Rossiter, Clinton. (1961). The Federalist Papers. Signet Classics.

Storing, Herbert J. (1985). The Anti-Federalist. The University of Chicago Press.

The Nation (TN). (2008). The Antifederalist Papers. This Nation.com.
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Thomas Abraham Clark Was Born Into Extreme

Words: 529 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21994603

Thomas Abraham Clark was born into extreme wealth in an urban area, he is an Anti-Federalist. He corresponds with some of the most influential Anti-Federalists, sees centralized government as a curse, and has prospered under the Articles of Confederation.

Because his economic interests are threatened by an unstable currency as well as high tariffs imposed by other states, Josiah Bartlett can be considered to be a Federalist. Federalism would impose a single, stable currency and remove state tariffs and taxes.

Anti-Federalists generally believed in an agrarian republicanism, where the local wealthy landowners would represent the masses in political issues. Because Edward Heyward is a member of the landed aristocracy it would be logical to assume that he is an Anti-Federalist. However, his view of a united effort against the Indians may be an overriding factor as Federalism proposes a united national government. Therefore I am undecided.

As the "voice of…… [Read More]

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Primary Source an Analysis of

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58285727

10 was written so that people could see the good in the Constitution and why it was so very important that it be ratified and accepted by all of the states in the U.S.

Federalist Paper No. 10 (Madison, 1787) is an excellent primary source because it has been verified by scholars and historians throughout the ages, because it can be safely attributed to Madison as the author, and because it has so much historic significance for the United States overall. However, understanding that Paper in context is vital, or some of what Madison had to say will be lost. For that reason, a secondary source is needed. In this case, hodenhamel's (1987) Letters of liberty: A documentary history of the U.S. Constitution helps to show how Madison's (1787) Federalist Paper No. 10 was used as a part of something much greater. Taken by itself, the Paper is still significant.…… [Read More]


Madison, James. (1787, Nov. 23). Federalist No. 10: The size and variety of the union as a check on faction. New York Packet. Retrieved from   http://faculty.rcc.edu/sellick/Fed10.pdf  . Also available in Genovese, 2009, p. 49.

Rhodenhamel, John H. (1987). Letters of liberty: A documentary history of the U.S. Constitution. Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles. Microfiche.
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American Political Philosophy

Words: 2528 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65411386

American Political Philosophy: epublicanism

Within this paper, the general theory of republicanism will be presented. The conceptualization of republicanism discussed within the paper as an American political philosophy will be based on The Federalist Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison in 1787. Initially, a brief overview of relevant background information on The Federalist Papers will be provided. This will be followed by a discussion of the primary components of republicanism as set forth within the works of Hamilton, Jay and Madison. A summary and conclusions will then be provided.

Overview of The Federalist Papers

The Federalist Papers have been suggested as representing one of the most important writing in American political thought (Yarbrough, 1986). It represents a collection of 85 letters written by Hamilton, Jay and Madison under the pseudonym of Publius. The letters were written to the American public and were initially published in a…… [Read More]


Hamilton, A., Jay, J. & Madison, J. (1961). The Federalist papers. C. Rossiter (ed.). NY: New American Library.

Yarbrough, J. (1986). The Federalist. News for Teachers of Political Science, (Spring 1986). 7 June 2003: http://www.apsanet.org/CENnet/thisconstitution/yarbrough.cfm..
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Formation of the United States Government

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78911749


Confederation & Constitution

The author of this report is charged with answering several questions relating to the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. The original Constitution was hard enough to pull off but the Articles of Confederation were also a challenge and were in response to the economic challenges of that day. Different issues and weaknesses that came up were the Western problem, the slave vs. slave states, eastern vs. western states, Sherman's Plan, the Great Compromise and so forth. The debates that raged with the Federalists and the anti-Federalists will be covered as well as how the Bill of ights debate developed. Finally, the relative success of the Bill of ights will be summarized. While no single constitutional document is going to placate all sources and address all problems that could come to pass, the compromises and debates that raged about these two major parts of…… [Read More]


Archive.gov. (2014, August 1). Constitution of the United States - Official. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from  http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution.html 

Archives.gov. (2014, August 2). Bill of Rights. National Archives and Records

Administration. Retrieved August 2, 2014, from  http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights.html 

Library of Congress. (2014, July 31). Primary Documents in American History. The Articles of Confederation: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual
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Classical Liberalism Central to the

Words: 490 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77114518

Moreover, they saw religious faith as critical to promoting moral stability in the community (Breslin, 2004). Here we see how federalists adhere in the idea of liberalism by siding with sovereign nation-states where a central type of government is a political strategy. Moreover, Federalists side with the Hobbesian doctrine of liberalism where no religious power should be exercised among people as Anti-Federalists argued that religious faith is crucial is the stability of communities. For Federalists, political rule is the only legitimate rule of power, at least in the socio-political sense.


Berkowitz, P. (1996). Intellectual History of Classical Liberalism. etrieved from www.dailyrepublican.com/liberalhistory.html. onMarch 12.

Breslin, B. (2004). The Communitarian Constitution. etrieved from www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/breslin904.htm. onMarch 12.

Moseley, a. (2006). Political Philosophy. etrieved at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/p/polphil.htm#SH3aonMarch 12, 2009.

Mount, S. (2007). Constitutional Topic: The Federalists and Anti-Federalists. etrieved at http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_faf.html. onMarch 12, 2009.

New World Encyclopedia. (2008). Age of Enlightenment. etrieved from www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Age_of_EnlightenmentonMarch…… [Read More]


Berkowitz, P. (1996). Intellectual History of Classical Liberalism. Retrieved from www.dailyrepublican.com/liberalhistory.html. onMarch 12.

Breslin, B. (2004). The Communitarian Constitution. Retrieved from www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/breslin904.htm. onMarch 12.

Moseley, a. (2006). Political Philosophy. Retrieved at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/p/polphil.htm#SH3aonMarch 12, 2009.

Mount, S. (2007). Constitutional Topic: The Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Retrieved at       http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_faf.html      . onMarch 12, 2009.
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Libertarians and the Federal Government

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45600411

Political Ideology

My political ideology is based on my reading of the early Federalist and Anti-Federalist Papers. When I read these papers I realized that the way our country works today was really shaped by events back then during the days of the founding of the country's constitution. I used to be a Constitutionalist and identify with the libertarians led by on Paul, who pushes to uphold the Constitution. But after reading the Anti-Federalist Papers, I realized that the Constitution itself was never really a good thing: it was essentially designed to take power away from the states and place it in the hands of a central government, an idea promoted by Alexander Hamilton in the Federalist Papers (Federalist No. 6, n.d.). The Anti-Federalists viewed this as a violation of the freedom and autonomy they had just won from England in the evolutionary War (Brutus No. 1, 1787). If the…… [Read More]


Brutus No. 1. (1787). Retrieved from   http://www.constitution.org/afp/brutus01.htm  

Federalist No. 6 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed06.asp

Jamieson, A. (2016). Brexit Poll: Majority of Brits want to leave EU as referendum looms. NBCNews. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/brexit-referendum/brexit-poll-majority-brits-want-leave-eu-referendum-looms-n593441
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American Government the Five Main

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91599353

It separates the various forms of government and does not allow one to become more powerful than another, and it ensures that laws are created fairly, that justice is fair, and that the President does not gain too much power. Essentially, it is the backbone of our Democracy, and that assures our freedom and the public good.

Critics of the Constitution and its support of the public good believe that the laws can promote gridlock in legislation, and that it can make it easier for government leaders to not take responsibility for problems. However, the framers of the Constitution had the citizens in mind, and they formed it to create a Democratic country with the good of the public as a foremost concern.

The Virginia Plan was a plan favored by James Madison, and it had three branches, legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature chose the executive and judicial branches,…… [Read More]

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American Politics Development of Political

Words: 1557 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36586772

This rule is applicable to all states except North Dakota which does not require registration. Absentee ballots and mail ballot options are also available for voters who could not make it to the election booth. This is the election process in the United States.

Problems of the local governments

Local governments have a vital role to play in the country because they are the closest government body for the citizens. Despite this close association, the role of local governments is under-estimated due to a variety of reasons. They face many problems in reaching out to the public and in creating a better community for its residents. The primary problem is finance. Though the community gets a certain amount directly through taxes from the state government, it sometimes, may not be enough to bring about a real change in the community. This is more prevalent in communities that have a large…… [Read More]

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Political Design and Today

Words: 1939 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57339817


In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered a brief but stirring speech while the country was in the process of tearing itself apart in a civil war. During that speech President Lincoln stated a phrase that has helped to capture what democracy means. Lincoln told the audience that had gathered to dedicate a soldier's cemetery that the government that had been formed "of the people, by the people, for the people" would not "perish from the earth." In that phrase, Lincoln summarized what the founding fathers had hoped to capture in documents that shaped the system of government they believed was essential for prosperity and happiness for all mankind. The fact that the United States has remained in existence for more than 200 years does not necessarily mean that the ideals Lincoln spoke of are in existence today. In fact, many would argue that the concepts Lincoln captured in his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hamilton, Alexander, "Federalist Paper 79," Independent Journal 18 Jun. 1788

Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 37," Daily Advertiser 11 Jan. 1788

Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 52," New York Packet 8 Feb. 1788
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Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798 the

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51632613

Alien and Sedition Acts

In 1798 the newly established United States of America found itself in a situation where it believed that war with France was imminent. In fact, the "Quasi-War" as it became known, was a situation where the two nations were fighting each other on the seas, but without formal declarations of war. In response to this situation, the Federalist controlled Congress passed a series of four laws which collectively became known as the "Alien and Sedition Acts." While the official purpose of these laws was to safeguard the United States in a time of impending war, they were really meant to weaken those who opposed Federalist policies: the Democratic-epublicans under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson.

The "Alien and Sedition Acts" were four individual acts passed by a Federalist controlled Congress and signed into law by Federalist President John Adams. These acts were the "Naturalization Act," which increased…… [Read More]


"The 'Sedition Act'." (1798). Avalon Project. Retrieved from                 http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/sedact.asp
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Thomas Jefferson Politics Decisions and Actions Democratic-Republican

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54985398

Thomas Jefferson Politics

Decisions and Actions

Democratic-epublican Party's Beliefs and Ideals

Federalist Party's Beliefs and Ideals

Initiated the first Barbary War -- Aligned most with the Federalists party because it was a display of national power.

They were terrified of a strong national government.

They were strong believers of a central government

Bought the Louisiana Purchase -- Aligned most with the Federalist party because they believed in expanding national power by expanding their territory and property.

They understood the Constitution as being an essential document to limit the powers of the federal government.

They believed that listening to the citizens would make for a weak government system.

Initiated the Lewis and Clark Expedition -- Aligned most with the Democratic-epublican party because it was in the best interest of the people who would be settling there. It also provided insight into the agricultural possibilities in that part of the nation.

They…… [Read More]


Meacham, J. (2012). Thomas Jefferson: The art of power. New York, NY: Random House.

National Archives. (2013). The Center for Legislative Archives. Archives.gov. Retrieved April 16, 2013 from http://www.archives.gov/about/history/building-an- archives/jefferson-letter.html
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Macro Vision of Jefferson vs

Words: 2374 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12612725

Hamilton's Arguments in Favor of the Debt and the Bank

Jefferson would have no position against witch to argue had not Hamilton made the argument for the national debt so eloquently and so forcefully. Essentially, Hamilton and Jefferson entirely disagreed on the proper course to put the nation on a prosperous track. The greatest issue was whether the multitudinous colonial debts piled up by the individual colonies during and since the war with England should, in the spirit of e pluribus unum, be taken on by the federal government.

Hamilton postulated that the assumption of these colonies' - now states' - debts was essential to make the nation a credible, operating reality, deserving of trust in seeking credit from other countries. Also, Hamilton felt that "monied men" - those wealthy Americans who had made the loans to the state governments and how had in many instances not been paid yet…… [Read More]

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Henderson the Rain King

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88585044

Saul Bellow

Henderson the Rain King

Saul Bellow was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976 for, among other things, the ability to give values a place side by side with facts in literature, unlike realism. The import of his work was seen as creating awareness that only the right values can give human kind freedom and responsibility, necessary foundations for building of faith in the future and a desire for action. Bellow's work was also recognized for its unique mixture of philosophy, cultural analysis and deep insights into human consciousness (The Nobel Foundation eb site).

Henderson the Rain King is an archetypical Bellow work bearing all the aforesaid characteristics. Henderson, the novel's principal character sets out on a journey ostensibly to Africa but primarily in search of himself. Bellow's portrayal of the unhappy, discontented middle-aged American millionaire has been widely interpreted as a caricature of Americans in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About The Declaration of Independence." The Library of Congress. July 1, 1997. Retrieved October 9, 2003: http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Senate/3649/abt_declar.htm

Bellow, Saul. "Henderson the Rain King." New York: Viking, 1959.

Brutus. "First Anti-Federalist Paper." 18 October, 1787. Fortune City Web Site. Retrieved October 9, 2003: http://www.fortunecity.com/millenium/okehampton/377/1stanti_federalist_brutus.html

Charters of Freedom: Declaration of Independence." The National Archives
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Polygamous Revolt the Response of

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48514235

S. Congress' prohibition of the practice and the Court's refusal to allow the practice, conflicted with the rights of individuals engaged in such practice. The actions of a religious group which are normally protected under the First Amendment and the laws of states like Utah that might wish to turn a blind eye to the practice were not allowed.

The states claim the social contract has been broken because the U.S. government has infringed upon individuals' liberty to marry more than one person and the states' rights to regulate matters not specifically delineated in the Bill of Rights. However, if this were the case that a state could secede every time the federal government disagreed with a state's definition of individual liberties. Virtually every constitutional dispute in the history of the nation, regarding the Bill of Rights, from abortion, to affirmative action, to gay marriage, to free speech, could justify…… [Read More]

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American Constitution A Living Evolving Document --

Words: 1824 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93247708

American Constitution: A living, evolving document -- from guaranteeing the right to enslavement in the 18th century to modifications in favor of freedom in the 19th century

Constitution today protects the rights of all in its language, but this was not always the case in its text and spirit. As a political tactic as well as out of personal conviction and experience, Frederick Douglass' characterization of the American Constitution as an anti-slavery document is certainly an admirable piece of rhetoric. Douglass stated that although the America he spoke to at the time of his autobiography My Bondage and My Freedom, was a nation divided between free and slave states and territories, fundamentally America was and "is in its letter and spirit, an anti-slavery instrument, demanding the abolition of slavery as a condition of its own existence" (396)

Slavery, Douglass stated, deprives an individual of his or her dignity, deprives an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. Available in full text online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer new2?id=DouMybo.sgm& images=images/modeng& data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed& tag=public& part=6& division=div2[29 Jan 2005].

Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address: Monday, March 4, 1861." From Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O.: for sale by the Supt. Of Docs, U.S.G.P.O., 1989. Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/124/. [29 Jan 2005].

Madison, James. "Federalist No. 10." The Federalist Papers. Available in full text online ( http://www.thisnation.com/library/books/federalist/10.html ) [29 Jan 2005].

"The United States Constitution." Available in full text online http://www.house.gov/Constitution/Constitution.html. [29 Jan 2005].
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Establishment of a Nation Discuss

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53425036

Delegates' top priorities include the following. First, the delegates set out to revise the Articles of Confederation to weaken the power of the state legislatures and increase the powers of the central government. Delegates also sought changes in the ways states were represented in the federal government and introduced the concept of separation of powers to create a system of checks and balances. Debates between federalism and republicanism brewed during the Constitutional Convention, as delegates like Alexander Hamilton favored an exceedingly strong executive branch whereas traditional republicans hoped for term limits for elected officials. Compromise was a must and the Constitution of the United States reflects the confluence of republican and federalist values.

Second, the delegates heatedly debated the question of how to deal with slavery. An abolitionist movement had taken root in Europe and delegates were forced to address concerns about the international and inter-state slave trade. Once again,…… [Read More]


Articles of Confederation." MSN Encarta. Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761567227

Hamilton vs. Jefferson." Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at  http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-41.htm 

Lloyd, G. (2006). "Introduction to the Constitutional Convention." Teaching American History.org. Retrieved Oct 13, 2006 at http://teachingamericanhistory.org/convention/intro.html
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Voter Participation Citizen Participation

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84758428

S. House of Representatives from that state. hy set up a presidential election in which voters do not directly elect the president? elch (32) explains that the founders devised this system "…because of their view that the people could not be trusted. The people were seen as an unruly mob threatening stable, orderly government," she continued. Even after Gore successfully petitioned the Florida Supreme Court to have election officials count 9,000 previously uncounted ballots by hand, that may well have given him the victory in Florida, the U.S. Supreme Court trumped the Florida High Court and ultimately gave Florida's 25 electoral votes -- and the presidency -- to Republican candidate Bush (the High Court vote was 5-4: 5 Republican justices to 4 Democrat justices).

Meanwhile, according to professor Mary C. Segers (Rutgers University), the U.S. system of government actually "enhances citizen impact on government" (Segers, 2002, p. 182). The Founders…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Federal Election Commission. (2001). 2000 Presidential Popular Vote Summary For All

Candidates Listed On At Least One State Ballot. Retrieved August 25, 2011, from http://www.fec.gov/pubrec/fe2000/prespop.htm.

Segers, Mary C. (2002). Piety, Politics, and Pluralism: Religion, the Courts, and the 2000

Election. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
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History Literature

Words: 1565 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19448867

Roger Wilkins presents perhaps the most complete picture of the Founding Fathers in his book Jefferson's Pillow: The Founding Fathers and the Dilemma of Black Patriotism. It is Wilkins' argument that Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, James Madison and George Mason were not the idyllic seekers-of-justice and equality that we have been taught, but rather they were wealthy slaveholders with political powers that were not always exercised is an "American" way. In light of this newly presented information, our former ideals need to be reevaluated against the ideas of black patriotism, as well as against our thoughts on patriotism in general. How could all men have been created equal, when African-Americans were not considered to be men at all? Indeed, Americans cannot fully come to understand themselves until they are able to understand who the aforementioned individuals were - no matter what the results.

Slaveholders were great politicians in our nation's…… [Read More]

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Louis Hartz's the Liberal Tradition in America

Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89798640

Conservatism in America

Intellectually, it is indeed correct that post-orld ar II can be divided into two periods of conservatism: the period which emerged directly after the war (1945-1990) and the period from 1990 onwards. Traditionally as Ball explained, conservatism in America were opposed to rapid development and industrialization in the early 20th century: "From their point-of-view, this new mass society posed the same threat that democracy had always posed -- the threat that the masses would throw society first into chaos and then in despotism. In arguments similar to those of Plato, Aristotle, and more recently Alexis de Tocqueville, traditional conservatives maintained that the common people were too weak and too ignorant to take charge of government" (Ball, 108). Essentially, this meant that conservatism in the twentieth century revolved around the notion of self-restraint and a core belief pervades that only a small majority are suitable to govern, while…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ball, Terry and Richard Dagger. Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal. London: Pearson, 2014. Print. .

Boland, Joseph. U.S. Political Thought: Lecture 2. 28 September 1995. website. 2013.

Carey, George, W. "The American Founding and Limited Government." Retrieved from: The Imaginative Conservative. Web.

Crick, Bernard. "The Strange Quest for An American Conservatism." The Review of Politics (1955): 359-376. print. .
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Politics Six Questions & Discussion on American

Words: 2113 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20754328


Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics

Constitutional Convention

During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burner, David and Rosenfield, Ross. "Polling." Dictionary of American History. 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .

"Evolution of American Political Parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction." 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .

Follesdal, Andreas. "Federalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 15 Dec. 2009 .

Green, John, Smidt, Corwin, Guth, James, and Kellstedt, Lyman. "The American Religious Landscape and the 2004 Presidential Vote: Increased Polarization." 15 Dec. 2009 .
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Independent Governance in Thomas Paine's

Words: 809 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7070913

Paine explains: "A government of our own is our natural right: and when a man seriously reflects on the precariousness of human affairs, he will become convinced, that it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own..."

His concept of independence as a nation-state is no different from people's common notion of independence of the individual as a human being's natural right. Each American has the natural right to be free; and so, upon the creation of a nation in America, the country itself attains 'collective independence.' Paine speaks of independence in the purest and natural sense, where every individual shall actively participate in the process of nation-building of a newly-independent America.

While Madison shares Paine's argument that independence should be given to America, his was an altogether different kind of independence. He firmly believes that the American nation should have representative or a "minority" who…… [Read More]

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American Politics

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79313106

Factions: Help or Hindrance

James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, aided by John Jay, were responsible for writing eighty-five anonymous essays for the New York Journal in 1787 and 1788. These articles were known as The Federalist Papers, and they were intended to persuade people into ratifying the proposed Constitution. In The Federalist Paper Number 10, Madison responded to critics who had argued that the United States was too large, and had too many groups, or "factions," to be ruled democratically by a single government. Madison acknowledged the importance of factions in the opening paragraph, stating that, "Among the numerous advantages promised by a well constructed Union, none deserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and control the violence of faction" (Rossiter, 1961). In prescribing how to rule and control the effects of factions, Madison detailed their relationships with other important concepts, such as liberty and property,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rossiter, C. ed. The Federalist Papers. New York: New American Library, 1961.
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Presidential and Congressional Powers in the Simplest

Words: 875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58560052

Presidential and Congressional Powers

In the simplest of terms, the differences in powers between Congress and the President is that Congress makes laws and the President enforces them. But, that description does a great injustice to the complexities of the roles of each. Congress is granted "all legislative powers" by Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution. Those powers include the making of laws, coining money, declaring war, regulating interstate and foreign commerce, and maintaining the military. The powers of the President (Executive Branch) are outlined in Article II of the Constitution. They include the power of appointment and removal, the creation of executive orders, limited legislative powers, veto power, pardoning power, power to make treaties, and military powers separate from those of Congress. Both sets of powers, in conjunction with the Judicial Branch, form a balance of powers within the Federal Government. It is the purpose of this paper…… [Read More]


Hamilton, J. & Madison, J. "The Federalist Papers" 52-67, 70-77. Online. Internet. Avail http://www.shadeslanding.com/firearms/federalist.Info Acc: Dec 13, 2002.

Neustadt, Richard. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents. Seattle: Free Press, 1991.
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Government That Governs Least the Best Sort

Words: 1393 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37587885

government that governs least the best sort of government for a freedom-Loving nation to have.

Does the Government that Governs Least Govern the Best?: A Closer Look

That government is best which governs least." This statement has been attributed to Thomas Jefferson, though there is no actual evidence of the statement in any of his extant writings. Whether Jefferson originally made this famous saying or not is inconsequential. The fact is, this saying has been repeated countless times over the past two centuries by proponents of democracy, states' rights, civil liberties, and all sorts of other precepts upon which our nation was supposedly founded. Those who believe that a true freedom-loving democracy consists of a government that stays out of the business of its citizens as much as possible are many and loud. There are many historically famous people who can be counted among the ranks of those who believe…… [Read More]


De Tocqueville, Alex. Democracy in America. New York: Harper Collins. (re-issue) 1988.

Publius. The Federalist Papers. New York: Signet. (re-issue) 2003.
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Intended for Use as a

Words: 1989 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41621112

This is reflected in the document where Jefferson expressly outlines the idea that all men have certain rights and are responsible for their own paths in life (Pilon, 2000). It is a product of its own era, and liberalism was the philosophy that drove much of the political actions in the early United States.

The same can be said of The Federalist. These were a collection of essays regarding the interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. They are also set upon the basic premise that all people are created equal, and that humans have certain unalienable rights that a nation or state needs to respect and honor (Hamilton, et al., 2003). The men who wrote the essays were certainly trying to create a good regime through their own beliefs and values. Their ideas, which later led to the founding of a nation, are key in understanding what they believed a good…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristotle; ed. By Irwin, Terence. Nicomachean Ethics. Indianapolis, IN: Hacket Publishing, 1999.

Plato; ed.Jowett, Benjamin. Meno. Stilwell, KS: Digireads Publishing, 2005.

Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Scotts Valley, CA: Createspace Books, 2009.

Hobbes, Thomas; ed. Curley, Edwin. Leviathan. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing, 1994.
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Madison Makes a Strong Argument

Words: 783 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66385501

" It seems as if Madison was as concerned as the 'anti-federalists' of the time concerning the structure of the new government and wished to alleviate those concerns by allowing each branch control over its own destiny, while at the same time giving the other two branches the authority to step in if something were to go seriously wrong. He was especially concerned of the legislature. He states; "If, therefore, the legislature assumes executive and judiciary powers, no opposition is likely to be made." (pg 308) He wished to ensure that event would not happen. He also states that the executive, similar to the legislative, branch could also be usurped and that there should be no elective despotism, whether that despotism was one man in the executive office, or a group of despots in the legislative, either situation would be unacceptable.

One of the reasons why Madison was worried about…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kesler, C.R., Rossiter, C. (2003) the Federalist Papers, New York: Penguin Group
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Judicial Review and Democracy the

Words: 1703 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69620938

Judicial review allows lawmakers to reflect changing morals and ideals when enacting legislation, but prevents them from allowing the hot-button topics of the moment to determine the laws of a nation. In fact, to really understand the success of judicial review, one need only look to the election in the Ukraine, where the Ukrainian Supreme Court may be the only body far-enough removed from party politics to ensure that Ukrainian voters have their say. If imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, Justice Marshall should be very flattered.

orks Cited

The Gathering Storm." John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. 2003. DuPage County Bar

Association. 9 Dec. 2004 http:dcba.org/brief/sepissue/1997/art20997.htm.

Hugo Lafayette Black." Arlington National Cemetery ebsite. 2004. Arlington National

Cemetery ebsite. 9 Dec. 2004 http:www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hlblack.htm.

Judicial review/Marbury v. Madison." National Legal Center for the Public Interest. 2002.

National Legal Center for the Public Interest 9 Dec. 2004 http://www.nlcpi.org/pdf/JudicialReviewMarburyvMadison.pdf#search='judicial%20review%20marbury'.

Linder, Doug. "Judicial…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Gathering Storm." John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. 2003. DuPage County Bar

Association. 9 Dec. 2004 http:dcba.org/brief/sepissue/1997/art20997.htm.

Hugo Lafayette Black." Arlington National Cemetery Website. 2004. Arlington National

Cemetery Website. 9 Dec. 2004 http:www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hlblack.htm.
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Federalism in the US Development

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43707327

federalism in the U.S.

Federalism in the United States through Supreme Court decisions

Printz v. United States and Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority

One of the most obvious environments in which the issue of federalism and anti-federalism sentiment is seen is in the judicial system. There have been numerous cases and instances in which the ruling of the Supreme Court was seen as encouraging either federalism or anti-federalism. Two such cases are Printz v. United States (1997) and Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority (1985) in which the decisions of the Court ruled in such a manner as to create precedent for the overruling power of federal representation against state authority, thus ruling under a federalist sentiment.

Printz v. United States set in question the ability of the federal government to decide the attributes of the state police concerning gun control. The background of the case includes…… [Read More]


Archives.gov. "Bill of Rights," in National Archives, 2014, available online at http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html

Cornell. "Garcia v. San Antonio Transit Authority (No. 82-1913)" in Legal Information Institute. Cornell Law University. 2014, available online at http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/469/528

Cornell. "Printz, Sheriff/Coroner, Ravalli County, Montana V. United States" in Legal Information Institute. Cornell Law University. 2014, available online at http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/95-1478.ZS.html

Spitzer, Roberst. "The politics of gun control." New York: Chatham Publishers, 1998.
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Interest Groups it Is Easy

Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21757243

During the last week of the Convention the delegates added a few refinements, raised some serious concerns, and discussed what they agreed to over the four months of deliberations. Mason expressed the wish that "the plan had been prefaced by a Bill of Rights." Elbridge Gerry supported Mason's unsuccessful attempt to attach a Bill of Rights. Randolph joined Mason and Gerry and declared that he too wouldn't sign the Constitution. And the delegates wondered whether or not the power to create a national university was implied within the meaning of the necessary and proper clause. Rising Sun Chair" Constitutional Convention). With that, the term "American" has no racial insinuations for virtually all Americans trace their roots from distinct nationalities, races and ethnic groups and this complication alone can cause innumerable perplexed things. But because of the fact that America had evolved into its present status, all sorts of studies need…… [Read More]

(2003). "Popular Sovereignty."  http://www.basiclaw.net/Principles/Popular%20sovereignty.htm . (Accessed April 15, 2010).

Lloyd, Gordon. "Constitutional Convention." http://teachingamericanhistory.org/convention/intro.html. (Accessed April 15, 2010).

Lind, Michael. 2004. "Are We still a middle-class nation" http://www.newamerica.net/publications/articles/2004/are_we_still_a_middle_class_nation (Accessed April 15, 2010).
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Managing Homeland Security You Were

Words: 2062 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48708261

S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.

(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…… [Read More]


Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.

Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov

Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.

Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
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Business -- Political Science the

Words: 6973 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39808881

Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers. This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can…… [Read More]


Bimber, B., and Davis, R. 2003. Campaigning Online: TheInternet in U.S. Elections, New

York: Oxford University Press.

Cornfield, M. 2005. Commentary on the Impact of the Internet onthe 2004 Election,

Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project, March 3.
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Abortion Is Illegal Legally and

Words: 873 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64522699


In this case, according to Alexander Hamilton, the court would have had the right to interfere and it would have had the superior power to declare the Texas statue void on its face.

However, Hamilton aside, our natural law and natural rights also prohibit first trimester abortion. Derived from Locke, Natural law and natural rights follow from the nature of man and the world. For instance, we have the right to defend ourselves and our property, because of our nature, because of the kind of creatures that we are. True law derives from this right, not from the arbitrary power of the omnipotent state.

Natural law has an objective, extrinsic existence. The ability to make moral judgment - or in other words, the capacity to know good and evil -- has immediate evolutionary benefits: just as the capacity to perceive three dimensionally tells one when one is standing on…… [Read More]

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Governments Made Part Organizations Laws Electronically Use

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19547422

governments made part organizations laws electronically. Use Internet compare state's issues policies stateline.org. Compare issue states regions country describe state addressing issue. What aspects federalism reflected states' approach policy making area? Does federalist structure government hinder public policy effort issue states address? Support answer.

State government issues: Approval of charter schools

One of the most controversial issues primarily governed by the states is that of education. Although public schools are locally-funded, how schools provide education and how funds for schooling are appropriated differs from state to state. This can be seen in the current debate over charter schools in Georgia and New Jersey. These debates are not financial, but rather "have centered around power: Who has the power to create new charter schools?" (Wieder 2012). ecently, Georgia loosened restrictions on the approval of new charter schools, "regardless of whether local authorities want them or not" (Wieder 2012). However, in New…… [Read More]


Wieder, Ben. (2012). Two states, two different paths on charter schools. Stateline. Retrieved:

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Analyzing the Partisan Politics

Words: 2107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34653564

Partisan Politics

At the time the U.S. Constitution was ratified, the new America of the 19th century saw its indigenes with varied political opinions. Those in favor of a powerful central government and therefore, a restraint of the powers the states possessed were part of the Federalist Party; those with the belief that interpretation should be given to the Constitution in order to reduce the powers the national government wields, which would further empower the states, became part of the epublican PartyTherefore, The Federalists adopted a nationalistic opinion; the epublicans, although they would not refute the efficiency of the central government, held the opinion that certain rights ought to be kept for the states. Thus, this essay will explore the aforementioned idea (Writer Thoughts). It will examine how the Federalist philosophy and ideas shaped modern American Society.

Supporters of the Constitution

The proposed American Constitution's advocates labeled themselves as "Federalists."…… [Read More]


Boyd. "American Federalism, 1776 to 1997: Significant Events." USA Embassy. N.p., 1997. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .

"Constitution of the United States." The Free Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .

"Federalists." U.S. History. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .

MacDonald, William. Select Documents Illustrative of the History of the United States, 1776-1861. N.p.: Macmillan, n.d. Google Books. 1905. Web. 26 Mar. 2016. .
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American Preference to Local Government and Americans Traditional Distrust of Centralized Government

Words: 3968 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76038063

American Mistrust of Centralized Government

This is a paper written in APA style that examines the traditional preference that Americans have for local government, the traditional distrust they have of centralized government, and the reasons behind these phenomena.

Local Government: A Traditional American Preference

There is a strong traditional preference for local government over centralized government in this country. This preference goes back all the way to the beginnings of our nation and can be plainly seen in the debates between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists over the ratification of the Constitution. It can still be seen going strong today in the never-ending cry of politicians to put an end to "big government." There is an obvious distrust for centralized government in this country, and our political history and current political climate proves this time and time again. Yet what are the reasons for this preference for local government and…… [Read More]


Articles of Confederation. Philadelphia, PA. 1782.

Colonial Charters." (2000). Kuyper Institute. Retrieved on December 3, 2003 at http://capo.org/Charters.html.

Colonial Government." (2000). USGenNet. Retrieved on December 3, 2003 at http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/colonial/book/chap10_5.html.

Colonial Government." (2001). USA History. Retrieved on December 3, 2003 at  http://www.usahistory.info/colonial/government.html .
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America Without the Constitution Without

Words: 3372 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94195078

Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of ights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…… [Read More]


Amar, a. (2005). America's Constitution: A Biography. New York: Random House.

Bailyn, B., ed. (1993). The Debate on the Constitution. Library of America Press.

Beeman, R. (2009). Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution.

Random House.
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American History Slave Revolts Although

Words: 6354 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54831518

Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.

Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
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Colonists - Now They Are Calling Themselves

Words: 826 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23305216

colonists - now they are calling themselves Americans -- have won their war for independence and that they are now making their own laws. That was what they were fighting for. They complained in the Declaration of Independence that they did not have any representation when the English were in control. They were unhappy that they had to pay taxes and obey laws that they had no hand in creating. It is funny to me, but not in a comical way. They do not consider that we are in the same position as they were. Did they not write, "All men are created equal?" Why does that only apply to the white people? They think they can now control us like the English controlled them. They will take from us our land and they will make us abide by their laws or else they will wipe us out. Yet, you…… [Read More]

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Military the Colonists' Most Revered Military Institution

Words: 1601 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64260428


The colonists' most revered military institution was the militia, a model inherited from their forebears in England. The philosophical underpinnings of the militia model are easy to understand: "fear of a standing army," (Millet and Maslowski 1). A standing army can turn against its people, staging what now would be called military coups one after the other. During and especially after Independence, the validity, effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance of the militia model was called into question. This is why the United States Constitution eventually included the provisions for federalized systems of national security. Naturally, the existence of a standing army to "provide for the common defense" would be required. Independence required an organized military strategy against a powerful Empire; to protect the new nation, it was certain that the military would be necessary to preserve all that hard work. The Constitution therefore enabled the creation and maintenance of standing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boot, Max. "The New American Way of War." Foreign Affairs. 2003.

Jay, John. "The Federalist 2." Independent Journal. Oct 31, 1787.

Madison, James. "Federalist 41." Independent Journal. Jan 19, 1788.

Millet, Allen R. And Maslowski, Peter. For the Common Defense. Free Press, 1994.
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Politics in America From 1775

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45693893

Both large states with a great population, they did not want to lose influence or power to a federal government. In particular, there was great debate in New York as existing political leaders feared a lose of power. The Federalists were those who supported the Constitution and include James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. They were the Federalist Papers that were published in New York and not only helped the Constitution to be ratified, but guided the direction of the new American nation. Those who opposed a strong government were the anti-federalists and they feared America would turn into a corrupt nation like Great Britain.

George Washington, who would be the first President, was a federalist and had great influence and therefore helped the country to go in that direction. A Bill of Rights quelled further fears about the oppression of the federal government. In 1788 the Constitution went into effect.…… [Read More]

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America Was a Wonderful Experiment in Freedom

Words: 3066 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52240677

America was a wonderful experiment in freedom and democracy which had never before been attempted by any nation. Nations either tried to give power to the people in order to prevent monarchies from rising to despotic power, or they allowed monarchs, despots and other sole figure heads to rise to power. In the case of allowing the people to rule, Europe and European's had learned many times that unbridled power in the hands of the people was no more just than the rule of despots. obs could become just as dictatorial as individual monarchs who sat upon golden thrones. Until America came into existence, nations could only expect to exist for a short time before political turmoil would create change of government, and the nation would start over again.

So as America grew from a fledgling nation to a powerful and economically stable country, those who had watched democracy struggle…… [Read More]

Mill, John Stuart. Dissertations and Discussions. New York: classic Books. 2000.

Madison, James. Federalist paper #10. 1775

De Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America, essays on freedom. 1835. Accessed 21 May 2004. Website: http://www.tocqueville.org
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which is better the articles or the constitution

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63846388

nation's "first constitution," the Articles of Confederation, provided a framework and blueprint for American politics and government (Kernell, Jacobson, Kousser and Vavreck 24). Far more anti-federalist in nature than the Constitution, the Articles of Confederation provided only for a loose confederation of states. States had the power to override almost any federal law. Moreover, the states appoint federal officials rather than reverting to citizen voters to elect national leaders and lawmakers. The Articles of Confederation lacked the balance of powers embedded in the future Constitution, and for which the Constitution is renowned. ithout an executive branch in the federal government, and without a federal judiciary, the new nation seemed precariously weak under the Articles. Federalists affirmed the need for stronger centralization, particularly to bolster the American position vis-a-vis its European counterparts. Although the anti-Federalists retained some of the core principles of states' rights in the Constitution, ultimately the federalists gained…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Doernberg, Donald. "We the People." California Law Review. Vol 73, No. 1. Retrieved online: http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2069&context=californialawreview

Kernell, Samuel, Jacobson, Gary C., Kousser, Thad, and Vavreck, Lynn. The Logic of American Politics. 6th edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
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The Ripple Effects of American

Words: 4742 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5699076

In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…… [Read More]

Works Cited
Center for History and New Media (CHNM). (2005). Monarchy Embattled.
George Mason University. Online at

Chew, Robin. (2004). Napoleon I: Emperor of the French. Lucid Caf?.
Online at http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95aug/napoleon.html.

Locke, John. (2003). Two Treatise of Government, 14th. ed. Cambridge
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Ink Dried on the U S Constitution Political

Words: 742 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70182926

ink dried on te U.S. Constitution, political parties began emerging in te United States. Despite te adamant argument of early party members tat tey were against suc parties becoming commonplace in American politics, te division amongst tose in power became clear almost immediately after te Constitution was drafted in te late eigteent century. Te differences in opinion between te two parties in te U.S. government elped maintain a sense of "ceck and balances" for every politician, as well as eac party itself. Between 1790 and 1814, tere were several opportunities for te different factions to compete for te loyalty of te American citizens, all wic elped saped our political system today.

Te Federalist Party was one of te first two parties to arise after te Constitution. Te Federalist faction was founded primarily by te Secretary of te Treasury, Alexander Hamilton and by Vice President, Jon Adams. (Burke) Te Federalists desired…… [Read More]

http://encarta.msn.comSite accessed 06 Oct 2002. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761558305

Whiskey Rebellion," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2002

http://encarta.msn.comSite accessed 06 Oct 2002. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761564115
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Third Parties Third Party Politics

Words: 1557 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26896831

Conclusion: The Benefits of a Third-Party Friendly System

hile both proponents and those in opposition to a two-party system have well-founded arguments, the third-party friendly system is the system that most makes sense in today's modern democracy. As presidential candidates John McCain and Barack Obama have made clear, the American people are ready for change. They are tired of the same old formula Republicans and Democrats, and they want to be represented by candidates whom they can truly feel represented by. A coalition government consisting of third parties would accomplish that change. Although this government may take longer to arrive at decisions, it would ultimately come up with the decisions that the majority of the Americans want, while still including the opinions of the minority. These coalitions would pass laws that were more representative of what America wants. Instead of retreating into the old, tired formula of choice a or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Evolution of American political parties from the Revolution to Reconstruction." 23

August 2003. Everything2. 26 October 2008. Everything2. http://everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=1486844.

What is the history of 'third parties' in the United States?" This Nation.com 2008. This Nation.com. 26 October 2008.  http://www.thisnation.com/question/042.html .