Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Female Genital Mutilation in Ethiopia: A Human Rights Issue
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common phenomenon in Ethiopia, which has the highest rate of FGM among African countries, despite international and national efforts to eliminate the phenomenon. hy FGM persists despite these efforts to end the practice is an issue that puzzles scholars and activists, particularly because efforts to end FGM have seen some success outside of Ethiopia. Does the practice persist because it is not seen as damaging by people in the culture, which would make it an issue of cultural relativism? Some people suggest that the practice is one that is acceptable within the culture, and that the reaction against it is an example of foreign cultural ideals attempting to change Ethiopians' indigenous culture. On the other hand, one must ask: does the practice persist because of a disregard for women's rights, with FGM being simply another…
Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. Print.
Althaus, F. "Female Circumcision: Rite of Passage or Violation of Rights?" International
Family Planning Perspectives 23.3 (1997): 130-133. Print.
Still, if one is to employ the ICN Code of Ethics, nurses may collaborate with others to apply "ethical standards in nursing practice, education, management and research." Within this mandate ethical standards would preclude mutilation of any part of the body for any reason, especially under unsanitary conditions by untrained practitioners. (ICN, pp 1-4).
The American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics, Provision 2, states that the nurse's primary commitment is to the patient. Although in addressing the interests of the patient, the nurse must recognize the patient's place in the family or community relationships, in Provision 2.2, the Code identifies types of conflicts of interest for nurses. In such a situation as may exist between a patient, such as a young woman facing FGM, and her family and community, the nurse must examine his or her own personal and professional values, the values and interests of others also responsible…
ANA Center for Ethics and Human Rights, The, (2009). Code of Ethics for Nurses With Interpretive Statements. Reviewed on July 7, 2009 at: http://nursingworld.org/ethics/code/protected_nwcoe813.htm#1.5 .
International Council of Nurses (2006). The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses. Geneva, Switzerland. 1-9. Reviewed July 7, 2009 at: http://www.icn.ch/icncode.pdf .
IRIN (2009). Razor's Edge: The Controversy of Female Genital Mutilation. Film produced by www.irinnews.org/audiofiles/fgm_low.html
National Center for Cultural Competence (2009), Who is the cultural broker? Georgetown University Center for Child & Human Development, Washington, D.C. Reviewed July 9, 2009 at http://www11.georgetown.edu/research/gucchd/nccc/index.html.
Female Genital Mutilation -- a eview and Analysis
How prevalent is the practice of female genital mutilation throughout the world? Why is it done, where is it done, and what are the human rights and morality implications? This paper will examine those questions, and provide information that supplements those issues.
The Literature on Female Genital Mutilation
There are four types of female genital mutilation (FGM), according to an article in the British Journal of Midwifery (Momoh 2004, p. 631): 1) Type 1 is called clitoridectomy, in which the "excision of the clitoral prepuce may also involve the excision of all or part of the clitoris"; 2) Type 2 is the cutting away from the body of the clitoris, but may also involved the excision of "all or part of the tabia minora"; 3) Type 3 is called infibulation, and it involves "excision of part or all of the external genitalia…
Bishop, Jeffrey P. (2004). "Modern Liberalism, Female Circumcision, and the Rationality of Traditions," Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 473-497.
British Journal of Midwifery (2004). "Gender and Daily Life in Ethiopia," pp. 98-99, October.
Contemporary Sexuality (2004). "Mixed News on Female Genital Mutilation," vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 7-8. August.
Dare, F.O., Oboro, V.O., Fadiora, S.O., Orji, E.O., Sule-Odu, A.O., and Olabode, T.O. (2004), "Female Genital Mutilation: An Analysis of 522 Cases in South-Western Nigeria," Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 281-283.
Female Genital Mutilation, also known as female circumcision is a practice largely in some African countries and is a process where young girls (and sometimes women) have their clitoris removed through unsafe surgical procedures. The procedure is usually done by someone with no medical training and no type of anesthesia is used. As a result, many of the young girls go into shock from the severe which often leads to death. Infection is also a threat since the instruments used to perform the procedure have not been sterilized. It is believed that this practiced is done for religious purposes, but many consider it barbaric. Those living in America, Europe and other countries do not understand the reasoning behind this practice and many have sought to abolish it, but different cultures have very different practices and what is considered barbaric to one culture may be considered normal to another.
Ball, T. "Female Genital Mutilation." Nursing Standard 23.5 (2008): 43-47.
Jaeger, Fabienne, Caflisch, Marianne, and Hohfeld, Patrick. "Female genital mutilation and its prevention: a challenge for pediatricians." European Journal of Pediatrics
168 (2009): 27-33.
Kaplan-Marcuson, Adriana, Fernandez del Rio, Natividad, Moreno-Navarro, Juana,
Moreover, the small opening is kept patent by inserting a small piece of wood or matchstick to allow the passage of urine and menstrual blood (Rimsza pp).
Antiseptic powders or pastes, containing herbs, milk, eggs, ashes or dung, which are believed to facilitate healing, may be applied (Female2 pp). The girl is then usually taken to a designated place to recover where, if the mutilation has been carried out as part of an initiation ceremony, traditional teaching is imparted (Female2 pp). For the very financially wealthy, the mutilation procedure may be performed by a qualified doctor in hospital under local or general anaesthetic (Female2 pp).
Female genital mutilation can result in lifelong medical consequences (Hamilton pp). Because the clitoris contains numerous blood vessels, including the dorsal artery, women who have been genitally mutilated risk death from hemorrhaging, according to Dr. Henriette Kouyate, a gynecologist based in Senegal (Hamilton pp). The…
Female Genital Cutting. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from Women for Women Web site: http://womenforwomen.org/rarfgc.html
Female1 Genital Mutilation. (1997, April 01). Contemporary Women's Issues
Database. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Female2 Genital Mutilation. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from Amnesty.org Web site: http://www.amnesty.org /ailib/intcam/femgen/fgm1.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Instead, it continues to proliferate as a ritual among women and as one study shows, its prevalence resulted to 100 million women being circumcised among societies in Africa and Asia. With its prevalence, gender discrimination occurs as a result, where women are coerced to participate in the said ritual and try to bear the pain of the procedure.
ecause of the health and social repercussions that result from FGM, concern all over the world over its practice has become widespread. Thus, organizations and societies themselves have created techniques to gradually eradicate this harmful ritual while at the same time preserving the cultural meaning that FGM has for the society. An example is "Cutting through words," a program that serves as an alternative for FGM, wherein young women are educated by the female elders, usually their mother or grandmother, about "personal health, reproduction, hygiene, communication skills, self-esteem and dealing with peer…
Marton, K. (2004). "A worldwide gender gap." Newsweek Magazine, Vol. 143 Issue 19.
Nzwili, F. (2003). "Replacing female genital mutilation." New York Amsterdam News, Vol. 94 Issue 16.
From a sociological perspective female genital mutilation is a phenomenon that can be understood in terms of the male-orientated and patriarchal structure of the societies in which it occurs. What also has to be taken into account in an analysis of this social and cultural practice is that it persist due to the socialization process in these countries which tend to normalize and legitimize aspect such as female circumcision.
Condemnation of female genital mutilation is increasing from many Western countries and criticism is based on medical and human rights issues. From a different perspective others argue that FGM should be understood and accepted in terms of cultural relativity and the particular structure and makeup of these societies. This relativistic approach is however condemned by many sociologists. As one writer comments, "I find female genital mutilation to be deplorable; it is worse to look the other way in the…
Ahlberg B. et al. (2000) Gender masked or self-inflicted pain: female circumcision, eradication and persistence in Central Kenya. African Sociological Review, 4, (1), 2000.pp. 35-54
Dzhantam W. (2005) Views on Female Circumcision: Rite of Passage or Violation of Rights. Retrieved April 30, 2009, from http://www.eportfolio.lagcc.cuny.edu/ePortfolios/Basic/dzhantam.warrenREV/resources/33521.doc
Genital Mutilation. Retrieved April 30, 2009, from http://www.answers.com/topic/genital-modification-and-mutilation
Horsfall S. (2000) FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION AND ASSOCIATED GENDER
According to Amnesty International, the practice of FGM is performed on more than 2,000,000 women out of whom 600,000 are in Africa. (Kalev, 2004, p. 339) arely does FGM simply involve a symbolic small cut on the hood of the clitoris, as it misnomer Female Circuscision would imply. More often it involves clitoridectomy. This is anatomically equivalent to amputation of the penis. Clitoridectomy is often followed by a more drastic procedure termed infibulation, in which the external genitals are completely excised and the labia is sewn together, leaving only a small opening for drainage of menstrual blood and urine. This is later cut open after marriage for sex and birth. (Brant, 1995, p. 284)
FGM is often performed on girls under age 12 without anesthesia using crude tools. There are frequent medical complications, including infection, hemorrhage, and even death. In contrast to male ritual circumcision, two of the consequences of…
Boyle, E.H., & Preves, S.E. (2000). National Politics as International Process: the Case of Anti-Female-Genital-Cutting Laws. Law & Society Review, 34(3), 703-738.
Brant, R. (1995). Case Vignette: Child Abuse or Acceptable Cultural Norms. Ethics & Behavior, 5(3), 283-292
Chavkin, W. & Chesler, E. (Eds.). (2005). Where Human Rights Begin: Health, Sexuality, and Women in the New Millennium. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Eichman, E. (1992, August 3). The Cutting Edge. National Review, 44, 48-59
Female genital mutilation should be stopped
Female Genital Mutilation or FGM can be explained as a procedure that is performed or inflicted on women and girls in some developing countries (Klein et al., 2018). FGM entails the altering or cutting of female genitalia. There are many known consequences of inflicting FGM on women including viral and bacterial infections, psychological problems, and obstetrical complications. The FGM topic has been taken up by activists in areas where the practice is rampant. The FGM topic has fundamental societal importance, cultural, significance, and ramifications. In this informative piece, the implications and consequences of FGM are discussed. There have been many efforts put in place to eradicate the FGM vice although certain societal and cultural dynamics have allowed FGM to be deeply rooted in some regions. It is important for more interventions to be instituted in the communities where FGM is practiced as a ritual…
Female Gender Mutilation
Female Genital Mutilation
The procedures that constitute the removal of the external genitalia of the females, whether in part or wholly, is referred to as female genital mutilation or briefly as FGM. It also constitutes other forms of injury to such organs for non-medical reasons. The practice is usually carried out by traditional circumcisers who are recognized individuals in communities, and are often present at important functions such as child births. There are instances when health care providers carry out the procedures under the false assumption that it is safe to do it in controlled medical facilities (UNICEF 87). However, the world Health organization requests all medical professionals to refrain from carrying out such procedures. The practice has been recognized all over the world as a violation of the rights of women. It is a sign of major inequalities between males and females of the human species,…
Diallo, Khadi. "Taking the Dress." UNESCO Courier july 2001: 40.
Dorkenoo, Efua. Cutting the Rose: Female Genital Mutilation: The Practice and Its Prevention. London: Minority Rights Publishers, 1995.
England, Joseph. "Circumcision in America." The Objective Standard 10.1 (2015).
Kern, Soeren. UK: The Crisis of Female Genital Mutilation. 9 may 2013. 18 February 2016 .
Plastic surgeons refer to the practice of genital surgery for women as Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS). However disruptive to sexual self-esteem needless genital surgery may be, the procedures can enormously benefit those who suffered from involuntary genital mutilation. A euters press report details the experiences of women from Burkina Faso whose tribal traditions condoned genital mutilation. Far from the mainly benign effects of male circumcision, female genital mutilation can completely diminish the pleasure of sex to the point where intimate encounters may be thoroughly "painful," (Schwarz 2007). Genital mutilation is a form of surgery that diminishes pleasure, and the reconstructive version can help victims regain their interest in sex and renew appreciation for their bodies.
Fitzpatrick, L. (2008). Plastic Surgery Below the Belt. Time. etrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1859937,00.html
Freistag, A. Interview data.
Labiaplasty." etrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.labiaplastysurgeon.com/
Schwarz, N. (2007). BUKINA FASO: Genital Surgery…
Fitzpatrick, L. (2008). Plastic Surgery Below the Belt. Time. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1859937,00.html
Freistag, A. Interview data.
Labiaplasty." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.labiaplastysurgeon.com/
Schwarz, N. (2007). BURKINA FASO: Genital Surgery Helps Burkina's Mutilated Women. The Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://fgmnetwork.org/news/show_news.php?subaction=showfull&id=1187811902&archive=&template
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The religion of Islam is very misunderstood and pervasively skewed within its true meaning and original intent by extremists in the Islamic society. Never did the prophet intend that the abuses and oppression which today's Muslim women suffer should occur. It is the conclusion of this writer that extremists exist in all religions and these are those who garner the most attention and receive the most press however, those who are moderate and who adhere to the true beliefs and meaning of the Islamic religions receive little attention and little press and even littler in the way of chances to convey the truth of this religion to the world. The abuses and oppression will continue however, it is hopeful that the ignorance surrounding the Muslim religion will eventually lose out to better dissemination of information and to more intelligent reporting backed by diligent investigation of the facts.…
Soares, Claire (2009) Delara Darabi: 'Oh Mother, I Can See The Noose'. The Independent UK. 4 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/delara-darabi-oh-mother-i-can-see-the-noose-1678543.html
Zahra, Sadaf (2005) Women in Pakistan -- Victims of the Social and Economic Desecration" In Defense of Marxism. 10 Oct 2005. online available at: http://www.marxist.com/women-pakistan-victims-of-desecration.htm
Ahmed, L. (1993) Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate
Yale University Press, 1993
In most societies, GM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.
Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title of female genital mutilation, understanding what is involved in the process really helps one understand why it is internationally condemned as a violation of human rights. The most drastic type of female genital mutilation is infibulation. A standard infibulation process is as follows:
The amount of tissue removed is extensive. The most extreme form involves the complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, together with the inner surface of the labia majora. The raw edges of the labia majora are brought together to fuse, using thorns, poultices or stitching to hold them in place, and the legs are tied together for 2-6 weeks. The healed scar creates a hood of skin which covers the urethra and part or most of…
From an international perspective, it is difficult to impose human rights on other people who claim cultural tradition as a basis for a ritual, because that opens up claims of racism and cultural insensitivity, which would also violate human rights. One difficulty is that there is no single international standard for human rights.
On December 10, 1948, the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which outlines basic human rights. Since that time, there have been nine total core international human rights treaties, some of them dealing specificially with children and with gender discrimination. At the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations member nations ratified a prohibition against any type of gender-based discrimination. In addition, the Convention on the Rights of the Child discusses a child's right to be raised by her parents in a family environment without undue governmental interference, but also discusses the child's right to be raised by a best interests standard. Clearly, in the case of something like breast ironing, reconciling the two is impossible. In addition, while these declarations of rights are admirable, they are only enforceable on UN member nations, and have only been enforced in the context of state action. Cameroon has criminalized the practice of breast ironing, so it would be difficult, if not impossible, to suggest that state actors are playing a role in perpetuating the process. That is not to say that some have not suggested that other sexual mutilations, most notably female genital mutilation, be treated and prosecuted as torture, but the international community has not responded positively to those calls.
There is also the problem of accountability. Establishing international human rights standards is a lofty ideal, but there has not been a practical means established to deal with offenses. Of course, there are international human rights tribunals established to try government officials for violations of human rights. Research shows that human rights trials do have a positive impact on the citizens of the country in question and can actually have an ancillary positive impact on neighboring countries. In addition, the United States has taken steps to try to enforce international law in a domestic context. 18 U.S.C.S. 2340A (a) provides that: "Whoever outside the United States commits or attempts to commit torture shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results to any person from conduct prohibited by this subsection,
omen can be affected by experiencing several other misfortunes, from becoming sterile to other horrible medical problems.
The health complications of female genital mutilation are both immediate and delayed and are referred to as the "three feminine sorrows": the sorrows on the day of mutilation or circumcision, the wedding night when the opening must be cut and the birth of the baby when the opening must be enlarged." (Fourcroy)
Most Somali women suffer throughout their lives and they abstain from protesting against circumcision because they believe that it is a vital part of their lives and of Somali tradition.
The women that are circumcised from an early age don't go through physical pains only. One of the most horrible parts of the practice of circumcision is that their own families harm them. Across their lives the women are traumatized by the event and they feel that their relatives had deceived…
Diriye, Mohamed. "Culture and Customs of Somalia." Greenwood Press, 2001.
Fourcroy, L. Jean. (1999). "Curbside Consultation." Retrieved March 2, 2009 from American Academy of Family Physicians Web site: http://www.aafp.org/afp/990800ap/curbside.html
Goodwin, Jo-Ann & Jones, David. "Barbarity Y in Our Midst." The Daily Mail (London, England), January 3, 2008.
Pecot, Zipporah. (2008). "Female Circumcision Is NOT Islamic." Retrieved March 2, 2009, from Conversant Life Web site: http://www.conversantlife.com/social-issues/female-circumcision-is-not-islamic
Motivations for Pursuing a Career in Medicine
It is in my opinion that people strive and compensate for what they perceive they do not have: one tries to gain strength to overcome his or her weakness. My motivations for pursuing a career in medicine take root from my experience as a young adult in Yemen, my native country. Being an underdeveloped country, we were literally impoverished and not given the proper and basic social services that people should have, especially the women sector. In a country where female genital mutilation is practiced, I became witness to the harsh realities that women have to go through in their attempt to follow the society's norms and traditions, whether it adversely affects their lives and health or not.
Exposure to the needs of the people, especially those who cannot afford medical services provided for by hospitals in my country, made me realize that…
In addition to that sex tourism occurs in a manner that is generally difficult to legitimately police efficiently. Tourist will come to a country on business and while there they engage the locals in any number of activities.
Economically both sex and romance tourism provides income for the persons engaged in the practice. In Jamaica where the "rent a dread" practice is dominant many young men depend on the largess of foreign women for their successful living. Many also tie their future fortunes to the women falling in love with them and taking them back to Europe or America. In depressed areas sex is a major income earner for persons who have nothing else to trade.
The sex trade in its multiple manifestations provides income for some and pleasure for others. The immediate challenge is that it represents the bankruptcy of the individual and the country when the last resort…
Madagascar's exposure is, the problem needs to be understood. The problem is phrased as "The rise of Islamic regimes in Egypt." This phrasing makes no sense. The military is in charge of Egypt, following the takeover from the Muslim Brotherhood in 2013. This is in the background material. A better phrasing is found in the text: "The rise of Islamic regimes in the post-evolution Arab world." For some reason the writer of the document latched onto the qualifier "particularly in Egypt" and despite the fact that Egypt no longer has an Islamic regime has concocted the misleading topic. At any rate, Madagascar has a low level of exposure to this issue. Madagascar is only 7% Muslim (CIA World Factbook, 2014), and was not subject to the revolutionary politics of North Africa during the Arab Spring. Madagascar's Muslims are not Arab, but came to the country as laborers and slaves from…
CIA World Factbook. (2014). Madagascar. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ma.html
Haufiku, M. (2014). Madagascar's president-elect disputes provisional election result. New Era. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from http://www.newera.com.na/2014/01/08/madagascars-president-elect-disputes-provisional-election-result/?ModPagespeed=noscript
Islamic Focus. (2014). Islam in Madagascar. Islamic Focus. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from http://www.islamicfocus.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1849&Itemid=24
Rabenoro, M. (no date). Madagascar: the lost status of women. The Nordic African Institute. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from http://www.nai.uu.se/publications/news/archives/052rabenoro/
oman and Islam
Islamic religion has its established guiding teachings and principles that ensure its followers submit totally to the will of Allah for all the adherents. In effect, Islamic religion recognizes the fact that people and things around them affect their survival irrespective of their age, community, families, and the nation. The quality of life of the Muslims invariably affects the existence of the Islamic nations and religion as a whole. Muslim women are highly vulnerable to various health problems due to the strict religious ideation of most of the conditions that affect them. Islamic women as most of the women from other contemporary communities face numerous health challenges, including reproductive health problems such as increased cases of maternal death, destitution, poor access to maternal health services, and social violation of their human rights. As such, the health challenges make it necessary for the adoption of policies that recognize…
Agnew, Vijay. Racialized Migrant Women in Canada: Essays on Health, Violence, and Equity. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009. Print
Aswad, Barbara C, and Bilge? Barbara. Family and Gender among American Muslims: Issues Facing Middle Eastern Immigrants and Their Descendants. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996. Print
Atighetchi, Dariusch. Islamic Bioethics: Problems and Perspectives. New York? Springer, 2007. Internet resource.
Cortese, Delia, and Calderini Simonetta. Women and the Fatimids in the World of Islam. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2006. Print.
Personal Social Status
Social status can be defined as the reference, prestige, or honor ascribed to an individual's personality or position in society. It could be attained by virtue of family or racial background; or through innate ability or life achievements. Some other factors that determine one's social status include gender, occupation, religion, lifestyle, and education.
While culture is usually defined as a way of life of a group of people within a geographical setting, however, there also exists an individual level of culture known as personal culture. Personal culture is usually an expression of one’s personal beliefs or philosophy and perspective on life issues generally. It is usually a reflection of an individual’s upbringing; which is made up of culture, lifestyle and belief system the person is exposed to. Others are gender, history, education, residency location, and disability (“Social Categories”).
It is common for one's culture to be predominantly…
justice as it applies to ethics. Specifically, it will reflect about whether or not justice is obtainable for women in war torn areas of Africa. Justice is often highly elusive, and it seems that the women of Africa are extreme examples of how justice can often overlook segments of the population, especially in countries that face political and social upheaval, and are traditionally led by men.
Justice is something that many Americans may take for granted, but in many other areas of the world, it is fleeting at best. This is quite apparent in Africa, especially in countries torn by war, such as Nigeria, and now the Ivory Coast. Justice for anyone may be difficult to find, but justice when it comes to women and women's rights is even more difficult to find. This stems from a variety of reasons, from societies that encourage subservience in women, to societies that…
Author not Available. " Economic Justice Program for Eastern Africa." Churchworldservice.org. 23 Sept. 2004. 12 Nov. 2004.
Editors. "Who we Are." Niger Delta Women for Justice. 6 April 2004. 12 Nov. 2004.
Again, this is where a multi-national organization, like the UN, can help eliminate this bias to really determine if the practice is a human rights violation.
Human rights has been a concern for societies since ancient times. Today, although many strides have been made, there are still concerns about human rights violations. Thanks to advancements in communication technologies, now the plight of those suffering on the other side of the globe can be acknowledged by others, who in the past would not have known about it. Also, multi-national organizations, such as the UN, have made human rights a priority. Yet, this does not simply give a singular nation carte blanche to intervene when they believe a violation of human rights is occurring. This is due to both State sovereignty and cultural practices. A singular nation cannot make an unbiased decision on whether or not a practice is truly a…
Alley, L., Fairley, T., Cardinez, C., & Pordell, P. (2007) "Key cancer and public health concepts and definitions." In Global health care: Issues and policies. ed. Carol Herz. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Eliminating female genital mutilation. (2008). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from http://www.uneca.org/daweca/Documents/fgm_statement_2008.pdf .
Herz, J. "Rise and Demise of the Territorial State." World Politics 9.4. (Jul 1957): 473-493.
Human rights timeline: From antiquity to the Magna Carta. (No date). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline1.cfm .
Routine Infant Male Circumcision
While female genital mutilation has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years, male genital mutilation or circumcision has been for the most part overlooked in research reports. (Redactive Publishing, 2010, paraphrased) The objective of this study is to conduct an examination of routine infant male circumcision. This will involve a summarization and critical analysis of the current literature and reliable published evidence in this area of inquiry. The work of ocquet et al. (2009) examines the issue of bleeding complications following ritualistic circumcision and reports on six children who are stated to have no family history of hemorrhagic disease and no personal problems of thrombopenia or hemostatis, who were admitted within 1 year at the emergency department for hemorrhagic complications of nonmedical circumcisions, of which one had glans amputation." ( Five of the children were newborns. All of the newborns had compensated shock with…
Benatar, M & Benatar, D 2003, 'Between prophylaxis and child abuse: the ethics of neonatal male circumcision', American Journal Of Bioethics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 35-48, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost.
Bhattacharjee, P 2008, 'Male circumcision: an overview', African Journal Of Paediatric Surgery, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 32-36, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
Bo, X & Goldman, H 2008, 'Newborn circumcision in Victoria, Australia: reasons and parental attitudes', ANZ Journal Of surgery, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 1019-1022, Academic Search complete, EBSCOhost.
Bocquet, N, Lortat-Jacob, S, Cheron, G & Chappuy, H 2010, 'Bleeding complications after ritual circumcision: about six children', European Journal Of Pediatrics, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 359-362, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
d., pg. 67). Thus, the definition of the British family is almost wholly contained within a woman's decision. Women who have children and enter the workforce create new trends in British family life, such as the fact that children are cared for primarily by professionals working in the home, at nursery schools, or grandparents (Kathleen, n.d., "Family Life," 2009). The redefining of family relationships to give equality to both the husband and wife and the problem of finding childcare while both parents work is a result of women's entry into the workforce and modern conceptions of family life.
While these characteristics apply to the primary types of families in the United Kingdom, it is important to recognize that this state is diverse in terms of ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, religion, etc. Cloud (2008) discusses the difficulties in conducting research for one often not-discussed portion of society -- homosexuals. Cloud (2008)…
Cline, A. (2009). Sudan: Women and Family. Retrieved July, 18, 2009, from http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/islam/countries/bl_SudanWomen.htm
Cloud, J. (2008, January 17). Are Gay Relationships Different? Retrieved July 18, 2009,
"Family Life in the United States and United Kingdom." Retrieved July 18, 2009, from http://articles.famouswhy.com/family_life_in_united_states_and_united_kingdom
theater and particularly its musical performances, have changed dramatically over the years. Their tone and style have reflected historical and cultural changes as well as shifts in attitudes toward musical theater. Recent productions like Book of Mormon and Hamilton would have been inconceivable just a generation ago. Broadway musicals are unique in that they straddle the line between popular and high culture. They have popular culture appeal, packed within the fine art of theater. In some ways, musical theater is a popular culture version of the opera. Broadway theater has matured and expanded its repertoire considerably, moving from the relatively limited domain of Steven Sondheim and Andrew Lloyd eber productions towards a more diverse and creative one. As Lewis points out, "How sadly limiting that was; it surely took some kind of toll on alternative voices trying to break free of cliche expectations," (2). Broadway has broken free, finally, and…
Lewis, David H. Broadway Musicals. Mcfarland, 2002.
Perpetua, Matthew. "The Book of Mormon,' Triumphs at the Tony Awards." Rolling Stone. Retrieved online: http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/news/the-book-of-mormon-triumphs-at-the-tony-awards-20110613
Schutte, Harm K. and Donald G. Miller. "Belting and Pop, Nonclassical Approaches to the Female middle voice: Some preliminary considerations." Journal of Voice, Vol 7, No. 2, 1993, pp. 142-150.
Stone, Matt and Parker, Trey. Book of Mormon.
easons to hear victim experiences.
The victims of rape have a right to be heard, and it is not only healthy for their psychological composure, but also for the community to know what menace this is and face it. There are several reasons why the rape victims should be heard, here are some:
A. May inspire others to speak out; this way more of the victims will get the confidence to speak out make the society to embrace the cruelties of the crime and act upon it.
B. Educational purposes- the experiences that the society has had can be used to educate the entire community on the ills of the heinous act and it is an education that cannot be given better than the victims themselves, for a safer future society.
C. Public awareness- the victims should be allowed to speak so as to help heighten the public awareness on…
AFROL (2011). Sierra Leone: Gender Profile. Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/sierraleone_women.htm
Asencio, M., (1999). Machos and Sluts: Gender, Sexuality, and Violence among a Cohort of Puerto Rican Adolescents. Blackwell Publishing.
Dothaneagle.com, (2011). Apologies issued for unprosecuted rape of black woman in 1944.
Retrieved March22, 2011 from http://www2.dothaneagle.com/news/2011/mar/21/apologies-issued-unprosecuted-rape-black-woman-194-ar-1607570/
iddiqui (p.264) defines an 'honor crime' as consisting of:
a range of violent or abusive acts committed in the name of honor, including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and other controlling and coercive behaviors such as forced marriage and female genital mutilation which can end, in some extreme cases, in suicide or murder. (13)
These felonies, it is true, can happened, and do happen, in any civilized country but they are legalized, accepted (sometimes even condoned) and happen to an unimaginable extent in societies that are marked by their Islamic way of living.
The outhall Black isters, for instance, have consistently argued that men from minority cultures have often used religion and culture to justify the range of violence and humiliation that they impose upon women. We do find many cultures that have extreme views perpetuating misogyny. This includes cultures such as Mormonism, fundamentalists Judaism, fundamentalist Christianity, and…
Aslam, N. (2005) Maps for Lost Lovers Knopf, UK
Lynn Welchman and Sara Hossain (2005) Honour: Crimes, Paradigms and Violence Against Women Zed Books: UK
Siddiqui, H. There Is No Honour
AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa?
AIDS in Ghana
AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, has devastated much of Africa, hitting this continent worse than any other in the world. In fact, in the year 2000, 80% of the world's total AIDS-related deaths were within Africa. (C 2000) One of the areas hit the hardest by this virus has been the Sub-Saharan region. Ghana, within that region, has also been ravaged by AIDS, but it has a significantly lower percentage of AIDS cases than much of the rest of Africa. While the AIDS within Ghana has many of the same causes and effects on the people who are infected with the disease, it is a unique situation within Africa because of its particular effects on the women of the country, and the fact that there are comparatively fewer AIDS cases within this country.
The first reported cases of AIDS in Ghana were…
BBC. 2003. "Africa's Aids burden." UK: BBC News, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1045156.stm )
Ghana AIDS Commission . 2003. "Brief Statistics on HIV / AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/functionalities/statusandimpact/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=13 )
Ghana AIDS Commission . 2003. "Women and AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/barefacts/practicalinformation/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=24 )
Ofeibea Quirst-arcton. 2003. "Aids Treatment Plan Begins In January." Accra: AllAfrica.com, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://allafrica.com/stories/200311300172.html )
World-ank-assisted Women-in-Development project for Ethiopia proposes to socially and economically help vulnerable women participate and benefit from its increasingly expanding economy and opportunities in the private sector. It hopes to raise the standard of living of these women and contribute to alleviating poverty. On the whole, addressing all the constraints to the effective and realistic implementation of the National Policy on Women and forming grassroots women's organization would work towards building women's capability. This would then enable them to effectively verbalize their situation, aspirations and problems or sentiments about their economic, social and civic rights.
1. C (2006). Rural Ethiopian Women Are Most Abused. C.com. http://news.lbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6040180.htm
2. Gopal, G. (1998). Women in Ethiopia. The Women's Affair Office. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the World ank. http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm
3. U.S. Department of State. (2006). Ethiopia. AFROL Gender Profiles: Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
US Department of State, "Ethiopia," Central Intelligence Agency, http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm…
1. BBC (2006). Rural Ethiopian Women Are Most Abused. BBC.com. http://news.lbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6040180.htm
2. Gopal, G. (1998). Women in Ethiopia. The Women's Affair Office. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the World Bank. http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm
3. U.S. Department of State. (2006). Ethiopia. AFROL Gender Profiles: Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
US Department of State, "Ethiopia," Central Intelligence Agency, http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
Girls is an ethnographic documentary detailing a female rite of passage in a small island community in the Niger River delta in Africa. The film's purpose is primarily to illustrate the conflicts that emerge as cultures find themselves perched between two worlds: the world of old customs and traditions, and the world of globalized culture and its customs, values, and norms. However, Monday's Girls is also about gender issues, and how gender issues are at the forefront of every culture's ability to remain relevant. The film touches upon many related issues such as cultural relativism, and the filmmakers show that it is difficult to make a clear judgment for or against preserving traditions like those of the Waikiriki.
Rather than suggest a clear moral stance about the female rite of passage, the filmmakers illustrate the complexities and ambiguities involved in studying culture. Even within its own people, there are sometimes…
Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (owett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to owett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (owett, 1970).
In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…
Armstrong, D., L. Lloyd and J. Redmond. 2005. International Organization in World Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black and Joseph A. Scimecca. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 2004. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bell, Lynda S., Andrew J. Nathan and Ilan Peleg. 2001. Negotiating Culture and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.
If we look at one of the absolutes, such as abortion in cultures in which choice is at least generally available about reproductive options abortion is at least relatively unstigmatized and access to it is legal and there are no significant economic barriers, a woman may still have religious or ethical or emotional reasons why she would perceive abortion negatively.
A woman, for example, who has suffered through a number of miscarriages of wanted pregnancies may find herself for various reasons unable or unwilling to carry a pregnancy to term. In such a case, having an abortion may be the right choice for that woman but may still be very painful.
In general, the ways in which sexuality and fertility shapes a woman's relationship with self -- as well as with family and the larger community -- is largely determined by the degree of choice that she has over having…
Hooks, B. (2000). Feminist theory: From margin to center (2nd ed.). Brooklyn, NY: South End Press.
Kesselman, a., McNair, L.D., & Schniedewind, N. (2008). Women images and realities: A multicultural anthology (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Collaborative Learning Community on Issues elated to HIV / AIDS
Culture refers to a complex set of material, intellectual, spiritual and emotional characteristics that define a social group or a society. It comprises of fundamental rights, ways of life, traditional beliefs, and value systems in society. Some cultural beliefs, practices, and norms related to sexuality contribute to the spread and increased risk of HIV acquisition. Cultural beliefs such as negative attitudes towards the use of protective mechanisms such as condoms as well discussing its use among societies is one among the contributing factors. For example, men in some communities do not prefer using condoms because they consider flesh-flesh sex with masculinity and promotion of health.
Practices such as the male circumcision influence the risk of HIV disease. Studies show that the social practice significantly reduces the risks of HIV disease among them male during penile vaginal sex. Social practices embedded…
Hall, J.C., Hall, B.J., & Cockerell, C.J. (2011). HIV / AIDS in the post-HAART era: Manifestations, treatment, and epidemiology. Shelton, CT: People's Medical Pub. House- USA.
Jenkins, C.L. & Robalino, D.A. (2003). HIV / AIDS in the Middle East and North Africa: The costs of inaction. Washington, DC: World Bank
Stolley, K.S., & Glass, J.E. (2009). HIV / AIDS. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press
World Bank (2001). HIV / AIDS in the Caribbean: Issues and options. Washington, DC: World Bank
In today's modern world, organizations have become global, where people from different countries and cultures come together to work for common and shared organizational goals. Several cultural issues arise when employees from distinct backgrounds are in the same place. Religion is one of the most critical ones since it is the set of spiritual beliefs and values that individuals follow in their daily lives. They expect their organizations to give them leverage for following their religion as this provides for their personal development. Enhancement in personal self would support bettering individual and group performance; hence, upgrading in organizational competitiveness would be observed.
Hofstede said that the religion practiced in a certain region is the result of cultural values that were followed previously by the ancestors in the same area (Mazur, 2010). The existing cultural strength is increased when people follow a religious guideline as they can with themselves…
Mazur, B. (2020). Organizational culture under religious influence. Intech Open. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/organizational-culture-under-religious-influence
Nandi, A. & Platt, L. (2018). The relationship between political and ethnic identity among UK ethnic minority and majority populations. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 46(5), 957-979. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2018.1539286
Raday, F. (2003). Culture, religion, and gender. Oxford University Press and New York University School of Law, 1(4), 663-715. http://arabic.musawah.org/sites/default/files/Culture%2C%20Religion%20and%20Gender.pdf
Ramos, M.R., Massey, D., Bennett, M. & Hewstone, M. (2019). Social diversity is initially threatening, but people do adapt over time- new research. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/social-diversity-is-initially-threatening-but-people-do-adapt-over-time-new-research-118066
Seyranian, V., Atuel, H. & Crano, W.D. (2008). Dimensions of majority and minority groups. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 11(1), 21-37. DOI: ff10.1177/1368430207084843ff.
Winkel, H. (2019). Religious cultures and gender cultures: Tracing gender differences across religious cultures. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 34(2), 241-251. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537903.2019.1621540
Therefore, although the current analysis took into consideration three of the most important countries in the world, they do not lack the problems facing each country because everywhere in the world there are poor areas and low income families who will abuse their children, will abandon them, and even torture them according to their own religious or personal beliefs. Taking these aspects into consideration, it is important to consider the three different child protection policies applied in Japan, Switzerland, and Germany in order to see the extent in which the economic development is related to the child protection policy.
Japan is well-known for the way in which the family ties and connections are mirrored in the society. More precisely, it is rather well-known the fact that in general the Japanese family is committed to their own beings and the relations that establish at the level of the family members are…
BBC. Merkel in child protection plea. 2007. 7 April 2008. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7166094.stm
Clemons, Steven. "Koizumi Needs Fiscal Shot to Ring Round the World, New America Foundation. Daily Yomiuri." New American Foundation. 2002. 7 Apr 2008. http://www.newamerica.net/publications/articles/2002/koizumi_needs_fiscal_shot_to_ring_round_the_world
Deutche Welle. German Standard of Living in Decline. 2004. 7 April 2008. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,1305105,00.html
Goodman, Roger. Children of the Japanese State: The Changing Role of Child Protection Institutions in Contemporary Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).
The eligious Theory
The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church,…
Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.). (1987). Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Innaiah, N. (2003, Summer). Child abuse by religions: Children must be rescued from religion and restored to humanity. Free Inquiry, 23, 47+.
Morales, a. (1998, September). Seeking a cure for child abuse. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 127, 34+.
Newberger, C.M. (1987). Chapter 10 Time, place, and parental awareness: a cognitive-developmental perspective on family adaptation and parental care. In Child Abuse and Neglect Biosocial Dimensions, Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.) (pp. 233-251). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
hat is the biggest problem in constructing a theoretical justification for the idea of human rights? Be as precise as possible, and try to show how this problem plagues at least two theories. (These two theories would be relativism and universalism.)
Relativism vs. universalism. Since the very beginning of the idea of 'universal' organizations that transcended national borders came into being, this debate has plagued theorists of international human rights. Human rights have, in classical estern philosophy, been "held to be universal in the sense that all people have and should enjoy them, and to be independent in the sense that they exist and are available as standards of justification and criticism whether or not they are recognized and implemented by the legal system or officials of a country." (Nickel, 1992:561-2) Furthermore, the world is growing 'smaller,' or 'flatter' with the advent of the globalization of the world…
Ayton-Shenker, Diana. (1995) "The Challenge of Human Rights and Cultural Diversity." United Nations Background Note. Published by the United Nations Department of Public Information. Retrieved 5 Jun 2005 at DPI/1627/HR -- March 1995 http://www.un.org/rights/dpi1627e.htm
Fagan, Andrew. (2004) "Human Rights." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 5 Jun 2005 at http://www.iep.utm.edu/h/hum-rts.htm#source
Nathan, Andrew J. (1997) "Cultural Values and Relativism:
The Example of Women's Rights." Viewpoints. Retrieved 5 Jun 2005 at http://www.aasianst.org/Viewpoints/Nathan.htm
Psychology and Culture
Lynn's parenting of her son takes an authoritarian approach to child-rearing. In her culture, parental authority is rarely questioned. Not only would she find support in her family, but she would also find support for her parenting decisions in the community and in the Cambodian interpretation of the Buddhist religion. One of the parenting practices that is acceptable in her culture is the use of physical punishment for children. Children are expected to be obedient in her culture and to listen, without argument, when a parent gives instructions. This obedience is part of the authoritarian approach to parenting. In addition, it is clear that she expects the child to conform to her standards. Despite the fact that the child was having a difficult day, she decided to go to the mall, which is reflective of the attitude that children should be obedient.
I think that this question…
Community and Social Justice
Since the establishment of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), it has continued to be engaged with human rights as proven by the struggle for decolonization, self-determination, and independence of the African continent. Embodied with this, obviously, is the fact that those fighting and agitating for independence sought human right principles to justify their struggle because colonialism disregarded human rights of the colonized persons. In contrast to the OAU, the African Union (AU) made human rights an explicit component of its obligation as encoded in its Act and human rights in its mainstream programs and activities. However, with no doubt, the current approaches require strengthening with a perspective of creating a holistic, integrated and comprehensive methodology to ensure respect for all human rights.
OAU to AU: An overview
The OAU charter is grounded on the principle of non-interference and state sovereignty. It stipulates the battle for…
Bachir, S. (2009). Individual, Community, and Human Rights: a lesson from Kwasi Wiredu's philosophy of personhood. Transition, Issue 101, 2009, pp. 8-15 (Article) Published by Indiana University Press.
Diagne, S.B. (2010). Islam and open society: Fidelity and movement in the philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Harris, G. (2009). Organization of African Unity. Oxford, England: Clio Press.
Nmehielle, V.O. (2011). The African human rights system: Its laws, practice, and institutions. The Hague [u.a.: Nijhoff.
Holi, Colors speak and people Play!
Indian culture is enriched with traditions, religious ceremonies and festive celebrations. The paper is about historical and religious significance of Holi, a spring celebration which is also referred to as the 'celebration of colors'. However, the event dates back to ancient Hindu religious celebrations. In South Asia, Holi has also gained popularity among non-Hindus. It is majorly celebrated in India, Nepal and other parts of the world wherever Hindu communities reside. The event starts a night before Holi with Holika, which is the bonfire where people gather in masses to dance and sing around the fire. The very next morning Holi is celebrated by playing with colors, singing and dancing. However, there are few symbolic elements prominently observed in Holi carnival. Every single person adorns in complete white, has water gun fight, plays with colors in the shape of dry powder and drinks "Bhang."…
Albers, Josef. Interaction of Color. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975.
Ball, Philip. Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Color. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2001.
Della Vache, Angela and Brian Price. Color: The Film Reader. London: Routledge, 2006.
Gans, H, J. Symbolic ethnicity and symbolic religiosity: towards a comparison of ethnic and religious acculturation. 1994.
Moral relativism seems as polarizing as any individual moral belief, with objectivists insisting that some acts are immoral under all circumstances and relativists pointing to the intrinsic moral value of tolerance. In "Folk Moral elativism," Sarkissian et al. (2011) offers a more nuanced perspective somewhere between the two poles of absolute relativism and objectivism. To help clarify the differences between relativists and objectivists, Sarkissian et al. (2011) present a series of experiments highlighting the psychological tendencies toward either relativism or objectivism. As prior research illustrates, people do tend to be rather objectivist when it comes to making judgments about people from their own social and cultural milieu. Thus, an American person would claim that it is always wrong to steal candy from a baby in the United States. Sarkissian et al. (2011) went beyond the boundaries of prior research to show that people also tend to think in increasingly…
Abu-Lughod, L. (2002). Do Muslim women really need saving? Retrieved online: http://org.uib.no/smi/seminars/Pensum/Abu-Lughod.pdf
Gowans, C. (2008). Moral relativism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-relativism/#RelTol
Sarkissian, et al. (2011). Folk moral relativism. Mind & Language 26(4): 482-505.
Migrant Health Problem
Presently, access to social and health services for most migrants is determined by their legal status. Undocumented migrants have least possible access to health services. Legal status is one of the preconditions for ability involved in receiving adequate care. Further, the availability, acceptability, quality and accessibility of such services is dependent on different influences such as cultural, social, linguistic, structural, gender, geographical and financial factors. From this, different knowledge and beliefs about ill health and healthy status deter migrants from engaging national health services.
Health literacy within such awareness senses entitlements individuals to availability and care services that pose barriers to using similar services (Becker, 2003). The situation also shows dependence on various migrants irrespective of the existing legal or socio-economic statuses. The nature of mobility makes it difficult to establish the available providers of health care service. Temporary and seasonal workers prefer delaying care until there…
Becker, G. (2003). Socioeconomic Status and Dissatisfaction with Health Care among Chronically Ill African-Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 93(5), 742.
Carrasquillo, O., Carrasquillo, A. & Shea, S. (2000). Health Insurance Coverage of Immigrants Living in the United States: Differences by Citizenship Status and Country of Origin. American Journal of Public Health 90 (6): 917 -- 923.
Huang, J., Yu, S. & Ledsky, R. (2006). Health Status and Health Service Access and Use among Children in U.S. Immigrant Families. American Journal of Public Health 96 (4): 634 -- 640.
Okie, S. (2007). Immigrants and Health Care -- At the Intersection of Two broken Systems. The New England Journal of Medicine: 525 -- 529.
solid, sensible approach to philosophical inquiry. All thoughts and opinions are biased according to the person's point-of-view. Perspective shapes everything. Nietzsche affirmed the importance of perspective, which allows post-modern thinkers to realize the importance of ethical relativism. Perspectivism has provided the opportunity to acknowledge other worldviews. However, there are serious and significant limitations to the perspectivist approach and the moral relativism espoused by Nietzsche. For example, relativism has enabled the perpetuation of social injustice based on the notion that some cultures have different values than others. Female genital mutilation is an example of a practice that is harmful and cruel, but which is sometimes justified on the grounds that it is "culturally" relevant. In reality, culture is simply being used as an excuse to create social and political hierarchies. Culture is not valid in and of itself, because culture only provides the means by which to interpret the world.
"Nietzsche's Perspectivism." Retrieved online: http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/alevelphilosophy/data/A2/Nietzsche/NietzschePerspectivism.pdf
Ramberg, B. (2007). Richard Rorty. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rorty/
Wicks, R. (2011). Fredrich Nietzsche. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nietzsche/
Part 2: Discussion
Origination of Chattel Slavery
Traditional slavery, mostly referred to as chattel slavery, is almost certainly the least common among all forms of traditional slavery. In the words of the American Anti-Slavery Group, in Mauritania-where a ban was legally placed on slavery in 1980-about 90,000 dark-skinned Africans were still owned by the Muslim Berber communities. Though the Mauritanian Africans became Moslems over 100 years ago, and the Qur'an prohibits enslaving fellow Moslems, race in Mauritania seems to be a more influential factor than the religious doctrines. The main uses of such chattel slaves were for sex, labor, and breeding, and they were often exchanged for trucks, guns, camels, and money. The offspring of these chattel slaves remain owned by their masters. And even the community of free slaves, a tribute is mostly paid to their former masters, who equally maintain some inheritance rights over their freed slaves' properties (Singh, n.d). In…
Black History Resources Working Group, (1997). Slavery: An Introduction to the African Holocaust, Liverpool.
Ewald, J. (1992). Slavery in Africa and the Slave Trades from Africa: Review Article, American Historical Review, 97 (2): 465-85
Hening, W.W. (l819). The Statutes at Large, Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia from the Frist Session of the Legislature in the Year 1619. 13 volumes. Richmond: W. Gray Printers, 3:252
Hochschild, A. (2005). Bury the Chains, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. P. 64.
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical framework. The consequences of an action are more important than the motivations behind the action or the action itself. An action has "utility" if it serves the greatest good. The basic principle of utilitarianism is creating the greatest good for the greatest number of people, or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. The ethics of utilitarianism differ from ethical egoism in that the individual may make a sacrifice for the common good because it is the aggregate of happiness/goodness that matters, not maximizing individual happiness. Central to utilitarianism is the belief that all people are inherently equal and of equal consideration when making ethical decisions (p. 55). John Stuart Mill outlined the core tenets of utilitarianism, which became a fundamental component of Enlightenment political philosophy. Another utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, proposed a happiness calculus that can be used to more rigorously apply…
MacKinnon, Barbara and Fiala, Andrew. Ethics. 8th edition. Cengage.
n "Some Moral Minima," Lenn Goodman argues things simply wrong. Do Goodman ? Using specific examples, explore challenges Goodman presents relativism. Determine universal moral requirements, defend answer.
Moral minima: Goodman's arguments against relativism
Given the increasing globalization of modern society, combined with the influence of postmodernism, the philosophy of moral relativism has become increasingly popular and accepted within the academy. However, according to Lenn E. Goodman's essay "Some moral minima," some things are 'just wrong.' Goodman writes: "All living beings make claims to life" (Goodman 2010: 88). In other words, to protect the sanctity of human life, sometimes it is necessary to lay down certain absolute ground rules of morality that, regardless of cultural differences, must be obeyed. These include prohibiting: terrorism; hostage taking and child warriors; slavery, polygamy, and incest; and rape and female genital cutting (Goodman 2010: 88).
However, while these ideas may seem like 'no brainers'…
Goodman, Lenn. (2010). Some moral minima. The Good Society, 19 (10): 87-94.
esearch has shown that men and women look for different characteristics when looking for long-term partners. Some research shows that men favor physical variables (attractiveness) more than women (lecture notes). This could be due to an underlying biological impetus to breed with women who have good genes. The fact that many men worldwide reveal a preference for younger partners might also be traceable to biology; younger women are more likely to bear children.
Women might value things like "vocational status, earning potential, expressiveness, kindness, consideration, dependability, and fondness for children," (athus, et al., 2002, cited in lecture notes). The fondness for children preference is linked to biology and psychological necessity as well, as women want mates who will be able to share in the childrearing duties. On the other hand, some men might value traits like "cooking ability, frugality, and youth (athus et al., 2002, cited in lecture notes).…
"Chapter 6: Sexual Violence."
Nunnink, S.E., Goldwaser, G., Afari, N., Nievergelt, M. & Baker, D.G. (2010). The role of emotional numbing in sexual functioning among veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. Military Medicine 175(6).
PBS (2012). Teen Brain. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/teenbrain/view/#rest
By Goodman's analysis, the systematic murder of one million people motivated by the specific intention of genocide is morally worse than the systematic murder of one million and one people selected arbitrarily. The author does not explain why the motivation for unjustified murder is such an important distinction; it would seem that unjustified murder is always wrong and that the scale of victims is always a more accurate measure of that moral offense than the reason or intent behind unjustified murder of innocent people.
Polygamy, Rape, Incest, and Genital Mutilation
Professor Goodman's reasoning about polygamy, rape, incest, and genital mutilation represent his weakest line of reasoning. Specifically, his view of polygamy completely ignores the issue of gender inequality and suggests that polygamy is necessarily harmful to women. The obvious counterargument is that this is only true because of the extent to which women are already objectified and comparatively powerless in…
Western Sexual Mores and Fundamental Beliefs about omantic Love:
Beyond the unfair effect of gender-based differential sexual socialization on sexually liberated women in dating relationships, another component of American social psychology often undermines romantic happiness. Specifically, the many messages about romance and marriage that help shape the American view of love suggest that: (1) sexual desire between couples who love each other is exclusive; (2) sexual desire for others indicates a failure of a relationship (or lack of character or sincerity of one's partner); and (3) sexual jealousy is an indication of romantic love (Branden 2002).
Sexual jealousy is practically universal in romantic love within Western society (Buss 2000), but the fact of the matter is, at least in human beings, it is a learned reaction that is virtually unknown in several known aboriginal societies (Barash & Lipton 2001).
Despite the fact that psychologists consider sexual fidelity a matter of…
Ackerman, D. (1994) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage.
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (2002) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People. New York: Henry Holt.
Branden, N. (2002) the Psychology of Romantic Love.
According to this professional, circumcisions that are competently performed under local anaesthesia cause no more pain or harm than an immunisation injection. Furthermore, male circumcision ahs shown benefits such as the reduction of sexually transmitted infections such as the human pailloma virus, chancroid and syphilis. She also cites studies that indicated a reduced risk of HIV infection in males who have been circumcised.
Indeed, there are quite humane ways to circumcise infants with the minimal amount of stress and pain today. Furthermore, cultural and religious reasons for performing the ritual cannot be discarded. Particularly when done under the correct and most humane possible circumstances, cultural practices should not be prohibited.
Having said this, and considering the issue from all viewpoints, however, the fact remains that infant male circumcision is the removal of part of the human body without the consent of its owner, the child. It carries significant risks, especially…
Bering, J. (2010, Apr. 23). Is male circumcision a humanitarian act? Scientific American: Bering in Mind. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=is-male-circumcision-a-humanitarian-2010-04-23
Hinchley, G. And Patrick, K. (2007, Dec 8). Is Infant Male Circumcision an Abuse of the Rights of the Child? Science Daily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/12/071207120817.htm
Manimale, N. (2010, Mar 15). CDC should not recommend infant male circumcision. The Oracle Online. Retrieved from http://www.usforacle.com/cdc-should-not-recommend-infant-male-circumcision-1.2191240
In fact, African societies strongly rely on these differences that determine gender roles and are the main element which determines differentiation rather than equality as stated in the eclaration. Here, biology is the key to understanding social structure and consequently, gender roles which also vary among representatives of the same gender according to membership in groups.
In Africa, traditions are central to the group which fights to maintain its individuality. The macroeconomic situation of most African countries - with huge percentages of the population of the continent living in conditions of extreme poverty - along with a low level of education (even compared to other developing nations on other continents) are also factors which determine the very slow rate of progress made here. Women are powerless to a great extent. The best example of the power relations that exist in African society are illustrated by a common practice which relies…
Denmark, Florence L., and Karen a. Nielson. "31 United States of America." International Handbook on Gender Roles. Ed. Leonore Loeb Adler. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 452-465. Questia. 28 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59441936 .
New gender roles and attitudes to reduce violence and HIV / AIDS in South Africa." Gender Equality Projects. 2007. SIDA: Swedish International Development Agency. > http://www.sida.se/sida/jsp/sida.jsp?d=1313&a=1420&language=en_US
Welch, Claude E. Protecting Human Rights in Africa: Roles and Strategies of Non-Governmental Organizations. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Questia. 28 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=30323520 .
Social Change Through omen's Sports
Promoting Social Change Through omen's Sports Leadership
The problems that cry out for social change solutions
No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. ar, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.
Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and…
American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from http://www.aauw.org .
Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,
Naeema & Martin, Lorna J. (2005). "Other patients are really in need of medical attention" the quality of health care services for rape survivors in South Africa. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 83(7), 495-502.
Theatrical performances of any kind are uniquely poised to evoke a myriad of audience responses. Unlike many other forms of artistic expression, theatre involves the visual, auditory, and emotional -- in short, a wide range of the human aesthetic experience is evoked in the performance. Thus, especially when the subject matter is of a particular novelty or controversial nature, one can virtually count on a strong aesthetic response in the viewer.
hen one considers the nature of "aesthetics," one must consider not only the "nature" but the "value" of a form of artistic expression (ArtLex, 2005). This means that, philosophically, the human is supposed capable of reading "clues" in the work itself that can allow one to interpret/understand, as well as "judge" the work according to "beauty, taste ... function, nature, ontology, purpose, and so on (ArtLex)." Further, in the postmodern world, a great deal of…
ArtLex. "Aesthetics." Web site. 2005. Retrieved from Web site on February 20, 2005, from
Postmodernism in arsan Shire's Poetry
Born in Kenya, Somali-origin writer arsan Shire pens poems that are an uncompromising depiction of an African outlook. This London-based poet's work emphasizes the continent's culture, challenges, armed conflict, societal beliefs, and other negative issues impacting its people. The majority of Shire's works are a reflection of self-experience, steady testimonies and prayer. She attempts to portray the society, from kids', females', lovers' and migrants' standpoints. Thus, a majority of her poems reflect postmodernism. She aims at presenting a systematic personal outlook using her superior knowledge on societal aspects and values. In this paper, the following three poems composed by Shire -- 'Home', 'Ugly', and 'The letter my mum would have written had she known English' -- will be analyzed for postmodernism and for Shire's representation of Africans.
This is an unusual piece of poetry wherein Shire reveals her fears being a woman in the…
Wars an Shire, 'The letter my mother would have written had she known English." Online. 2012
WarsanShire, Home. Online. Flipped eye London. 2013 https://www.umcnic.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Home-Poem-by-Warsan-Shire.pdf
Warsan Shire, Ugly. Online. Flipped eye. London. 2011 retrieved from http://www.poetryinternationalweb.net/pi/site/poem/item/22839/auto/0/0/Warsan-Shire/UGLY
.....versus that of a general more one, it is without a doubt that the different cultures and societies of the world have evolved a great deal over the millennia. The Christians are a good example. The Christians of the Crusades or Christians of the Church of England are far from being the Christians of today. Similarly, the Muslims of the Crusades or the Muslims that have fought for 1,400 years (and counting) over the successor of Muhammad have in many ways shifted since the day of the prophet, even if many others are still fighting (Hall). One might suggest that this is a natural evolution and that there has been a development of the moral standard over time. However, there is more than one idea to suggest that this could not and should not be the case. First, the fact that women are subjugated, limited and oppressed cannot be dismissed…
Nimeiri also made Islamic law part of the penal code, which included public beatings for consuming alcohol and cutting off hands of people convicted of stealing. All Sudanese nationals, even non-Muslims were subject to this law. Nimeiri was eventually overthrown in a coup, but the Southern-Northern tensions remained, as the government continued to be dominated by Islamic supporters.
Full-fledged civil conflict erupted again, and did not end until July 2002, when the Northern and Islamic-dominated government and the rebel confederation of Southern Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army SPLM/a reached a historic agreement on the role of state and religion and the right of Southern Sudanese tribes to self-determination in a federal system ("Background Note: Sudan," 2007, Bureau of African Affairs).
omen and Development
Because of the violence and war in Sudanese society, coupled with highly traditional fundamentalist and indigenous beliefs about the role of women in society, humiliating women is often…
Alvy, Lisa. (4 Dec 2004)." Violence against women in Sudan reveals common weapon of war." The National Organization of Women (NOW). Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at http://www.now.org/issues/global/120304sudan.html
Background Note: Sudan." (Mar 2007). Bureau of African Affairs. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5424.htm
The Sudan." (2007). World Fact Book. CIA. Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/su.html
Sudan Fact Sheet: Status of women." (2007). WomenforWomen International. Retrieved 29 Jul 2007 at http://www.womenforwomen.org/swsudan.htm
Nonetheless, Lu sees some hope for transgressive representations of Asian women in media, particularly in those films which actively seek to explode stereotypes regarding Asian women not simply by fulfilling the desires of a white, patriarchal society but rather by demonstrating full-fledged, unique characters whose Asian and female identity is only one constituent part of their personality and whose expression is not limited to the roles prescribed for Asian women in American media (24-26).
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian omen." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American omen:
Decolonization, Empowerment, Activism. 1st ed. Omaha, NE: University of Nebraska
Press, 2003. 115-123. Print.
Smith, Andrea. "Sexual Violence as a Tool of Genocide." Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End Press,…
Lu, Lynn. "Critical Visions: The Representation and Resistance of Asian Women." Dragon
Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire. 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: South End
Press, 1999. 184-189. Print.
Mihesuah, David Abbot. "Feminists, Tribalists, or Activists?" Indigenous American Women:
Conflict in DC (Case Study)
Conflict in DC
Conflict in the Democratic epublic of Congo
Background of DC Conflict
The Democratic epublic of Congo (DC), otherwise also known as epublique Democratique du Congo from their French masters and formerly Zaire is a nation situated in Central Africa boasting of a very brief coastline that runs approximately 37 Kms. DC is the third largest country in the entire Africa and stands at 12th position in terns of size in the world scale with 2,345 Square Kms (U.S. Department of State, 2010). It is the eight in the world in terms of population and fourth in Africa with the 71 million populations.
DC is neighbored by Central Africa epublic and Sudan from the northern side, the Atlantic Ocean is on its West, to the south Zambia and Angola border it and wanda, Uganda and Burundi are its neighbors to the East.
Claudia Rodriguez, (2007). Sexual Violence in South Kivu, Congo, Forced Migration
Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://www.vday.org/drcongo/background
Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa, (2011). Democratic
Republic of the Congo. Retrieved February 10, 2011 from http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/drc.htm
Feminist Movement or Organization Challenging Globalization
What are the circumstances / background that gave rise to the movement or organization?
UN Women (UNW) was created in 2010 by the United Nations General Assembly, which also created the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UNEGEEW). Creation of these two bodies was intended to increase the rate at which the UN and its Member States were working towards empowerment of women and addressing gender equality, making this an historic step. The UN itself was undergoing change, with a reform agenda directed to unify mandates and resources in order to achieve a greater impact. The overall UN organization combined four separate older organizations to create UN Women. These were the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women…
Elmendorf, Edward. "UN Women." PEACE In Action. 25 Nov. 2010. Web. .
"Executive Board of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women." (2011): 2-25. Web. .
Huang. "Forms of Feminist Movement in Europe and China." Comparative Study in Cross-cultural and Political Perspective 2005, 1-6. Web.
Origin of the Topic
The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.
Impact on Male and Female Sexuality
Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…
Lewis, Jone Johnson. (1999). Roe v. Wade Supreme Court Decision. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/abortionuslegal/p/roe_v_wade.html
Springhouse Corporation. (1989). Abortion. Professional Guide to Diseases 3rd Edition,