58+ documents containing “female genital mutilation”.
Female Genital Mutilation in Ethiopia: A Human Rights Issue
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common phenomenon in Ethiopia, which has the highest rate of FGM among African countries, despite international and national efforts to eliminate the phenomenon. hy FGM persists despite these efforts to end the practice is an issue that puzzles scholars and activists, particularly because efforts to end FGM have seen some success outside of Ethiopia. Does the practice persist because it is not seen as damaging by people in the culture, which would make it an issue of cultural relativism? Some people suggest that the practice is one that is acceptable within the culture, and that the reaction against it is an example of foreign cultural ideals attempting to change Ethiopians' indigenous culture. On the other hand, one must ask: does the practice persist because of a disregard for women's rights, with FGM being simply another way….
Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. Print.
Althaus, F. "Female Circumcision: Rite of Passage or Violation of Rights?" International
Family Planning Perspectives 23.3 (1997): 130-133. Print.
Still, if one is to employ the ICN Code of Ethics, nurses may collaborate with others to apply "ethical standards in nursing practice, education, management and research." Within this mandate ethical standards would preclude mutilation of any part of the body for any reason, especially under unsanitary conditions by untrained practitioners. (ICN, pp 1-4).
The American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics, Provision 2, states that the nurse's primary commitment is to the patient. Although in addressing the interests of the patient, the nurse must recognize the patient's place in the family or community relationships, in Provision 2.2, the Code identifies types of conflicts of interest for nurses. In such a situation as may exist between a patient, such as a young woman facing FGM, and her family and community, the nurse must examine his or her own personal and professional values, the values and interests of others also responsible….
ANA Center for Ethics and Human Rights, The, (2009). Code of Ethics for Nurses With Interpretive Statements. Reviewed on July 7, 2009 at: http://nursingworld.org/ethics/code/protected_nwcoe813.htm#1.5 .
International Council of Nurses (2006). The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses. Geneva, Switzerland. 1-9. Reviewed July 7, 2009 at: http://www.icn.ch/icncode.pdf .
IRIN (2009). Razor's Edge: The Controversy of Female Genital Mutilation. Film produced by www.irinnews.org/audiofiles/fgm_low.html
National Center for Cultural Competence (2009), Who is the cultural broker? Georgetown University Center for Child & Human Development, Washington, D.C. Reviewed July 9, 2009 at http://www11.georgetown.edu/research/gucchd/nccc/index.html.
Female Genital Mutilation -- a eview and Analysis
How prevalent is the practice of female genital mutilation throughout the world? Why is it done, where is it done, and what are the human rights and morality implications? This paper will examine those questions, and provide information that supplements those issues.
The Literature on Female Genital Mutilation
There are four types of female genital mutilation (FGM), according to an article in the British Journal of Midwifery (Momoh 2004, p. 631): 1) Type 1 is called clitoridectomy, in which the "excision of the clitoral prepuce may also involve the excision of all or part of the clitoris"; 2) Type 2 is the cutting away from the body of the clitoris, but may also involved the excision of "all or part of the tabia minora"; 3) Type 3 is called infibulation, and it involves "excision of part or all of the external genitalia and the stitching….
Bishop, Jeffrey P. (2004). "Modern Liberalism, Female Circumcision, and the Rationality of Traditions," Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 473-497.
British Journal of Midwifery (2004). "Gender and Daily Life in Ethiopia," pp. 98-99, October.
Contemporary Sexuality (2004). "Mixed News on Female Genital Mutilation," vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 7-8. August.
Dare, F.O., Oboro, V.O., Fadiora, S.O., Orji, E.O., Sule-Odu, A.O., and Olabode, T.O. (2004), "Female Genital Mutilation: An Analysis of 522 Cases in South-Western Nigeria," Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 281-283.
Female Genital Mutilation, also known as female circumcision is a practice largely in some African countries and is a process where young girls (and sometimes women) have their clitoris removed through unsafe surgical procedures. The procedure is usually done by someone with no medical training and no type of anesthesia is used. As a result, many of the young girls go into shock from the severe which often leads to death. Infection is also a threat since the instruments used to perform the procedure have not been sterilized. It is believed that this practiced is done for religious purposes, but many consider it barbaric. Those living in America, Europe and other countries do not understand the reasoning behind this practice and many have sought to abolish it, but different cultures have very different practices and what is considered barbaric to one culture may be considered normal to another.
According to Ball,….
Ball, T. "Female Genital Mutilation." Nursing Standard 23.5 (2008): 43-47.
Jaeger, Fabienne, Caflisch, Marianne, and Hohfeld, Patrick. "Female genital mutilation and its prevention: a challenge for pediatricians." European Journal of Pediatrics
168 (2009): 27-33.
Kaplan-Marcuson, Adriana, Fernandez del Rio, Natividad, Moreno-Navarro, Juana,
Moreover, the small opening is kept patent by inserting a small piece of wood or matchstick to allow the passage of urine and menstrual blood (Rimsza pp).
Antiseptic powders or pastes, containing herbs, milk, eggs, ashes or dung, which are believed to facilitate healing, may be applied (Female2 pp). The girl is then usually taken to a designated place to recover where, if the mutilation has been carried out as part of an initiation ceremony, traditional teaching is imparted (Female2 pp). For the very financially wealthy, the mutilation procedure may be performed by a qualified doctor in hospital under local or general anaesthetic (Female2 pp).
Female genital mutilation can result in lifelong medical consequences (Hamilton pp). Because the clitoris contains numerous blood vessels, including the dorsal artery, women who have been genitally mutilated risk death from hemorrhaging, according to Dr. Henriette Kouyate, a gynecologist based in Senegal (Hamilton pp). The girls….
Female Genital Cutting. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from Women for Women Web site: http://womenforwomen.org/rarfgc.html
Female1 Genital Mutilation. (1997, April 01). Contemporary Women's Issues
Database. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Female2 Genital Mutilation. Retrieved July 04, 2005 from Amnesty.org Web site: http://www.amnesty.org/ailib/intcam/femgen/fgm1.htm
Instead, it continues to proliferate as a ritual among women and as one study shows, its prevalence resulted to 100 million women being circumcised among societies in Africa and Asia. With its prevalence, gender discrimination occurs as a result, where women are coerced to participate in the said ritual and try to bear the pain of the procedure.
ecause of the health and social repercussions that result from FGM, concern all over the world over its practice has become widespread. Thus, organizations and societies themselves have created techniques to gradually eradicate this harmful ritual while at the same time preserving the cultural meaning that FGM has for the society. An example is "Cutting through words," a program that serves as an alternative for FGM, wherein young women are educated by the female elders, usually their mother or grandmother, about "personal health, reproduction, hygiene, communication skills, self-esteem and dealing with peer….
From a sociological perspective female genital mutilation is a phenomenon that can be understood in terms of the male-orientated and patriarchal structure of the societies in which it occurs. What also has to be taken into account in an analysis of this social and cultural practice is that it persist due to the socialization process in these countries which tend to normalize and legitimize aspect such as female circumcision.
Condemnation of female genital mutilation is increasing from many Western countries and criticism is based on medical and human rights issues. From a different perspective others argue that FGM should be understood and accepted in terms of cultural relativity and the particular structure and makeup of these societies. This relativistic approach is however condemned by many sociologists. As one writer comments, "I find female genital mutilation to be deplorable; it is worse to look the other way in the name of….
Ahlberg B. et al. (2000) Gender masked or self-inflicted pain: female circumcision, eradication and persistence in Central Kenya. African Sociological Review, 4, (1), 2000.pp. 35-54
Dzhantam W. (2005) Views on Female Circumcision: Rite of Passage or Violation of Rights. Retrieved April 30, 2009, from http://www.eportfolio.lagcc.cuny.edu/ePortfolios/Basic/dzhantam.warrenREV/resources/33521.doc
Genital Mutilation. Retrieved April 30, 2009, from http://www.answers.com/topic/genital-modification-and-mutilation
Horsfall S. (2000) FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION AND ASSOCIATED GENDER
According to Amnesty International, the practice of FGM is performed on more than 2,000,000 women out of whom 600,000 are in Africa. (Kalev, 2004, p. 339) arely does FGM simply involve a symbolic small cut on the hood of the clitoris, as it misnomer Female Circuscision would imply. More often it involves clitoridectomy. This is anatomically equivalent to amputation of the penis. Clitoridectomy is often followed by a more drastic procedure termed infibulation, in which the external genitals are completely excised and the labia is sewn together, leaving only a small opening for drainage of menstrual blood and urine. This is later cut open after marriage for sex and birth. (Brant, 1995, p. 284)
FGM is often performed on girls under age 12 without anesthesia using crude tools. There are frequent medical complications, including infection, hemorrhage, and even death. In contrast to male ritual circumcision, two of the consequences of….
Boyle, E.H., & Preves, S.E. (2000). National Politics as International Process: the Case of Anti-Female-Genital-Cutting Laws. Law & Society Review, 34(3), 703-738.
Brant, R. (1995). Case Vignette: Child Abuse or Acceptable Cultural Norms. Ethics & Behavior, 5(3), 283-292
Chavkin, W. & Chesler, E. (Eds.). (2005). Where Human Rights Begin: Health, Sexuality, and Women in the New Millennium. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Eichman, E. (1992, August 3). The Cutting Edge. National Review, 44, 48-59
Female genital mutilation should be stopped Female Genital Mutilation or FGM can be explained as a procedure that is performed or inflicted on women and girls in some developing countries (Klein et al., 2018). FGM entails the altering or cutting of female genitalia. There are many known consequences of inflicting FGM on women including viral and bacterial infections, psychological problems, and obstetrical complications. The FGM topic has been taken up by activists in areas where the practice is rampant. The FGM topic has fundamental societal importance, cultural, significance, and ramifications. In this informative piece, the implications and consequences of FGM are discussed. There have been many efforts put in place to eradicate the FGM vice although certain societal and cultural dynamics have allowed FGM to be deeply rooted in some regions. It is important for more interventions to be instituted in the communities where FGM is practiced as a ritual in….
Plastic surgeons refer to the practice of genital surgery for women as Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS). However disruptive to sexual self-esteem needless genital surgery may be, the procedures can enormously benefit those who suffered from involuntary genital mutilation. A euters press report details the experiences of women from Burkina Faso whose tribal traditions condoned genital mutilation. Far from the mainly benign effects of male circumcision, female genital mutilation can completely diminish the pleasure of sex to the point where intimate encounters may be thoroughly "painful," (Schwarz 2007). Genital mutilation is a form of surgery that diminishes pleasure, and the reconstructive version can help victims regain their interest in sex and renew appreciation for their bodies.
Fitzpatrick, L. (2008). Plastic Surgery Below the Belt. Time. etrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1859937,00.html
Freistag, A. Interview data.
Labiaplasty." etrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.labiaplastysurgeon.com/
Schwarz, N. (2007). BUKINA FASO: Genital Surgery Helps Burkina's Mutilated Women. The….
Fitzpatrick, L. (2008). Plastic Surgery Below the Belt. Time. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1859937,00.html
Freistag, A. Interview data.
Labiaplasty." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://www.labiaplastysurgeon.com/
Schwarz, N. (2007). BURKINA FASO: Genital Surgery Helps Burkina's Mutilated Women. The Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://fgmnetwork.org/news/show_news.php?subaction=showfull&id=1187811902&archive=&template
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The religion of Islam is very misunderstood and pervasively skewed within its true meaning and original intent by extremists in the Islamic society. Never did the prophet intend that the abuses and oppression which today's Muslim women suffer should occur. It is the conclusion of this writer that extremists exist in all religions and these are those who garner the most attention and receive the most press however, those who are moderate and who adhere to the true beliefs and meaning of the Islamic religions receive little attention and little press and even littler in the way of chances to convey the truth of this religion to the world. The abuses and oppression will continue however, it is hopeful that the ignorance surrounding the Muslim religion will eventually lose out to better dissemination of information and to more intelligent reporting backed by diligent investigation of the facts.
Soares, Claire (2009) Delara Darabi: 'Oh Mother, I Can See The Noose'. The Independent UK. 4 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/delara-darabi-oh-mother-i-can-see-the-noose-1678543.html
Zahra, Sadaf (2005) Women in Pakistan -- Victims of the Social and Economic Desecration" In Defense of Marxism. 10 Oct 2005. online available at: http://www.marxist.com/women-pakistan-victims-of-desecration.htm
Ahmed, L. (1993) Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate
Yale University Press, 1993
In most societies, GM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.
Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title of female genital mutilation, understanding what is involved in the process really helps one understand why it is internationally condemned as a violation of human rights. The most drastic type of female genital mutilation is infibulation. A standard infibulation process is as follows:
The amount of tissue removed is extensive. The most extreme form involves the complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, together with the inner surface of the labia majora. The raw edges of the labia majora are brought together to fuse, using thorns, poultices or stitching to hold them in place, and the legs are tied together for 2-6 weeks. The healed scar creates a hood of skin which covers the urethra and part or most of the….
From an international perspective, it is difficult to impose human rights on other people who claim cultural tradition as a basis for a ritual, because that opens up claims of racism and cultural insensitivity, which would also violate human rights. One difficulty is that there is no single international standard for human rights.
On December 10, 1948, the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which outlines basic human rights. Since that time, there have been nine total core international human rights treaties, some of them dealing specificially with children and with gender discrimination. At the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations member nations ratified a prohibition against any type of gender-based discrimination. In addition, the Convention on the Rights of the Child discusses a child's right to be raised by her parents in a family environment without undue governmental interference, but also discusses the child's right to be raised by a best interests standard. Clearly, in the case of something like breast ironing, reconciling the two is impossible. In addition, while these declarations of rights are admirable, they are only enforceable on UN member nations, and have only been enforced in the context of state action. Cameroon has criminalized the practice of breast ironing, so it would be difficult, if not impossible, to suggest that state actors are playing a role in perpetuating the process. That is not to say that some have not suggested that other sexual mutilations, most notably female genital mutilation, be treated and prosecuted as torture, but the international community has not responded positively to those calls.
There is also the problem of accountability. Establishing international human rights standards is a lofty ideal, but there has not been a practical means established to deal with offenses. Of course, there are international human rights tribunals established to try government officials for violations of human rights. Research shows that human rights trials do have a positive impact on the citizens of the country in question and can actually have an ancillary positive impact on neighboring countries. In addition, the United States has taken steps to try to enforce international law in a domestic context. 18 U.S.C.S. 2340A (a) provides that: "Whoever outside the United States commits or attempts to commit torture shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results to any person from conduct prohibited by this subsection,
omen can be affected by experiencing several other misfortunes, from becoming sterile to other horrible medical problems.
The health complications of female genital mutilation are both immediate and delayed and are referred to as the "three feminine sorrows": the sorrows on the day of mutilation or circumcision, the wedding night when the opening must be cut and the birth of the baby when the opening must be enlarged." (Fourcroy)
Most Somali women suffer throughout their lives and they abstain from protesting against circumcision because they believe that it is a vital part of their lives and of Somali tradition.
The women that are circumcised from an early age don't go through physical pains only. One of the most horrible parts of the practice of circumcision is that their own families harm them. Across their lives the women are traumatized by the event and they feel that their relatives had deceived them.
Diriye, Mohamed. "Culture and Customs of Somalia." Greenwood Press, 2001.
Fourcroy, L. Jean. (1999). "Curbside Consultation." Retrieved March 2, 2009 from American Academy of Family Physicians Web site: http://www.aafp.org/afp/990800ap/curbside.html
Goodwin, Jo-Ann & Jones, David. "Barbarity Y in Our Midst." The Daily Mail (London, England), January 3, 2008.
Pecot, Zipporah. (2008). "Female Circumcision Is NOT Islamic." Retrieved March 2, 2009, from Conversant Life Web site: http://www.conversantlife.com/social-issues/female-circumcision-is-not-islamic
Motivations for Pursuing a Career in Medicine
It is in my opinion that people strive and compensate for what they perceive they do not have: one tries to gain strength to overcome his or her weakness. My motivations for pursuing a career in medicine take root from my experience as a young adult in Yemen, my native country. Being an underdeveloped country, we were literally impoverished and not given the proper and basic social services that people should have, especially the women sector. In a country where female genital mutilation is practiced, I became witness to the harsh realities that women have to go through in their attempt to follow the society's norms and traditions, whether it adversely affects their lives and health or not.
Exposure to the needs of the people, especially those who cannot afford medical services provided for by hospitals in my country, made me realize that if….
In addition to that sex tourism occurs in a manner that is generally difficult to legitimately police efficiently. Tourist will come to a country on business and while there they engage the locals in any number of activities.
Economically both sex and romance tourism provides income for the persons engaged in the practice. In Jamaica where the "rent a dread" practice is dominant many young men depend on the largess of foreign women for their successful living. Many also tie their future fortunes to the women falling in love with them and taking them back to Europe or America. In depressed areas sex is a major income earner for persons who have nothing else to trade.
The sex trade in its multiple manifestations provides income for some and pleasure for others. The immediate challenge is that it represents the bankruptcy of the individual and the country when the last resort is….
Sports - Women
Female Genital Mutilation in Ethiopia: A Human Rights Issue Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common phenomenon in Ethiopia, which has the highest rate of FGM among African countries, despite…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Still, if one is to employ the ICN Code of Ethics, nurses may collaborate with others to apply "ethical standards in nursing practice, education, management and research." Within…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Female Genital Mutilation -- a eview and Analysis How prevalent is the practice of female genital mutilation throughout the world? Why is it done, where is it done, and what…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Female Genital Mutilation, also known as female circumcision is a practice largely in some African countries and is a process where young girls (and sometimes women) have their clitoris…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Moreover, the small opening is kept patent by inserting a small piece of wood or matchstick to allow the passage of urine and menstrual blood (Rimsza pp). Antiseptic powders…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Instead, it continues to proliferate as a ritual among women and as one study shows, its prevalence resulted to 100 million women being circumcised among societies in Africa…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
3. Conclusion From a sociological perspective female genital mutilation is a phenomenon that can be understood in terms of the male-orientated and patriarchal structure of the societies in which it…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
According to Amnesty International, the practice of FGM is performed on more than 2,000,000 women out of whom 600,000 are in Africa. (Kalev, 2004, p. 339) arely does…Read Full Paper ❯
Female genital mutilation should be stopped Female Genital Mutilation or FGM can be explained as a procedure that is performed or inflicted on women and girls in some developing countries…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Plastic surgeons refer to the practice of genital surgery for women as Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS). However disruptive to sexual self-esteem needless genital surgery may be, the procedures…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The religion of Islam is very misunderstood and pervasively skewed within its true meaning and original intent by extremists in the Islamic society. Never did the prophet…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
In most societies, GM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation. Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
omen can be affected by experiencing several other misfortunes, from becoming sterile to other horrible medical problems. The health complications of female genital mutilation are both immediate and delayed…Read Full Paper ❯
Motivations for Pursuing a Career in Medicine It is in my opinion that people strive and compensate for what they perceive they do not have: one tries to gain…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
In addition to that sex tourism occurs in a manner that is generally difficult to legitimately police efficiently. Tourist will come to a country on business and while…Read Full Paper ❯