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Earls ruled over an area smaller than a county and were responsible for administering affairs within their appointed area. Their wives were addressed as Countesses.
Still lower in the peerage hierarchy were the Viscounts and Lords. The Viscounts authority was more limited than the Earls but their area of domain has no recognized identity. Lords, meanwhile, were the lowest rank in the peerage. Lords in England possessed minimal administrative authority. The value of being a Lord was in being a member of the peerage and being able to pass such honor on to one's children.
The landed gentry in England consisted of three groups: Baronet, Knights and Esquires. Baronets were unique to England. It was largely an honorary title created by the King to collect monies from landed gentry hoping to increase their prestige. The title could be passed on to one's children.
The next level of peerage, Knights, comprised…
Adonis, Andrew. Marking Aristocracy Work: The peerage and the political system. Oxford: Clarendon, 1993.
Cokayne, George E. The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant. St. Catherine Press, 1959.
Debrett, John. The Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 8th edit. F.C. Rivington, et al., 1812.
This kept strict limits on society and what it could accomplish. In addition, Japan placed extreme importance on the family, with a very strong paternal leader, who was the "law" of the family unit. Thus, the landowners were powerful in society, but in the community, the fathers were the most powerful, and who the family looked to for guidance and understanding. Therefore, complete control did not lie with the feudal lords, and so, society was less constricted, and held on to feudal values longer. In fact, much of modern Japanese society still has roots in the feudal system, such as the continuing importance of the father in Japanese families and society. Writer Scalapino continues, "The element of feudal influence can be seen most clearly in two respects: the feudal system greatly strengthened the hierarchical nature of the family, and also facilitated the integration of the family into larger social-economic units"…
Bloch, Marc. Feudal Society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1961.
Sansom, G.B. Japan: A Short Cultural History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1978.
Scalapino, Robert a. Democracy and the Party Movement in Prewar Japan. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1953.
Origins and Characteristics of the Law and Legal Systems in the U.S.
The Origins and Characteristics of the Law
and Legal Systems in the United States
The origins and characteristics of the law and legal systems of the United States
It is a commonplace observation to state that the Declaration of Independence and The Constitution of the U.S. are the origin of and provide the characteristics of the legal systems of the U.S. But in order to truly understand the ideas behind these landmark legal documents one must delve deeper into history. What of the texts that influenced America's Founding Fathers? Most may know that the Magna Charta, the English charter from the year 1215, was an influence. But the English weren't the only influential opinion-makers for revolutionary Americans. The Scottish and the French were too. The Scottish Declaration of Arbroath, for example, has been linked by scholars as an…
1. The Inheritance of Rome, Chris Wickham, (Penguin Books Ltd. 2009)
2. John Adams, by David McCullough, (Simon & Schuster, 2001).
3. Inventing America, by Gary Wills, (1978)
4. The Scottish Invention of America, Democracy and Human Rights, by Robert Munro, et al. (2004, University Press of America.)
mechanics of the mercantilist doctrine from the incipit of the early modern period in Europe, with special focus on the role of the North American colonies in the ritish mercantilist endeavors.
Mercantilism was the leading economical belief system to support the attempts of regimes and great European powers of the 17th century to organize their economic existence. The reasons standing behind mercantilism originated from the need to provide a solid structure for the financial foundation of "the nation-state -- the emerging post-medieval governmental mode that rapidly replaced feudal localism in northern and Western Europe after the mid-fifteenth century" (McCusker, 1996, p. 337), in order to ensure the survival and prosperity of the state. Specifically, nationalism held the promise of political stability and better living prospects for everyone, bringing considerable improvement to the prior era's imbalance.
The majority of early modern Europe countries, starting with Spain, Portugal, and Great ritain, adopted…
Feldmeth, Greg D. "Early British Colonial Trade Regulations" U.S. History Resources. Last modified June 24, 2004. http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html
McCusker, John J.. "British Mercantilist Policies and the American Colonies." In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, edited by Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman, 337-363. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 26 April 1996.
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
Although there are some elements of Napoleon's domestic and foreign policies that would suggest he was extending Enlightenment idealism through his autocratic regime, his coming to power is more accurately framed as marking an end to the French Revolution. Some of the French Revolution's core principles did emerge during Napoleon's rule. For example, Napoleon's legal and judicial reforms offered a more egalitarian model than the ancien regime had due to the doing away with a two-tiered system treating aristocracy and peasantry differently under the law (Lecture Notes, p. 8). Napoleonic law dismantled the feudalism of the ancien regime, and established in its place a code of Enlightenment legal principles (Lecture Notes, p. 8). In spite of the promising legal reforms Napoleon implemented as the supreme leader of France, his rule can be deemed nothing but a dictatorship. The means by which Napoleon seized, maintained, and wielded power were purely…
Ellis, Geoffrey. Napoleon. Essex: Pearson, 1997.
Medieval Western Society, Byzantine Society and Islamic Society
It is the habit of history to study several cultures as if they have developed independently of one another, and entirely different. The results of national and regional pride are evident in the manner in which history is retold, as each civilization builds the future of its own region and develops its own regional differences and standards, each is often studied as if it has developed in a vacuum. Within the primary sources of the foundational societies that encompass the history of today's world there are many differences to be found; yet there is also a clear indication that Early Medieval Western Society, Byzantine Society and Islamic Society all developed within the context of the Ancient Roman Civilization, with all the resulting effects. Additionally, they all developed feudal and manorial institutions in response to internal and external pressures of encroachment. In short…
However, the country recovered well and has improved its GDP considerably in the past decade.
The economic performance of Iceland has been good in recent years, with a growth in GDP over the past decade of 4% per annum, significantly bettering OECD growth over that period. Because of this, per capita GDP has recovered most of the ground lost in a preceding period of sluggish growth, making the country the fifth-wealthiest in the OECD on that benchmark:
Most of the rise in trend growth reflects productivity gains following the implementation of widespread structural reforms, which opened the economy and enhanced competition. Financial-market liberalization and privatization have unleashed entrepreneurial dynamism. Many companies have expanded abroad, and the country now plays a role that belies the small size of its economy. Labor markets have been increasingly opened to foreign participants, helping to reduce labor market tensions. ("Economic survey of Iceland 2006" para.…
Economic Survey of Iceland 2006." April 23, 2007. http://www.oecd.org/document/39/0,2340,en_2649_201185_37217255_1_1_1_1,00.html .
Frank, a.G. Capitalism and underdevelopment in Latin America; historical studies of Chile and Brazil. New York, Monthly Review Press, 1967.
Gilbert, Alan and Josef Gugler. Cities, Poverty, and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Iceland." The CIA World Fact Book. April 24, 2007. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ic.html#Intro.
Sociology Take Home Final
Unequal Power Relationships and Laborers
The unequal power relationship that characterizes many employment relationships is characteristic of industrialized capitalism. Capitalism itself is defined by the manufacturing division of labor, which systematically divides the work of economic production into limited operations. The result is that no one man in the Capitalist system would know how to produce a good from start to finish, destroying the traditional notion of occupations, e.g. artisans or craftsmen.
ecause each worker is only qualified to perform a particular, often narrow, task which creates no value in itself but must be combined with the fruits of other tasks by the Capitalist, the worker is at the mercy of the Capitalist who owns the means of production. The dominant mode of employment arising from the manufacturing division of labor is wage labor. In wage labor, a worker does not work to improve his own…
Adler, William M. Mollie's Job: A Story of Life and Work on the Global Assembly Line. New York: Scribner, 2000. Print.
Appiah, Anthony. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 2006. Print.
Bowe, John. Nobodies: Modern American Slave Labor and the Dark Side of the New Global Economy. New York: Random House, 2007. Print.
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed: On (not) Getting by in America. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2001. Print.
policies that UK government could implement or change current policies to aid social mobility.
Starting during the era of the late Margaret Thatcher's rule and proceeding into present day, the United Kingdom has struggled with the startling realities of socioeconomic inequality. In particular, far too many Britons have struggled with the incapacity to remove themselves from suffocating economic circumstances. This is all too common a reality in former industrial hubs now blighted by empty factories and unemployment. However, one policy that could significantly improve social mobility for Britons is emerging from the office of the Deputy Prime Minister.
The source provided by the Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg (2012) refers to a program called "Opening Doors, Breaking Barriers." This strategy recognizes that so many factors impacting an individual during childhood, early adulthood and family planning can have an impact on social status in perpetuity. This is why the initiative in…
Clegg, N. (2012). Opening Doors, Breaking Barriers: A Strategy for Social Mobility. Deputy Prime Minister.
Countries Quest. (2012). People and Society, Social Structure. Countriesquest.com.
The Empire was really a large number of conquests, held together based on military alliances. This fact would actually come to be one of the reasons for the Incan downfall. The Incans had a rather sophisticated government, broken up into govered territories and an orderly kingdom, a system of mathematics, advanced pottery and textile expertise, and stone temples that were so expertly constructed that even today (without mortar) many are still standing.
Part 3 -- Challenges of the landscape of the Incan territory -- the basic challenge of the Incan landscape was that they settled in a mountainous terrain, not really very good for farming. They created terraces that took advantage of what little good soil their was, used irrigation, and developed the potato as their basic food crop. In addition, they had a vast transportation network based on human runners. This helped keep the empire more cohesive.
In its most basic sense, this treaty abolished the age-old practice of electing a king of the Romans, a reference to the Holy Roman Empire; it gave France the geographical areas of Verdun, Alsace, Metz and a portion of Strasburg; Sweden was given West Pomerania, Stettin, Wismar and Bremen, known as bishoprics but now part of northern Germany; Bavaria retained the Upper Palatinate and all electoral titles, and Saxony retained Lusatia. Also, Spain was forced to fully recognize the United Provinces as a sovereign nation-state. Overall, the Treaty of Westphalia turned Europe into a conglomerate of separate political and economic nation-states that were only partially dependent on each other; the treaty also made it possible for mercantilism to spread throughout Europe, thus creating the foundation for many more years of conflict and war. In addition, this treaty also brought an end to the Eighty Years War between Spain and the…
" (Pettersson, 2006) Oral and written verbal art languages are both used for the purpose of information communication as well as information presentation with the reader and listener receiving an invitation to consider the information.
The Narrative & the Symbolic
The work of Abiola Irele (2001) entitled: "The African Imagination: Literature in Africa & the lack Diaspora" states that Hampate a "...incorporates the essential feature of the oral narrative at significant points in his work in order to reflect their appropriateness to situations and for special effects. Their conjunction with the narrative procedures sanctioned by the Western model thus enlarges their scope and give them an unusual resonance. At the same time, although he writes with conscious reference to this Western model, he does not feel so constrained by the framework of its conventions that he is unable to go beyond its limitations. His departures from the established codes of…
Aggarwal, Kusum. Amadou Hampate Ba et l'africanisme. De la recherche anthropologique a l'exercice de la fonction auctoriale. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1999.
Dielika Diallo "Hampate Ba: the great conciliator." UNESCO Courier. FindArticles.com. 30 Sep, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1992_Jan/ai_11921818/ . UNESCO 1992. Online available at:
Dark Age and the Archaic Age
Having watched the lectures for the prior learning unit on video, I was prepared to enjoy the video lecture presentation for this learning unit. I previously found the presentation of lectures in the video format to be very convenient because I could observe at my own pace, rewind if I missed part of the lecture, have flexibility about when I was viewing the lecture, and not be distracted by the behavior or questions of other students. I acknowledged that there were some negatives to the video-learning environment, such as missing out on the organic and natural question and answers that develop in a live classroom setting, but had decided that missing those was an acceptable trade-off given the other benefits that I was receiving from the video lecture environment. Therefore, I was surprised to find that I did not enjoy the video lectures for…
components of the situation.
The few most important components of the case consist of:
Burns & McAllister's reputation as an equal opportunity employer
B&M's expanding business in other nations where culture doesn't support women in management
Company's compliance with cultural values and norms of other countries instead of applying equal opportunity employment policy universally
NOW's opposition that companies should not accept cultural norms of other nations but instead but allow women to prosper the same way everywhere
NOW believes this is the only way change can be introduced everywhere
Define exactly the problems and/or issues that are involved. (esearch)
We understand that BM is not talking about western countries when it says that some of the countries where it does business do not allow women at senior positions. We know they are talking about Asian countries especially countries like Japan and China which are still far behind western countries…
Korabik, K. (1993). Managerial Women in the People's Republic of China. International Studies of Management & Organization. Volume: 23. Issue: 4. P. 47+.
Summerfield, G. ( 1994). Effects of the Changing Employment Situation on Urban Chinese Women. Review of Social Economy. Volume: 52. Issue: 1. P. 40+.
Crosby, F. Stockdale, M. (2007) Sex discrimination in the workplace: multidisciplinary perspectives. Wiley-Blackwell.
Any one who tried to gain enough power and wealth would be considered a threat to the power of the church and was therefore quickly deposed of their wealth.
Weber proposed that even though Catholics tolerated a greater display of outward wealth, Protestant doctrines asked the followers to concentrate on mundane pursuits. It also asks its followers to accept a lower station in life without a hierarchical structure to force the issue. There were no examples of upward mobility or examples of extravagance to follow. The Protestant faith in promoted a pride in one's work and the "work and Save" ethic. The members were self-motivated, not forced into submission by the Church. This was a key difference between these two philosophies. Weber claimed that this attitude was much more productive than the Catholic idea of wealth attainment. The Calvinists had a word which meant ones calling, or duty on earth.…
Ashley, D. And Orenstein, D. 1995. Sociological Theory: Classical Statements, third edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Baechler, J. 1988. The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England
John A. Hall & Michael Mann, Europe and the Rise of Capitalism (Blackwell, 1988).
Bendix, R. 1977 http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0520031946&id=63sC9uaYqQsC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&sig=g-kn8gtBIRvG-ss0I_-BmrBz9YE " Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait. University of California Press.
To some degree, this may be considered a concession to peasants who were largely upset with their station in life as urban areas benefited more significantly from the economic expansion. There is little indication that prosperity was widespread among the peasant classes during the Tokugawa period. Other historical signs point to the real possibility that most farmers suffered during this period.
In fact, much of the economic woes for rural Japan at this time can be traced to developments that were taking place in the cities because of the still feudal organization of Japanese society. The daimyo were lords in the feudal sense; though their holdings varied, agricultural lands -- and taxes on those lands -- formed the basis of their wealth and power. Therefore, when the shogun made it law that each daimyo had to keep up a residence both in their own hometown as well as in Edo,…
Duiker, William J. And Spielvogel, Jackson J. World History Volume I: To 1800. 2nd ed. London: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1998.
Griswold, Susan. "The Triumph of Materialism: The Popular Fiction of 18th-Century Japan." Journal of Popular Culture 29.1 (Summer 1995): 235-245.
Howell, David L. "Territoriality and Collective Identity in Tokugawa Japan." Daedalus 127.3 (Summer 1998): 105-132.
Keogh, Annette. "Oriental Translations: Linguistic Explorations into the Closed Nation of Japan." Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation 45.2 (Summer 2004): 171-191.
Feudalism and Manorialism in Europe and Japan
Europe and Japan together with other parts of the world experienced a period when politics was decentralized. During this period, loyalty was owed to a lord and combat was part of everyday life. Some of the trends that characterized this period include feudalism and manorialism, which manifested differently despite extending across regions. Feudalism and manorialism were two frameworks in which the Japanese and European medieval culture was developed. While feudalism was an economic structure that influenced how land was managed, feudalism was a social structure that was embedded in an exchange of pieces of land for military service. This paper examines how Europe and Japan dealt differently with feudalism and manorialism. The evaluation is conducted on the premise that while trends may extend across geographical regions, they manifest differently as shown in World History. The Basis for European and Japanese Feudalism As previously…
The Golden Bull of 1356 fixed the number and identity of the electors. And while the Empire finally received an orderly method of choosing its sovereigns, the power of these sovereigns had largely passed from the center to the periphery. The old empire existed in name only.
Italy too is part of the story of the German rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. The part of Italy north of the Papal States was an actual part of the Holy Roman Empire, while Sicily, in the extreme south, was at times under the rule of the Emperors. In particular, Frederick II was famed for the glorious, and learned, court he maintained in Sicily. Italy was very strongly affected by political developments North of the Alps. The same divisions between Church and State that plagued the rest of the Empire were prominent in the Italians city states as well. For Italy, like…
Also, because of the lack of land
and the unwillingness for the Nobles to maximize the potential of the land,
instead relying on Muslim traditions and European feudal models,
agriculture was not as prominent. Because a large mercenary military was
needed for protection, there was therefore a need for a great deal of
tribute and taxation to hire and fund the military aspects of the Kingdom
of Jerusalem. Despite these factors which would contribute to a weaker
economy, the Kingdom of Jerusalem was in a tenuous economic position but
was able to prosper, especially in the 12th century, as a result of the
trade and the realization of the potential of trading in the Middle East.
This meant riches for the merchants, colonizers, Europeans, and nobles who
could not only tax those from other places, but bring in new and valuable
products to Europe. Thus trade was improved greatly between…
Br?hier, Louis. "Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1291)." Catholic
Encyclopedia. 2007. New Advent. 28 Apr. 2007
Heidemann, Stefan. "Financing the Tribute to the Kingdom of Jerusalem."
School of Oriental and African Studies (2007). 28 Apr. 2007
William of Occam formulated the principle of Occam's Razor, which held that the simplest theory that matched all the known facts was the correct one. At the University of Paris, Jean Buridan questioned the physics of Aristotle and presaged the modern scientific ideas of Isaac Newton and Galileo concerning gravity, inertia and momentum when he wrote:
...after leaving the arm of the thrower, the projectile would be moved by an impetus given to it by the thrower and would continue to be moved as long as the impetus remained stronger than the resistance, and would be of infinite duration were it not diminished and corrupted by a contrary force resisting it or by something inclining it to a contrary motion (Glick, Livesay and Wallis 107)
Thomas Bradwardine and his colleagues at Oxford University also anticipated Newton and Galileo when they found that a body moving with constant velocity travels distance…
Aristotelian influence predominated together with the wisdom and learning of other ancient writers, while the former was often used as a framework for intellectual debates which readily expanded both philosophy and other areas of knowledge (Grant 127-131). The European university system was established alongside monasteries as centres for the propagation of knowledge. Scholars like Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon wrote about natural science to a growing audience. While Christianity did not recede as a dogmatic cultural system, it was not entirely determinative. Scholars could explore natural phenomena with an openness to past views, although often the learning acquired was purely rational rather than experimental, and was fused with a biblical worldview. In other words, the renaissance of the twelfth century played an integral part in transmitting scientific methodology within a predominantly religious environment that required thinkers to harmonise science with religion.
Other significant achievements took place in less…
This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.
The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…
Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic
Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.
Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.
Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
In that same year as well, Portuguese ships reached China, re-establishing direct trade for the first time since its termination 150 years prior. The Chinese were particularly eager to purchase Spanish silver from the Andes, which the Portuguese provided in exchange for Chinese silk, highly coveted throughout Europe. The Portuguese even went as far as Japan, where they established contact briefly before that country's isolation. Expeditions were also sent to conquer Malacca and explore Borneo in 1511 and 1524.
Odd as it may seem, the Portuguese were the first to establish viceroys to govern over their colonies in India. Beginning under King Manuel I, the Portuguese presence in India was cemented by the appointment of the first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, who governed from 1505-08. His capital was established at Cochin, where he waged wars against a number of Indian rulers for control of commerce in the region. His successor…
Feudalism." Middle Ages.Org. n.d. Middle Ages.Org. 19 October 2008. http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/feudalism.htm
Kreis, Steven. "Renaissance Humanism." 2004. Lectures on Modern European
Intellectual History. 19 October 2008. The History Guide. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/humanism.html
Middle Ages Religion." n.d. Middle Ages. Org. 19 October 2008. Middle Ages.Org. http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/middle-ages-religion.htm
Crusaders were able to implement feudal states throughout their travels during this period of warfare, many of which have been termed Crusader states and which were erected throughout the Holy Land and in parts of Asia Minor as well as Greece. The most famous of these, of course, was the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which took place in 1099 and reigned until its fall in 1291.
Kingdom of Jerusalem
It should be remembered that for the vast duration of the reign of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, European settlers were widely outnumbered by Franks and Muslims, and only comprised approximately 15 to 25% of the entire population (Kedar 148). The Europeans lived in areas which were both rural as well as urban, and despite attempts to integrate with the surrounding foreigners, they did not infiltrate areas which were predominantly Muslim and which had never had many Christian dwellers (Ellenblu…
knight was "a mounted warrior in the service of his liege-lord." Knights were professional soldiers. They were higher in rank in the cavalry. They wore coat of arms that bore the names of their heritage. They carried the colors of their Lords. (Hopkins, 1990) Their job was protecting the lands that belonged to their Lords and by extension the domain of the king. The rise of knights was associated with a martial meritocracy and an eventual aristo-meritocracy. Those knights who won battles for their masters rose through the hierarchical ranks. They were accorded greater power, lands and servants. The raison d' tre for knights was martial supremacy. Fighting was an often occurrence, because the common person could not defend themselves against an invading foe. In time of danger the people fled to the castle. When not engaged in combat, knights would participate in tournaments to win favors, power, and money.…
Bacon, Leonard. The Song of Roland, Dover Thrift Editions. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2002.
Brault, Gerard J. Early Blazon: Heraldic Terminology in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, with Special Reference to Arthurian Literature. Oxford,: Clarendon Press, 1972.
Gies, Frances. The Knight in History. London: R. Hale, 1986.
Hopkins, Andrea. Knights. 1st American ed. New York: Artabras, 1990.
crusades on the west?
Effects of Crusades on the West
For centuries, the Muslims had been attacking and usurping Christian lands. With no real boundaries differentiating territories, it was impossible to fathom any measure of cordiality to exist between the two
The wars that then raged, The Crusades, as the western world sought to exact revenge have altered the present and the future so much that the effects are being felt even today. According to Edward Gibbon
, a chronicler belonging to the Enlightenment era, the effort would have been better utilized to seek and forge better and peaceful relations with the Muslims. This, according to him and others of his ilk, was highly improbable, because the warmongers would have instead indulged in infighting, instead. According to the eminent historians of the Enlightenment age, the crusaders were instigated by vested interests and were a rather gullible misdirected lot that were…
Phillips, J. The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople. (2005). New York: Penguin.
The Medieval Era. "The Crusades - Long-Term Effects. The Political Effects of the Crusades on Europe." (2014). http://themedievalera.wikispaces.com/The+Crusades+-+Long-Term+Effects
Thomas Madden, "Concise History of the Crusades." Rowman & Littlefield. (1999). http://www.storialibera.it/epoca_medioevale/islam_e_cristianita/crociate/articolo_en.php?id=1820
After the WWII, there was need to bring back peace to Europe in a lasting manner. There was need to bring a halt to international hatred and bring conditions necessary for a lasting peace into being. This was seen to fruition in the 1950s and one of the vehicles towards achieving this was European Union.
The wars that took place un Europe highly ravaged the economy of the country hence there was need to revitalize the economy of the region hence the formation of the EU was not only a political device to forging peace but an economic tool to ensure that the natural resources like coal that are found in abundance in Europe are well utilized to bring the economy of the region to higher levels than even before the war regime (EUOPA, 2011). These were the two major reasons for the formation of the EU apart from the…
EUROPA, (2011). Why the European Union. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from http://europa.eu/abc/12lessons/lesson_1/index_en.htm
Conjecture Corporation, (2011). What is a Nation-State? Retrieved September 14, 2011 from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-nation-state.htm
Global Policy Forum, (2011). What Is a "Nation"? Retrieved September 16, 2011 from http://www.globalpolicy.org/nations-a-states/what-is-a-nation.html
Friedrich Balke, (2007). Restating sovereignty: On America's Regaining the Old Sense of the Political. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from http://www.parrhesiajournal.org/parrhesia03/parrhesia03_balke.pdf
The wanderer, however, is utterly isolated by such suspicions.
It should be clear even from this brief utterance of the wanderer how essential the comitatus was to an individual's sense of identity and the practicalities of day-to-day living during the time in which the poem was written, but "The anderer" illustrates the importance of this relationship to its society on an even deeper. The comitatus was viewed in many ways as emblematic of the way life, history, and the world works, showing the fundamentally different perspective that such a way of life instills. The wanderer reflects on "how ghostly it will be when all the wealth of this world stands waste...ine-halls totter, the lord lies bereft of joy, all the company has fallen, bold men beside the wall" (113). In the proven inevitability of separation from one's lord, the wanderer sees reflected the inevitability of history wiping away all of…
Unknown. "The Wanderer." Greenblatt, Stephen and Abrams, M.H., eds. Norton Anthology of English Literature. 8th Edition. Vol. I. Norton, 2006. 111-113.
Thesis: Without an army and lord, the wanderer of the army is left without a place in society, making the comitatus central to the speaker of the poem.
Political or Social Problem
Racism has been a major social problem in American history going back to the colonial period of the 17th and 18th Centuries, and by no means only in the former slave states of the South. In fact, the condition of blacks in the United States has always been a central social, political and economic problem that resulted in the nation's most destructive war in 1861-65 and in its most important civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. As the moral and spiritual leader of the latter, Martin Luther King's place in American history is well-known: this was the central preoccupation of his life from 1955-68, and he died as a martyr to this cause. Karl Marx was merely a foreign observer of the U.S. Civil ar, but he understood the issues of slavery and racism very well and was an enthusiastic abolitionist and supporter of…
Gilman, S.L. "Karl Marx and the Secret Language of the Jews" in Jessop, Bob (Ed) Karl Marx's Social and Political Thought. Routledge, 1999: 22-41.
King, Martin Luther. "Address to the Thirty-fourth Annual Convention of the National Bar Association, August 20, 1959" in Carson, Clayborne (Ed) The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., Volume V, Threshold of a New Decade, January 1959-December 1960. University of California Press, 2005.
Marx, Karl. "Comments on the North American Events," Die Presse, October 12, 1862 and "The Election Results in the Northern States," Die Presse, November 23, 1862 in Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels, Writings on the U.S. Civil War. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1861/us-civil-war/index.htm
It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.
The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…
Badiru, Adedeji, Triple C. Model of Project Management: Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Oxon: CRC Press, 2008.
"History of Greece." History World. 5 Jun. 2000. 22 March. 2010.
Hyman, Kavett. "Mesopotamia, A Difficult but Interesting Topic." Social studies 70.3 (1979):
The delivery of the deed and the warranties of title are all notions being presented in this chapter.
Chapter 11 discusses notions related to the title assurance, starting with the basic information pertaining to the recording system. The chapters introduces the basic, common law rule, which is that a grantee who was prior in time prevailed over one subsequent in time. The chapter continues by defining the several types of recording acts ("race" statutes, "notice" statutes, "race-notice" statues) and to the process of recordation, as well, as the effects of recordation and the requirements for this process.
The second part of this chapter refers to title registration. This is a process that is separate from the recording system and is currently used only in a couple of states. This type of approach does bring several potential issues, mainly claims of defects in conclusiveness. This is argued both with the defect…
1800-1914 is characterized by the rapid development of capitalist and market relations in both hemispheres of the globe. In the 19th century most of the European states already had a developed system of colonialism in Africa and Asia that was essential for the development of industry, as the colonies became the customers of the metropolitan products produced on the base of raw materials brought from colonies. The struggle for the suppliers of the raw materials was essential during that epoch, because the existence of suppliers would guarantee the prosperity of industrial production and goods exchange.
The development of production and market relations are integral components of each other and with the growing wealth of business, their interests began to penetrate into politics as well, because they have to get the support and ensure their stability and prosperity from the side of government. This was relatively new for the 19th century…
Luther's thought incited anti-Roman sentiment and thought initially in his native Germany. He strongly influenced sympathetic local princes to confiscate church lands and property and to redistribute these. He urged for the end of the practice of granting indulgences. Through his work, 95 Theses, he questioned the worth and truthfulness of indulgences. The Roman Catholic Church "granted" indulgences to absolve one's sin from a "treasury of merits" of the Church. Luther could not accept the clergy's ability to absolve sin and that it was something, which could be bought. He held that there was no biblical basis for indulgences and that the ible should be the sole basis and center of Christian theology. Outside of the ible, the clergy had no sure and valid foundation for their interpretations (Hermansen).
The foremost Reformation figure after Luther and Huldreich Zwingli, a Swiss pastor, was John Calvin, a French Protestant theologian (Microsoft Encarta…
Hermansen, Joel. The European Renaissance and Reformation. AP World History:
Appleton Area School District, 2009. Retrieved on June 5, 2009 from http://www.aasd.k12.wi.us/staff/hermansenjoel/Notes/The%20European%20Renaissance%20and
Microsoft Encarta. Reformation. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia: Microsoft
Corporation, 2009. Retrieved on June 5, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761562628/Reformation.html
In exchange, the words which drive Machiavelli's work are very much a reflection of the groundswell of discontent with the ideological hegemony of the church and the feudal system. Thus, though we regard Machiavelli's contempt for terms of 'good' and 'not good' as inherently permissive to severe violation of the rights and experiences of others, we must also understand it as something of a reaction to such forces as well. The period to which Machiavelli helped reveal the threshold may be "summed up in that broadening of physical and mental horizons known as the Renaissance. The 'humanist' movement in northern Europe enlarged the options for thinking people beyond the ways of thinking, teaching, and explaining the world which had evolved as common property in the Middle Ages." (Cameron, 5) in Machiavelli's work, this accomplishment would be made through a deconstruction of a moral hierarchy designed to retain existing class and…
Cameron, E. (1991). The European Reformation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991
Kant, I. 1785. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Jonathan Bennett.
Garnett, G. & Brutus, S.J. (1994). Vindiciae, Contra Tyrannos. Oxford University Press.
Machiavelli, N. And Bondanella, P. (eds). (1992).
Norman Conquest of England: The Consequences
The Norman Conquest was a crucial event in the history of England. It was the occurrence of this event that led to further developments in the English Monarchy, as well as with regard to the government. It also influenced the English society and the language ultimately giving England a new perspective. There were numerous events that ultimately lead to the conquest of England. It all started off when, King Knute the mighty reined over England and Duke illiam the Bastard was the Duke of Normandy. England and Normandy had good relations before the conquest occurred, as Aethelred the Unready, was married to a Norman princess, and had fled the country seeking protection in Normandy. His son Edward was born and brought up in France and later his son returned to England to conquer the English throne in 1042. Edward was also known as the…
Van Houts, Elisabeth. The Norman conquest of Anglo-Saxon England, History Today, Oct 1996 v46 n10, p: 9
Baugh, Albert C. & Cable, Thomas. A History of the English Language, 3rd. ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Appleton, 1978, p: 35-36
Van Houts, Elisabeth. The Norman Conquest through European Eyes, The English Historical Review, Sep 1995 v110 n438, p: 832
Ward A.W; Waller A.R; Trent W.P; Erskine J; Sherman S.P and Doren C, Van. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia In Eighteen Volumes, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons; Cambridge, England: University Press, 1907-21, p: 15-17
Prior to the 18th century, crops were rotated in a three-year cycle. During the 18th century, a four-year rotation cycle was introduced. The potato and the turnip became some of the most important crops during the 18th century agricultural revolution, because the potato could feed large amounts of people and the turnip could also be used for animal fodder. The greater amount of animal fodder increased farm animal yields. Farm technologies also improved: such as the mechanized seed drill.
The consequences of the 18th century agricultural revolution were tremendous and coincided with the social, political, and economic changes taking places concurrently. Population explosions that fueled the agricultural revolution continued to alter the demographics of Europe and enable larger-scale grassroots movements. Populism gradually began replacing the centuries-long feudal aristocracies and monarchies were toppling. These political changes significantly altered land use policies. Moreover, the population explosion occurred alongside urbanization. Not only did…
Rosner, Lilsa & Theibault, John. A Short History of Europe 1600-1815. M.E. Sharpe, 2000
Whited, Tamara L. Northern Europe. ABC-CLIO, 2005
Individuals can find some sanctuary in the diverse population of urban areas. Unlike small family groups, which enforce social restrictions much tighter, larger urban areas give their inhabitants more freedom to explore diverse paths without fear of judgment or social outcast. More subgroups within a population lead to more individual exploration with fewer worries than lesser populated areas.
Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm
Durkheim, Emile. "hat is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theoryeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html
Emile-Durkheim.com. "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://emile-durkheim.com
Elwell, Frank. The Sociology of Max eber. 1996. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorist/eber/whome.htm
Marx, Karl. "Bourgeoisie and Proletariat." The Communist Manifesto. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://media.pfeiffer.edu/lridener/courses/COMMAN.htmL
Simmel, Georg. The Metropolis and Mental…
Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm
Durkheim, Emile. "What is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/TheoryWeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html
Emile-Durkheim.com. "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://emile-durkheim.com
Elwell, Frank. The Sociology of Max Weber. 1996. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorist/Weber/whome.htm
Politics and Lutheranism
The Reformation was as much a political phenomenon as it was a religious phenomenon. Although the Reformation was guided by common basic beliefs in the individual's capacity for salvation, it proceeded according to the political exigencies required in each country or principality it entered. The Reformation was highly flexible and succeeded for a number of reasons. First, there was no influential, well-heeled organization guiding Lutheranism as there was in Roman Catholicism. Second, Protestantism was less international and more local than Roman Catholicism, which was conducive for the development of local political power. Finally, Lutheran doctrines emphasized a more anti-authoritarian way of thinking which was to precede the Enlightenment.
Lutheranism in Germany
Lutheranism succeeded in Germany largely because of the region's political fragmentation, which offered no centralized authority to negotiate a peaceful sharing of power with the Catholic Church. (Gilbert) The centralized governments in Spain, France, and even…
Lockhart, Paul Douglas (2007). Denmark, 1513-1660. The Rise and Decline of a Renaissance Monarchy. London: Oxford University Press.
Bainton, Ronald H. (1978). Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther. Nashville: Pierce & Smith Co.
Wylie, James A. (2002). The History of Protestantism. Hartland Publications
Gilbert, William. The Reformation in Germany and Scandinavia, Chapter 12: Renaissance and Reformation. Available at http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/gilbert/12.html
Alexis de Tocqueville was an aristocratic young Frenchman with vaguely liberal sentiments who wondered if the new democracy in the United States had any ideas that could be applied to France and other European countries. His real audience was therefore the middle and upper classes in Europe, although his book never became a popular classic or standard university text there like it did in the United States. Indeed, few people in Europe today have probably ever read it, while the book is still being discussed widely in the U.S. 180 years later. Tocqueville was very mindful of the fact that the French Revolution had failed and ended up in the dictatorship of Napoleon, following by the restoration of the absolutist Bourbon monarchy after 1815. In 1830, a year before Tocqueville came to America, the last of these had been overthrown but democracy was still a new and uncertain form…
life of Martin Luder (Luther) and how he discovered the truth behind the Church of Rome and its corruption. It also looks at the way he helped the German people during the revolt of 1525.
Bibliography cites five sources APA format.
Religion throughout the years has had many preachers and evangelists who have talked and called for a new wave in the way many have come to follow Christ, for example many years ago the famous evangelical churches of England and Canada were stating that the Holy spirit was coming like a tidal wave, yet few turned to Christ.
ith there methods being somewhat questionable and with the lack on evangelical attitudes what is their left for the church to argue and what ammunition or work can they utilize to provide a positive attitude for members of the church. Today the view of the church and how it…
Wiles Maurice,; (1974). 'The Remaking of Christian Doctrine, The Hulsean Lectures, 1973', London: SCM Press
Metzger, B. (1992).'The Text of the New Testament; Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration', (3rd ed). New York, Oxford University Press;
Radford, B (2002) Luther [online] accessed at http://home.inforamp.net/~radfordr/1550d.html
Just War" Theory
The idea of a 'just war' is a conundrum. How can one group of people consider their actions 'right' or 'just' to apply military force against an another group. When can one group's actions, which will create devastation, economic difficulty, and death to thousands of people, be considered 'right?' In a civilized society, the concept of a 'just war' has become the centerpiece of many discussions, and has acted as a gate keeper, restraining hawkish tendencies of nations who pride themselves in freedom, and individual liberty. In order for a nation to engage in an activity which creates harm for another group, there must be a justifiable reason.
Just-war theory deals with the justification of how wars are fought, and attempts to give answers for why. Often the justification is based in either theoretical (ethical arguments) or in long standing historical hostilities between peoples. The theoretical aspect…
Arner, L. History Lessons from the End of Time: Gower and the English Rising of 1381. CLIO, Vol. 31, 2002
Augustine, The City of God (New York: Random House, 1950), Books 1, 3, and 4.
Holy Bible, King James Editions. Philadephia: WW Kirkbride and Co.1969.
Mosely, Alex. Just War Theory. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 30 March 2004. Website: http://www.iep.utm.edu/j/justwar.htm
Immanuel Wallerstein was born in 1930. he received his BA from Columbia in 1951, his MA in 1954 and his PhD is 1959. He has also received honorary doctoral degrees from place like the university of Paris, The National University in Mexico, and the University of Brussels, just to name a few. He has been published extensively and since 1976, has been a Distinguished Professor of Sociology, Binghamton University (SUNY), and the Director of the Fernand Braudel Center for the Study of Economics, Historical Systems, and Civilizations. His dissertation title was "Road to independence, Ghana and the Ivory Coast." His early interests lied in the strugglers in Africa for independence, however, a look at his published work shows that his focus gradually widened to include social justice worldwide. Utopistics is a short book, only about 90 pages. However, in that short period, he lays out what has happened, what is…
Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…
Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth
Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.
Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.
Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961
While it was generally agreed that the increase in prices was due mainly to an insufficient offer as the stock house was limited, opinions have also been forwarded according to which the buy-to-let purchases have contributed to the inflation of the house prices (Property Mark).
The debate concerning the reasons for the massive price increases for residential properties (materialized mostly between 1996 and 2005) is however still ongoing. On the one hand, there are the property bulls, who argue that the increase in the prices of residential builds is the result of natural processes of economic growth and development. In other words, they state that the increase in prices was the natural reaction to higher levels of employment, economic stability and lower interest rates. On the other hand however, sit the property bears, who claim that the increase in property prices is not linked to any economic processes, but is…
Billington, I., 2010, 2011 set to be slow year for U.K. market, the Source, http://blogs.wsj.com/source/2010/12/23/2011-set-to-be-slow-year-for-uk-housing-market / last accessed on January 14, 2011
Blackson, S., 2005, the practical guide to total financial freedom, Volume 3, Lulu Press Incorporates, ISBN 1411620569
Blackson, S., 2005, the guide to real estate investing, Lulu Press Incorporated, ISBN 1411623835
Booth, T., 2003, the buy to let guide: how to invest for profit in residential property and manage the letting yourself, 2nd Edition, How't Books, ISBN 1857038649
academic and popular discourse on East Asia, Korea has a long, strong, and unique history. The culture of Korea has evolved over the last several millennia to become one of the world's most distinctive, homogenous, and intact. Being surrounded by large and ambitious neighbors has caused Korea to have a troubled history, evident in the most recent generations with the division between North and South. The division between North and South Korea is the first time the peninsula has been divided since its initial unification in the mid-7th century CE. Until the Korean War, the people of Korea have been bound together by common language, customs, and political culture. No significant minority culture or linguistic group has made Korea its home, and although Korea has been invaded and encroached upon by others, it has also never been an expansionist or imperialistic culture either.
The Korean peninsula has been inhabited since…
Armstrong, C.K. (2015). Korean history and political geography.
Eckert, C.J., Lee, K., et al. (1991). Korea Old and New. Korea Institute, Harvard University Press.
"Hidden Korea," (n.d.). PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/hiddenkorea/history.htm
Nelson, M.N. (1993). The Archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press.
Even with the fact that it was part of the Grand Empire, there were little interactions between Portugal and the French.
The Illyrian provinces were even more disadvantaged because of their connection to France. This area had little to win out of the fact that it had become part of the Grand Empire. However, the taxation system imposed by the French was unbearable. Napoleon's influence in certain countries was not directly proportional with the reputation he had in these respective countries. In spite of the fact that Poland was not necessarily advantaged because of its connection to the French leader, it stood by his side until his last days. One could say that Napoleon awakened a spirit of nationalism in Polish people.
Napoleon is responsible for the fact that the feudal system slowly but surely started to lose authority across Europe. His reforms came in disagreement with the policies supported…
1. Grab, Alexander, Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
2. Popkin, Jeremy D. A History of Modern France, Third Edition. Pearson, 2006.
Grab, Alexander, Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, IX.
He who would attack that state from the outside must have the utmost caution; as long as the prince resides there it can only be wrested from him with the greatest difficulty. (Chapter III)
So, then one must be present and able to seek ambitious gains and if he is not both these things difficulty and likely failure will arise and greater losses that what is gained can be realized. In this goal the Prince appropriately governs the people and thus a civil society is created.
Within Thomas Hobbes, there is a sense of knowing that defines the nature of man, as one that is comprised of five senses and all beyond that must be learned and improved upon by appropriate seeking of knowledge. (Leviathan, Chapters I-XVI) His discussion of state is the determination of a civil society, designed and created to determine the end of warfare and therefore instability…
Aquinas, T. Aquinas: Political Writings
Luther, M. The Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther
More, T. Utopia
Locke, J. Second Treatise on Civil Government
In the beginning, the narrator describes that the house has not yet fallen, but that the decay of the building is so extreme, it is unlikely to remain upright for long. The same is true of the people inside. They live in a kind of living death, waiting for the end to claim them.
The idea of dual life and death culminates in Roderick's sister, whose image in perceived death is one of smiling peace, almost as if still alive. The narrator's comparison of her similarity to her brother can be interpreted both literally and more supernaturally. As Roderick explains, they are twins. It is only however when he believes her to have died that the narrator makes this comparison, indicating a rather more morbid interpretation: she is dead, and he is close to it.
In terms of life and death, reality and the supernatural appear to merge when the…
(Ibid.) As a result, life expectancy in pre-1950 Tibet was thirty-six years; 95% of Tibetans were illiterate and a similar percentage of the population was hereditary serfs and slaves owned by monasteries and nobles. (Hessler, 1999)
In such a back drop, Mao's Communism, which promised the emancipation and rule of the poorest peasants, ought to have been embraced with open arms by the Tibetan peasants. The fact that it took almost a decade, after the initial foray of the Communists into Tibet in 1951, to do so was mainly due to two reasons. The first was the recognition of the special status of Tibet by the Chinese Communist leadership and its slow introduction of social and economic reforms in the region leaving the ruling elite intact; the second was the deep rooted deference for religion among the Tibetans combined with a complete absence of the tradition of class revolt in…
Hessler, P. (1999). "Tibet through Chinese Eyes." The Atlantic Monthly. Volume: 283. Issue: 2.
Lixiong, W. (2002). "Reflections on Tibet." New Left Review. March-April 2002. Retrieved on November 19, 2006 at http://newleftreview.org/A2380
Particularly the Tibetans in exile
The Dali Lama has pursued the "middle way approach" since the 1970s after renouncing independence but seeking "genuine autonomy."
Dutch invasion of razil
In the 17th Century razil found itself the centre of contesting and warring European powers. The Portuguese colonization of razil was followed by the invasion from Holland as well as by French attempts to establish a presence in the country. Historians however describe the Dutch invasion of razil in the 17th century as one of the most damaging, imposing and far-reaching occupations of the country. This was mainly due to the well-organized and well-planned nature of the Dutch intrusion.
The Dutch invasion was an attempt not merely at establishing some fortuitous harbors for trade but was colonization in the true sense of the term. One of the obvious reasons was export of natural resources such as sugar.
The Dutch occupation of razil presents a number of pertinent and important questions that will form the fulcrum of the discussion in this paper. These are - the reasons…
Alden, Dauril, ed. Colonial Roots of Modern Brazil: Papers of the Newberry Library Conference. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.
Alden, Dauril and Warren Dean, eds. Essays concerning the Socioeconomic History of Brazil and Portuguese India. Gainesville, FL: University Presses of Florida, 1977.
Azevedo, Fernando de. Brazilian Culture: An Introduction to the Study of Culture in Brazil. Translated by Crawford, William Rex. New York: Macmillan, 1950.
Barbour, Violet. Capitalism in Amsterdam in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1950.
... In general, the further East one got, the slower new techniques were to spread. Thus there were supply-side reasons for grain exports from preemancipation eastern Europe to stagnate at a level far below what was ecologically possible" (Pomeranz 258). hile there were distinct differences involved in these regions, there were some commonalities as well.
According to Dean, Hann, Overton and hittle (2004), there remains a paucity of studies concerning the role of women and early economic history based on a misperception that women either did not have a role in the wider economy or that women were affected by economic and social change in the same way as men. An early study that challenged these assumptions conducted of women's work in the seventeenth century divided production into three co-existing types:
Domestic industry." This type of work was done exclusively for the use of the family;
Family industry." This type…
Dean, Darron, Andrew Hann, Mark Overton and Jane Whittle. Production and Consumption in English Households, 1600-1750. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Kheng, Cheah Boon. (1994). "Feudalism in Pre-Colonial Malaya: The Past as a Colonial Discourse." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 25(2), 243.
Pomeranz, Kenneth. The Great Divergence: Europe, China, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Super, John C. (2002). "Review Essay: Food and History." Journal of Social History, 36(1), 165.
Also, it can cause Americans to turn a blind eye to the abuses of industry. If every American's lot is improved by success, then why, for example, should the laborers in the steel mills see their lives as poorer rather than better because of the success of their capitalist employers?
McElroy's analysis is convincing in light of the fact that unions are far less powerful in America than they are in Europe, and how even today, after America adopted some programs to help the indigent, so many successful American corporations like Wal-Mart are still able to avoid unionization, and celebrate the company's success as a gift to society and its employees, as well as the corporation's founders. It also explains the assumption that achievement as the main determinant of social rank in America, rather than birth. This belief is the result of the American creation of a more socially mobile…
hina's One hild Policy
In the last part of the 20th entury, hina, also known as the "sleeping giant," has transformed itself from a predominantly rural, pre-industrialized society to a political and economic challenger. Since the Maoist Revolution of 1949, also known as the Great Patriotic Revolution, hina has transformed itself from a feudal system to one of the world's faster growing economies globally. hina is huge -- in both geography and population. Over the last few decades it has experienced unprecedented economic growth with an average GDP of well over 10%. Even though the actual per capita income is still within the lower-middle category of global statistics, hina still remains the third largest economy in the world. Modern hina participates with a major role in the global economy, and organizations within the developed world take hina quite seriously. hina's own view of her economy is "Socialism with hinese haracteristics,"…
Chinese Government. (2010). Official Web Portal. Information. Retrieved from:
Fong, V. (2004). Only Hope: Coming of Age Under China's One-Child Policy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…
"REVIEW & OUTLOOK (Editorial, b) -- Asides: Tilting with the Arc." Wall Street Journal: 1. Sep 04, 1987. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Doss, Erika. "Public Art Controversy: Cultural Expression and Civic Debate," Americans for the Arts, October 2006. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
Drescher, Timothy. "The Harsh Reality: Billboard Subversion and Graffiti," Wall Power, Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
Fleming, Ronald Lee. "Public Art for the Public." Public Interest.159 (2005): 55-76. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
eign of Terror
Historians have marked the French evolution with several interesting and unusual events. A specific time period during the French evolutio is called as "The eign of Terror." This began on September 5, 1793 and ended on July 27, 1794. This can be best explained in these words: Storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 signaled the beginning of the French evolution. Within three years, the king was executed, and the following year a revolutionary tribunal was established to judge "enemies of the people" (Henty 02). During the French evolution, the Convention didn't establish a democracy; instead they established a war dictatorship. The government's radical takeover was to create a epublic and this was then called as "eign of Terror." The Committee of General Security, the Committee of Public Safety and several other agencies controlled it. One of those agencies was the evolutionary Tribunal. The…
Andress, David. The Terror: The Merciless War for Freedom in Revolutionary France. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006. Print.
Henty, George. In the Reign of Terror: A Story of French Revolution. New York: Dover Publications, 2008. Print.
Reign of Terror. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 28 May. 2012. < >.
Harvard Professor of History and Economics David S. Landes states in his book that that no has the simple answer as to why some nations are very rich and some are very poor today, he nevertheless argues that the West has been way ahead of the East in progress and success. He categorically points to England as the first country in world history to develop and this happened in the 18th century. Because of this, he writes that Europe (or England) shows how a nation can succeed. The book is a direct negation of the concept of multiculturalism in declaring that even the Chinese and Islamic civilizations' great scientific and technological advancements could not continue to progress as Europe has. He attests to a European miracle in earlier centuries.
Landex compares the development of the West and the East to show how the West won and has led. He uses…
Fathom Knowledge Network. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, 2002
Gray, Christopher M. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, a book review. Orbis, 1998
Landes, David S. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. New York, USA W.W. Norton, 1998
Terkel, Working (Organizational Behavior)
The interview subjects in Studs Terkel's book Working run the gamut from farm wife to university professor, but all are able to be articulate about what it is that they do for a living. However, some basic patterns emerge upon examination of a representative sample of Terkel's interviews. The first thing to note is the relationship of education to work: in some sense, these people are all concerned with how their education did or did not prepare them for the work that they do. A second point to note is the sense of institutional difficulty, in how the individual relates to the larger structures of the workplace -- this can take the form of labor organizations like labor, or the corporations, or even competitors. The final thing that is worth noting in Terkel's interviews is whether or not the individual feels dehumanized or alienated from the…
Terkel, S. (1974) Working. New York: The New Press.
Pierce Walker. Farmer. p3.
Roberto Acuna, Farm Worker / Union Organizer, p7.
Countries are very much representative of human nature. If you were to examine a microcosm of a nation at its basic level, it would be a local community or neighborhood. The people who live in the same community usually tend to share similar economic levels and cultural attitudes. Neighbors also influence the behaviors of each other. For example, affluent neighborhoods tend to have good school systems, active kids (as in after school programs), and involved parents. To a certain degree, these things are expected. This notion is applicable to the nations of China, Korea, and Japan. This paper will examine similarities and differences between these counties in a historical context. China and Japan were traditional societies that responded differently to the external stimuli of foreign relations. Korea is also similar in this regard but their foreign invaders were Japanese not estern imperialists. All three nations also suffered under…
Cumings, Bruce. "We look at it and see ourselves." London Review of Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. .
Hedges, Frank. "Japan is Speeding Korean Education." New York Times [New York City ] 6 Aug. 1939: 12. Print.
Takaki, Ronald T.. Strangers from a different shore: a history of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little, Brown, 1989. Print.
Thomson, James Claude, Peter W. Stanley, and John Curtis Perry.Sentimental imperialists: the American experience in East Asia. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. Print.
imilarly, the phases of the image evolves from art reflecting basic reality, through three progressive stages that culminate in art that has no relation to reality at all. The same happens with utopian and science fiction writing. The first stage requires no such writing, as the world is viewed as utopian in its current state. The second stage recognizes the world as imperfect, and compensates for this by means of romantic dreams (Mann). The third stage revolves around technological dreams such as robots and machines, while the final stage once again culminates in an end to science fiction: the hyperreal absorbs science fiction into a new genre related to the Internet and other types of mass media.
There are many examples of the hyperreal in the modern media. Perhaps the most striking of these is entertainment centers such as Disney World. These worlds are presented as reality to visitors, who…
Benjamin, Walter. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." 1936.
Kazis, Richard. "Benjamin's age of mechanical reproduction." Jump Cut, no. 15, 1977. http://web.bentley.edu/empl/c/rcrooks/toolbox/common_knowledge/general_communication/benjamin.html
Mann, Doug. "Jean Baudrillard: A Very Short Introduction." 2009. http://publish.uwo.ca/~dmann/baudrillard1.htm