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We have over 128 essays for "Fiber Optics"

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Fiber Optic Technologies Are Typically

Words: 2207 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17546034

FDDI's emergence as a networking interface standard is assured given its adoption across both Token ing and TCP/IP-based networks and heterogeneous LANs that rely in large part on Fiber Optic cabling to ensure the highest level of performance possible.

Summary

Fiber optic cablings' unique set of advantages makes this specific type of connectivity solution ideal for high bandwidth requirements of LANs and WANs that transmit voice and data as the majority of their traffic. It departments that choose to implement Fiber Optics as their backbone cabling standard often include a series of repeaters to ensure the signals sent are strengthened before they reach their destination system. The development of cabling techniques for allowing for synchronous communication is also significantly changing how fiber optic cabling is used.

The role of fiber optic cabling in the creation of networks is clearly seen in the context of the OSI Model. The Data Link…… [Read More]

References

ARC Electronics, (2007). BRIEF OVER VIEW of FIBER OPTIC CABLE ADVANTAGES OVER COPPER. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from Arc Electronics Web site:  http://www.arcelect.com/fibercable.htm 

Barry, S, & Jones, J (2004). Hardware and the OSI Model for the CCNA Exam. CCNA Exam Cram Book, 1, Retrieved October 10, 2007, at  http://www.examcram2.com/articles/article.asp?p=169517&rl=1 .

Webopedia (2007). What is fiber optics?. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from Webopedia Web site:  http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/fiber_optics.html 

Cisco Systems, (2006). FDDI Documentation. Retrieved October 9, 2007, from Cisco FDDI Documentation Web site:  http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/fddi.htm#wp1020577
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History of Optics

Words: 1816 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32784836

Scientific Principles: "Timeline in Optics"

It is very clear that Optics is the physical science that examines the source and broadcast of light, how it fluctuates, what effects it yields, and other marvels that are connected with this interesting science. Many science nerds may be unaware that there are two divisions of optics. One of those divisions is called the Physical optics. The physical optics is related to the properties and nature of light itself. Also, it is clear that the geometrical optics are what concentrates with the principles leading image-forming assets of mirrors, and lenses, other devices, for example optical data computers.

This "Timeline in Optics" puts the emphasis on important developments and events in the science of optics from prehistory to the start of the 21st century. It likewise consist of associated expansions in other fields (the evolution of processors) and interconnected highpoints in the human worldview.

Concept…… [Read More]

References

Darrigol, O. (2012). A History of Optics from Greek Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1 edition.

Fowles, G.R. (2009). Introduction to Modern Optics (Dover Books on Physics). New York City: Dover Publications; 2 edition.

J.Valasek. (1997). Introduction to Theoretical and Experimental Optics. Journal of Optics, 23(9), 34-45.

S, F.L. (2007). Introduction to Optics. Lansing: Prentice Hall.
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Hiring Decision Sales Manager Important Considerations Before

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5488793

Hiring Decision: Sales Manager

Important Considerations

Before deliberating on the best choice for the aforementioned position, it would be prudent to highlight a number of key aspects in relation to the case. To begin with, it is important to note that the performance of the sales division has not been exceptional in the recent past. The sales manager in this case will therefore be expected to play a critical role towards the successful revival of the division. An individual with some experience and/or knowledge of sales and marketing will therefore be appropriate for the position. The position will also require an individual who is not only knowledgeable but also sophisticated, and articulate especially in matters revolving around fiber optics. In addition to being willing to spend their free time with clients, successful applicants will also be required to travel extensively throughout the week.

Evaluation of Candidates

In the words of…… [Read More]

References

Gitman, L.J. & McDaniel, C.D. (2008). The Future of Business: The Essentials (4th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Sims, R.R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
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Network It Communications Selecting the Type of Cable

Words: 769 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61457875

Network/IT Communications

Selecting the type of cable to be used when developing a LAN from the ground up can be a complex process with many considerations, including issues of functionality and of cost. Twisted pair cables provide a cheaper alternative to other cable types and are also the most flexible type of cable, but they are less secure and are more prone to losses in data integrity than are other standard cable types (Hsieh, 2012). Fiber optic cables provide the best protection against interference and are the most secure cable for use in a network, but the cost can be prohibitive and the heightened performance aspects are not necessary in all applications (Hsieh, 2012). Coaxial cables come in two varieties, thinnet and thicknet, with thinnet being both cheaper and more flexible than twisted pair cables (though still more expensive and less flexible) and also provide a decent amount of security…… [Read More]

References

Bonsor, K. (2012). How satellite radio works. Accessed 9 October 2012.  http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/satellite-radio1.htm 

Hsieh, C. (2012). Network cabling. Accessed 9 October 2012. http://pluto.ksi.edu/~cyh/cis370/ebook/ch02b.htm

Major, M. (2009). Making connections. Accessed 9 October 2012.  http://majormike.us/?p=197 

Rodgers, J. (2008). Wired vs. Wireless: Sometimes There's No Substitute for a Cable. Accessed 9 October 212.  http://www.osnews.com/story/19748/Wired_vs_Wireless:_Sometimes_Theres_No_Substitute_for_a_Cable
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Risk Assessment for Cybertrans Ltd

Words: 2782 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35153313



The diffused infrared configuration however, uses a transmitter that fills a given office space with signals. The signal receiver can then be located anywhere in the office area in order to successfully receive the I signal.

The Spread spectrum LANs

This form of arrangement utilizes the multiple-cell configuration. Each of the cells are appropriately assigned a unique center frequency that lies within a specific band in order to avoid signal interference. This transmission technique makes use of two methods; frequency hopping as well as direct sequence modulation

The Frequency hopping method uses signals that jumps from a given frequency to the other within a specific bandwidth. The transmission unit then "listens" to a give channel and if successfully detects any idle time (a time when no signal is transmitted),then transmits the packet via the full channel bandwidth .In case a channel is deemed "full," the transmitter then "hops" to the…… [Read More]

References

Bruce, WR (2002).Wireless LANs End to End, Ron Gilster (ed.), John Wiley & Sons.

Burell, J (2002) 'Wireless Local Area Networking: Security Assessment and Countermeasures: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks', Dec. 2002, retrieved 22 March

2011, < http://telecom.gmu.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Jim-Burrell-December-2002.pdf>

Cisco (n.d)"Cisco HWIC-AP WLAN Module for Cisco 1800 (Modular), 2800 and 3800."
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Communications in Business Why Should

Words: 578 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61869009

Guided media includes Twisted Pair, Coaxial, and Fiber Optic. Unguided media includes terrestrial microwave, satellite microwave, radio and infrared technologies (Warner, 2008). The security strategies for each class of media must taken into account how each codes, decodes and manages the stream of data across these media types.

For guided media there are several levels of security including access, protocol stability and security, locking data elements and packets, and the use of Cyclic edundancy Checking (CC) for accuracy and authentication of specific access points,. These media also require the use of protocols that can be used for protecting down to the packet level data being transmitted. The reliance on advanced TCP/IP protocols and options is a case in point.

For unguided media the challenges are more significant as these are by nature broadcast technologies. The protocols that these networks transmit must be protected down to the packet and frame level,…… [Read More]

References

Heegaard, P.E., & Wittner, O.J. (2010). Overhead reduction in a distributed path management system. Computer Networks, 54(6), 1019.

Kritzinger, P.S., Krzesinski, a.E., & Teunissen, P. (1980). Incorporating system overhead in queuing network models. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 6(4), 381-390.

Viennot, L., Jacquet, P., & Thomas, H.C. (2004). Analyzing control traffic overhead vs. mobility and data traffic activity in mobile ad-hoc network protocols. Wireless Networks, 10(4), 447-455.

Warner, M. (2008). IP-based centralcasting. Broadcast Engineering, 50(6), 62-n/a.
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System Design Oahu Base Area Network

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41442437

System Design: Oahu Base Area Network

The aim of this paper is to examine and discuss the Navy's decision to build the largest local area network (LAN) connecting the U.S. Pacific Fleet using information-gathering techniques and design methods. The system has the capacity to connect sailors and marines within the 102-million square miles of the Pacific Fleet's command coverage. Moreover it will provide the indispensable access for supplying and training the U.S. Navy. The Oahu Base Area Network (OBAN) will be the largest LAN in the world when all the phases are complete. It was started way back in 1998. It is the supporting network for the six naval commands in the Pearl Harbor, Hawaii area. Phase one has been completed. Other phases have begun in San Diego, the Pacific Northwest and the Pacific Far East, following the original business model (Kaylor, 2000). The uniqueness of this system is in…… [Read More]

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Market Case Analysis for Verizon Fios TV

Words: 2795 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 51919022

market case analysis for Verizon FiOS TV offered by Verizon Communications. The analysis consists of product, pricing, promotional, and distribution strategies which Verizon Communications should follow in order to operate in the industry in the most competitive and profitable way. The analysis of industry and competition is also given as a part of marketing research strategy.

Verizon Communications is one of the leading communication services providers in the World. Its major products and services include Verizon FiOS TV, FiOS Internet, FiOS Digital Voice, set-top box, and receiver sets. This paper presents a marketing analysis for Verizon FiOS TV -- one of the most successful communication services offered by Verizon Communications in the United States and some other countries. Verizon FiOS TV is a high quality fiber optic cable network for home television entertainment. Verizon Communications offers its Verizon FiOS TV in all the major cities and towns of the United…… [Read More]

References

Kotler, P., Brown, L., Burton, S., Deans, K., & Armstrong, G. (2010). Marketing, (8th ed.). U.S.: Prentice-Hall

Kurtz, D.L., MacKenzie, H.F., & Snow, K. (2010). Contemporary Marketing, (2nd ed.). Toronto: Nelson Education

Lamb, C., Hair, J., & McDaniel, C. (2012). Essentials of Marketing, (7th ed.). Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Lancaster, G., & Withey, F. (2007). Marketing Fundamentals, (2nd ed.). U.K: Butterworth-Heinemann
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Designing a Network

Words: 1209 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Corporate Writing Paper #: 42042757

Network equirements

With the acquisition of a newly leased building, UMUC requires a new network. The network includes coverage for the following places: six (6) instructional computer labs, a student computer lab, six (6) various offices, an admission office, library, and five (5) general classrooms. The network should encompass the following devices with respect to location:

Each computer lab should have 22 computers. The network should allocate 21 computers for students and one computer for each instructor. The network should allocate a collective total of 132 computers, given the requirement of six total instructional labs.

The student computer lab requires 31 computers.

The network should allocate one computer for each of the six various offices-six computers in total.

The admission office requires five computers.

The library requires 15 computers, 10 for students and 5 for faculty.

Five individual classrooms each require a computer.

Network IP Addresses

Each device of the…… [Read More]

References

Freudenrich, C. (2015, March 3). How fiber optics work. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from  http://computer.howstuffworks.com/fiber-optichtm 

Geese. (2015, January 1). How to subnet a network. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from http://www.bradreese.com/how-to-subnet-a-network.pdf

Hilton, J. (2015, January 1). Network connections. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from  http://www.geekinspired.com/networking/network-connection-devices/
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Metallic Element Erbium Erbium The

Words: 1105 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41261995

Modern technology however has enabled ion-exchange techniques allowing manufacturers to prepare erbium for commercial purposes (Wiki 1).

There are many commercial and non-commercial purposes for erbium today. Its uses include use as a photographic filter and "as a dopant in fiber optic laser amplifiers" (Wiki 1; Mears et al. 1026). A compound of erbium, "erbium oxide" is often pink in color and has various uses commercially including coloring glass or porcelain products (Wiki 1). Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, technological instruments used to help magnify an optic signal, often incorporate erbium to enhance communication; these fibers may also be used in fiber lasers (Mears et al. 1026).

Electron configuration and different charge states (valence of element with 1 example of existing compound that illustrates each valence state)

As stated previous in its naturally occurring state erbium contains 6 stable isotopes as follows: Er-162, 164, 166, 167, 168 and Er-170 (Wiki 1). In…… [Read More]

References

Abragam, a and Bleaney, B, Electron paramagnetic resonance of transition ions.

Clarendon: Oxford University Press 1970.

Alibaba. "Gold and rare metal suppliers." Alibaba.com. Corporation. Accessed 2, May 2007. http://hongyuan.en.alibaba/com/

Columbia University Press. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. New York:
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Building a Company

Words: 2939 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29496304

planning, assessment and measurement of proposed idea plays the most important role. Steve Jobs, Michael Dell and ill Gates are renowned names for their ideas in computer businesses. ut in fact there is no mystery behind any successful business; just you need is the right procedure and decisions to follow.

Preparing a business model is the first step towards the path of successful business. However, before you start developing model one must estimate whether idea has the potential to return enough value to the business, sponsors, stakeholders and customers. For this purpose, one must do complete research of the target market.

This assignment is based on building a computer company that would supply desktop, PCs, software and hardware parts to the customers. It first requires identification of target market and needs whether there is an opportunity for this business. Develop model and structure your business accordingly; how the hardware and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cisco Systems. (n.d.). Network Essentials For Small Businesses: A Step-by-Step Planning Guide. Cisco Systems.

Global Trade. (2012, Feb 25). Computer Hardware and Peripherals. Retrieved Aug 9, 2012, from GlobalTrade.net:  http://www.globaltrade.net/f/market-research/text/United-Kingdom/Computers-Telecommunications-Internet-Computer-Hardware-and-Peripherals.html
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Diffusion of Innovation Diffusion Research

Words: 3226 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67275597

Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.

Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics

Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses

Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.

UL: http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/world/berlinwallfall.rev.html

Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe

Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the ussian epublic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1972 in Review." (January 1973). UPI.Com.

Retrieved from:  http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1972/1972-Election/12305688736666-2/#title 

Butterworth, T. (May 24, 2007). Fifteen People Who Changed The World. Forbes.

Retrieved from:  http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/23/people-changed-world-tech-07rev_cz_tb_0524changers.html
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Resume Sample for Electrical Supervisor

Words: 903 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Resume Paper #: 65684053

Darren K. Boyer Resume

Electrical Supervisor Job Resume

20619 New Hampshire Ave Phone ***

Torrance, 90502 Email: [email protected]

Electrical Supervisor

A top- performing, enthusiastic, and self -motivated Electrical Supervisor working with civil service, and having extensive supervising experience is seeking for the Electrical Supervising position with an organization poised for growth. Strong expertise in both off-site and on-site electrical supervisions with a track record of meeting a deadline and delivering projects on time.

To utilize my extensive experience and a strong educational background to bring a company to the next level of excellence.

To meet the challenge of technological changes while keeping fiduciary responsibilities as my core value.

Areas of Expertise

• AM, FM, and Microwave Communication Systems.

• Fiber Optic Communication Systems

• Fire Alarm Systems

• programmable logic controller (PLC),

• Traffic Lighting, and Power Distribution Units.

• Problem-solving skills

• Excellent Communication Skills

• Ability to identify,…… [Read More]

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Price-Reduction of Long Haul Fixed-Line

Words: 7630 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 94053546

To avoid repeating negative historical experiences, regulatory regimes need to block the control and domination by networks/platforms. In the report, "Infrastructure and Development: A Critical Appraisal of the Macro Level Literature," Stephane Straub (2007) reported that at times, in some developing companies, "the hope of getting a fixed-line installed is a distant and costly dream" (p. 4). Meantime, the primary option for the individuals waiting for fixed-line telecommunications services would likely be having to us a much too expensive cell phone.

In 2010, much of the fixed-line telecom industry faces growing threats from cable and wireless service competitors.

As the writer of the quote introducing the study section pointed out, more firms are realizing "a cellular wireless solution" generally provides "more stability than the usual wired connections… [and serves as] a valuable asset built for the long haul" ("Lincolnshire Drainage Board…," 2010, ¶ 9). In the book, Integration in Asia…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ahmadnezhad, E. (2009). Research Design Mixed Methods. PPt; Tehran University of Medical

Sciences. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from www.pitt.edu/~super4/36011

37001/36411.ppt

Campbell, D.J. & Craig, T. (2005). Organisations and the business environment. Oxford, UK:
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Submarine Cable Investment There Is an Increasing

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23480328

Submarine Cable Investment

There is an increasing capacity and reliability on submarine cables as they present faster and higher quality connectivity around the globe. At present, one million kilometers of underwater cables have been installed, forming a network to carry large amounts of traffic between all continents (About fiber-optic submarine cable networks, 2005). That is enough cable to go around the world thirty times. The capacity is 320 Gbit/s per fiber, which is enough to transmit more than fifteen million voice circuits simultaneously on a typical underwater cable comprised of four pairs of optical fibers.

The capacity is most important for reducing the cost of long distance communication as a result of; 1) extraordinary capacity of the technology lowering the costs per circuit, 2) the high supply of capacity owing to huge amounts of investment, and 3) the stiff competition between companies using submarine cable networks. All long distance intercontinental…… [Read More]

Bibliography

About fiber-optic submarine cable networks. (2005, June). Retrieved from Info Citel:  http://oas.org/en/citel/infocitel/2005/junio/submarine_i.asp 

Beryl, M. (2010, May 03). Submarine cables promise seemless mobile connectivity. Retrieved from Voice & Data: http://voicendata.ciol.com/content/service_provider/110050315.asp

Sat-e/WASC.SAFE Submarine Cable System. (n.d.). Retrieved from System Information: http://www.safe-sat3,ci, az.SystemInformation/SystemInformation.asp
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Polymers Kevlar

Words: 3282 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48994649

Polymer Analysis (Kevlar)

Brief History of Kevlar Development

In response to innovations in military armaments, the search for improved body armor for military and law enforcement personnel has been the focus of intense research for several decades. One of the resulting products of this research, Kevlar, is the closest humans have come to matching the tensile strength of spider silk is five times stronger per weight than steel and is best known for its use in bulletproof vests (Ehrenfeld, 2000). Kevlar shares something in common with matches, COBOL, antifungal antibiotics, pulsars, vitamin A, Cepheid variable stars, radium, and mobile genes, in that all of these were discovered or invented by women (Brownlow, Jacobi & ogers, 2000). Kevlar was developed at DuPont by a team comprised of Stephanie Kwolek, Herbert Blades, and Paul W. Morgan. In 1978, Kwolek also produced from aramids the first polymeric liquid crystals (Stevens & Kauffman, 2004).…… [Read More]

References

Aftalion, F. (1991). A history of the international chemical industry. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Brandenburg, D.L., Merlo, J.L., Wickens, C.D. & Yeh, M. (2003). Head up vs. head down: The costs of imprecision, unreliability, and visual clutter on cue effectiveness for display signaling. Human Factors, 45(3), 390.

Brownlow, S., Jacobi, T. & Rogers, M. (2000). Science anxiety as a function of gender and experience. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 119.

Challenges and Emerging Issues. (2001, October). Occupational Hazards, 63(10), 27.
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Current Broadband Trends

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 78680819

Broadband

Internet architecture and infrastructure have come a long way since the copper wire dial-up modem. A wave of cable and ADSL has infiltrated most of the world, penetrating into all but the most rural areas in which satellite remains one of the only viable options for getting online. As Comcast Business Class (2012) points out, "Optical fiber has long been in use providing the major long distance wiring that makes up the backbone of the Internet." Although Comcast Business Class (2012) has a vested interest in promoting the use of optical fiber infrastructure, the company's observations are correct. Bandwidth consumption has risen not just due to the growing numbers of consumers around the world demanding content, but also because of the content itself. High -- definition multimedia and other large size file transfers are increasing user bandwidth needs. So too is the potential that cloud computing has opened up…… [Read More]

References

Comcast Business Class (2012). What are the next big trends in broadband? VB. Retrieved online:  http://venturebeat.com/2012/02/15/the-next-big-trends-in-broadband/ 

Lin, J., Dielacher, F., Zhan, J.C. & Payne, R. EP1: Good, bad, ugly -- 20 years of broadband evolution: What's next? Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), 2011 IEEE International. Retrieved online:  http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5746419&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5746419 

Paul, S. (2011). Digital Video Distribution in Broadband, Television, Mobile and Converged Networks: Trends, Challenges and Solutions. John Wiley & Sons.
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National Lambdarail Assumptions for the

Words: 1754 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34501699

(National LambdaRail)

Conclusion

As the NLR seeks to bring diverse research communities together to confront and solve complex challenges "of building network architecture, end-to-end performance, and scaling," (Tash 32-33), the thought presented from Disraeli stressing that a leader must "follow the people," (Smith, and Cohon) aptly portrays the thought this researcher contends best relates the conclusion gained from this study. Just as a leader "follows" and notes the needs of people he/she serves, if NLR notes the needs of those it serves, it will in turn, lead in its field in its quest to "light the future." (National LambdaRail)

orks Cited

National Lambdarail Launches Transit and Peering Project. (2006, April 20) Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Pittsburgh PA. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.psc.edu/publicinfo/news/2006/200604-20nlr.php

NLR National Lambda Rail...light the future." (2008) http://www.nlr.net" National LambdaRail. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.nlr.net/researchers/guide/.

Tash, illiam R. Ph.D. (2006). Evaluating Research Centers and Institutes for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

National Lambdarail Launches Transit and Peering Project. (2006, April 20) Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Pittsburgh PA. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.psc.edu/publicinfo/news/2006/200604-20nlr.php

NLR National Lambda Rail...light the future." (2008)  http://www.nlr.net " National LambdaRail. 10 Feb. 2008
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Security Policy and Risk Strategy

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99200475

The most appropriate products that could be used by MMC to achieve this objective would be: IP San and a Snap Lock. An IP San is a fiber optic channel that can provide secure real time data to each location. Where, software and security applications can be adapted to the current system that is being used. The Snap Lock is: a security software that can be used to provide an effective way for each location to retrieve, update and change information.

Support for why these procedures and products are the optimal approach for this organization

The reason why these different procedures and products were selected was: to reduce the overall risk exposure of the company's external threats. The current system that is being used by MMC increases risks dramatically, by having a number of different systems, where financial information is stored. If any one of these systems is vulnerable, there…… [Read More]

Bibliography

IP San (2010). Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website:  http://www.netapp.com/us/products/protocols/ip-san/ip-san.html 

Snap Lock Compliance and Snap Lock Enterprise Software. (2010). Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website:  http://www.netapp.com/us/products/protection-software/snaplock.html 

Mason, J. (2010). How to Bullet Proof Your DR Plan. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website:  http://www.netapp.com/us/communities/tech-ontap/tot-data-recovery-plan-0908.html
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Customer Loyalty in E-Commerce Outlets

Words: 9393 Length: 34 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6794337

Much marketing research has been done on analysing customer behaviour and retention. As a consequence, it is crucial for online companies to create a loyal customer base, as well as to monitor the profitability of each segment (Reinartz and Kumar, 2002)

Definition of customer e-loyalty

Customer loyalty has been defined as "a deeply held commitment to re-buy or re-patronize a preferred product/service consistently in the future, thereby causing repetitive same-brand or same brand-set purchasing, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behaviour" (Oliver, 1999). This general definition appears to apply to e-loyalty as well. Another briefer and more specific definition is provided by Anderson and Srinivasan (2003), who define e-loyalty as "the customer's favourable attitude toward an electronic business, resulting in repeat purchasing behaviour" (p. ____).

Since it is considered difficult to gain loyal customers on the internet without directly contact (Gommans et al., 2001),…… [Read More]

Bibliography and Reference

Journals

Anderson, R.E. And Srinivasan, S.S. (2003), E-satisfaction and e-loyalty: a contingency framework, Psychology and Marketing, Vol.20 No.2, pp. 123-38

Arregle, J.L., Borza, A., Dacin, M.T., Hitt, M.A., and Levitas, E. (2000), Partner selection in emerging and developed market contexts: Resource-based and organizational learning perspectives. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 449-67. In Everett & Lo, p. 17.

Bailey, Scott and Schultz, D.E. (2000), Customer/brand loyalty in an interactive marketplace. Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 40, No. 3, p. 41.
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Communication Upgrade Plan Communications Upgrade Plan the

Words: 4058 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78456599

Communication Upgrade Plan

Communications Upgrade Plan

The Abco Company wishes to upgrade its telecommunications technology to a system that is more efficient than the outdated Centrex system now in place. As part of the upgrade plan, the CEO has asked for an explanation of the various systems and technologies available for the upgrade. This research explores various technologies and recommends the proper solution for the business problem at hand.

Communications Upgrade Plan

The Centrex phone system has been the standard in business telecommunications since the 1960s. The system has been the only system of this type for many years. usinesses, such as Abco have had their Centrex System for many years. However, aside from being outdated technology, the Centrex System is no longer the most cost effective solution for businesses. The Abco Corporation has had its Centrex system for as long as anyone can remember. Until recently, no one had…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Callahan, R. (2008). Businesses Move to Voice-over-IP. 12 September 2008. Forbes.com.

Retrieved from  http://www.forbes.com/2008/12/09/skype-vonage-ringcentral_leadership_clayton_in_rc_1209claytonchristensen_inl.html 

This article explores the advantages and move towards VoIP in many businesses.

CISCO. (2011). Quality of Service for Voice over IP. Cisco Systems. Retrieved from  http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./docs/ios/solutions_docs/qos_solutions/QoSVoIP/QoSVoIP.html
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Network Design Proposal

Words: 4024 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 86117569

Network Design Proposal

Network equirements

ABC School Stats/User Counts

Having a current strength of approximately 845 students, ABC School provides education from Pre-Kindergarten to the 12th Grade. According to the requirements of The New York School District, 250 Curriculum computers along with 75 Administration computers are to be installed. The requirements for the wiring per room of layer 1 are that it should adjust a total of 25 computers, 24 of which will be used for the curriculum, whereas one will be used for administrative purposes.

WAN Design

The model for the WAN is 2 layers of hierarchy having a total of 3 hubs, one connecting the District Office or the Data Center, one the Service Center, and the remaining one connecting the Black Hawk School. A Frame elay WAN will be responsible for providing the required internet services.

IP Addressing

For all the hosts, interconnection devices, and servers an…… [Read More]

References

ArrowMail. (2011). "Advice on Choosing the best Range of IP Addresses to use on your LAN." Taken from:  http://www.arrowmail.co.uk/articles/iprange.aspx 

Begin Linux. (2010). Network Design for Small Business. Taken from:  http://beginlinux.com/blog/2010/06/network-design-for-a-small-business 

Botsford, C. (2011). Learn To Subnet.com v. 3.2." LearnTCPIP.com. Taken from:  http://www.learntcpip.com/LTSN/default.htm 

Crockett, R. (2003). Network design project Sunnyslope elementary school. WESD Network Design Project Proposal.
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Broadband Internet Service What it Is and

Words: 2921 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63292701

roadband Internet Service: What it Is and Where It's Going

Explanation of roadband

Current State of roadband

The Future of roadband

The current frontier of high speed internet technology and digital communications is broadband. Although it has been available for several years now to both homes and businesses, broadband has not spread as rapidly as some proponents of the technology had hoped or expected, leading to the failure of some companies involved in this business. What is broadband, and what is its future? These are questions that are taking on increasing importance as broadband usage is finally increasing around the world. Of equal importance is which broadband technology will survive and how telecommunications regulations in this country will impact the digital world.

Explanation of roadband

Simply put, broadband is high-speed internet access. roadband allows for the high-speed transmission of large amounts of data. It is expected to revolutionize communications, entertainment,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abe, George. Residential Broadband. Second Edition. Indianapolis: Cisco Press,

Borland, John. "Microsoft Outlines Role in Broadband Future." CNET News.com. 24 July 2001. 1 March 2003.  http://news.com.com/2100-1033-270489.html?legacy=cnet .

Broadband's Bright Future." The Industry Standard. 7 May 2001. 2 March 2003.  http://www.thestandard.com/article/0,1902,23972,00.html?nl=dnt .

Electronic Business. "Broadband's Growth Defies Downturn." Newsedge. 11 January 2003.
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Dayton OH Media Market

Words: 2693 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50724963

Telecommunications Act of 1996 was a high point in the history of telecommunications in the United States. It was coming twelve years after the breakup of AT&T; the Act endeavored to reposition all telecommunications markets in the direction of opposition. The Act imagined antagonism in all telecommunications markets, both in the markets for the numerous elements that included the telecommunications network, along with the final services the network generated. Going on the knowledge of the long distance market, which was distorted from a monopoly to a successfully competitive market over the last twelve years, the Act attempted to endorse opposition in the hitherto dominate local exchange markets. The Act acknowledged the telecommunications network as a network of consistent networks. Telecommunications contributors were obliged to intersect with applicant at any possible point the entrant desires. Most prominently, the Act commanded that current local exchange carriers ("ILECs") lease parts of their network…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Overbey, Jason. (1996) Telecommunication Act of 1996,

October 23,2002. www.telecommunications.com

OET, (2001) OET Telecommunications,.

October, 23, 2002. www.oet.com
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Paradox Marketing

Words: 11968 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 41319963

Paradox Marketing Implementation for Business ustainability in Indonesian Telecommunication Company

The study provides the analysis of paradox marketing strategy implementation for business sustainability for Indonesian telecommunication company using the Telkom as a center of investigation. The research objectives have been achieved and research questions answered using both the primary and secondary research. The secondary data are collected using a comprehensive literature review from various scholarly research articles. Moreover, comprehensive literature review is carried out by collecting data from various research articles from EBCOhost database, cience Direct, Emerald Publication, university libraries, and online academic libraries. The quantitative research is used as a method of data collection using the survey strategy. Comparative analysis carried out between qualitative and quantitative research reveals that quantitative research is more appropriate to complete the thesis because it saves time and is cost effective.

The data collected through primary and secondary research have been used to achieve…… [Read More]

Sources: Guidelines for Authors. AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 109(4): 76 -- 77.

Appendices

Summary of the Results

Strongly Disagree

Disagree
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Business Applications Among Telecommunications Companies

Words: 1203 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 8907914



There are a handful of ways in which Verizon can improve its research program. The typical research process is to use surveys to find out what customers desire and then use exploratory and applied techniques to devise products and services that meet those needs. One drawback to this is that it omits those needs which the customers do not conceive. Customers typically view product improvements in terms of incremental changes to the existing product. They have limited capacity to conceive of entirely new products. In an industry characterized by intense competition and technological leaps, it is precisely those game-changing innovations that win companies market share.

Yet, Verizon seems content to let their partners, such as Research in Motion, take the lead with regards to product innovation. Thus, I would add another vein of exploratory research to Verizon's research mix. They should use a more open-ended exploratory form of research to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Staggs, Lynn & Smith, Jim. (2008)

Verizon completes successful research trial of automated fiber-optic cross connections. Verizon. Retrieved November 14, 2008 at  http://newscenter.verizon.com/press-releases/verizon/2008/verizon-completes-successful.html 

Keitt, TJ & Bortner, Brad. (2008). The Verizon Information Research Network utilizes technology for strategic impact. NorthernLight.com. Retrieved November 14, 2008 at  http://www.northernlight.com/downloads/Forrester%20-%20Verizon%20Information%20Research%20Network%20Utilizes%20Technology%20For%20Strategic%20Impact.pdf 

Lucht, Peter. (2008). Leading market research firm ranks Verizon business as a 'leader' among U.S.-based enterprise providers. Verizon. Retrieved November 14, 2008 at  http://newscenter.verizon.com/press-releases/verizon/2008/leading-market-research-firm.html
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Organizing Function of Management in

Words: 1316 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12988439

Besides, the customer can get a single bill for his Verizon local and Verizon Wireless services by removing headaches and piles of bills. (Wireless)

We shall now discuss the organization function of management as it relates to knowledge. Verizon's presence in the knowledge domain is equally superior. As per a latest report, Southern Illinois University Carbondale will expand its endeavor to bring students, faculty and the community up to speed in the world of e-commerce. Verizon has been funding this venture. Executives representing Verizon and the University declared the $75,000 grant at the SIUC's student Centre. The SIUC's College of Business and Administration will utilize the money to grow the endeavor that started during 1999 with a $50,000 grant from GTE, Verizon's predecessor. The funding for the second phase has been given by the Verizon Foundation that is the philanthropic wing of the company. This fresh grant will back the…… [Read More]

References

Entertainment: TV With real power" Retrieved 8 March, 2007 at http://www22.verizon.com/Residential/Entertainment/

HDTV" Retrieved 8 March, 2007 at  http://www22.verizon.com/content/fiostv/hdtv/hdtv.htm 

Home Media DVR" Retrieved 8 March, 2007 at  http://www22.verizon.com/content/fiostv/dvr/home+media+dvr.htm 

On Demand & PPV" Retrieved 8 March, 2007 at  http://www22.verizon.com/content/fiostv/on+demand+and+ppv/on+demand+and+ppv.htm
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Ten Forces That Flatten the

Words: 2745 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53856468

There, they get the work done their way, with their tools and in their own space, but with much lower costs that in their native country.

Friedman is a firm believer in offshoring and states that such a process is a strong stimulant for fair and international competition. He criticizes the countries that did not yet adopt it saying that all countries should be members of the international market, regardless of their social or economical background.

To explain this idea, the author makes an exaggerated comparison. He says: "Every morning in Africa, a gazelle wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the fastest lion or it will be killed. Every morning a lion wakes up. It knows it must run faster than the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death. It doesn't matter whether you are a lion or a gazelle. When the sun comes up, you…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Thomas L. Friedman, the World is Flat, Chapter two: The Ten Forces that Flatten the World, pages 48 to 172

The Official Web Site of the University of Tennessee, University Libraries, Ready for the World, Thomas Friedman's flatteners, by Martha Rudolph, posted on March 2, 2006  http://www.lib.utk.edu/news/readyfortheworld/archives/the_world_is_flat.html , last accessed on October 5, 2006

James Berry, Review on the book the World is Flat, posted on April 19, 2006  http://www.ada.org/prof/resources/pubs/adanews/adanewsarticle.asp?articleid=1884,last  accessed on October 5, 2006

Howard Rheingold, Seven Ways to See What's Next, winter 2005
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Sprint Corporation 1 Identification of Issues Responsible

Words: 1537 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77237022

Sprint Corporation

(1) Identification of issues responsible for failure of marketing services strategies of Sprint Corp in meeting customer expectations:

Sprint's 4G network offering wireless broadband services Xohm with download speeds in the range of 2 Mbps to 4 Mbps was the first commercial network across USA to use mobile WiMax technology. However because of limited availability of devices that is able to access the network, Sprint was compelled to use conventional broadband and wireless business models. This move brought the company in direct competition with the present broadband services and 3G services and the product offering was not actually satisfying an unmet customer need and hence the prospects of the service remained narrow. (eardon, 2008)

Sprint is targeting customers of existing cable and DSL cable providers with mobility. However with a small range of devices supporting WiMax currently, majority of the people purchasing the service will get similar mobility…… [Read More]

References

Better Trades. (2010) "Communications: Sprint" Retrieved 20 April, 2012 from http://www.better-trades.com/stock-reviews/communications/sprint/1-about.asp

Funding Universe. (2012) "Sprint Corporation" Retrieved 20 April, 2012 from  http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Sprint-Corporation-Company-History.html 

Reardon, Marguerite. (2008) "Sprint's WiMax efforts doomed to failure?" Retrieved 20

April, 2012 from  http://news.cnet.com/8301-1035_3-10056030-94.html
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Business Proposal for Research to Assess How

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26333552

Business

Proposal for esearch to Assess How Optimum May Improve their Market Position

Background to the Firm

The Product

Current problem

In a dynamic commercial environment it is necessary for firms to continually look for ways in which to improve, the aim of this paper is to look at Optimum, and outline an approach for research which will help the firm to identify the way in which it may improve performance and remain competitive. To undertake this, the first stage is to look at the firm and assess its products, current position and nay problems or challenges it faces. Using the problems or challenges an area of research may be identified, with the creation of a purpose statement and assessment of the way research may take place to resolve or minimize those problems.

2.

Background to the Firm

Optimum is a firm operating in the New York tri state area,…… [Read More]

References

Cablevision, (2012), 10k, [online]  http://www.cablevision.com/investor/sec.jsp  accessed 16th Aug 2013

Optimum, (2013), Home Page, [online] www.optimum.com accessed 16th Aug 2013
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Vedantam 2006 Americans Are More Socially Isolated

Words: 8966 Length: 36 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 8258228

Vedantam, 2006), Americans are more socially isolated than they were in 1985, with the number of people with whom they can confide dropping by one third, from three close confidents to two. American is viewed as a fragmented society with splinters of people growing ever more distant with regard to intimate social ties. Despite the benefits of close social connections, people report being alone, feeling alone, and suffering alone in bad times.

The ability of digital social networks to support substantive civic engagement is more than a test of the media's capacity to convey and renew civic engagement -- it is also a test of the transformative capacity of social networks with regard to sustained interest and action. A criticism of communications and information technology (CIT) -- which includes digital social networking -- is its transience and churn. Engaging digital communication tends to cater to the tastes of an audience…… [Read More]

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History of Communication

Words: 6119 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37691919

History Of Communication Timeline

TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION

(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)

35,000 BCE.

First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.

Wikipedia, "Petroglyph."

12,600 BCE.

Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."

3400 BCE.

First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."

3300…… [Read More]

St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.

Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.

Wikipedia.org
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How a Network Work

Words: 1091 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13612918

breakthroughs since the introduction of computers in our society is the development of network technology. Nowadays, almost all business and companies worldwide are implementing the state-of-the-art capabilities of computer networks.

What is a Network? A Network is a collection of computers connected to each other enabling communication between each terminal. Through wires, cables, and devices such as network hubs and switches, computer terminals can form a group of connection which we call network.

Network has 2 types of connection that is based on the location of the connected computers: the LAN, and the WAN. The LAN or Local Area Network is a connection of computers that are located in one same particular area, such as within a room or within a building. WAN or Wide Area Network, on the other hand, is a connection of computers capable of communicating in any location such as computers located in different cities or…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Angelo, Mike. Some Basics for Computing and Network Novices.

Mozilla Quest. 01 July 2003. http://www.mozillaquest.com/shorts_01/MQ_Network-01_Story-01.html

Network Introduction.

NCI-Frederick. 01 July 2003. http://comm.ncifcrf.gov/networking/networkintro.html
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INTERNET2 Next Generation Internet

Words: 3275 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50612732

Internet

THE NEXT GENEATION INTENET

The Internet was developed during the late 1960s and early 1970s as a network or computers capable of sustaining global communication. The original Internet, initially intended as and educational and governmental tool, has since reached a global commercial user base. The original Internet has proven a successful means of disseminating and communicating information to more than a billion users, thanks to technological advances.

A new wave however, has occurred in Internet technology. Educators and researchers are currently investigating and implementing new technology, referred to as Internet2. This new communication outlet was built to help ease the congestion researchers, government agents and educators currently face when attempting to access the Internet. The information superhighway has in fact, become jam packed, as an interstate during rush hour. Scientists, educators and government officials have invested in a program that will hopefully result in a more technologically advanced superhighway…… [Read More]

References

Dimitrov, Ivan. "Network Security: Limitations of the Internet Protocol." Retrieved April 10, 2004. Available: http://www.cas.mcmaster.ca/~wmfarmer/SE-4C03-01/papers/Dimitrov-IPSec.html

Emory. "Van Houweling talks about benefits of the Internet of Tomorrow." Emory Report, December 1999, Vol. 52, No. 15. Available:  http://www.emory.edu/EMORY_REPORT/erarchive/1999/December/erdecember.13/12_13_99Internet.html 

Harper, Jennifer. "Internet May Leap Beyond Its Problems." The Washington Times, April 1997

Int2. Retrieved April 10, 2004. Available:  http://k20.Internet2.edu/inex.php
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Network Design

Words: 701 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59182651

Network

Verizon is a leader in the communications industry. With an unparalleled service and strong brand equity, Verizon continues to uphold its market leadership among telecommunications providers. A key aspect of the success of Verizon is its network. Its network is ultimately the source of its vast profits, strong leadership, and globally recognized brand. The company's network also provides the company with economies of scale, lowering the per-unit cost per subscriber. This document will describe how the network is designed, offering insights as to why the design is effective. The documents will then often brief, incremental suggestion to improve the overall network capability.

To begin, Verizon Wireless is one of two major U.S. carriers that use CDMA2000. CDMA 2000 is a family of 3G mobile technology standards, which use CDMA channel access, to send voice, data, and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites. The cell sites are important…… [Read More]

References

1. Raciti, Robert C. (July 1995). "CELLULAR TECHNOLOGY." Nova Southeastern University.

2. P. Key, D. Smith. Teletraffic Engineering in a competitive world. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam Netherlands, 1999. Chapter 1 (Plenary) and 3 (mobile).

3. William C.Y. Lee, Mobile Cellular Telecommunications Systems (1989), McGraw-Hill
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Icmt the Expected Trends

Words: 3111 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64225327

Icmt

In a competitive environment, one thrives based on their ability to build a competitive edge over their competitors. ICMT is one way through which organizations today gain competitive advantage in their respective industries. The term ICMT basically stands for the various tools and resources used in communication within the organization. Today, ICMT is used to a significant extent in various sectors including healthcare, business, and entertainment. It is expected that as more and more people purchase mobile devices, and the internet becomes more accessible, organizations will make huge profits from online activities and sales. This will, however, depend on how well they can address the risks of information security breaches and environmental damage. Environmentalists warn that increased use of computers and other electronic devices come at a cost to the environment. This text analyzes the expected trends in the ICMT sector, and the threats and opportunities presented to organizations…… [Read More]

References

Andersen, J. C. & Coffey, D. (2012). U.S. ICT R&D Policy Report: United States, ICT Leader or Laggard? The Tia Innovation White Paper. Retrieved January 20, 2016 from  https://www.tiaonline.org/sites/default/files/pages/TIA%20U%20S%20%20ICT%20rd%20Policy%20Report.pdf 

Croteau, R., Hoynes, W. D. & Milan, S. (2011). Media/Society: Industries, Images and Audiences (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Doyle, S. (2008). Essential ICT A Level: AS Student Book for AQA. Buckinghamshire, UK: Folens Ltd.

Gray, D. (2012). The Connected Company. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media Inc.
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Business Solutions for Cable Company in New Market

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30571605

Business Solutions

A systems approach is utilized to develop our business and IT solutions in order to serve and support EBC's objectives. This means that viewing non-linear relationships among systems instead of simple cause/effect events is an important step in our process. We view our interaction with systems as dynamic and always subject to change; therefore, we give special attention to the process rather than simply the moment of transaction and transformation.

Our goals are organizational, economic, technical and operational. Our business and IT managers put forward a project plan that encompasses workplace duties, time horizons and budgetary guidelines. A feasibility study shows the information needs of our clients, the resources required to succeed, the costs and benefits of our approach. One problem that we aim to overcome is how to put EBC into the hands of local businesses and penetrate the market of commercial enterprises. By offering a better…… [Read More]

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Properties of Light

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49230270

Properties of Light

Light is one of the most basic physical phenomena. It is observed by most people on a daily basis, and even people who lack formal understanding of the properties of light have some understanding of its properties. For example, most people have seen mirrors, rainbows, and know that glasses can improve vision, though they may not understand that reflection of light explains how mirrors work, that dispersion explains the formation of a rainbow, or that refraction of light is used to form optic lenses. This paper will describe the various properties of light and explain how it acts in various mediums. It will discuss: the nature of light, which is a particular but behaves like a wave; color; velocity; refractive index; reflection; refraction; dispersion; total internal reflection; diffraction; and interference. Taken together, these various properties help explain how light functions.

Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nelson, Stephen. "Properties of Light: Reflection, Refraction, Dispersion, and Refractive

Indices." Tulane University. N.p. 29 Oct. 2002. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.

Physics Planet. "Properties of Light." Physics Planet. N.p. 12 Nov. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.

Trevor-Jones, Andrew. "The Properties of Light." Reefkeeping Magazine. N.p. 2008. Web.
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Solution to the Problems Affecting Leonard Cooper

Words: 522 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6154941

solution to the problems affecting Leonard Cooper Charter School LAN

Network collision that slows down the network and interferes with print jobs

The problem of network collision is noted by ouse (2006) to be most common in half duplex Ethernet network. The collision observed at the Leonard Cooper Charter School LAN is most likely caused by the two or more devices (printers and competing workstations on the LAN most certainly) attempting to effectively transmit data at al most an exact same time (such as sending a print job).The Leonard Cooper Charter School LAN therefore detects the collisions of the two or more transmitted packets as then effectively discards them. It is important to note that collisions are perfectly normal occurrences on the Ethernet networks.

emedy

For the collisions to be avoided on the Leonard Cooper Charter School LAN, there is a need for the Ethernet to employ Carrier Sense Multiple…… [Read More]

References

Rouse, M (2006).Collision. Available online at  http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/collision
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Terrorism Tech Technological Innovation as

Words: 4295 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 74677890

The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior.

After the resignation of Tenet, who submitted as his official reason for departure the desire to spend more time with his family, his spokesman noted that "no one in the U.S. government was more aggressive in calling attention to and dealing with the threat of terrorism prior to 9/11 than was George Tenet.' The CIA's counterterrorism budget increased 50% between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2001, while staffing went up 60%."

This ultimately resulted in an increased level of effectiveness during those years of assessing and averting terrorist plots, highlighted by the 1999 foiling of al Qaeda's millennium hijacking plan. Here, a carefully synchronized set of airliner takeovers was to strike at prominent and highly populated points within the U.S. Or utilize the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bowden, C. 2002. Closed Circuit Television for Inside Your Head: Blanket traffic data retention and the emergency anti-terrorism legislation. Duke Law & Technology Review.

Enderle, R. 2004) Fighting Terrorism Through Technology. TechNewsWorld. Online at  http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33460.html?wlc=1243220640 

Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED). 2009. Demonstration Features Commercial Technology for Combating Terrorism. PR Newswire. Online at http://news.prnewswire.com/ViewContent.aspx?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/05-08-2009/0005022313&EDATE=

Ham, S. & Atkinson, R.D. 2002. Using Technology to Detect and Prevent Terrorism. Progressive Policy Institute. Online at  http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=124&subsecID=307&contentID=250070
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Telecom Networking Infrastructure

Words: 878 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84383101

Networking Training Proposal

Assume that you are a Telecom Analyst at company and you would like to either improve or overhaul their current telecom/networking infrastructure. My paper will concern the implementation of a network training program for employees in a medium-sized company known as Anycompany.

What we have noticed is that Anytown, in order to meet up to ISO 9000, must implement a systematicized training program in networking for its employees. Through an onsite visit to Anytown, we have discovered that network administrators, technicians, and programmers do not have a common base of knowledge and proficiences. Most everything has been learned on the job and network maintenance, backup, and recovery procedures are not written down but, often, is in the mind of one person. If that one person is sick; oftentimes, the other employees do not know what to do. This can be disasterous in the case of a system…… [Read More]

References

"A History of Reproduction, Contraceptives and Control" (1998) [Online]New Internationalist 303 Abstract from: Academic Search Elite. File: Academic Search Elite Item Number: 03059529

Bailey, B.(1997) "Prescribing the Pill: Politics, culture, and the sexual revolution in America's heartland." [Online] Journal of Social History 4, 827-857 Abstract from: author File: Academic Search Elite Item Number: 9707192314

Junod, S.W. (2000) "The Pill at 40." [Online] FDA Consumer, 4, 36, Abstract from: author File: Academic Search Elite Item Number: 8532382
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Fuel Systems Confined Space Training

Words: 2078 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7939057



The cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, Self-Aid uddy Care and the Fire Extinguisher training are mandatory to all fuel systems personnel. Initial and annual recertification is conducted during squadron block training. Each personnel must possess a current CPR card.

All personnel are trained to use and care for all protective equipment in the work center.

And they are trained to recognize potential hazardous symptoms while working in confined spaces and to immediately evaluate the confined space as directed by the attendant.

Maintenance Requirements

efore the start of fuel systems maintenance, the shift supervisor insures that the applicable aircraft checklist is accomplished, the required fuel systems equipment are inspected and maintained in serviceable condition, emergency communications established by radio or emergency phones, and the Fire Department of Job Control Department notified of fuel systems maintenance.

efore entering the fuel systems repair area, all non-fuel systems personnel shall check in and get briefed by the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baird, R.L. (1996). Fire protection and health program. Air Force Occupational and Environmental Safety. 58 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at http://www.epublishing.af.mil/pubfiles/af/91/afi91-301/afi91-301.pdf

Breed, P. (1998). Respiratory protection program. Air Force Occupational Safety and Health 48-138. Aerospace Medicine. 37 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at http://152.229.169.35/pubs/info_asp?shorttitle=30SWI48-103

Millar, J. Donald. (1986). Preventing occupational fatalities in confined spaces.

NIOSH Publications 80-110. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 9 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at  http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/86110v2.html
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Picture Archive Communication Systems PACS

Words: 7576 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35028102

This RIS includes Toshiba digital desktop telephones, plus 24 SpectraLink wireless telephones; these wireless phones were programmed to extend the features and capabilities of the users' desktop telephones to anywhere they roam at the 22-bed hospital; however, other wireless technologies such as cellular, could not be used due to the interference with sensitive medical equipment (Just the right prescription 24). The hospital's chief operating officer, Darryl Thornton, reported, "Being able to be mobile, yet still receive all our telephone calls, has greatly improved our efficiency and productivity. Toshiba's SpectraLink solution was the only one we found that would extend our desktop telephones to the palms of our hands" (Just the right prescription 24). The RIS also accommodated the needs of the hospital's remote users: "The system is so flexible that we were able to connect our remote users and still have it look like they are located at our corporate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abelha, Antonio, Jose Machado, Victor Alves, and Jose Neves. (2004). "Health Data Management in the Medical Arena." Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal. [Online]. Available: https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/886/1/473-245.pdf.

Adelhard, K., S. Nissen-Meyer, C. Pistitsch, U. Fink and M. Reiser. (1999). "Functional requirements for a HIS-RIS-PACS-interface design, including integration of 'old' modalities." Method. Inf. Med. 38(1):1-8.

Albensi, B.C., E.V. Ilkanich, G. Dini and D. Janigro. (2004, December). "Elements of Scientific Visualization in Basic Neuroscience Research. Bioscience, 54(12): 1127-38.

Arenson, R.L., K.P. Andriole, D.E. Avrin and R.G. Gould. (2000). "Computers in imaging and health care: now and in the future." Journal of Digital Imaging 13(4):145-56.
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Global E-Business Marketing the Advent

Words: 3832 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93266466

" The final force of collaboration, which Freidman (2006) calls "informing"-which are search engines like Yahoo, Google, MSN, etc., which has facilitated "Internetizer technologies" to work together with limitless information all by itself (Freidman, 2006).

Therefore, the initial three flatteners formed the novel stage for cooperation, and the subsequent six have been the novel shapes of cooperation that flattened the world. The last flattener is referred to as "the steroids," and these have been regarded as "wireless-access" along with "voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP)." The steroids have accelerated these novel kinds of cooperation, which has allowed "Internetizer technologies" to execute anyone of them, from anyplace in the world, using any tool (Freidman, 2006).

Triple Convergence

The first convergence took place when all ten flatteners united around the beginning of the new millennium. This formed a worldwide, Internet-enabled in performing ground that permitted manifold kinds of cooperation on R&D and work, regardless of not…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barca, F. And Becht, M. (2001). The Control of Corporate Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chun, R. (2001) 'The strategic management of corporate reputation, aligning image and identity, PhD dissertation, Manchester Business School, University of Manchester.

Freidman, Thomas L. (2006), the World is Flat, (Newly Abridged and Revised), Penguin Books, Camberwell Victoria.

Global E-Business Marketing
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Service Industry

Words: 3190 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58938151

technological explosion of the past few decades has taken mankind to heights never before imagined. Today, with the click of a mouse, one can purchase travel tickets, manage stocks, shop, and chat with people around the world. The changes that technology have made possible are almost limitless. In addition to the changes in daily life, advances in technology have had a significant impact on the field of education. The field of education has been impacted in many ways by technology, including the method of delivery for education. The delivery of lessons in the field of education used to be handled with one method. tudents came into a classroom and a teacher provided the lessons, and the feedback. For younger students, parents were given a 15 minute conference once a year to hear about their student progress. The delivery of education was a single method and it was used for more…… [Read More]

Success Number 2: The outcome of the planning grant was the award of the 1995 Implementation Grant Award from TEA -- Projects for Educational Technology, East Texas schools partnered in the Implementation Award Grant, known as "Creating Connections." Twelve East Texas school districts received funding for installation of the multi-media, distance learning classrooms. Other schools in the East Texas area participated in the training component. An additional seven school districts from Limestone, Hudspeth and El Paso counties joined the consortium to participate in the wining for teachers. The schools in the Central and Far West Texas schools either had video conferencing systems or were planning for full-motion audio-video networks. Their need focused on training. The final estimated total of the project including contributions from all partners including the two telephone companies was over $6,000, 000. TV 12 East Texas schools now have state of The art technology in the classrooms and access to full broadband services, including audio-video, Internet and data services. Texas A& M. University -- Commerce built its classroom along with Jarvis Christian College. The addition of the universities to the partnership had been sought from the early days of planning.

The award for training and classroom build-out provided the teams of students, community members and educators the opportunity to articulate the many needs they had that could be addressed through the telecommunications network. They were among the first in Texas to think about the telecommunications technology in non-traditional ways.

Success Number 3: The "partnership building process" continued and resulted in another award. The ET-LINC schools and Texas Alliance for Education and the Arts planned together over an 18-month period. It was agreed that The Texas Alliance would be fiscal agent for a project to utilize the distance learning network as a means of providing innovative programs for students in the elementary grades. The partnership with the Texas Alliance for Education and The Arts was designed to provide staff development to teachers in the distance learning environment in grades 2-6. The teacher-training component included use of the multi-media environment to integrate math, reading, and the fine arts. A Meadows Foundation Award provided for elementary teachers to receive training online in the two-way, real-time, interactive classroom. During this three-year initiative, students in these grades will be involved in a variety of special projects in which the arts are infused into the core academic
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Information Technology IT Communications and Data

Words: 3297 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77240848

Communications

This age is often referred to as the information era: the last two decades have given birth to some of the most staggering advancements that the human race has ever been capable of -- advancements which have changed the way that we live, do business, stay healthy, fight disease and defend our nation. It's vital to have a comprehensive and concrete understanding of some of the more basic concepts which help to shape this technology, particularly because this data is only going to continue to evolve. This data will explore, compare and contrast some of those more basic terms.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

A metropolitan area network (MAN) refers to a massive computer network that generally encompasses a city or a large campus, usually interconnecting a range of number local area networks, while engaging in high-capacity infrastructure technology, including fiber-optical links, and offering up-link services to wider area networks…… [Read More]

References

Accuhash.com. (2014). What is CRC32? Retrieved from accuhash.com: http://www.accuhash.com/what-is-crc32.html

Charles, S. (2011, June). Importance of Technology. Retrieved from buzzle.com:  http://www.buzzle.com/articles/importance-of-technology.html 

Janssen, C. (2013). Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). Retrieved from techopedia.com:  http://www.techopedia.com/definition/8238/metropolitan-area-network-man 

Mitchell, B. (2014). NIC. Retrieved from about.com:  http://compnetworking.about.com/od/networkadapters/g/bldef_nic.htm
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Bowel Syndrome

Words: 1182 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70311785

Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Religious and Ideological Movements: The Effects of Nationality and Ideological Preference

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a very common illness. Research shows that the large bowel or colon is the site of a lot of various beneficial bacteria. Also, may many may be aware that a good colon gives a lot of detail on the way the colon and its bacteria work in unison in order to provide our bodies with particular health profits. On the other hand, the colon is the site for numerous of the symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome patients. Because this organ is where all fiber and other food leftovers arrive, it would seem rational that some parts of food we eat could play a part in the signs of IBS, which for the majority, are a reflection of an excessively complex colon that is sensitive. As stated by the International…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anand, Bhupinder. Irritable Bowel Syndrome. 8 June 2013.  http://www.emedicinehealth.com/irritable_bowel_syndrome/page10_em.htm . 29 September 2014.

Cunha, John P. MedicineNet.com. 7 May 2012.  http://www.medicinenet.com/irritable_bowel_syndrome_ibs/page6.htm . 29 September 2014.

Vorous, Heather Van. "The First Year: IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) -- An Essential Guide for the Newly Diagnosed." New York City: Da Capo Press; 2005 edition, 2001. 1-242.

Zuckerman, M.J., Nguyen, G., Ho, H., Nguyen, L., & Gregory, G.G. "A survey of irritable bowel syndrome in vietnam using the rome criteria." Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 51.5 (2009): 946-51.
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Strategy and Dveloppement of E Procurement and IT Architecture

Words: 3464 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56166461

Strategy of E-Procurement and IT Architecture

1a) Planned Strategy in E-procurement

A large number of organizations adopting electronic commerce (e-commerce) have identified e-procurement as an effective strategy that can be used to enhance the competitive market advantages. In a business environment, a traditional procurement faces challenges of a paperwork workload associated that includes a purchase order, delivery order, and statement of work, invoice, and payment. All these process increase an organizational cost of production. Typically, e-procurement eliminates this workload by assisting management purchasing or supplying goods and services electronically at lowest possible costs using the paperless transactions.

A report carried out by the CIPS (2013) reveals that the goal of e-procurement is to use the latest information technology to link suppliers and customers thereby improve the value chain process. In essence, the e-procurement is a critical component of e-commerce, and the major goal of an e-procurement process is to enhance…… [Read More]

Resources Management in Canada. Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Shrinivas P. 1 Winai, Wo. (2015). Information technology (IT) outsourcing by business process outsourcing/information technology enabled services (BPO/ITES) firms in India: A strategic gamble. Journal of Enterprise Information Management. 28 (1):60-76.

Jerome, B. (2001). The hidden costs of IT outsourcing: lessons from 50 IT-outsourcing efforts show that unforeseen costs can undercut anticipated benefits. Understanding the issues can lead to better outsourcing decisions. MIT Sloan management review.

Schaefer, S. (1999). Product design partitions with complementary Components. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 38 (1999) 311-330.

Software Engineering Institute (2013). Unintentional Insider Threats: A Foundational Study. Department of Homeland Security.
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Biomimicry & Package Sustainability Biomimicry

Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 48401533

As the article on SPC (sustainable packaging Coalition) describes, packaging itself contributes to as much as a third of the waste in developed countries. The two articles are closely related in that SPC is all about effective biomimicry in the packaging industry. The new approach to producing sustainable industrial designs is based on life cycle analysis where eliminating waste and conserving energy are key components. The sustainable packaging coalition, a new environmental group is working towards creating new standards for industrial packaging that ensure that products are 'sourced responsibly', designed to be 'safe and effective', 'cost effective' and most importantly, recyclable.

The SPC formed by leading companies is promoting and sharing innovative packaging design solutions that are inspired by nature and therefore environmentally friendly and sustainable. In other words the SPC is working towards innovations in package designs that are modeled on natural systems. The SPC also studies and reports…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Tim McGee & Dr. Dayna Baumeister, 'Biomimicry',
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Intel's Dominance of the Microprocessor

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87936811

" (Goettler & Gordon, 1) and according to the research produced above in the source by GS, AMD actually saw its market share decline across the same sample period.

This denotes the relatively monolithic nature of the microprocessor industry. This also denotes an extremely attractive field from Intel's perspective. Horn (2009) advises using Porter's Five Forces as a way of understanding Intel's role within its market. Here, Horn notes that "Michael Porter's five forces analysis determines the attractiveness of an industry based on bargaining power of the supplier and buyer, threat of substitutes, threat of new entrants, and rivalry among existing competitors. In the microprocessor industry, buyer bargaining power, new entrants, and rivalry are all strong forces while supplier bargaining power and threat of substitutes are weak forces." (Horn, 1)

It is thus that we consider those forces which are acknowledged as determinant in the industry. Horn points to buyer…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Global Sources (GS). (2008). Intel Leads Microprocessor Industry. EE Times India. Online at  http://www.eetindia.co.in/ART_8800550693_1800001_NT_673096f1.htm 

Goettler, R. & Gordon, B. (2009). Does AMD Spur Intel to Innovate More. Columbia University.

Horn, a. (2009). Mircroeconomic Analysis of AMD and the Microprocessor Industry. Associated Content.

Intel. (2010). About Intel. Intel.com.
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Automated Baggage Handling Systems One

Words: 4480 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96129334

An automated baggage handling system was essential in reducing turnaround times. Given Denver's physical size and flight volume, an ordinary system of baggage handling would have simply moved too slowly and would have involved unmanageable numbers of workers. But a fully automated system could, at least in theory, move bags quickly and efficiently enough to make the entire enterprise work. Indeed, United Airlines would not sign a lease to be the principal tenant at Denver until it was assured that the airport would have an effective automated baggage handling system. (de Neufville, pp. 2-4).

The designers of the system focused on speed as its signal characteristic. They promised to deliver a system at which the bags would be moved at speeds up to 24 miles per hour so that the bags from a narrowbody jet could be unloaded and sent to their destinations within twenty minutes. For larger, widebody jets,…… [Read More]

References

Ayres Jr., B.D. (1995). Finally, 16 Months Late, Denver Has a New Airport. New York Times. March 18. p. 12A.

Bartholomew, D. (1994). Rocky Start for Airport, InformationWeek. March, 15.

Coupe, G. (2005). Air support. The Engineer. Vol. 293. no. 7684. pp.24-28.

Dempsey, P. (1994). Denver international airport: lessons learned. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
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Diffusion of Product Innovation Through

Words: 16573 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 65231417



Moreover, CoPs develop their practice through improving the diffusion of innovation within their active networks; the benefits of such interactions are countless especially in the field of healthcare. One can assume that specialty doctors' communities would present the perfect example for CoPs because they share the same practice, interest and professionalism. It would be interesting to study if those CoP networks exist in United Arab Emirates, whether they are active or not and whether leaders can be identified. Collecting such data will enable this project to measure if the rate of diffusion of new innovation can be improved and hence be used by pharmaceutical companies in UAE to improve their resource allocation; all within healthcares' ethical framework.

Overview of Study

This dissertation used a five-chapter format to achieve the above-stated research purpose. To this end, chapter one introduced the topic under consideration, a statement of the problem, the purpose and…… [Read More]

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Independence Less Than Half a

Words: 12705 Length: 46 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 94035562

Notwithstanding the challenges involved, the stakes are high and there is little room for false starts or experimentation; therefore, identifying a general set of best practices that Gambian organizations can follow in developing their own set of sustainable productivity practices represents a valuable and timely undertaking, which relates to the purpose of the study which is discussed further below.

Purpose of Study

The overall purpose of this study was to study to provide a review of the relevant juried and scholarly literature together with the findings of a survey of Gambian business leaders to generally identify the most pressing priorities for developing the nation's infrastructure and sustainable organizational productivity. The specific purpose of the study was to determine whether SMEs face the same types of challenges of to optimum performance as their larger corporate counterparts, and to identify any peculiar organizational characteristics that determine levels of performance between SMEs and…… [Read More]

References

About us. 2010. The Gambia Experience. Retrieved from  http://www.gambia.co .uk/Docs/About" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Wired Communication Wire Systems in

Words: 1929 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73044094

As the pace of communication affects the pace of business and the degree to which a society can "keep up" with the rest of the world, public funding for private telecommunications growth has been justified; in addition, several landmark court rulings have required telecommunications infrastructure to be usable in ways that are not harmful to the public by entities that do not own them, through licensing requirements and other arrangements (von Alven 1998). Growth has thus been spurred by both public and private interests.

epair and Maintenance Procedures

The repair of the actual wire portions of wired telecommunications systems is relatively straightforward. Downed lines -- a common occurrence in storms due to high winds, fallen trees, etc. -- must be replaced by new segments of wire connecting existing (or replaced) nodes along the wire route. Wires can often be reused following being downed after inspection and refurbishing, though long-term maintenance…… [Read More]

References

Hoovers. (2011).Fixed-line voice service providers. Accessed 11 April 2011. http://www.hoovers.com/industry/fixed-line-voice-services-providers/1590-1-0-1njg0x.html

IBIS. (2011). Wired telecommunications carriers. Accessed 11 April 2011.  http://www.ibisworld.com/industry/default.aspx?indid=1268 

Von Alven, W. (1998). Bill's 200-Year Condensed History of Telecommunications. Accessed 11 April 2011.  http://www.cclab.com/billhist.htm
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Flatteners' in the World Is

Words: 1388 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26177640



As all these human needs are connected with each other, it is not surprising then, that the human need to connect is inherently connected with the human need for knowledge. In 11/9/89, the Berlin all fell because it prevented people from physically knowing and hearing about worlds that existed beyond the wall. In 8/9/95, Netscape was launced and made public because it would not only connect people with each other, but its usage would generate "more incentive…to create content and applications and tools" (64). ork Flow Software, Uploading, and In-forming were further developments that negotiated people's need for knowledge -- whether they are free and readily available or not. ork Flow Software satisfied people's need for knowledge as it allowed information to travel seamlessly through integrated networks. Uploading and In-forming, however, paved the way for (selected) new media technologies to remain "open" and continuously expanding, respectively. Uploading allowed users to…… [Read More]

Work cited

Friedman, T. (2006). The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. (Release 2.0, Expanded & Updated). NY: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
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Management and Decision Sciences From

Words: 25680 Length: 90 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55501983

76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…… [Read More]