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Financial Management of Not-For-Profit Organizations:
Generally, financial management of not-for-profit organizations is similar to the process of financial management in the profit making sector in several aspects. Nonetheless, there are several major differences that contribute to a different focus of a not-for-profit financial manager. In the commercial sector, the for-profit enterprises mainly focus on capitalizing shareholder value and overall profitability. On the contrary, not-for-profit organizations have the basic aim of providing certain socially desirable need on a continual basis instead of increasing shareholder value ("Financial Management of Not-for-Profit Organizations," 2011). The difference in focus between the for-profit and not-for-profit organizations is because the latter does not have financial flexibility of a commercial enterprise since its dependent on resource providers that are not getting involved in an exchange transaction. As a result, the resources provided are channeled towards offering goods and services to a client instead of the actual resource provider.…
Bauers, R. (2006, June 12). A Short Course in Not-for-Profit Accounting -- Installment 5.
Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.polyphonic.org/article/a-short-course-in-not-for-profit-accounting-installment-5/
Carter, C. (n.d.). For Profit vs. Not-for-Profit Organization. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/profit-vs.-not-for-profit-organization-4158.html
Corkill, J. & Featherson, S. (2007, November). Fund Accounting. Retrieved from University of California, Santa Barbara website: http://www.controller.ucsb.edu/ResourcesandPresentations/Presentations/fundaccounting.ppt
Fundamental Decisions in Financial Management
In financial management, there are three fundamental decisions, which are central to capital budgeting, capital structure and working capital management. Capital budgeting refers to the process of planning and managing the company's long-term investments. Capital structure refers to the particular mixture of long-term debt and equity a company utilizes to fund its functions. Working capital management refers to the company's short-term assets, which may include inventory, and its short-term liabilities (Parrino, Kidwell and Bates, 2011).
Pros and Cons of the three forms of business ownership
It is easy to start and end a business
There is no sharing of profits
It does not involve any special taxes
Available funds are limited to what the owner has
There are management issues
There are limited developments
The business experiences more financial resources
There is shared management, which enhances growth…
Parrino, R., Kidwell, S.D., & Bates, T. (2011). Fundamentals of corporate finance (2 ed).
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Global Education
Financial Scandals and Management
Management Financial Actions, Controls, and Decisions
Financial Scandals and Management
Following the rise of financial scandals in the recent past, external and internal audits are carried out to review the management's financial controls and actions, and keep tab of the outside and internal auditors. However, despite the best efforts, accounting scandals like the Cendant Corporation's $300 million bogus revenue indicate that external auditors and managers are not doing their job. It is the perception of management and financial scholars that social and political forces interfere with the ability of auditors and managers to meet their obligation and uncover management misdeeds (Lublin and MacDonald, 1998). This is because an increase in the toughness of external audit committees only increases the chances of bad accounting and shareholder lawsuits. This forms the problem for this review of literature, as the research proposes that for effective financial and…
Bob, Ritchie and, Esamaddin Khorwatt 2007, 'The Attitude of Libyan Auditors to Inherent Control Risk Assessment', The British Accounting Review, vol.39: Iss.1, pp.39-59.
Gregory, J.M. (2002). New scandals, old lessons: Financial ethics after enron. Financial Executive, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 16-19. [Online] http://search.proquest.com/docview/208881172?accountid=45049 . [Accessed 5 Jan 2013].
Hales, Colin P. 1986, "What do Managers Do?" Journal of Management Studies, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 88-115.
Hill, Linda Annette 2003, Becoming a Manager: How New Managers Master the Challenges of Leadership. Harvard Business Press.
The financial information these directors and managers require is often highly specific to their functional departments' goals and objectives. The director or senior manager of the operations and production departments will require variance analysis of costing, thorough analysis of supply chain costs and the cost of quality management and compliance management (Kivijarvi, Saarinen, 1995). These costs are critical to each of these directors ensuring a consistent level of conformance to their costing plans and contribution analysis of each department to corporate profitability. The origin of this data is from accounting and financial management systems that are used for tracking each transaction, aggregating the data into consolidated reports. Sales directors rely on the same level of aggregated data to ensure they understand how pipelines are progressing, including the development of new sales plans (Stroud, 1988).
At the analyst and employee level of the organization, specific transaction information is essential for helping…
Kivijarvi, H., & Saarinen, T. (1995). Investment in information systems and the financial performance of the firm. Information & Management, 28(2), 143-143.
Stroud, J.B. (1988). Prioritization of municipal financial statement users. The Government Accountants Journal, 37(3), 41-41.
(2009). Google's Big IPO, Five Years Later. [Article]. Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition, 254(40), C3.
Davis, H.Z., & Peles, Y.C. (1993). Measuring Equilibrating Forces of Financial atios. The Accounting eview, 68(4), 725-747.
Google Inc. (2012). 2011 Annual eport. Mountain View, CA: Google Inc.
Kirby, J. (2009). How Google really does it. (Cover story). [Article]. Canadian Business, 82(18), 54-58.
Lee, M.-j. (2010). Measuring the Usage Effects of Tying a Messenger to Windows: A Treatment Effect Approach. Journal of the oyal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society), 173(1), 237-253.
Microsoft. (2011). Our Commitment to Our Customers: Microsoft's Business etrieved March 4th, 2012, from http://www.microsoft.com/about/companyinformation/ourbusinesses/en/us/business.aspx
Microsoft Corporation. (2011). 2011 Annual eport. edmond, Washington: Microsoft Corporation.
Swallow, E. (2011). Android Captures Nearly 50% of Global Smartphone Market etrieved March 4th, 2012, from http://mashable.com/2011/08/02/android-market-share/
W3Schools. (2012). Web Statistics and Trends etrieved March 4th, 2012, from http://www.w3schools.com/browsers/browsers_stats.asp
APPENDIX: FINANCIAL ATIOS
Allen, F. (1993). Strategic Management and Financial Markets. Strategic Management Journal, 14(ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Special Issue: Organizations, Decision Making and Strategy / Full publication date: Winter, 1993 / Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons), 11-22.
Benhabib, J., & Spiegel, M.M. (2000). The Role of Financial Development in Growth and Investment. Journal of Economic Growth, 5(4), 341-360.
Choi, J., & Wang, H. (2009). Stakeholder Relations and the Persistence of Corporate Financial Performance. Strategic Management Journal, 30(8), 895-907.
Cowan, L. (2009). Google's Big IPO, Five Years Later. [Article]. Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition, 254(40), C3.
Financial Management for Nurses
The modern healthcare industry is extremely labor intensive. To be effective, a modern nurse manager must balance patient care vs. staffing, procedures vs. patient load, and fiscal budgets in line with appropriate levels of care. Nurses are expected not only to understand the organization's fiscal concerns, but to manage them as well. While fiscal dollars spent on human resource management are the larger portion of the health care organization's budget, the use of a cogent and powerful budgetary management tool can help save thousands on an aggregate basis.
The Budgeting Process Cycle
Any budget is essentially a planning process that focuses on expenses and activities of the organization over a given period of time. The budget is designed to help plan for resource allocation and to control expenses when possible, to schedule adjustments or larger capital purchases, and to be used as an operational plan from…
Productivity Measures in Need of an Image Overhaul. (July-August 2008). The Business of Caring. 4 (7): 1-15.
Anderson, S. (2007). Deadly Consequences: The Hidden Impact of Nursing Shortages. National Foundation for American Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.nfap.com/pdf/0709deadlyconsequences.pdf
Brown, M., ed. (1992). Nursing Management: Issues and Ideas. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers.
Clark, J. (2005). Improving hospital budgeting and accountability: A best practice approach. Healthcare Finance Management. 59 (7): 78-83.
While nonprofit and for-profit organizations may have much similarity, they also have significant differences. From the tax perspective, for-profit organizations are taxed in various ways determined by the structure of the organization. For instance, small companies are treated as partnerships and sole proprietorships. They are monitored by the National evenue Authority and the owners must be help liable for overall business debts. Their non-profit counterparts have the freedom to register for exception from income tax established by provisions of the tax code (Hyatt & Hopkins, 2012). People contributing towards non-profit organizations are eligible to tax incentives for their donations. Not-for-profit entities are treated as legal corporations for purposes of tax. This leaves the owners of the company not to be liable for debts.
The rationale for selected healthcare organizations to enjoy the tax-exempt status
Possible tax exemptions for selected healthcare organizations include tax exemption on fringe…
Hopkins, B.R. (2011). The law of tax-exempt organizations. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley.
Hyatt, T.K., & Hopkins, B.R. (2012). The law of tax-exempt healthcare organizations. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Oster, S.M. (2011). Strategic management for nonprofit organizations: Theory and cases. New York: Oxford University Press.
In order to determine the size of equal, annual, end period deposits needed to accumulate a specific future sum at a specific future date, several steps are required. This type of equation involves working backwards from the solution that you wish to find. Thus, if you want to accumulate $2,000,000 in ten years, this is the end result from which the remainder of the equation will be derived.
The payments are annual, equal and end of period. This fits the definition of an annuity, so it is the annuity formula that we will use to derive the required interest rate in order to bring the payments to the end result of $2,000,000 in ten years. In this example, the interest rate is to be taken as a given, and the solution derived should therefore be the sole remaining unknown variable, the size of the payment. To derive this…
False. The form of business organization direct affects the taxation structure of the firm, particularly with regard to flow-through taxation on some forms (sole proprietorship, most partnerships) and not on others (most corporations).
False. The partners in a regular partnership have a high degree of liability.
True. Most partnerships remains fairly small due to these constraints.
True. In a sole proprietorship, the owner holds all the capital, making it difficult to raise from outside sources, and the proprietor has all the liability associated with the business.
False. The owners do see their risk reduced by limited liability, but the firm still has this risk. Therefore, the firm's value should not be reduced. The firm can still be bankrupted, leaving potential owners with nothing.
a. True. Earnings per share has a strong correlation with the firm's stock price. A…
Calculate or identify from each company's most recent annual report the six (6) specific financial ratios listed and provide as an appendix to the paper.
Liquidity ratios are responsible for measuring a firm's performance regarding the availability of cash to pay its debt obligations (ashid & Abbas, 2011, p. 9). A common type of liquid ratio is the current ratio. The current ratio is responsible for comparing and contrasting current assets to current liabilities. This information is useful to executives in that they become aware whether or not the firm will be able to pay its current debt as it matures (Kurtz, 2011, p. 540). Dividing current assets to current liabilities gives the liquidity ratio. As a result, Google's liquidity ratio can be calculated by dividing 41,562 into 9,996. The liquidity ratio equals to 4.15. Microsoft's liquidity ratio can be calculated by dividing 49,280 into 27.034. The liquidity…
Ahmed, M. (2011, March 3). Eric Schmidt (ex CEO and current chairman -- Google)
management style and CIO. Retrieved from, http://mubbisherahmed.wordpress.com/201 1/03/03/eric-schmidt-ex-ceo-and-current-chairman-google-management-style-and-cio/
Google Inc., (2010). Financial information. Retrieved from, http://investor.google.com/earn ings/2010/Q4_google_earnings.html
Investopedia Ulc., (2011). Return on assets. Profitability indicator ratios. Retrieved from, http://www.investopedia.com /university/ratios/profitability-indicator/ratio3.asp#axzz1f gAHil7c
In addition, the exchange provides an avenue for recourse if some remedy is required for a fraudulent transaction.
The operating asset turnover of 5 times on operating assets of $20 million implies a total sales of $100 million. The return on operating assets being 25% indicates net profit of $5 million. The total costs therefore are $95 million.
DOL = Contribution Margin / Operating Margin
In this case, the operating margin is 5%, so the contribution margin would be 20%. This indicates that COGS is 80% of revenues or $80 million. That leaves $15 million as fixed costs. With a COGS of $8 per unit ($80 million / 10 million) and contribution per unit of $2 the break-even volume would be:
$15 million / $2 = 7.5 million units.
a) the breakeven point in units for the company is as follows:
$180 - $126 = Contribution…
"Suddenly, Gold Isn't Looking So Solid"
This article (Sommer, 2011) examines the advisability of including gold in a typical investment portfolio. The article analyzes arguments, both historical and current, in favor of and against investing in gold. The article concludes with a very qualified recommendation, advising investor caution.
Sommer's article debates the question of whether gold, given its high volatility, should be included in a typical investment portfolio. He presents arguments that there is no simple answer.
The popularity of gold is well established, with gold having served as the standard of the global monetary system until the 1970s. Even today, gold maintains a certain appeal during an era of wildly fluctuating financial values. Many consider gold a mainstream investment, as evidenced by the fact that a gold exchange-traded fund, SPD Gold Shares, was the second-most popular ETF in the U.S. On April 30 (Sommer, 2011).
Cui, C. & Hoyle, R. (2011). China is now top gold bug. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 22, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704816604576333080229436072.html
Heaney, V. (2011). Gold's role in pension funds under scrutiny. Financial Times website. Retrieved May 22, 2011 from http://www.ft.com/international/cms/s/0/100a81ce-4c21-11e0-82df-00144feab49a.html#axzz1NB3S7xNF
Hurlbert, M. (2011). The glitter behind the gold rally. Barron's website. Retrieved May 22, 2011 from http://online.barrons.com/article/SB50001424052970204488104576315254181320740.html?mod=BOL_da_hm
Sommer, J. (2011). Suddenly, gold isn't looking so solid. New York Times website. Retrieved May 22, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/15/your-money/15stra.html?src=me&ref=your-money
Financial Management Decision
Understanding Basic Finance Terms
Generally, it is beneficial to have a basic understanding of financial concepts and terminology before going into business independently. Financial management refers to the process of calculating anticipated sources of profit and comparing them to anticipated expenses and other variables and contingencies. In principle, financial management is used to determine what prospective ventures are likely to be profitable and to identify those that are too risky to launch without risking the initial investment.
Risk financing refers to the process of identifying and evaluating potential sources of negative consequences known as risks and of calculating the financial resources that would be necessary to mitigate those risks. Generally, that process would include a risk matrix in which the magnitude of every reasonable identifiable potential risk is considered in conjunction with and in relation to its respective likelihood of occurrence. That risk matrix provides data that…
Definition of revenue cycle in healthcare
A revenue cycle is a process whereby financial progression of the accounts of a business is described.it begins where the business has made acquisition of products until they get paid. Healthcare firms are business oriented organizations. Their survival financially depends on a recurring and consistent flow of money from the services that are provided to patients. Without the existence of adequate stream of revenue then healthcare organizations would be forced to stop their operations. The revenue cycle begins immediately a patient registers to a healthcare institution for care. A revenue cycle that is well managed protects revenue collected and increases the flow of cash. If it is supported by an information infrastructure that is strong it will lead to the standardization of procedures and help in sharing of information across the units of operation ( Hall, s2010).
Complexity of the revenue cycle…
Cleverley, W.O, James, O. & Song, P, H.(2008). Essentials of Health Care Finance. Jones & Bartlett Learning
Andrews, J.(2012). Intake critical point for revenue cycle. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/intake-critical-point-revenue-cycle
Triple tree.(2011)Healthcare Revenue cycle management. Retrieved September 8, 2013 from https://www.connextions.com/files/TripleTreeRevenueCycle.pdf
Hall, J.A.(2010). The Revenue Cycle. Accounting information systems,4th .Ed. Retrieved September 8,2013 from http://www.swlearning.com/accounting/hall/ais_4e/study_notes/ch04.pdf
Calaveras Vineyards sits on 220 acres in Alameda Valley, California. Anne Clemens, a senior vice president at Goldengate Capital, received a loan proposal from Tom Howell, a managing director with NationsBank's investment-banking group. The brochure described the prospective management acquisition of Calaveras Vineyards and solicited Goldengate's participation in the $4.5 million senior financing facility. The facility would consist of a $2 million term loan and a revolving credit of up to $2.5 million. Clemens needed to decide quickly whether the proposed terms were attractive, where to position Goldengate in this credit, and whether to offer a counterproposal on terms.
The Vineyard is the beneficiary of a trend of strengthening brand recognition. The organization used to sale solely through wholesale distribution channels, but being marketed as a premium brand has significant impacts upon potential profitability. However, in its current state, the Vineyard is low on capital and some judgement…
Discussion on the Three Payment-Determination Basis.
The payment system describes the method by which the healthcare organizations such as Medicaid, Medicare, Commercial Health Plan and others determine the amount to be paid for a certain health program. The three payment determination bases are as follows:
Fee schedule payment basis
Price related basis. (Cleverley, Cleverly, & Song, 2010).
A cost payment basis shows that provider's cost is the underlying method of payments and the rules to determine the costs are the contract between the healthcare provider and payer. For example, cost-payment basis is referred as the cost of provider's ratio multiply by total charges for specific healthcare claims. Payment for the claim reaching $1,000 charge is the 50% of $1,000, which is the cost ratio that providers charge and would be $500 payment, which is equivalent to 50% times $1,000
A fee schedule is the actual payment…
AMA (2013). Bundled Payments. American Medical Association. USA.
Carver, J. (2010).Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) Level II
Coding Procedures. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.
Cleverley, W.O. Cleverly, J.O. & Song, P.H. (2010). Essentials of Health Care Finance. Jones & Bartlett Publishers,
Financial Management (case scenario)
The theoretical ex-rights price may be calculating the following way. We have the following known variables:
Fair value of all shares = 12,000,000 * 135 = 1,620,000,000
Total amount received from exercise of rights = 1,500,000*108 = 162,000,000
Number of shares prior to exercise = 12,000,000
Number of shares issued in the exercise = 1,500,000
Then, the theoretical ex-rights price is 1,620,000,000 + 162,000,000)/(12,000,000 + 1,500,000) = 132 cents
Hence, the value of a right is 3 cents..
The Alpha Leisure is issuing at a discount to make the shares more interesting for the investors. However, if we consider an investor from outside the company (one who doesn't have ordinary shares in the company until now), then he will purchase actions at 108 cents, plus the 24 cents per action, representing the 8 rights necessary to buy an action. In this way, the price will arrive…
6. The formula for calculating the price of a zero coupon bond is
P = M / (1 + I )^n
In this case, the interest is priced to 9% and the term to 20 years. These figures are doubled, because the price of zero coupon bonds is based on semi-annual. Therefore, the price of this bond would be 1000 / (1 + .045) ^ 40 = 171.93.
7. We would use the regular bond pricing formula to calculate the YTM for this bond. This is a difficult equation to solve for, so it is typically either estimated by trial and error, or solved on a spreadsheet. Having taken the latter approach, the yield to maturity would therefore be 6.6033% for this bond.
8. To calculate the most I would be willing to pay for this preferred share investment, we must consider that the dividend is a perpetuity. The…
owning machinery (eh 2010).
A financial manager must have a keen understanding of numbers, but he or she must also understand his or her client. When suggesting sources of available funding, for example, the manager must remember some businesspersons wish to retain a high level of control over their organization's vision and decision-making. While venture capitalists can be a valuable source of financing, someone with high ethical standards might shy away from soliciting aid from someone who wishes a controlling interest in the business (Miller 2009). The regular nature of bank payments in exchange for financial independence might be a willing trade-off for someone beginning a new organic bakery, for example. However, a client proposing a very risky e-commerce venture might not be able to find adequate support from a bank at a sufficiently reasonable interest rate.
A financial manager can help the individual or organization balance goals, options, and…
Financial managers. (2010). Bureau of Labor and Statistics (BLS). U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved May 11, 2010 at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos010.htm
Miller, Miranda. (2009, August 4). 3 types of e-commerce start-up capital. Retrieved May 11,
2010 at http://ecommerce.suite101.com/article.cfm/3_types_of_ecommerce_startup_capital
Reh, F. John. (2010). Management 101. Retrieved May 11, 2010 at http://management.about.com/cs/generalmanagement/a/Management101.htm
This is due to the impact of a change in revenue on profit or cash flow. It arises whenever a firm increases its revenues without a proportionate increase in operating expenses.
In deciding the most favorable level of leverage, it is a must for the firm to measure its acceptable or tolerable systematic risk/return on every transaction that corresponds with the way the company would like to finance. In measuring the degree of acceptability, the firm may compare the result to the operational leverage of other firms within the same industry. If the company has a very high degree of leverage, it is not a good indication of stability. The company is more susceptible to experience recession in the business. This is because every sale is being contributed to paying for fixed costs. The company will be compelled to continue its business to meet its obligations regardless of the outcome…
"A balanced fund seeks to provide long-term growth through its equity component as well as income to be generated by the portfolio's debt securities" (Galvin).
3. Factors Generating Changes in the U.S. Secondary Market for Common Stock
The exchange of financial products expanded significantly since the 1960s as a direct consequence of the growing interest in stocks, bonds and other types of investments. Trading financial products is no longer destined only for specialized investors, but also for the general public and the growing interest of the public generated major changes. Then, the volatility of the initially issued securities also increased as these could be sold and purchased more times. This movement also led to the expansion of the secondary market for common stocks, but also to a growing need for a stricter and clearer legislation.
Third, another factor generating change was the growing number of securities that were issues and…
Allen, F., Santomero, A.M., The Theory of Financial Intermediation, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 1996, Retrieved from http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/papers/96/9632.pdf on May 13, 2009
Galvin, W.F., What You Should Know about Mutual Funds, Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, http://www.sec.state.ma.us/sct/sctprs/prsamf/amfidx.htm last accessed on May 13, 2009
Gorton, G., Winston, A., Financial Intermediation, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 2002, Retrieved from http://fic.wharton.upenn.edu/fic/papers/02/0228.pdf on May 13, 2009
Secondary Market, Investopedia, 2009, http://www.investopedia.com /terms/s/secondarymarket.asp last accessed on May 13, 2009
At the same time, they are holders of contrasting forms of private and public debt. This is used to help fund specific research and development programs. These funds flow from savers to producers via the centralized marketplace. This is where they can see the prices for the different classes of securities offered by corporations and governments. (Bosworth, 2001) (Moore, 2009)
Direct and indirect transfers are when there is a focus on the amount of funds which are sent to a particular country. This can occur directly through corporations repatriating the profits they generate from their operations overseas. At the same time, indirect transfers will take place with individuals who are working inside particular nation and they are sending money home to their families. The way these funds will flow from savers to producers is through them reinvesting a percentage of the profits back into the organization. This helps firms continue…
Bosworth, B. (2001). A Flow of Fund Model. FRB. Retrieved from: http://www.bos.frb.org/economic/conf/conf10/conf10c.pdf
Moore, T. (2009). Empirical Application. CSFP. Retrieved from: http://www.cfsp.org/sites/default/files/empirical_application_of_a_flow_of_funds_model_for_india_february_2012.pdf
Chapter 1: The Accounting Function in Microsoft
Background of the Organization
Microsoft Corporation is an American technology organization whose main center of operations are situated in Redmond, Washington. Founded by Paul Allen and Bill Gates in 1975, the company key operations encompass the discovery and development of manufacturing and licensing goods and services that are associated to computing (Bellis, 2017).In accordance to Statista (2017), the company has 124,000 employees across the world. In the past number of decades since its inception, the company has progressively grown to become a huge global corporation. Its extensive business portfolio encompasses electronics, personal computers, computer software and in the present day cloud computing. Some of these renowned products and services consists of Microsoft Office, Xbox, Internet Explorer, and Microsoft Operating System.
The organizational structure of Microsoft Corporation facilitates its business to grow and develop. The firm’s organizational structure replicates the needs of the computer…
Al-Tarawneh, H. A. (2012). The main factors beyond decision making. Journal of Management Research, 4(1).
Anastasia. (2015). Key Resources Building Block in Business Model Canvas. Cleverism. Retrieved 4 October 2017 from: https://www.cleverism.com/key-resources-building-block-in-business-model-canvas/
Baker, H. K., & English, P. (2011). Capital budgeting valuation: Financial analysis for today\\'s investment projects (Vol. 13). John Wiley & Sons.
Bellis, M. (2017). History of Microsoft. ThoughtCo. Retrieved 4 October 2017 from: https://www.thoughtco.com/microsoft-history-of-a-computing-giant-1991140
Brigham, E. F., & Houston, J. F. (2012). Fundamentals of financial management. New York: Cengage Learning.
Cunningham, B. M., Nikolai, L. A., Bazley, J., Kavanagh, M., Slaughter, G., & Simmons, S. (2011). Accounting: information for business decisions. New York: Cengage Learning.
DuBrin, A. (2011). Essentials of management. Nelson Education.
Hansen, D., Mowen, M., & Guan, L. (2007). Cost management: accounting and control. Cengage Learning.
Content Find articles address financial reporting practices ethics standards health care finance, including * generally accepted accounting principles * corporate compliance, ethics, and fraud abuse
Financial management: Literature review
Healthcare institutions, like all organizations, are continually confronted with the four basic elements of financial management: deciding what to invest in or produce; how to finance those investments or products; how to manage assets, and how to report those assets in a manner that is useful and also complies with all necessary regulations. This paper will provide an overview of two recent articles, one on the necessity of uniform accounting procedures to ensure ethical and legal compliance amongst healthcare institutions and the other on the financial consequences of failing to do so for the institution itself.
Article 1: Maintaining the strength of your convictions
According to Larry Tyler's 2004 article "Maintaining the strength of your convictions" "Most financial executives…
Adam. (2007). Dot. Boston. Retrieved August 12, 2011 at http://adamp.com/college/us-gaap-vs.-international-gaap-vs.-unified-gaap/
Fong, Gary R., Randy Wiitala & Frederick Stodolak. (2011). Uncovering pharmacy department risks and opportunities. Healthcare Financial Management Association Journal. Retrieved August 12, 2011 at http://www.hfma.org/Publications/hfm-Magazine/Archives/2011/May/Uncovering-Pharmacy-Department-Risks-and-Opportunities/
Rode, Dan. (1990). Uniform accounting standards enable accurate comparisons.
Healthcare Financial Management. Retrieved August 12, 2011 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3257/is_n7_v44/ai_9174983/
Because of its youth-oriented focus, Nike must constantly innovate, in terms of its products. Examples of such innovation include new shoes like the Nike Free, which are intended to profit off of the new 'barefoot running' craze, shoes that allow for distance to be tracked via GPS, and clothing that allows the users to wear Nike-specific iPods that combine music listening with speed, distance, and workout planning features. Nike's goal is always to have enough money to invest in &D while still having enough profits to show substantial gain for shareholders. This ensures that it is still viewed as a 'hot' and profitable company in which to invest, according to the financial press.
By fusing its brand image and marketing strategies, Nike has been able to manage its finances effectively. A youth-oriented, direct-to-consumer model is reinforced by its emphasis on Nike-specific stores and online retailing. Online retailing allows consumers to…
Moreno, Kasia. (2004, February 6). Companies with successful growth strategies. Forbes.
Retrieved July 15, 2011 at http://www.forbes.com/2004/02/06/cz_km_0206sf.html
Nike. (2011). Official Website. Retrieved July 15, 2011 at http://store.nike.com/us/en_us/
Nike introduces 2015 global growth strategy. (2010, May 6). Sneaker News.
This would have a positive impact on sales. Other moves to reduce working capital, such as tightening the receivables turn, would not affect sales at all.
5. I would suggest that Reed control his inventory with computerized tracking using SKUs. He should know exactly what is inventory level is at all times. This would allow him to have sales when levels are too high, improving his inventory turnover.
6. Accounts receivable should be controlled with incentives. Jim can provide discounts for early payment that encourage customers to pay more quickly. Currently, payment should be reduced by about one month in order to achieve the industry average, and there is no reason why customers cannot pay within a month. Delinquent customers should be charged interest, as would happen if Reed had…
The lessons of Suarez's career seem especially apt for entrepreneurs in the hospitality industry, where consumer's tastes may be very fickle. Once upon a time, not so long ago, the idea of upscale Asian food, as opposed to take-out, would have been unthinkable. owever, Suarez, despite his innovation and emphasis on the unique, is not averse to altering even his 'whatever' approach, given the demand for franchising upscale restaurants, as people everywhere want to sample a bit of elegance and luxury. According to the article, one day Suarez suddenly though: "Imagine if we had one formula.' Suarez recognizes that a standardized, scalable restaurant is more saleable than a collection of quirky, individualistic culinary marvels," hence his new idea of embarking into hotel chains as well as chains of his most popular restaurant Prime " (anft, 2003).. is willingness to constantly shatter his own old paradigms demonstrates why Suarez has sustained…
Hanft, Adam. (Oct 2003) "The Zentrepreneur." Inc. Magazine. Retrieved 15 Mar 2007 at http://www.inc.com/magazine/20031001/zentrepreneur_Printer_Friendly.html
This article provides a refreshing profile of what it calls the second type of entrepreneurs, what it calls a Zentrepreneurs, who may not have always known what enterprise was their reason for being (unlike the first, highly planned kind), but who have "a wide-angle view of things" and are processing and scanning" the commercial environment "all the time" (Hanft, 2003). Phil Suarez is one of the leaders of the culinary world in fine dining. His most recent venture is a high-end Asian restaurant named 66, and 66 deploys the type of Asian fusion cuisine that takes even the most jaded palates by surprise. Yet although Suarez has an empire, but it is an empire without a plan.
On one hand, it is somewhat frustrating to read this article, although the account of the meal had by the author and the Zentrepreneur is certainly entertaining. How is it possible to find feasible advice from the career of a man who seems to take whatever life offers him? However, it provides important instruction how simply being responsive to the changing needs of the marketplace and tastes, without obsessing can be financially fruitful. The lessons of Suarez's career seem especially apt for entrepreneurs in the hospitality industry, where consumer's tastes may be very fickle. Once upon a time, not so long ago, the idea of upscale Asian food, as opposed to take-out, would have been unthinkable. However, Suarez, despite his innovation and emphasis on the unique, is not averse to altering even his 'whatever' approach, given the demand for franchising upscale restaurants, as people everywhere want to sample a bit of elegance and luxury. According to the article, one day Suarez suddenly though: "Imagine if we had one formula.' Suarez recognizes that a standardized, scalable restaurant is more saleable than a collection of quirky, individualistic culinary marvels," hence his new idea of embarking into hotel chains as well as chains of his most popular restaurant Prime " (Hanft, 2003).. His willingness to constantly shatter his own old paradigms demonstrates why Suarez has sustained cranky restaurant reviewers and the upswings and downswings of a volatile industry.
Aside the attraction of customers, the money invested in marketing have created the desired outcome of a strong and reputable brand. Another pivotal element in the financial strategies has been that of maximizing the efficiency of managing inventories. This was necessary in order to continually strengthen the brand as well as achieve the profitability goals. Alongside with operating principles, supply-chain renovation and inventory management, financial management represents the pillar of the Nike business model (Filbeck, Krueger and Preece, 2007).
It is extremely difficult to generalize the approaches of multinational organizations to financial management as each individual entity will employ those courses of action which best suit its needs as well as its characteristics. Whilst Ford continued to invest its resources in the manufacturing of large and luxurious vehicles in an attempt to drive the market, McDonald's has recognized the necessity in satisfying customer needs and has as such…
Adams, B., 2007, McDonald's Strange Menu Around the World, Trifter, http://www.economywatch.com/finance/financial-management.html last accessed on July 13, 2009
Filbeck, G., Krueger, T., Preece, D., 2007, CFO Magazine's "Working Capital Survey": Do Selected Firms Work for Shareholders? Quarterly Journal of Business and Economics, Vol. 46
Nizamuddin, A.M., 2007, Multinational Corporations and Economic Development: The Lessons of Singapore, International Social Science Review, Vol. 82
Schindehutte, M., Morris, M.H., Kocak, A., 2008, Understanding market-Driving Behavior: The Role of Entrepreneurship, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 46
Financial Management: atios, isk and Diversification
Financial atios elevant to Small Businesses and Large Corporations
In an attempt to determine the performance of his or her business, a small business owner can utilize ratios such as the current ratio and the profit margin ratio. The profit margin in the words of Needles and Powers (2010) "shows the percentage of each sales dollar that results in net income." For a small business owner, this ratio would be an appropriate measure of the profitability of his or her business. The current ratio as Stickney et al. (2009) point out helps in the measurement of a firm's ability to settle its short-term debts/obligations. A small business owner interested in determining the ability of the business to settle its everyday bills and other obligations would find this ratio useful. On the other hand, a manager of a large corporation would be interested in ratios…
Graham, J. & Smart, S.B. (2011). Introduction to Corporate Finance (3rd ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Needles, B.E. & Powers, M. (2010). Financial Accounting (11th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Stickney, C.P., Weil, R.L., Schipper, K. & Francis, J. (2009). Financial Accounting: An Introduction to Concepts, Methods, and Uses (13th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Shim, J.K. & Siegel, J.G. (2008). Financial Management (3rd ed.). Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series.
The ratios that derive from the financial accounting statements are used frequently in finance to determine the health of a company (Russo, n.d). hen a lender wants to know what interest rate to charge a borrower, it looks at the liquidity and solvency ratios of the company to determine the likelihood of default, and assigns the interest rate based on that analysis. This is just another example of how the information that accountants compile and audit is used in financial management.
The same can be said for the investments side of finance. For example, when one wants to invest in a company, or in derivatives relating to that company, accounting information is critical. Usually this is financial accounting information, but if managerial accounting data can be found then that is also sometimes used. Formulas such as Black-Scholes are used to value derivate holdings of companies for the production of financial…
Russo, S. (no date). The importance of financial information. Valencia College. Retrieved February 5, 2013 from http://faculty.valenciacollege.edu/srusso/ch18bus.htm
Simpson, S. (2011). The difference between finance and economics. Investopedia. Retrieved February 5, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com /articles/economics/11/difference-between-finance-and-economics.asp#axzz2K45yGnjc
e. they ignore other key indicators and measures of financial performance. Other equally important measures and/or indicators of performance in this case include but they are not limited to employee morale, client service and satisfaction, quality of goods or products, etc.
Another key limitation of ratios is that they are only useful when it comes to the comparison of firms operating in the same industry. Utilizing ratios in the analysis of financial statements of companies in different industries could lead to a distortion of the information desired. This is more so the case given that entities in different industries are more often than not exposed to different regulations, market conditions, etc. In practice, finding two companies that are identical in every way is impossible.
atios could also be affected by changes in price levels. According to Lasher (2010), financial statements are often distorted by inflation. In the author's words, "during…
Lasher, W.R. (2010). Practical Financial Management (6th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Siegel, J.G. & Shim, J.K. (2006). Accounting Handbook (4th ed.). New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
Significance of Interest to the economy:
Interest rates keep on changing with the passage of time; the rates which were present a month ago are quite different from the current rates. This is because the interest rates change with the change in the growth of the economy. The expectations of lenders and borrowers regarding the future prices also affect the interest rates (Trainer, 2012).
The interest rates in U.S. are affected by the values of the dollar, by foreign interest rates and also by the close examination of the monetary policy actions which are taken by the Federal eserve. In our market economy a great role is played by the interest rates. Interest rates work just like traffic signals. The way in which the signals direct the traffic on intersecting roads, similarly interest rates manage the flow of money to borrowers from savers. Usually in the fund movement,…
Trainer, R. (2012). The Basics of Interest Rates. Federal Reserve Bank of Newyork. Taken from: http://ecedweb.unomaha.edu/ve/library/boir.pdf
Risk Institute. (2012). Sources and effects of interest rate risk. The Principles for the Management of Interest Rate Risk. Taken from: http://riskinstitute.ch/138860.htm
It is hoped that the value added by the UDA system will help to incease sales of the coe poduct. The division manage of Gadgets has a valid point in egads to the oveall impact on the Division's pofits. He had a valid eason fo equesting this exception to the ules. It may at fist appea that the Gadget Division manage is acting out of self-inteest and potectionism. Howeve, it may be that he tuly does have the best inteests of the entie oganization in mind.
If Gadgets fails to poduce a poduct that will incease sales of the coe poduct then the entie oganization may be in jeopady. If the exclusion is allowed, then the Gadget Division would have moe money at thei disposal fo bette eseach and development. The Gadget Division has to get it ight the fist time. Theefoe it seems easonable to allow the Gadget Division…
references. One must remember that there are already substitute projects available on the market. However, GMC has established brand equity and this will help to boost sales, even though a similar product is already on the market. Let us assume that the price of the UDA falls to $600 instead of $500.
Best Case Scenario
In the words of Gallagher and Andrew (2007), "the equity multiplier indicates the amount of financial leverage a firm has." In regard to asset turnover, Wal-Mart seems more efficient than Target in the utilization of assets to generate revenues.
Common size analysis completed using a spreadsheet.
From the analysis, several conclusions can be drawn. For instance, Wal-Mart should consider reducing its cost of revenue. This is more so the case given that in comparison to Target, a significant chunk of Wal-Mart's total revenue is 'shaved-off' by the said costs/expenses. From the analysis, it is also clear that Target's net income in relation to total revenues is significantly higher than that of Wal-Mart. In that regard, Wal-Mart should consider reducing its expenses so as to enhance its bottom line.
Baker, H.K. & Powell, G. (2009). Understanding Financial Management: A Practical Guide. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Baker, H.K. & Powell, G. (2009). Understanding Financial Management: A Practical Guide. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Gallagher, T.J. & Andrew, J.D. (2007). Financial Management: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Minnesota: Freeload Press.
For example, if spending is encouraged, in the form of lower interest rates, then inflation is likely to grow, at least in the short-term, before the government has a chance to regulate this problem and move interest rates in a different direction. With higher inflation, the purchasing power of the individuals is affected, which might, in turn, lead to a decrease in aggregate demand over time.
At the same time, interest rates are also important because of the impact they can have on other rates, such as the currency exchange rate. If the Central ank increases the interest rate, then investors may move towards that particular currency that offers a higher return on their investment (due to the higher interest rate). They may decide to sell the currency or currencies they are investing in at the present time in order to move towards this more profitable currency.
The fact that…
1. Piana, Valentino. 2002. Interest rates. Economics Web Institute. On the Internet at http://www.economicswebinstitute.org/glossary/interest.htm . Last retrieved on February 20, 2013
2. The Importance of Interest Rates. On the Internet at https://www.woodgundy.cibc.com/wg/reference-library/topics/investment-solutions/fixed-income/importance-of-interest-rates.html . Last retrieved on February 20, 2013
Piana, Valentino. 2002. Interest rates. Economics Web Institute. On the Internet at
b. If 200 is considered 100%, the total current assets in 2007 amounted to 137%, a 37% increase from the previous year. At the same times, with 200 as 100, 2007 total assets were 114%, a small increase compared to the previous year. The same is noticeable for total liabilities.
c. The trend showed gradual increases for all components of the balance sheet, showing a regular and sustained development of the company. Some of these however had a more sustained ascending trend.
Revenue from services
Net earnings b. As compared to the 2004 base, net earnings have increased in 200 with almost 200%, similar figures being noticeable in comparison with 2004 to many of the other figures on the statement of earnings.
-2. a. days' sales in receivables 2007 =
220,385/$3,233 = 8.17 days' sales in receivables 200 =
240,30/$,027 = 39.88 b. accounts receivables turnover 2007 =…
6-19. a. 2007-2.4
2005-2.08 b. The sales to working capital is significantly lower than the industry average, which shows that the money used to fund operations are not turned into sales at the same rate that the industry average reflects. The company has a problem in this sense.
For a corporation, this increased their bottom line results and the total amounts of income they are generating. When this happens, investors are pleased with the direction of the firm and will reward the managers with lucrative pay packages and other benefits. ("omney Forgoes Full Charity," 2012)
The reason why this is important is because corporations' can avoid having to pay the same taxes twice under the progressive system. The way that this occurs is the company can take a write off for operations they have overseas. This is because they can argue that the income was not generated within the United States. When this happens, they will be taxed at a lower rate for any kind of profits from these locations. ("omney Forgoes Full Charity," 2012)
If a firm is generating a certain percentage of their earnings using this strategy, they can reduce their tax liabilities dramatically. This is…
Diversification is a technique that reduces risks in an investment portfolio. By spreading out the types of investments in your portfolio, you protect yourself from the losses incurred by any one investment suddenly tanking. Diversification can be done in a several different ways. One common way is to vary investment vehicles; stocks, bonds, and cash. Another way is to take on stocks of different risk levels. You might hold a mix of large cap, small cap, and growth fund investments. Again, a crash in one area will be offset by stability or even gains in another. Another diversification strategy is holding companies of different industries or geographies. You might hold companies from steel, agribusiness or toys. You alternatively might hold companies from, China, India, and Canada. This is why diversification is called "a free lunch"; you are always protected from loss without automatically reducing returns on your investments.
Commercial lenders lend money with the intention of making money in return; they also carry out a kind of business. But when a government sponsored body lends money, then the reasons behind existence are slightly different. Government usually lends money to those businesses which are facing financing issues. Such businesses are often those which are considered by the government officials as potential enough to bring in economic benefits in the area (Bizcoach, 2013).
Calculating the finance requirement is a great challenge for the managers of the organizations. The institutions which are of complex nature face difficulty in calculating the exact finance requirement. An example of such institution would be capital markets which are quite complex. The sum of external financing depends on the operating budget of the business and on the existing capital resources. If a company has a solid operating budget, then it would be easier to…
eHow. (2013). How to Calculate External Financing. Taken from: http://www.ehow.com/how_5143268_calculate-external-financing.html
Bizcoach. (2013). External sources of funds. Taken from: http://www.bizcoach.org/businessplan/externalsources.htm
Financial Management - Personal Investment Decision for a Public Company
ationale for Toyota
Stock price analysis
Toyota Motor Corporation, which is recognized as is one of the most exhilarating productions in the automobile business these days. The company is one of the most economical corporations all over the world and has appreciated a record setting achievement for a very long time. In the previous years, the worldwide automobile industry has been overwhelmed by soaring gas prices, and hard-hitting environmental protection laws. With that even being said, it has not been a walk in the park for Toyota, but to no gain the company has been one of the most effective establishments so far. Toyota Motor Corporation has also been one of the manufacturing leaders in creating new and innovative technologies that take advantage of the productions existing barriers. There are a lot of things…
Bryce, H.J. (2007). "Financial and Strategic Management for Nonprofit Organizations." Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall,.
Campos, F. (2010). "As funding dries up, nonprofits must work harder.." Pacific Business News,, 34(8), 34-56.
Elliot, S. (2014). Toyota Motor Corporation. The New York Times, 34(9).
Herrold, C.Y. (2012). "How to Carve a Pie." Foundation News and Commentary,. Foundation News and Commentary, 41(4), 45-67.
Financial Management in Healthcare
Medicare and Medicaid are programs run by the government and which provide medical services as well as services that are health care related to particular groups of individuals in the United States. It is imperative to note that these two programs are exceedingly dissimilar but are supervised and overseen by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services which is a department that is found within the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States. The origin of these two programs dates back to the year 1965 when they were created after President Lyndon B. Johnson signed changes to the Social Security Act (Crosta, 2015) for the national health care program. This program was principally created at the time when individuals who were aged 65 years and above found it impossible to obtain private coverage for health insurance. In particular, this was a time when…
Wareham, T. (2014). Funding the Transformation: Three financial considerations will shape hospitals' transition success. Trustee.
Scamperie, K. (2013). The fee-for-service shift to bundled payments: financial considerations for hospitals. Journal of Health Care Finance 39(4):55-67.
Addicott, R., Buck, D., Goodwin, N., Harrison, T., Ross, S., Sonola, L., ... & Curry, N. (2013). Transforming our health care system. The King's Fund.
To demonize the concept of universal healthcare with the word 'rationing' "buys into the myth that we don't have rationing of medical services now. But we do. It takes many different forms. It is commonplace for health insurance companies and HMOs to deny patients beneficial treatment. They find a variety of excuses for doing so, and may not openly admit it, but we all know that it happens. Medicare rations drugs by requiring co-payments that many patients can't afford. Emergency rooms ration care by making people wait so long in line that some just give up and go away" (Singer 2011).
The recent decimation of many retirement funds means that more and more members of the elderly are eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid. The elderly on fixed incomes often struggle to afford medications not currently covered within the provisions of Medicare because of the "doughnut hole" in…
Kane, Robert, Rosalie Kane, Neva Kaye, Robert Mollica, Trish Riley, Paul Saucier, Kimberly
Irvin Snow & Louise Starr. (1996). Managed care.
Retrieved August 12, 2011 at http://aspe.hhs.gov/Progsys/Forum/basics.htm
Leonard. Sean. (2011). How to fix Medicare. Salon. Retrieved August 12, 2011 at http://www.salon.com/technology/how_the_world_works/2011/05/25/the_long_march_to_healthcare_reform/index.html
financial management methods, concepts and techniques are explained, their uses are analyzed and explained in detail. This paper also highlights the importance of these methods in the financial management and financial manager's decision making process. The case of Suarez Manufacturing is used to further explain the use of these methods.
Financial management is all about managing the finance of the company by making various investing, financing (debt financing or equity financing) or distributing (Dividend) decisions. The finance managers of a company are constantly involved in making various financial calculations so as to come up to those fundamental financial management decisions. (Correia et al., 2007)
Financing the projects of the company can be done by debt financing, equity financing or a combination of both types of finances. Debt and Equity finance can be obtained in many ways and the valuation of both debt and equity market values of the company can…
Chandra, P. (2011). Financial Management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.
Correia, C., Flynn, D., Iliana, E. & Wormland, M. (2007). Financial Management. South Africa: Juta and Company Limited
Ehrhardt, M.C. & Brigham, E.F. (2011). Financial Management. Singapore: South Western Cengage Learning
Khan, M.Y., & Jain, P.K. (2007). Financial Management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.
The relevance of financial ratios cannot be overstated when it comes to the measurement of an entity's performance. It should, however, be noted that not all performance measures can be expressed as a ratio. This text concerns itself with various other performance measures: operating leverage, eturn on Investment (OI), EVA, and gross profit margin.
According to Shim and Siegel (2008, p. 198) "operating leverage, a measure of operating risk, arises from the company's use of fixed operating costs." As the authors further point out, a simple indication of the said financial measure would be the "change in sales on earnings before interest and taxes" (Shim and Siegel, 2008, p. 198). It is important to note that a high degree of operating leverage is seen as an indicator that small changes in sales result in significant changes in not only EBIT, but also return on…
Brigham, E.B. & Ehrhardt, M. (2013). Financial Management: Theory and Practice (14th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Kalpan Financial Limited. (2012). Performance Management. Retrieved from http://kfknowledgebank.kaplan.co.uk/KFKB/Wiki%20Pages/Financial%20Performance%20Indicators%20%28FPIs%29.aspx#Maximising_x0020_shareholder_x0020_wealth_0_1_0_1_1_0_0_0_0_0_0_0_0_0_0_0
Shim, J.K. & Siegel, J.G. (2008). Financial Management (3rd ed.). Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Education Series.
Assumption Use in the Financial Plan
Additional Assumption in Sensitivity Analysis
FIRST TWELVE MONTH CASHFLOW RESULT
HOW MUCH SHOULD NORMAN PAY FOR THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT?
FORECASTED CASHFLOW FOR THE NEXT FIVE-Year
CASH FLOW WITH A LOAN AT 8% PER ANNUM
THE SALES PRICE AND kg SALES GRADUALLY INCREASE AT 5%
THE SALES PRICE PER kg INCREASE AT 10% UT THE UNIT SALES REMAIN AT 5%.
Investment Value Using At Discounted Rate 5%
est Financial Plan and Option
Assumption Use In The Financial Plan
Additional Assumption in Sensitivity Analysis
It is further assumed that price will increase gradually at the rate of 8% per annum and sales will increase at 7% per annum.
For the purpose of analysis, both the sales price and Kg sales will gradually increase at 5%.
Another scenario will be that the sales price per Kg increase at 10% but the unit sales…
Saltelli, A., Ratto, M., Andres, T., Campolongo, F., Cariboni, J., Gatelli, D. Saisana, M., and Tarantola, S., 2008, Global Sensitivity Analysis.The Primer, John Wiley & Sons.
Sensitivity analysis. (2014). Retrieved Janaury30, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensitivity_analysis
€ Exchange Rate $
Kuali Financial Management System
The horizontal flow refers to the horizontal flow of information (Lamb, 2009), that transmits information across the organization, or in the case of the Kuali Financial Management System, across different organizations. According to Lamb (2009), "Horizontal flow of information refers to the flow of information across various firms colleges and universities. Since, many colleges and universities would not like to disclose all the information that they hold, Kuali information systems make sure that whatever is freely available from a particular college or university is also made available to all the other members. At the same time, it ensures privacy and security of data by not broadcasting private or sensitive information." (Lamb, 2009)
According to Haag, Cummings, McCubbrey, Donovan, Ponsonneault (2006), the horizontal flow of information is a function of divisions, the internal units, and teams or groupings of individuals, which work in…
Haag, S., Cummings, M., McCubbrey, D.J., Donovan, R.G., & Pinsonneault, A. (2006) Management Information Systems for the Information Age (3rd ed.) Canada: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
Hollamon (2007) What is Kuali Enterprise Workflow? http://confluence.arizona.edu/confluence/display/KUALI/What+is+Kuali+Enterprise+Workflow
Lamb (2009) Information flows & Financial Management. http://www.mightystudents.com/essay/information.flows.financial.95945
Healthcare Financial Management
To quote Jonathan Clark at the beginning of his article, "Improving the revenue cycle can be a daunting task due to the scope and complexity of the interdepartmental process." Of the suggestions offered by the authors, which concept(s) give you the greatest insight into creating an improved evenue Cycle process in the organization where you work (or one in which you are familiar)? Be sure to identify which article or author you are referencing.
In his comprehensive advisory article to improve the medical industry's revenue capturing capabilities, entitled Strengthening the evenue Cycle: A 4-Step Method for Optimizing Payment, Jonathan Clark provides a series of sensible solutions to the ongoing dilemma of payment optimization. David Hammer also provides guidance to healthcare finance professional in his article The Next Generation of evenue Cycle Management, by reminding them that the key performance indicators (KPIs) which dictated policy in previous years…
Clark, J. (2008). Strengthening the revenue cycle: a 4-step method for optimizing payment. Healthcare Financial Management, 62(10), 44.
Hammer, D.C. (2007). The next generation of revenue cycle management. Healthcare Financial Management, 61(7), 49.
Seddon, J. (2008). Think system. Management Services, 52(2), 10.
Wilson, D.B. et al. (2004). 3 steps to profitable managed care contracts. Healthcare Financial Management, 58(5), 34.
This is important, because it is showing how there is an effective system. For evaluating, the overall scope of the decisions that are being made. However, after a stated amount of time is when everyone will become friendly with all of the applications. This is when you would want to be evaluating the effectiveness of these changes. These different elements are important, because they are illustrating how the Kuali protocol can study and improve upon these transformations. (Hollwaman, 2011) (McNeally, 2011)
Clearly, when using Kuali solutions there will be an emphasis on having everyone work together. In the case of the University of Arizona, they have been utilizing this as a tool to effectively integrate the various departments. The reason why, is because a more gradualist approach is being used to deal with these challenges. This is the point that the various staff members can be integrated as a part…
Hollawman, A. (2011). What is Kuali Enterprises. University fo Arizona. Retrieved from: http://confluence.arizona.edu/confluence/display/KUALI/What+is+Kuali+Enterprise+Workflow
McNeally, K. (2011). A Flexible Financial System. Nacubo. Retrieved from: http://www.nacubo.org/Business_Officer_Magazine/Magazine_Archives/February_2006/A_Flexible_Financial_System.html
Some hospitals create a "contingency" budget, which can be offset by a few of these patients.
The percentage of non-paying patients can vary a good deal, particularly in a city- or county-owned hospital. This number may not vary, and typically in a budget the hospital CEO and/or CFO negotiates with the governmental bodies for regular subsidies to cover.
The billing cycles can be difficult to predict, particularly for Medicare and Medicaid patients, where there are famous irregular delays on payment. It is possible, as noted above, to go to outside banks or other bodies to get a/R funding to cover these contingencies
Particularly in older hospitals, the amount in the depreciation account may not be enough to cover unforeseen expenses, such as asbestos removal or deterioration. Hospitals can address this by auditing their depreciation accounts and making a better assessment of what might be needed in coming budgets.
MedCath. "MedCath Corporation." 2006. medcath.com. 15 November 2007 www.medcath.com.
Mullins, D.W. "Financial Leverage, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and the Cost of Equity Capital." Harvard Business Review (1980): n.p.
Schneider, EC, Zaslavsky, AM and Epstein, AM. "Use of High-Cost Operative Procedures by Medicare Beneficiaries Enrolled in for-Profit and Not-for-Profit Health Plans." NEJM (2004): 143-150.
Shah, BR, Glickman, SW, Lian, L, Gibler, WB, Ohman, EM, Pollack, CV, Roe, MT and Peterson, ED. "The Impact of for-Profit Hospital Status on the Care and Outcomes of Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction." JACC (2007): 1462-1468.
It may be most appropriate when there is a question of adding a new service or getting rid of a current service, but makes less sense for a department which is expected to continue in service.
Incremental budgeting is a part of the rolling forecast system. If there is a sudden spike in revenue, for example, it may make sense to do an incremental budget to take into account the new variable.
-down budgeting means that the CEO or CFO dictates how much money is present, and allocates it to each department. This has the benefit of control of expenditures, but the drawback that the department managers feel no responsibility to hew to a budget in which they had little or no input.
A s-up: This method starts at the department level and builds to an overall picture. While each department may want to have its needs fulfilled, there needs…
Economist. (2007, January 18). The Ivory Trade. Economist, p. n.p.
Fleisher, C.S. (1991). Using an Agency-Based Approach to Analyze Collaborative Federated Interorganizational Relationships. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 116-130.
Malkiel, B. (1996). A Random Walk Down Wall Street. New York: WW Norton.
Robinson, J.C. (1997). Physician-Hospital Integration and the Economic Theory of the Firm. Medical Care Research and Review, 3-24.
Under the operating activities, the Company may be incurring increase in sales but not generating enough cash because most of the sales are tied up in Accounts Receivables (AR), as evidenced in the increase in AR. Or that the Company may have decided to transact business on cash basis or pay its debt to its suppliers as evidenced on decrease of accounts payable, thus cash outflow incurs. As a result, instead of cash produced, operating activities used $114,000 of its $200,000 fund.
In analyzing the investing and financing activities, the Company decided to outlay $450,000 cash to purchase an equipment and provide cash dividends to shareholders amounting to $250,000, contributing to Cash' further decrease.
With the previous illustration, we can see that the Company may be incurring an income of $100,000 however; it also indicates a decreased of Cash from $200,000 to $21,000. A negative or decrease in Cash Flow…
Valix, Conrado T, (2005). Theory of Accounts. GIC Enerprises & Co., Inc.
Financial Statements. (2007). Retrieved November 25, 2007 from https://www.pwcglobal.com
Financial Statements. (2007). Retrieved November 25, 2007 from http://www.investopedia.com
The structural issues that underlie the crisis remain unresolved. The austerity measures that have been implemented have failed miserably to restore business confidence -- they are crippling any economic recovery and have not given investors any reason to be confident about resolving the long-run debt problems faced by any of the peripheral Eurozone nations. The specter of increased Eurozone interest rates to meet the needs of Germany will only hurt the recovery of the peripheral economies further. As a result, a resolution of the sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone does not appear to be on the horizon. Economists have made a number of proposals for the resolution of the crisis, none of which appear to have any political traction: a single Eurobond (De Grauwe & Moesen, 2009); addressing the divergence between Euro-level monetary policy and sovereign-level fiscal policy…
Arezki, R.; Amadou, N. & Candelon, B. (2010). Bad news spreads. Finance & Development. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.perjacobsson.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2010/12/pdf/arezki.pdf
BBC. (2011). Greece debt rating cut further by Moody's. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12664681
CIA World Factbook. (2011). Greece: Economy. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html
De Grauwe, P. (2010). The Greek crisis and the future of the Eurozone. U. Leuven. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.econ.kuleuven.be/ew/academic/intecon/Degrauwe/PDG-papers/Discussion_papers/EuroIntelligence-March-2010.pdf
There are also non-qualitative, or financial risks, associated with foreign currency loans. Namely, because foreign currencies can be effected by such uncontrollable as political, governmental and natural factors, a foreign currency can suddenly change in a manner that either significantly benefits or disadvantages the borrower. For example, often time the rate of a foreign currency is based on such things as internal, regional or international political conditions. If a particular country has a significant political upheaval, the instability associated with such an event can have a negative impact on a nation's economy, which of course effects the foreign currency exchange rate and, thus, the borrowers investment. When such an event happens to a nation with a dominant currency, this change can have devastating effects on a loan, as was the case following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States.
Another means to reduce risk is to use…
Almekinders, Geert J. (1995): Foreign Exchange Intervention: Theory and Evidence. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.
Eijffinger, Sylvester. Foreign Exchange Intervention: Objectives and Effectiveness. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc.
Strategic Financial Management
Barriers to entry are situations that make it difficult for rivals to penetrate in market. These are the reasons, which inhibit the entry of business to an industry. Theoretically, if an industry is showing a rising trend of profits, it indicates that demand for it products are well and the goods can be sold at a cost generating profits. Thus there will be an inducement for firms to enter this industry to have share of these profits. With the arrival of new firms in the industry, supply increases resulting in a fall of prices. Hence, competitive environment has been created with demand meeting the requirement and prices falling. Barriers to entry are the main reason for market control and the resulting inefficiencies that creates. Generally, monopoly, oligopoly, monopsony, and oligopsony are dependent on the market control to varied barriers to entry. In contrast, perfect competition, monopolistic competition,…
Bain, J. (1956) "Barriers to New Competition" Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass.
Demsetz, Harold (1982) "Barriers to Entry" The American Economic Review. Volume. 72; No. 1, pp: 47-57
Geroski, Paul. Schwalbach, Joachim. (1989) Luxembourg Barriers to entry and intensity of competition in European Markets. Washington, DC: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; European Community Information Service.
Gilbert, R. And X. Vives. (1986) "Entry Deterrence and the Free Rider Problem" Review of Economic Studies Volume: 53; pp.71-83.
Programme: Professional Diploma Management
ACCOUNTABILITY AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
For a very long time now since the past up until the present moment, budgets had had a key and integral role to play in accounting and also management control. Budgeting is an aspect or notion that is by now ingrained and deep-rooted in the viewpoint of business (DeWaal, 2005; Becker, Messner and Schaffer, 2009). The following paper will seek to show what budgeting is, its importance and also its application. Furthermore, the paper will seek to demonstrate the application and integration of input data into a practical budget. In conclusion, the paper will demonstrate a hypothetical budget prepared on a spreadsheet and explain how the budget was prepared and calculated. It will also show the knowledge gained and the interesting aspects noticed whilst preparing the hypothetical budget.
Budgeting Concept, its role and use
A budget can be defined as a management's…
Becker, S, Messner, M and Schaffer, U, 2009, The Evolution of a Management Accounting Idea: The Case of Beyond Budgeting, Working paper.
DeThomas, A, Derammelaer, S, 2012, Writing a Convincing Business Plan, New York: Barons Educational English.
DeWaal, A, 2005, Is Your Organization Ready for Beyond Budgeting? Measuring Business Excellence, 9(2), 58-67.
Dyson, J, R, 2010, Accounting for non-accounting students, New York: Prentice Hall.
conflict of interest is at the core of nearly every ethical dilemma. A conflict of interest, simply put, is a situation in which the decision maker has two or more competing interests. Market timing, late trading, insider trading, illegal trading, fraud, partial disclosure, non-disclosure...the manifestation of conflicts of interest is seemingly endless. The business landscape today is a minefield of ethical disasters, some of which have already occurred, some of which wait quietly in the shadows to erupt into scandal.
In the summer of 2002, when Congress was attempting to decide how to clean up the shady financial practices of Corporate America, mutual fund company lobbyists convinced lawmakers to exempt their area of the financial services industry. As of September 2003, when the Attorney General for New York State, Eliot Spitzer, revealed his "stunning" charges of illegal trading in mutual funds, this industry has occupied center stage in the spotlight…
Anand, V. (May 2003). Mutual Funds Face Soft-Dollar Disclosure Rule. Pensions & Investments, 31 (10), 1-2.
Anand, V. (Dec 2003). Spitzer: 'I Spy DC Fees'. Pensions & Investments, 31 (25), 2-3.
Borrus, A. & Dwyer, P. (Dec 2003). The Critical Battle For Reform. Business Week, 3860, 30- 32.
Coffin, B. (Feb 2004). Mutual Fund Industry Under Scrutiny. Risk Management, 51(2), 37.
Finally, anybody hoping to conserve money in a recession must avoid spontaneous expenses, whether at the grocery store or the mall. Purchases should always reflect what one actually needs and never spontaneous impulses to buy anything for which the consumer did not already have a conscious need in advance. Purchasing milk at the grocery store after forgetting to list it is one thing; purchasing a new pair of shoes at the mall "because they were on sale" when one already has a closet full of shoes at home is quite another matter.
Clark, K., Gibbs, L., and Poppick, . "Three reasons to LOVE the slowdown." (28 ep
2011). Retrieved from CNN Money Magazine at:
Kadlec, D. "Five Ways to Prepare for a Double Dip." (20 ep 2011). Retrieved from Time Moneyland at:http://moneyland.time.com/2011/09/20/5-ways-to-prepare-
Nance-Ash, . "New Freshman 15: Financial Tips for College tudents." (1 Aug 2011).…
Clark, K., Gibbs, L., and Poppick, S. "Three reasons to LOVE the slowdown." (28 Sep
2011). Retrieved from CNN Money Magazine at:
Kadlec, D. "Five Ways to Prepare for a Double Dip." (20 Sep 2011). Retrieved from Time Moneyland at: http://moneyland.time.com/2011/09/20/5-ways-to-prepare -
Financial managers and CEO's play important roles in ensuring that organizations meet their specific goals. The skill levels for both positions are high and require a great deal of patience and experience. The purpose of this discussion is to determine whether being a financial manager is the best preparation for later becoming a CEO.
ole of the Financial Manager
According to the Bureau of Labor, financial managers must have a bachelor's degree in a field such as business administration, accounting, economics or finance. Although, as the business world becomes more competitive, organizations are requiring financial managers to have Master's degrees and a great deal of experience before they can become financial managers. The Bureau also explains that financial managers are vital to the success of any organization and their jobs involve supervising the preparation of financial reports, direct investment activities, and implement cash management strategies. As computers are increasingly used…
Campbell, M.W., Kowalski, R.B. Healthcare Financial Management Association Apr 2000
Financial Managers. 2004. Bureau of Labor and Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos010.htm
Trending analysis through a balanced scorecard methodology is used to evaluate the level of performance of each practice relative to another based on patients served, costs, and support costs. The use of balanced scorecards as part of the strategic planning process in healthcare organizations is a best practice that delivers insights and intelligence that drives ROI strategies (Niles, 2010). This is certainly the case with the healthcare organization interviewed.
3. What are some of the most important practices or activities related to this function? What is your involvement?
Managing the underlying IT systems that make the reporting performance evaluation and improvement processes possible is the most important activity related to that specific function. As the acting CIO for the healthcare organization, the person interviewed must also manage the teams that keep the computer systems up and running over time. The have completely accountability and responsibility for keeping the entire IT…
In other words, he expects for his efforts to be accordingly remunerated or rewarded with a promotion, a full time job offer for a trainee and so on (Stuart-Kotze, 2008).
In implementing these individual needs, organizational managers have developed numerous incentive plans, such as the offering of increased wages, premiums, bonuses or promotions.
The four above presented theories are relevant in the context of driving the individual, which is then capable to influence the organizational behavior of his employing company. The responses generated by the economic entities relative to the motivational factors vary in terms of intensity, ability to implement or resources possessed, but fact remains that all organizations have attempted to integrate stimuli that increase the performances of the workers. The ultimate goal of each organization offering incentive plans to its staff members is that of best benefiting from their intense efforts.
Aside the offering of a pleasant, yet…
Fabozzi, F.J., Peterson, P.P., 2003, Financial Management and Analysis, 2nd Edition, John Willey and Sons Inc.
Hariss, J.O., Hartman, S.J., 2001, Organizational Behavior, 1st Edition, Taylor & Francis Inc.
Stuart-Kotze, R., 2008, Motivation Theory, http://www.goal-setting-guide.com/motivation-theory.htmllast accessed on September 15, 2008
2008, Official Website of the Microsoft Corporation, http://www.microsoft.com/en/us/default.aspxlast accessed on September 15, 2008