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There are many examples of God's love, but much violence as well. The Bible is full of stories of warring peoples, fighting to the death for their beliefs. Persecution of the Jews, seen on a massive scale as late as the 20th century's Holocaust, was fueled by the New Testament, as Jews were blamed for the crucifixion death of Jesus Christ. Even after World War II, Jews in the U.S. faced persecution through restricted access to certain colleges, clubs and organizations. The Ku Klux Klan, known for targeting African-Americans, has also targeted Jews.
The 20th century saw considerable violence in Northern Ireland, as Protestants and Catholics murdered each other in the name of their respective branches of Christianity. Like radical Muslims, a relatively small number of people believed that violence was the answer, and the only way to demonstrate their commitment to their God.
The Westboro Baptist Church has garnered…
Jonsson, P. (2010). Why is the Westboro Baptist Church picketing Elizabeth Edwards' funeral?
Christian Science Monitor 12/11/10.
Khan, D. (2008). The five pillars of Islam. Faces 24(6), pp. 12-13.
Rid, T. (2010). Cracks in the Jihad. Wilson Quarterly 34(1).
Islam in the Age of Globalization
The three major religions in the 21st century are all Abrahamic in historical basis. These religions, Judaism, Islam and Christianity remain at the edge of political, social, and cultural issues, particularly now in that globalism has become so predominant. These religions are noted as Abrahamic because each uses the basic teachings of the Prophet Abraham in their general world view. All three faiths are monotheistic and together account for over half the world's population, or combined in excess of 4 billion people. Within these three religions, despite much public disagreement, there are many areas of commonality (The Top 10 Organized eligions in the World, 1998). From a non-religious perspective, however, globalism has brought about some change in the perception of these religions based not necessarily on religion, but on marketing and consumerism.
One of the consequences of globalism in the world is the availability…
The Top 10 Organized Religions in the World. (1998, August 4). The Christian Science Monitor, p. B2.
Islamic Consumer Protest Hits West Where it Hurts. (2002, November 7). Retrieved from The Guardian UK: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2002/nov/07/internationalnews
Food, Fashion and Faith. (2007, August 2). Retrieved from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/node/9587818
How to Live According to the 5 Pillars of Islam: The Foundation of Islam Cannot be Laid in a Day. (2008). New York: Quick and Easy Guides.
Initially, there was no separation between religious and civil law within Islamic countries, however Turkey became a secular state during the twentieth century (Introduction).
Both Christians and Muslims believe that Jesus' birth was miraculous, that he was the Messiah, that he performed miraculous healings, and resurrected the dead (Introduction). However Muslims do not believe in original sin, that Jesus was killed during a crucifixion (but rather escaped and reappeared to his disciples without having first died), that Jesus was resurrected; or that salvation is dependent upon belief in the resurrection of Jesus (Introduction). The majority of Christians believe in the Trinity (three persons in one Godhead), the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, however Muslims believe that God (Allah) is one and indivisible (Comparing). Christians believe in the identity of a comforter in the Holy Spirit, while Muslims believe in Muhammad as the comforter (Comparing).
Christians believe that Adam disobeyed God…
Comparing Christianity and Islam." Religious Tolerance. Retrieved November 30, 2006 at http://www.religioustolerance.org/comp_isl_chr.htm
Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed. "No other Gods before me: spheres of influence in the relationship between Christianity and Islam." Denver Journal of International Law and Policy. March 22, 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Grillo, Ralph. "Islam and transnationalism." Journal of Ethnic and Migration
Studies. September 1, 2004. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
This category is made up of people who have nothing and are in need of support from other in order to meet their basic needs. Given that they are the poor people who beg, they have the rights of asking for and receiving zakat even though some people believe that they have some of their basic needs.
Zakat is paid to draw the hearts of those people who have been inclined towards the Islamic faith. The amount is also paid to prevent or protect non-Muslims living in Muslim states from any harm. According to the opinion of many scholars, this amount should always be considered in cases where there is a need for it. Muslim converts sometimes become disconnected from their families and are deprived of any source of income ("Zakat or Charity" par, 26). Consequently, these people have the right of receiving the zakat tax…
Abdullah, Abdul a. "Treatises: Zakat and Fasting." Islam Future ? The Future for Islam. WordPress.com. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. .
Al-Bukhari, Sahih. "Five Pillars of Islam." Mb-soft.com. Mb-soft.com, 9 June 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. .
"RECIPIENTS of ZAKAAT." Bihar Anjuman: Nuturing a Culture of Mutual Respect. Bihar Anjuman. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. .
"Zakat (Alms)." Mission Islam. Mission Islam. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. .
When studying Islam, it is important to understand the essential elements of the faith, how they are practiced, and the distinctions among the three branches: Shiite Islam, Sunni Islam, and Sufism.
Tawhid -- strict monotheism of God. There is only one, unsurpassable, omniscient God that cannot be visualized or reified in any which manner (although Sunnis do believe that God has some form of body). There are no intermediaries between God and creations. Mohamed might have come the closest to that. Mohammed, God's Prophet, is the closest to perfection that any human can be. Angels are a central part to Islam thought to intercede in all matters of a human's existence. The Quran was divinely revealed to Mohammed, via the archangel Gabriel, and is God's final revelation. Mohammed as one (presumably the most perfect) of God's messengers, all of whom -- human (Shiites believe they are…
The groom is required to pay a dowry to the bride, as a form of consideration, and the amount is stipulated to within the marital contract.
Interestingly, a man may marry up to four women so long as he can treat them all equally. However, a woman may only marry one man. Divorces are allowed, but are easier for a man to initiate than the female. Popular media portrays Islam as a sexist culture that requires women to such practices as veiling and seclusion. However, there is great debate within the Islamic community on whether the holy texts actually justify these practices. In the twentieth century, social reformers argues against these and other sexist traditions, including polygamy. On the other hand, many individual women are striking a balance between tradition and living an active life within traditional modesty.
Clearly, Islamic traditions play an important part in society, especially when Muslims…
Turner, Colin. (2006): Islam: The Basics. London: Routledge.
Waines, David. (2003): An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weiss, Bernard G. (2002): Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers.
The Sawm is the Fourth Pillar of Islam and it teaches Muslims in regard to fasting (refraining from eating or drinking). The Ramadan is the ninth month in the Islamic lunar year and is believed to be the most important period of the year in Muslim tradition. Muslims are not allowed to eat, drink, or engage in sexual intercourse throughout daylight hours every day during the Ramadan. The person who abstains from eating, drinking, and sex during daylight hours at Ramadan also has to be moral, as any sort of immorality makes the fasting pointless.
The Fifth Pillar is the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. People understand this pilgrimage as a physical and spiritual journey to the holiest place in Islam. The Islamic world promotes the belief that any person who is a Muslim and who is physically able to travel to Mecca should do so at least once in…
Boyd Jenkins, Orville, "MAJOR TYPES OF ISLAM," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the Orville Jenkins website: http://orvillejenkins.com/outlineintro/types.html
Mason, Bethany, "Following the Prophet: A Comparison of Sunni and Shiite Muslims," Retrieved September 10, 2011, from the East Tennessee State University website: http://www.etsu.edu/writing/teaching&theory_s06/sunnis.htm
Penney, Sue, "Islam," Heinemann, 1999.
Ridenour, Fritz, "So What's the Difference?," Gospel Light, 2001.
Holy books contain the prophets' teachings" (Douglass). Islam has the Qur'an and Christians have the Bible. Douglass points out that both texts teach about "Adam, and that Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and others" (Douglass). Christians also believe in prayer, fasting, and alms - just not in the same way that Muslims do. Christians pray whenever they like and while the Bible teaches that believers should tithe 10% of their earnings, it is not a strict recommendation. Christians can also fast but it not required of them to do so at any particular time of year. Both religions warn against false prophets and worshipping the creation as opposed to the creator. Both religions believe in angelic beings and both religions believe in some type of day of judgment. Furthermore, both religions adopt a version of hell and heaven in the afterlife.
Christianity and Islam share many difference as well. hile Muslims…
Philips, Abu Ameenah Bilal. "The True Religion." IslamWorld.net. Site Accessed September 03, 2008. http://islamworld.net/docs/true.html
Besancon, Alain. "What Kind of Religion Is Islam?" Commentary. May 2004. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed September 03, 2008. http://search.epnet.com
Douglass, Susan. What is Islam? Faces. February 2008. EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed September 03, 2008.
Islam Religion and Death Penalty:
Islam is a term that comes from an Arabic root word that means peace and submission that have always been used as the universal Muslim greeting. Based on the origin of this word, the Islamic religion teaches that peace can only be found through submission to Allah (Almighty God) in soul, heart, and deed. As a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion, Islam is articulated by the Qur'an, which is a book regarded as the precise word of God. The religion is also articulated by various teachings and example of Muhammad who is regarded as the last prophet of God. An individual who believes in and consciously adheres to the teachings of the Islamic faith is called a Muslim (Huda par, 2).
Muslims believe that Islam is the total and universal mode of prehistoric faith, which was revealed in the ancient days across the globe. In addition,…
Huda. "Introduction to Islam." About.com - Islam. About.com, n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. .
"Islam and Capital Punishment." BBC News - Religions. BBC, 16 Sept. 2009. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. .
"The Role of the Death Penalty in the Quran." Human Rights in General. OCADP, n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. .
Schabas, William A. "Islam and the Death Penalty." William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal 9.1 (2000): 223-36. 2000. Web. 15 Apr. 2014. .
The most egregious sins that can be committed by a Muslim include to deny the unity of God by ascribing divine status to any person or object. This sin is called shirk. Emphasizing the importance of shirk to Muslim morality, all iconography is strictly forbidden in Islam. Iconography in a mosque, the Muslim place of worship, would be akin to idol worship. The second major sin of Islam is kufr, or atheism.
The religious beliefs of Islam are based around a core set of tenets known as the Five Pillars. The first pillar is the Shahadah: there is only one God, and the prophet Mohammed is God's messenger. At the same time, Islam encourages respect of and unity with "all prophets" of God and "all revealed scriptures," (p. 381).
The Second Pillar is prayer, five times a day. Ritual washing is also integral to Muslim prayer. When praying, the…
In the city of Medina, Muhammad united the warring tribes. Following eight years of fighting Mecca tribes the Muslims conquered Mecca. In the year 632, after returning to Medina from a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad became ill and died. At the time of his death, almost all of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to the Islamic faith. He had united the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity hegemon (ibid, 34-40).
The revelations Muhammad reported receiving until his death in 632 form the body of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the "ord of God" and around which the Muslim religion is built upon. In addition to the Qur'an, Muhammad's life and traditions are observed by Muslims. These stories discuss Muhammad and the other prophets with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever his name is mentioned. His life and deeds have been debated and criticized…
Braswell, G. (2000). What you need to know about islam and muslims. New York, NY: B&H Book.
Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2005). A concise history of the middle east. (9th
ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
The first five books were separated from the whole about 400 B.C. As the Pentateuch. Jean Astruc in the eighteenth century noted that the Pentateuch is based on even earlier sources. The two chief sources have since been identified in Genesis on the basis of their respective uses of Yahweh or Elohim in referring to the deity. They are called J. For the Jehovistic or Yahwistic source and E. For the Elohistic source, and P. For the Priestly source was later separated from the E. source (Miller and Miller 698-699).
Consider just the complexities involved in the construction of the first book of the bible, Genesis, in its present form. It is believed that at an early time in human history, perhaps as early as the eleventh or tenth century B.C., someone put together the stories of God's dealing with the fathers from oral forms then in circulation. Such a…
Blair, Edward P. Abingdon Bible Handbook. New York: Abingdon Press, 1975.
BrJhier, Louis. "Crusades." The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908.
Dimont, Max I. Jews, God and History. New York: Mentor, 1994.
Jomier, Jacques. How to Understand Islam. New York: Crossroad, 1991.
They study the book of Jafaar al-Saadaq. They also believe Ali is the purpose of life and the divine knowledge of the prophet Mohammed, which actually rises him above the Prophet in their eyes. The religion is also very secretive, and they do not publish their texts or share them with other sects.
The Alawites recognize the Five Pillars of Islam, but do not believe that anyone can practice them because no soul is pure enough to practice them. They also do not believe in a back door entrance to heaven.
The evolution of political Islam actually began during the age of Imperialism, when there was widespread corruption and oppression in the Muslim world. The politicization of Islam was a result of Muslim fundamentalists and Islamic revolutionary movements rising up in protest over this treatment, along with protests against corrupt Muslim regimes in the region. These revolutionaries hoped to create…
In the lines of the Apostles, Bishops of particular Churches throughout the world in charge of particular diocese are part of the Church and form the College of Bishops when the College is united as a decision-making body under the leadership of the Pope. The College may exercise power over the Universal Church by coming together in an ecumenical council when the council is recognized by the Pope, the successor of St. Peter. Additionally, "certain bishops are granted special status and position within the Church by being elevated to the College of Cardinals. The primary role of the College of Cardinals is to act as special advisors to the Pope and to come together on the death of a Pope to vote for his successor" ("The Catholic Church Hierarchy," Catholic Pages, 2007). Finally, there is also a counsel, created after Vatican II known as the Synod of Bishops. This formal…
The Catholic Church Hierarchy." Catholic Pages. 2007. December 7, 2008. http://www.catholic-pages.com/church/hierarchy.asp
History and Development of the Papacy." Religion Facts. 2008
Murphy, Donald. "Islam's Sunni-Shiite Split." 2007. The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0117/p25s01-wome.html
Much like Catholicism, the religious system known as Islam whose believers are called Muslim dates back to around 610 A.D. when the prophet Muhammad allegedly was visited by the angel Gabriel who spoke to him and conveyed the actual words of Allah Himself (i.e., Allah as God). Muhammad was also told that he had been chosen by Allah as a prophet and that he must write down everything he had been told. Shortly before his death in 632 A.D., these writings became the Holy Quran, the sacred scriptures of Islam.
One of the most important similarities between Islam and Catholicism is that both are founded on monotheism or the belief in one God, a God who is believed to be "personal, righteous and holy" (Corbett, 2001, p. 233). Of course, one of the most contrasting differences between Islam and Catholicism is that Islam was founded in the Middle East as…
Corbett, Julia Mitchell. (2001). Religion in America. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
"Roman Catholicism." (1997). Biblical Discernment Ministries. Internet. Retrieved June 7,
2009 from http://www.rapidnet.com/~jbeard/bdm/Cults/Catholicism/catholic.htm .
In many ways, the iconography left behind at the Dome of the Rock for our evaluation provides only partial insight into the events that inspired it. e are left to interpret this based on the historical knowledge and immediate evidence available to us. According to Rabbat, "Muslims around the world believe it was built to commemorate a decisive event in the Prophet Muhammad's mission, namely his Night Journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, and his subsequent Ascension from the Rock to Heaven, where he received from God the doctrinal principles of the new religion."
It is this interpretation which is largely accepted by the world, marking the rock itself as the most important element of iconography in the structure. The Khirbat al-Mafjar, by contrast, offers a highly provocative mosaic in the main bath hall reserved from the prince-son of the caliph. This is considered the most important artifact left behind…
Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. "The Lion-Gazele Mosaic at Khirbat Al-Mafjar." (20
Khoury, Nuha N.N. "The Mihrab: From Text to Form." International Journal of Middle East Studies, 30(1998): 1-27.
Rabbat, Nasser. "The Meaning of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock." (20
Ruggles, D. Fairchild. "The Mirador in Abbasid and Hisapno-Umayyad Garden Typology." (20
It was their right and duty as loyal followers, a way they could prove their faith and their commitment to God. This mindset is one reason the Muslims under Mohammed's leadership during his conquests were so successful, as described below.
Reasons for Success
Mohammed and his followers defeated migrants and other raiding parties in part because they decided to attack and defend their holy place during the holy month of Ramadan, something that was unexpected. Among those the Muslims following Mohammed opposed included a group named the Quraysh. During the infamous battle at adr Walls, Mohammed said to his followers about to engage in battle, that "no man will be slain this day fighting against them with steadfast courage, advancing and not retreating, but God will cause him to enter Paradise." Many Muslims following the messenger Mohammed believed that God sent to them 3,000 angels the day of the conquest…
Akbar, M.J. The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity.
London: Routledge, 2002.
Ali, Ameer. The Spirit of Islam: A History of the Evolution and Ideals of Islam with a Life of the Prophet. London: Christophers. 1922.
Bainbridge, William Sims and Stark, Rodney. "The Rise of a New World Religion."
" (Koran, 2:36)
A punishment dealt herein concerns man's occupation of earth as a home, with God endowing it only a finite capacity to host mortal life. Again, the contrast between the implications to man's punishment for Original Sin in the two texts can be traced to the contrast in man's assumed composition. In the Hebrew Bible, God punished Eve and her offspring to a perpetuity of painful childbearing "and unto Adam He said: 'Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." (Gen. 3:17)
The intricacies that differentiate the two texts offer a useful set of variations on a creation story that is highly associated with the evolution of monotheism…
Achtemeier, P. (1980). Inspiration and Authority. Hendrickson Publishing.
Barrett, D.B. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press.
Katz, J. (2001). The Prophet Mohammed. Eretz Yisroel.
Koran Text. (1997 edition). The Holy Qur'an. University of Virginia: Online Book
Teachings and Practice of Islam
The Teachings of Islam Around the World: Outline
Islam is an incredibly complex religion, where religious practices often differ depending on the cultural context of the region in which it is practices in.
Basic Teachings of Islam
History of Islam
Five Pillars: Prayer and Practices
How it is Practiced in the United States and Great Britain
Influx in Muslims
Facing Adversity and Stereotypes
Muslims as a Minority
Spread of Islam into India
Other Asian Nations
Islam as eacting Against a Growing Western Presence
The Middle East
Islamic Law as National Law
C. Gender Issues
The Teachings of Islam Around the World
No two Muslims are alike, just as any two persons of any other religion. Here in the West, we tend to lump categories of Muslims together, without understanding…
Ahmad, Ghulam. (2003). Teachings of Islam 1896. Kessinger Publishing.
Morgan, Diane. (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO.
Raatma, Lucia. (2009). World Religions: Islam. Capstone Publishing.
Shamsul, A.B. (2006). Convergence of interesting and sharing a future: Deepening the Understanding of Islam in Asia and Europe. ASIEN. 62-69. Web. http://www.asienkunde.de/content/zeitschrift_asien/archiv/pdf/A100_062_069.pdf
In Sufism anyone who is in a position to give out what they have has an obligation to do so. Through this giving they get an opportunity to purify their wealth and at the same time attain salvation. In Sufism there is strict adherence to the Quran and hence they follow what is stipulated within the Quran as what is to be subjected to the Zakat tax or the exact share of an individual's income that has to be paid at zakat. Therefore, it is expected that 2.5% of the wealth that one has should be used to benefit the poor within the society in Sufism. The fourth pillar is fasting; this is a practice that is followed in Sufism as it is stipulated in the Quran. In Sufism there is following of the three types of fasting which are ritual fasting, repentance fasting and ascetic fasting. In Sufism ritual…
Pecorino, a.P. (2001).Philosophy of religion; Islam. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/socialSciences/ppecorino/PHIL_of_RELIGION_TEXT/CHAPTER_2_RELIGIONS/Islam.htm
Rahim, B.M. (2009).Sufism and Islam. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.al-islam.org/beliefs/spirituality/suffism.html
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
When you first consider different religions, it can seem that they have little in common. Only Christianity believes that Jesus Christ is the son of God. Only Islam believes that Allah is the one true God and that Mohammed was his prophet. Only Judaism believes that the Jewish people were God's chosen race. These are the critical differences and the elements that define each religion. However, if you go beyond these differences, it can be seen that the three religions also have much in common. While they may consider themselves and their God's differently, there are some shared elements. This will now be considered by looking at the three religions and considering both their differences and their similarities.
Judaism is based on three elements. These are God, the Torah, and the people. God refers to the belief that in a personal God and the way that…
Esposito finds that the premodernist revival movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contributed to the pattern of Islamic politics that developed and left a legacy for the twentieth century. These movements were motivated primarily in response to internal decay rather than external, colonial threat (Esposito 40-41).
At the same time, many areas of the Islamic world experienced the impact of the economic and military challenge of an emerging and modernizing est beginning in the eighteenth century. Declining Muslim fortunes also reversed the relationship of the Islamic world to the est, from that of an expanding offensive movement to a defensive posture. Muslim responses to these changes ranged from rejection to adaptation, from Islamic withdrawal to acculturation and reform. Some responded by secular reform, and by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Islamic modernist movements had also developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between tradition and modernity…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University, 1992.
Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.
Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
The Hajj: Islamic Pilgrimage
Islam is a religion organized around one man, Mohammed, who lived from 570 to 632 CE, and centered in the ancient city of Mecca in present day Saudi Arabia. Mohammed's teachings were unveiled to him through God, and his recommendations to humanity include five essential pillars. Every Muslim, or follower of Islam, is told to follow these five pillars to best achieve success in the afterlife. One of the crucial elements of these five pillars is the Hajj, or the pilgrimage to Mecca, to be undertaken by every Muslim once in his or her life.[footnoteRef:1] The Hajj has been integral to the sharing of knowledge and custom between the various Muslims around the world, and has indeed been a key factor to the development of the Arab people themselves. This paper will discuss the Hajj, or the Pilgrimage to Mecca, and will describe its evolution,…
Alex Pulsipher notes that all but one of these pillars Involve "daily life" (Pulsipher 314), thus it is difficult to separate the religion from the very existence of the culture. In addition to the pillars, there are other requirements of those that practice Islam. Justice, truthfulness, abstention from alcohol, and pork, and "anything that seems remotely connected to idolatry" (44) are all things from which Muslims must refrain.
hen we look at the practices involved with being Muslim, we can see why these people behave the way they do. It is not because they are strange; it is because they are upholding ancient religious values through practices that help them define who they are. Understanding this helps build the bridge to understanding our differences.
Monk, Robert, et al. Exploring Religious Meaning. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 1997.
Monk, Robert, et al. Exploring Religious Meaning. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 1997.
Pulsipher, Alex. World Regional Geography. New York: Macmillan. 2007.
Nation of Islam was originally a group known as the Black Muslims (Nation pp). This splinter group is faithful to the Black Muslims' original principles led by Louis Farrakhan (Nation pp). Members strive to improve their social and religious position in society, and the group has won praise for its work in deprived areas (Nation pp). However, its reputation has been tarnished by Farrakhan's anti-Semitic and anti-white beliefs (Nation pp). The group demonstrated its political strength by organizing the 'Million Man March' in October 1995, a march that consisted of approximately 400,000 black men in ashington, D.C. (Nation pp).
Although allace Fard is officially credited with founding the Nation of Islam, much of the doctrine and beliefs of the NOI are rooted in the teachings of Noble Drew Ali and his Moorish Holy Temple of Science (Religious pp). The basis of Drew's teachings held that African-Americans were of Islamic heritage…
"Nation of Islam." The Hutchinson Encyclopedia. 9/22/2003
"Religious Movements: Nation of Islam."
"The birth of the Nation of Islam." July 11, 2001.
D., various rulers expanded the religion in what was known as the Golden Age of Islam. Muslims made huge advances in military might, the sciences, and the arts. However, the different factions of Islam haunted the religion, even in the Golden Age of its existence. Gregorian then goes to explore the territorial dispute which led to the centuries of fighting with Christian nations in what was known in the West as the Crusades. However, it was not the Christian Westerners who did the most damage to the Muslim strongholds but barbaric Mongols who eventually ended the Golden Age of Islam. The rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century revived the greatness of the Muslim tradition. The modern era, with the culmination of the Industrial Revolution, later diminished the grandeur and power of the various Muslim empires in the Middle East and Asia. With this decline many empires which,…
Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the hiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the unnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as ufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.
Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are unnis whilst 10-20% are hiites. The key difference between unnis and hiites is that unnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The alafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from unnism. hiites, on the other hand, believe in the…
Armstrong, K. (2000). Islam: A Short History The Modern Library: UK.
Brown, D. (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought Cambridge: Cambridge Univ,. Press
Goldschmidt, A. & Davidson, L. (2010) A concise history of the Middle East Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Hourani, A. (1991) A History of the Arab People London: Penguin
Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon
The film, documentaries and the last docudrama are exceptional production pieces by notable directors and producers. Crouching tiger-hidden dragon defies the usual mantra of strength only attributed to men. Jen effectively acts as person having higher morals. The martial arts performance was exceptional, an unusual feature in Hollywood. Islam, the empire of faith is another documentary made on the rise of Islamic empire and the life of Prophet Mohammad having a great impact on establishment of religion. 'Gandhi' also remains an unquestioned production classic that eloquently portrays Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the unquestioned leader of India. The film sheds light on Hinduism as a religion and its faith and dogmas. Lastly, Kundan is a docudrama based on life of Dalai Lama. 'Kundan' might not have justified the stature of Buddhism in history of mankind but the piece of production remains an earnest effort on part of Martin…
Bowker, J. & Bowker, D. (1997). World religions. Dorling Kindersley.
Chan, K. (2004). The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian (Chinese Sword-Fighting Movie): Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Cinema Journal, 43(4), 3-17.
Conze, E. (2004). Buddhism: Its essence and development. Windhorse Publications.
Driver, M.W. & Ray, S. (2004). The medieval hero on screen: representations from Beowulf to Buffy (Vol. 56). McFarland & Company Incorporated Pub.
The formal name for Justinian I is Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus. Iustinianus is the name from which Justinian is derived and after Julius Caesar added Augustus to his surname as a mark of his emperorship, all subsequent Roman leaders had Augustus at the end of their names. He was an empire of the Byzantine Emperor from 527 -- 565 AD. He was the last Roman Emperor to speak Latin as his first language and he is most known for the Justinian code of law, known in Latin as Corpus Juris Civilis, translated as the body of civil law. The Corpus Juris Civilis is known as the ultimate codification of Roman law. This body of law has been passed down through numerous generations including into areas of Western Europe and is the basis of law today.
This controversy occurred in the 8th & 9th centuries. The topic…
Since its humble beginnings, the number of Jesuits in the world has "grown to 24,000 members who work out of 1,825 houses in 112 countries. In the intervening years many Jesuits became renowned for their sanctity (41 Saints and 285 Blesseds), for their scholarship in every conceivable field, for their explorations and discoveries, but especially for their schools (http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/sjhist.htm)." Today, the General Congregations is the authority which presides over the Society.
hen exploring Islam, three terms which need to be understood are Salet, Umma, and Hijra.
Salat is the daily prayer of Muslims and is the second of the five pillars of Islam. These prayers are obligatory, "performed five times a day, and are a direct link between the worshiper and God. There is no hierarchical authority in Islam, and no priests, so the prayers are led by a learned person who knows the Quran, chosen by congregation…
Definition of Zionism. (accessed 15 August 2005). http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html ).
Pictorial History of the Jesuits. (accessed 17 August 2005). http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/sjhist.htm ).
Church History. (accessed 15 August 2005). http://anglican.org/church/ChurchHistory.html ).
Five Pillars of Islam. (accessed 17 August 2005). http://barney.gonzaga.edu/~islam/salat.html).
SPSS was used to analyze the data collected from the participants. A Pearson correlation coefficient evaluated the relationship between the ordinal variables (such as gender and tendency to give zakat maal or zakat fitah) and evaluated whether significance in the relationship existed. Chi-square was employed to evaluate whether ordinal and categorical relationships are significant or not and if so the level of their significance.
Lessy's (2010) discovered that most participants (54) gave their zakat fitrah to mosques, whilst 490 gave it directly to the poor, and only 20 gave their zakat fitrah to foundations. On the other hand, the reverse was evidenced with zakat maal where 45 participants gave directly to the poor, followed by only 25 who gave to mosques. 10 participants, on the other hand gave to orphanages and educational institutions, whilst a mere 8 individuals gave to relief organizations.
As to why they give the way they…
Al-Qur'an al-Karim. (2008). The Qur'an: A new translation. In T. Khalidi (Trans.). New York: Penguin Classics.
Benthall, J. (1999). Financial worship: The Quranic injunction to alms-giving. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 5(1), 27-42.
Caster, J.J. (2008). A new direction in women's philanthropy. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 37, 353-361.
Dean, H., & Khan, Z. (1997). Muslim perspectives on welfare. Journal of Social Policy, 26(2), 193-209.
This meant that individuals were 'elected' for salvation by God, and this view of human salvation is called either the 'doctrine of the elect' or the doctrine of living saints' (www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/CALVIN.HTM)."
John the Baptist was a prophet who "preached a message of repentance to the people of Jerusalem. He converted many, and prepared the way for the coming of Jesus. He baptized Christ, after which he stepped away and told his disciples to follow Jesus (www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj02.htm)."
Three terms in Islam that should be explored are Quraysh, Hijra, and Saum. Quraysh is "the ancient Bedouin tribe near Mecca to which Muhammad belonged. At one time camel drivers and caravan guides, they became, after acquiring custody of the Kaaba, one of the most powerful tribes in central Arabia and the chief family of Mecca. They were at first bitter opponents of Muhammad but became his devoted followers when Muhammad retained the…
Hijra. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/SocialStudies/RE/Database/Glossaries).
John Calvin. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/CALVIN.HTM).
John the Baptist. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj02.htm).
Samuel Holdheim. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.knowallabout.com).
Sunni Muslims argue that control of the community is not hereditary or a birthright, but a trust that must be earned and therefore can be given or taken away by the people themselves.
Another difference comes in the sanctity of religious texts. Shia Muslims have some resentment to some of the contemporaries of the Prophet Muhammad. This sprouts from their stands and deeds in the historical years of discord about leadership among the Muslim nations. It is said that Abu Bakr, Umar, Aisha, etc. (Sunnis) narrated much about the Prophet Muhammad's life and spiritual encounters, practice and journey. The Shia Muslims reject these Hadith do not take them as a basis for their religious practices. This accordingly informs divergence in religious practice between the Sunnis and Shias. The differences concern aspects of religious life: prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, and so on and so forth. For instance Shi'ites can condense the five…
Austine Cline. 'Sunni Islam vs. Shia Islam: Islam Cannot be Criticized as a Monolithic Faith.'
Web. 3 May 2010. http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/islam/blfaq_islam_sunni.htm
Huda. 'Introduction to Islam' About.Com. Web. 3 May 2010.
During this Diaspora, the African Slave Trade transferred 9-12 million people from one continent to another with major repercussions on cultural and political traditions in the New World. There have been a number of modern Diasporas based on the post-Cold War world in which huge populations of refugees migrated from conflict, especially from developing countries (Southeast Asia, China, Afghanistan, Iran, Latin America, South American, Rwanda, etc.).
Part 1.2.1 - Civil Law is a legal system inspired by Ancient Roman law. In Civil law, laws are written into a codified collection that is a group of ideas and systems that work in tandem to help organize societies without the need for judicial interpretation. Overall, civil law is in place to formulate general principles and to distinguish substantive rules from procedural rules, and is based on the tenet that legislation is the primary source of law.
Conceptually, civil law is a group…
A woman can be neither a political leader nor a judge; she must only appear in public modestly dressed, and her natural and sacred task is to keep the household smoothly functioning and to raise and instruct her children to be good Muslims. Men, for their part, must shoulder the burden of providing for the family in material ways. Liberation for a woman does not mean being like a male, or taking up male tasks, but rather being herself and fulfilling the destiny Allah created for her. (Waines, 1995, P. 255)
Feminine education is therefore one of the most extreme of all issues with regard to the influence of the Islamic culture on education, and as has been stated earlier there is significant diversity in the educational role inclusion of women. (Weil, 2004, p. 142) for many one of the biggest reasons for immigration is the offer of greater educational…
Bin Talal, E.H. (2004). Musa Ibn Maymun and the Arab-Islamic Education. European Judaism, 37(2), 5.
Buetow, H.A. (1991). Religion in Personal Development: An Analysis and a Prescription. New York: Peter Lang.
Collins, D. (2006). Culture, Religion and Curriculum Lessons from the 'Three Books' Controversy in Surrey BC. The Canadian Geographer, 50(3), 342.
Elnour, a., & Bashir-Ali, K. (2003). Teaching Muslim Girls in American Schools. Social Education, 67(1), 62.
Religions and Development
It is popularly believed that countries, where religion has major influence in governance, tend to develop slower than those where religious beliefs are not a main influence or consideration. This statement uses the cases of poor and traditionally colonized Christian countries in Southeast Asia, like the Philippines; Russia; and the African countries to support the claim.
The four major monotheistic religions in the world all tend to bar changes in one's life. Their faith or lifestyle does not involve material acquisition and is even hostile to it. They are bound to the wiles and stated will and preferences of an unseen Deity. Their happiness consists precisely in denying their own progress and contentment, the furthering of their blessings and potential. India is a supreme example of this. ut this blind adherence to brutal fate and faith is also taken advantage by some opportunists, such as in the…
Baha'i International. 1999. Values, Norms and Poverty: A Consultation on the World Development Report 2000. South Africa
Bohlin, Sue. 2000. A Short Look at Six World Religions. Texas, USA:
Probe Ministries International
Hilton, Ronald. 2001. Religion and Poverty. (accessed 16:03:03). http://www.standford.edu/group/wais/religion_relandpoverty42501.html
The main holy book of Islam is the Quran, which is the word of God as communicated directly to Mohammed. It is the core book of the religion, and concerns both spiritual issues, and more practical, moral ones. Islamic law comes from interpretation of the Quran, and of Mohammed's life, rather than from the book itself.
From Mohammed, Islam spread rapidly throughout the world. The religion's main split occurred as a result of an early difference of opinion concerning leadership of the religion, resulting in two main sects, the Sunnis and the Shia. Other sects have emerged, such as Sufism, Ibadism, and the Ismailis. These groups have all formed as the result of various minor schisms.
The Amish religion began in Switzerland, and are considered an Anabaptist Christian denomination. The offset left Europe and resettled in North America during the 18th century. Today, there are 231,000 Amish, and their population…
No author. (2008). Judaism. Religion Facts. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/
Pfeffer, Anshel. (2008). Percent of world Jewry living in Israel climbed to 41% in 2007. Haaretz. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/942009.html
No author. (2008). Islam. Religion Facts. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/overview.htm
No author. (2008). Amish population surges. United Press International. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2008/10/11/Amish_population_surges/UPI-16211223751949/
She points out that there has been such division in modern Christianity that it is difficult to describe a universal Christian worldview. However, she describes the basic beliefs and practices that are considered universal to Christians. She also discusses Christianity's waves in Africa, the first one occurring in the first century a.D. Jesus was taken to Egypt to avoid being killed by King Herod and Jesus' early message spread into North Africa. Christianity did not become a major influence in African religion until the 1800s, and is now one of the two primary religions practiced in the country.
Finally, Aderibigbe discusses Islam. She describes Islam as a monotheistic religion worshipping Allah. She describes the historic origins of Islam, which grew out of the teachings of Mohammed. She also links Islam to Judaism and Christianity, naming it the third in the three Abrahamic religions. She describes the major themes of Islam…
Aberibigbe, I. (2012). Chapter Five: Religions in Africa. In I. Aderbigbe & a. Ojo Eds.
Continental Complexities: A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Africa, ( pp.61- 84). USA: University Readers, Inc.
Finally some sects command their followers to perform ziyara, or what they consider to be minor pilgrimages, to the tombs of Imams in addition to the pilgramage to Mecca ("Shiism," 2005).
hile recognizing the two Islamic holidays Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha, Shi'ites incorporated additional festivals into their system, some of which will be described here. The first major festival is the Festival of Muharram and Ashura, in which Shi'ites observe the martyrdom of Husayn, the son of Ali. This festival is supposed to fall upon the 10th of the Islamic month Muharram. Sunnis observe fasting on this day for reasons completely different from the Shi'ites.
The second major festival is known as Milad-un-Nabi, which is supposed to commemorate the birthday of Prophet Muhammad. Shi'ites consider the 17th of the month Rabi al-Awwal as being the prophet's birthday. Sunnis place the day to be 12th of Rabi al-Awwal; they do not place…
Fact Sheet: The Shi'ites of Iraq" Fox News.Com-U.S. & World. Nov 13, 2005:
Gezari, Vanessa. "Religious resentment feeds flames in Iraq." St. Petersburg Times. December 21, 2004. Nov. 13, 2005:
This ritual takes place on the eighth day after birth and the ceremony itself involves both religious and surgical elements and may be performed by a surgeon of a specially-trained Mohel who has both surgical and religious knowledge. After the circumcision is performed, a festive meal almost always follows as a symbol of thanks to God and to the prophet Abraham.
One of the most complicated religious rituals of Judaism is the ar Mitzvah for boys and less frequently, the at Mitzvah for girls. These words mean "the son or the daughter of the commandment and mark the coming of age of a male or female child" (Harvey, 325) who is then seen as an adult and is responsible for observing the commandments set down by Moses and to fill adult roles in the congregation of the synagogue. This ritual traditionally occurs on the Sabbath following the child's thirteenth birthday…
Grissom, Harold J. "Ritual Practice in American Religious Sects." The Journal of Religion. (April 2006): 239-48.
Hall, Manley P. The Psychology of Religious Ritual. Los Angeles: Philosophical
Research Society, 2003.
Harvey, Graham. Ritual and Religious Belief. UK: Equinox Publishing, Ltd., 2005.
Mohammed Professional Values
In Hey. I a research paper "Professional Work Values life Prophet Mohammad" Your research answer questions 1.What values? 2.What impact values? Use business corporate evidence prove argument. 3.How values a foundation organizational culture unifies Human Capital a diverse nature a contemporary organization?.
Professional work values and leadership: The life of the prophet Mohammed
The founder of Islam, the prophet Mohammed, is mainly known as a spiritual leader. But many of the values he embodied in his life would also be instructive for the world of business. Mohammed was a man committed his vision and values, just like all business leaders must be, to ensure that their followers believe that the organization is delivering something unique to consumers. Mohammed's life as well as his words continues to inspire people of all faiths.
Even before he became a religious figure, Mohammed was famous for his honesty and trustworthiness. "When…
Five pillars of Islam. (2009). BBC. Retrieved:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/ islam/practices/fivepillars.shtml' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Jesus and Mohammed -- Their Lives & Legacies
Jesus Christ and Mohammed are thought of historically -- and today as well -- as the two individuals that have probably had the greatest impact on the world in a spiritual and religious context. hile other iconic spiritual and religious leaders have made their mark on history and society, Jesus (who founded Christianity; today there are an estimated 2.8 billion followers) and Mohammed (Islam's most holy figure; there are an estimated 2.2 billion Muslims), Jesus was believed to be the Son of God, who came to earth to offer humans an opportunity to have everlasting life. Mohammed, on the other hand, is believed to be the prophet who received the text of Islam from God and led the growth of Islam.
This paper traces the lives of Jesus and Mohammed, compares the impact that their deaths had on society, describes the way…
Biography. (2005). Jesus Christ Biography / Synopsis. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.biography.com .
Boff, Leonardo. (2011). Passion of Christ, Passion of the World. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books
History-Timelines. (2007). Timeline of Jesus. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.history-timelines.org.uk .
Public Broadcast Service. (2006). The Life of Mohammed. Retrieved April 18, 2013, from http://www.pbs.org .
Jewish, Christian Islamic belief? How religions compare ? Talk discussion: Judaism: Creation Patriarchs Prophets Kings the Bible Literature Early
Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are three of the most renowned religions in the world and this is reflected by the number of followers supporting each religious ideology and by their background. In spite of the fact that there have been many conflicts between individuals following these three religions, they have a lot of similarities. The concepts that they put across made it possible for numerous individuals to express interest in wanting to live in accordance with their laws and gradually made them three of the most important religions in the world. hile one might find it difficult to compare these religions due to their complex background, it is actually not very difficult to find correlations and differences between the three.
Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are all monotheistic religions and they all…
Busse, Heribert, Islam, Judaism, and Christianity: theological and historical affiliations, (Markus Wiener Publishers, 1998)
Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner's Art Through the Ages: A Concise Western History, (Cengage Learning, 2010)
Ruthven, Malise, Islam: A Very Short Introduction, (Oxford University Press, 2012)
Von Harnack, Adolf, What is Christianity?, (Fortress Press, 1987)
Byzantine Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean that extended from Syria, Egypt up to and across North Africa is seen to have made significant contact with the emerging Islamic world in the period from seventh and ninth Centuries. The seventh century saw the vast territories in these regions being ruled by the Byzantine Empire from Constantinople, the now Istanbul. These Southern provinces or territories were greatly influenced by the Greco-oman traditions and formed the home of Coptic, Orthodox and Syriac Christians and Jewish communities. These regions were critical to the wealth and the power of the empire. Great centers for pilgrimage saw large numbers of faithful visit the place coming from as far off as Yemen towards the East and Scandinavia towards the West. There were also major trade routes that extended all the way to India in the South that saw ferrying of silk and ivories into the region, commerce…
Cunningham & Reich, (n.d.: Pp 162). Byzantium.
Rosenberg K., (2012). Ornate Links Tethering Cultures in Flux. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/16/arts/design/byzantium-and-islam-age-of-transition-at-the-met.html?_r=1& ;
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, (2012). Byzantium and Islam Age of Transition. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2012/byzantium-and-islam
Furthermore, under most circumstances, these variations in Muslim belief do not have a negative impact on how Muslims interact; instead, they manage to live peacefully side-by-side in most settings. This may have to do with the idea that all Muslims believe that the Quran (Qur'an, Koran) is the holy text for Muslims. They believe that the Quran reflects the word of God. "For Muslims, the text of the Koran is entirely the work and word of God. It is possible for a Muslim to hold that the Koran uses symbolic language and is describing the essence of things, not their technical form, but it is difficult to hold that the Koran reflects the views of our more distant ancestors" (Sedgewick 2006, p. 40).
Mohammed plays a central role in Islam. He is the most important prophet and many facets of modern day Islam are based, not simply on the Quran,…
Hassan, R 2008, Exploring Islamic consciousness, Inside Muslim minds, Melbourne University
Press, Carlton, Vic, pp. 24-61.
Jupp, J 2009, Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islanders in the Encyclopedia of religion in Australia, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, pp.69-118.
McBrien, R 1982, the nature and use of power in the church, Proceedings of the annual convention, 37, CTSA Editorial Offices, Yonkers, NY, pp.38-49.
Kant was no exception to the paradigmatic priorities (i.e. objectivity as knowledge) of the era, and brief reference to the episteme is serves accuracy in discursive analysis of this heritage within American politics and policy thought. For instance, Kant's Critique of Judgment is enormously influential in establishing a connection between judgment and political and moral precepts to conduct in communities. Intellectual lineage to Kant's model of Enlightenment 'reason" combines ritish Empiricism with Continental Rationalism; and partly explains why his philosophical proposition that the existence of persistent war against non-liberal states is a requirement to perpetual peace is reiterated in scholarly expiation since the Enlightenment period, making Perpetual Theory of War as lasting as seminal reference (ehnke, 2009, Caranti, 2006 and Murray, 2003). Discourse Analysis toward the study's cause-and-effect analysis is derived from speeches and interviews taken from the ush administration in Table 1.
President ush -- Speeches and…
Behnke, a. (2009). Eternal Peace, Perpetual War? A Critical Investigation into Kant's Conceptualisation of War. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-18.
Bolton, J. (2010). Obama's Next Three Years. Commentary, 129(1), 24-28.
Brose, C. (2009). The Making of George W. Obama. Foreign Policy, (170), 52-55.
Caranti, L. (2006). Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace? Reflections on the Realist Critique of Kant's Project. Journal of Human Rights, 5(3), 341-353. doi:10.1080/14754830600812357.
Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.
Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…
Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewfaq.org/halakhah.htm
Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/femalerabbi.html
The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.html
Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm
Any of these conflicts might seem limited when they start, but given the cultural differences involved, at any time they could turn into a broader cultural war involving not a small part of the Middle East but all of it, and that sort of war would be a major threat to world civilization, a Huntington shows in his book.
Khater (2004) offers a look at many documents of Middle Eastern history, documents written by participants and observers of events and trends from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. A survey of these documents helps show how the West has gotten the issues wrong numerous times an how the Islamic countries fail to understand the nature of the West at the same time. Of particular note are the many diplomatic cables and other correspondence addressing the situation in Iran before the revolution and the return of Ayatollah Khomeini in the 1970s,…
Cleveland, W.L. (1999). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Gelvin, J.L. (2008). The Modern Middle East: A History. New York, (2nd Edition) Oxford University Press.
Gumley, F. & Redhead, B. (1992). The Pillars of Islam. London: BBC Books.
Huntington, S.P. (1993, Summer). The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 22-49.
Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.
Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.
Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all share the same roots, and their followers are often referred to collectively as the "people of the Book." They are all monotheistic faiths tracing a patriarchal ancestry to the personage of Abraham in the Hebrew bible. In fact, the Hebrew bible is referred to as the Old Testament in the Christian faith and remains a major sacred text in the Christian religion. In spite of their common roots and a few common beliefs, these three religions have diverged from one another in significant ways, leading to major social and political conflicts. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all believe in the Hebrew bible as a sacred text, and all three are monotheistic faiths, but their specific theologies, customs, and practices differ.
A fundamental feature of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam is monotheism, one of the features shared in common between these three religions. The Tanakh, which is the…
"Comparison of Islam, Judaism and Christianity." http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/comparison_charts/islam_judaism_christianity.htm
"The Messiah in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam." On Islam. Retrieved online: http://www.onislam.net/english/ask-about-islam/society-and-family/interfaith-issues/167565-the-messiah-in-judaism-christianity-and-islam.html
New Testament. NIV
Quran. Available online: quran.com
hen it comes to Jim Jones, it is a fact that the declaration of the day of dooms 5th May, 1967 not a reality to any normal person. Jones followers were so much brainwashed to believe that Guyanese Jungle could be immune from nuclear war. Freud's believe that religions grow out of homicide are evident in Madhis movement (Hicks 64). Due to the factor that Sudan was under colonial rule, it is likely that the country experience killing and persecution of those who failed to obey the colonizers rule. This factor contributed eminently to the resign of the Madhi movement. The same is evident in Jim Jones followers. Initially majority of his followers were black and historically, most countries including United States of America were undergoing racialism. This factor made majority of the blacks join Jim Jones movement.
Freud's theory on religion explains that most people join religion because of…
Craig, William L, Antony Flew, and Stan W. Wallace. Does God Exist?: The Craig-Flew Debate. Aldershot, Hants, England, Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002. Print.
Ellens, JH. Explaining Evil. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2011. Print.
Hicks, David. Ritual and Belief: Readings in the Anthropology of Religion. Lanham, Md: AltaMira Press, 2010. Print.
Kirkland, Russell. "An Introduction to the Philosophy & Religion of Taoism: Pathways to Immortality." CHOICE Current Reviews for Academic Libraries 43.1 (2006): 1617(1). Print.
Pilgrimage is a central element in religion. Ancient polytheistic religions like those in Greece and Rome used pilgrimage at certain times of year, often creating massive festivals. hile many pilgrimages have a social dimension, others can be profoundly personal and mystical too. Pilgrimage is inherently difficult, and the travails of the journey are part of the process. It is necessary to undertake pilgrimage as a rite of passage. This is especially true in Islam, in which hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, is one of the Five Pillars. There are several elements of religious pilgrimage, including the personal, political, and the spiritual.
Motivations for pilgrimage range from a need to prove one's spiritual strength and merit to a need to conform to the dictums of society. In some cases, the pilgrimage serves as an act of communion, prayer, or meditation. Buddhist approaches to pilgrimage, such as those described in Journey…
From the Diary of Ennin, 838-847.
From Journey to the West, or The Monkey-King, 17th century.
Modern Portrait of Xuanzang.
From Naser-e Khosraw, Book of Travels.
Kafr El-Elow is based upon the novel Kafr El-Elow: Continuity and Change in an Egyptian community written by Hani Fakhouri. This paper takes into account two chapters from the novel and explains why both of them are absolutely essential in understanding the social structure of the village, Kafr El-Elow. The paper also highlights some very important traditions and customs followed by the villagers.
The writer of the novel, Kafr El-Elow chose the village of Kafr El-Elow for the ethnographic research not because of its close association with Cairo but because of its location in the middle of Egypt's colossal mercantile complex. According to the author, the small village of Kafr El-Elow is bound to experience a lot of changes due to its most central location, as it is the industrial complex of a country that experience advancement. The people of Kafr El-Elow as result of urbanization and industrialization…
Hani F. Kafr El-Elow. Wave Land Press. May 1987.
Social Collectivism in Religious Rituals: The Cases of Judaism and Islam
Religion, as a sacred engagement of an individual to a spiritual experience, is laden with numerous elements that reinforce and inculcate within the individual the philosophies and teachings of the religion. One manifestation of these philosophies and teachings are through religious rituals, which are activities that an individual or group engage in to "personally experience" their faith and identity as member of the religious group. As a personal experience, religious rituals provide an individual with "a feeling of rebirth and renewal," where faith is reinforced and new meanings experienced by his/her socialization with the religious group are created (91). Apart from being a personal experience, religious rituals are also ways in which people can reinforce religion unto themselves and to others. Collective manifestation of religious faith serves as proof not only of unity, but understanding and harmony among its…
islamfortoday.com/shia.htm by Hussein Abdulwaheed Amin, Editor of IslamForToday.com).
Instead of missionary work to non-Muslims, the Shia harbor a deep-seated disdain towards Sunni Islam and prefer to devote their attention to winning over other Muslims to their group. There is ongoing violent strife between Sunnis and Shias in Pakistan. On the other hand, in recent years there has been signification co-operation between the two groups in the Lebanon (the Origins of the Sunni/Shia split in Islam http://www.islamfortoday.com/shia.htm by Hussein Abdulwaheed Amin, Editor of IslamForToday.com)."
On a practical level there are different calls to prayer in each sect, including the Shias placing their foreheads on a piece of hardened clay instead of directly onto the prayer mat while praying (the Origins of the Sunni/Shia split in Islam http://www.islamfortoday.com/shia.htm by Hussein Abdulwaheed Amin, Editor of IslamForToday.com).
Shias also are allowed to worship three times a day instead of the five times a day…
The Origins of the Sunni/Shia split in Islam by Hussein Abdulwaheed Amin, Editor of IslamForToday.com accessed (6-10-07)
Taoism and Later World Religions
Laozi -- the legendary author of the Dao Dejing -- may not have been a real person, since his name is simply the Chinese for "Old Master." Yet the Dao itself would not want this fact to get in our way inquiring what Laozi himself would have thought of something -- after all, the Dao teaches that "the name that can be named is not the enduring and unchanging name." Indeed, the Dao's insights are particularly interesting in considering developments in world religion after the time in which the Dao Dejing was composed (somewhere between about 500 and 300 B.C.E.). I hope to apply the principles of Laozi to take a Daoist view of the two major religions to rise out of Judaism -- Christianity and Islam.
A Daoist view of Islam would be somewhat contradictory. Islam itself means submission unto the will of Allah.…
Hamzah Fansuri's Poems
In this poem, Hamzah reiterates the fundamentals of the Islamic belief, reminding Muslims of the importance of following the main precepts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (the Prophetic tradition). The poem is also inspired by Sufi teachings of medieval Islamic scholars. For Hamzah, Sufi teachings do not contradict the orthodox fundamentals of Islam. On the contrary, Sufism helps a person to clean his or her heart and come closer to God. Hamzah starts the poem by warning the Adamites (children of Adam) against abandoning the first and foremost principle of Islam, that is faith in God. "Do not forsake the Ruler of the universe [Shahi Alam]," Hamzah writes. Then Hamzah makes another warning, which is related to the first: "Do not get drowned in the ocean of sin." The two warnings are mutually complementary since, according to Islamic tradition, the gravest sin is disbelief…
eligion, World History
ise of China
It would not seem likely for the previous thousand years that not Europeans, but Indians and Chinese would take over the world by 2000 and that the Chinese would settle Australia and America rather than the people of Britain; except for the time of oman Empire, China was richer, more cosmopolitan and advanced than any other European place. For example, Hangzhou had a population of a million when it was the capital of China in the twelfth century and facts state that Guangzhou had more than two million foreign inhabitants that included Turks, Africans, Indians, Malays, Persians and Arabs. In comparison, Paris, which was the largest city in Europe in the 1400s, had a little more than a million inhabitants. China at that time cared about filial piety, religion, ancestors, education, arts, culture, honor and prestige, and money was not on top of the…
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Eastern Religion Elements Matrix
Countries of origin
In Historical figures and events
Founded: 1500 BC
Founded 2,500 years ago by Indian Prince Siddharta Gautama
Origin: China; founded between the 6th and 5th centuries B.C.; Confucius developed cultural values and taught that learning above all should be the goal
Daoism also spelled Taoism was founded in China in 550 B.C.
In the afterlife, if Karma is not resolved, the soul is born into a new body; life's purpose is to be liberated from reincarnation
Like Hinduism, a goal is to be liberated from the cycle of reincarnation;
"benevolence" and optimism and being loyal to one's own nature; being unselfish, giving back (reciprocity) and seeking a virtuous life
This spiritual Taoism and philosophical Taoism; Taoism focuses on social duty and adheres to the principles of Confucianism; death is simply from being to non-being,…
The other universal concept shared among so many human religions relates to the fate of the individual (or of the individuals spirit or "soul"). Judeo-Christian religious traditions generally teach that a soul survives physical death and the eternal fate of that soul is substantially determined by the behaviors and choices of the individual in life (agan, 1997). Eastern religious traditions generally reflect a more general belief in the cycles of life and in multiple successive lives sharing a fundamental kernel of identity even if not exactly in the same form of soul as described in Western religions (Armstrong, 1993). Contemporary objective moralists would (again) suggest that any energies or thought in life about perpetual existence in another spiritual form of any afterlife is a waste of time.
Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings…
Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London:
Einstein a. (1954). Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown