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There are many natural hazards in the environment, but some of them are not as "natural" as they would appear. In other words, some of the environmental hazards in the environment have been created or enhanced by what human beings have done. Flooding is one of those issues, as humans have dammed up streams, moved rivers, and created their own lakes. They have also removed trees and graded land to reduce slopes and provide places on which to build. Then, those areas flood because the natural barriers that kept them from flooding have been removed. This is becoming a serious problem as the population of the world increases. Addressed here will be how this problem came about and the roles that humans have played in the flooding of areas of the U.S. And the world. Then, a stand will be taken as to the researcher's stance on the topic.…
Lenton, T.M., Held, H., Kriegler, E., Hall, J.W., Lucht, W., Rahmstorf, S., & Schellnhuber, H.J. (2008). Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(6): 1786-1793..
Hansen, J. (2000). Climatic change: Understanding global warming. In Robert Lanza.One World: The Health & Survival of the Human Species in the 21st century. New Mexico: Health Press. pp. 173 -- 190.
Stroeve, J., et al. (2007). Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(9): L09501.
Wentz, F.J., et al. (2007). How much more rain will global warming bring? Science, 317(5835): 233 -- 5.
Extreme eather Mitigation
Formulate a plan on how you would use clinical epidemiology to guide your options and actions on dealing with this issue.
Scientists define flooding events by their probability of occurring in a given time period. For example, a hundred-year flood is a flood that would theoretically probable to occur only once every century. However, climate change and the changing atmospheric condition are predicted to increase the frequency of natural disasters as well as their intensity (Kelly, 2012). The science behind climate change is becoming increasingly clear and many of the changes are already occurring. Just in 2011 alone, a dozen natural disasters occurred in the U.S. that were estimated to cause over a billion dollars in damages per each event. (National Climatic Data Center, 2012).
The flood that occurred in ilkes-Barre in September 2011 made the Susquehanna River crest at an unprecedented level of over…
CDC. (2009, February 8). Facts about Stachybotrys chartarum and Other Molds. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/mold/stachy.htm
EPA. (2011, November 10). Mold Resources. Retrieved from United States Environemntal Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldresources.html
Kelly, M. (2012, February 23). Climate may crank storms into overdrive. Retrieved from Futurity: http://www.futurity.org/earth-environment/climate-may-crank-storms-into-overdrive/
Mudarri, D.F. (2007). Public health and economic impact of dampness in mold. Indoor Air, 226-235.
Benefits -- Social media is a cost-effective and very powerful tool that will allow an easy two way exchange between public health professionals and the public in the event of a disaster. Since people often use their mobile device to hook up to social media, they would have access to information almost immediately, be up-to-date about the disaster or disease and even sent pictures and help governmental officials assess the situation in a more reasonable manner.
Barrier to Effectiveness -- While 40 million is an impressive number, the population of the United States is currently about 313 million, meaning only 13% actively use social media for communication. This figure may be higher or lower depending on the area of the country (rural, urban, and regional demographic differences). Social Media would be an effective tool, but should not be considered the primary or only tool for communication. Use is also dependent…
Emergency Prescription Assistance Program (EPAP). 2012). Public Health Emergency
Support, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/planning/epap/Pages/default.aspx
Social Media Poised to Drive Disaster Preparedness and Response. (2011). Penn
University School of Medicine. Retrieved from: http://www.uphs.upenn.edu / news/News_Releases/2011/07/social-media/
Natural Hazard, FEMA -- "Floods"
Natural Hazard: Flooding
Flooding, according to the Natural Disasters Association (2014), "is the most common environmental hazard worldwide." This according to the organization is more so the case given the vast distribution (geographical) of both low-lying coastal areas and river flood plains. Essentially, flooding occurs once an area that was not formerly underwater is submerged as a result of water overflow. According to eady, a campaign that seeks to empower members of the public on how best to respond to various emergencies, there are various categories of floods (eady, 2014). While some floods as eady points out develop slowly, others tend to develop within a relatively short period of time (eady, 2014). The latter category is referred to as flash floods. Further, while some floods according to eady could impact a large area, the effect of others could be limited to a neighborhood. Floods have…
Frank, B. (2012). The Health Effects of Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved from http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/health/case_studies/hurricane_Katrina.html
Natural Disasters Association. (2014). Natural Hazards: Flooding. Retrieved from http://www.n-d-a.org/flooding.php
Ready. (2014). Floods. Retrieved from www.ready.gov/floods
Sene, K. (2008). Flood Warning, Forecasting and Emergency Response. New York, NY: Springer.
However, the most horrible cases of flooding are a combination of storms, 'spring tides' and low atmospheric pressure (Think Quest).
Effects of flooding:
Flooding is very dangerous as floodwater severely disrupt both public and personal transport by cutting off roads and railway lines. It suspends all communication links by damaging the telephone lines and disrupts normal drainage systems in cities, while sewage spills are common, representing a serious health risk, along with standing water and wet materials in the home (Lenntech). Additionally, bacteria mould and viruses, cause disease, causing allergic reactions that continue to harm materials long after a flood.
Floods distribute large amounts of water and suspended deposit over vast areas, refilling valuable soil nutrients to agricultural lands. On the contrary, soil is battered by huge amounts of fast flowing water, damaging crops, wiping out agricultural land / buildings and drowning farm animals (Lenntech). Thus, unfortunately, flooding not only…
Aylesbury Vale District Council. "Flooding Cause and Effect. www.aylesburyvaledc.gov.uk
The question library on water related issues. Lenntech: Water Quantity FAQ. www.lenntech.com
Law Ting Pong Secondary School. "Effects of Flooding." Library Think Quest.
Yellow River's Flooding History
Flooding is the most common hydrological hazard occurring in various regions of the world. For instance, statistics have recorded 3000 such disasters since the beginning of the 20th century. This is attributed to the widespread distribution of rivers, floodplains, and low-lying coastal plains that are extremely attractive for human settlement. Occurrence of this hazard claims approximately twenty thousand lives each year: at least twenty million are displaced across the globe from their homes at the same time. In addition to devastating impacts on humanity, floods are also known to impact negatively on the economy especially for those countries that have invested heavily on disaster management technology (Keith 232). This study focuses on the flooding history of the lower Yellow River, which is a key water body that has served Chinese civilization for ages. The main factors considered are the driving forces of flood frequency, the implication…
Chen, Yunzhen et al. Socio-economic Impacts on Flooding: A 4000-Year History of the Yellow
River, China. Beijing: Springer. 2012. Print.
Keith, Smith, and Petley, David. Environmental Hazards; Assessing Risks and Reducing
Disaster. New York, NY: Routledge. Print.
Gays Mills was submerged five feet deep in water, buildings floated away at Boaz, and all six members of a family near Viroqua drowned when their farmhouse was swept downstream" ("Floods in isconsin," the isconsin Historical Society, 2009). As is illustrated by this anecdote, flooding is almost always devastating to the residents of an area -- many isconsin residents lost everything from the flooding that occurred. Ecologically, from a holistic perspective, flooding can have some benefits, by returning nutrients to the soil, opening up the land to new habitation by a variety of species and replenishing wetlands. Also from a long-term perspective, wetlands can receive runoff from higher areas affected by heavy rains.
Flooding also has historically worked to counteract the severity of droughts. However, one interesting component of isconsin's struggles is that while some areas of the state have suffered terrible floods, others have been afflicted by a lack…
"Check dams." California storm water handbook (CASH). August 14, 2009.
"The Coon Creek Watershed: A success story of cooperative conservation." Vernon County.
August 14, 2009. http://www.vernoncounty.org/LWCD/ccNow.htm
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION -- DISASTERS -- Mississippi FLOOD 2011
The Mississippi Flood of 2011 was one of many floods endured by the Mississippi River area and surrounding areas. Past flooding taught lessons that were largely unheeded, as "experts" adhered to antiquated systems that repeatedly fail. The many vital competing interests in that geographic area are in dire need of solutions addressing and protecting all interests rather than sacrificing some for the safety of others.
Historical Background Of Similar Disasters Surrounding The Mississippi River
Legend has it that the Mississippi River floods the surrounding area every 100 years; however that is clearly untrue, as several notable floods have occurred within that timeframe. In April and May of 1927, 27,000 square miles in several states were flooded, causing 246 deaths, leaving more than 700,000 homeless and causing $400 million in damage (in 1927 dollars). In August and September of 2005, several states were…
Editorial Board. (2012, September 13). Mayors face daunting challenge along Mississippi River. Retrieved from www.stltoday.com: http://www.stltoday.com/news/opinion/columns/the-platform/editorial-mayors-face-daunting-challenge-along-Mississippi-river/article_65de5b9a-fb90-5503-9781-0b20cfd050bb.html
Mississippi Emergency Management Agency. (2012, February 6). Mississippi Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan. Retrieved from www.msema.org: http://www.msema.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/BasicPlan.pdf
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (n.d.). Flood history of Mississippi. Retrieved from www.srh.noaa.gov: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/media/jan/Hydro/Flood_History_MS.pdf
Russell, J. S. (2011, August 23). U.S. Army Corps flood failures on Mississippi demand new vision. Retrieved from www.bloomberg.com: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2011-08-23/u-s-army-corps-flood-failures-on-Mississippi-demand-new-vision
Risk of on Floodplains
Flooding is a natural phenomenon, occurring when the build-up in a body of water leads to a discharge which is greater than containment capacity (Paul and Rashid 13). A floodplain is an area located next to the body of water which is usually dry but prone to flooding when the water levels rise beyond the capacity of the river, stream, or other body of water (OAS 1; National Geographic 1). hile it is a natural phenomenon, governments and insurance companies view flooding and a risk, with the potential for communities to suffer when flooding occurs, with short-term impacts resulting in damage to property and forcing people out of affected homes, in the longer term there are the potential health impacts with flood water limiting access to essential resources and frequently holding contaminants (Burby 111).
The issue of flooding has become more pertinent with two main factors…
Allen, K, and A Bounds. "UK Building 10,000 Homes a Year on Floodplains." Fiancial Times 2015. Web. .
Arnell, N W, and B. Lloyd-Hughes. "The Global-Scale Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources and Flooding under New Climate and Socio-Economic Scenarios." Climatic Change 122.1 (2014): 127 -- 140. Print.
Burby, R J. "Flood Insurance and Floodplain Management: The U.S. Experience." Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 3.3 -- 4 (2001): 111 -- 122. Print.
Dahlman, Carl H., and William H. Renwick. Introduction to Geography: People, Places & Environment. Boston, MA: Pearson Higher Education, 2014. Print.
City of Miami Gardens is vulnerable to natural hazards, particularly flooding because of the location of the area and extreme weather events like heavy rain. One of the major reasons for these extreme weather events that increase the likelihood of heavy rain and subsequent flooding is global climate change. Global climate change contributes to unprecedented weather incidents through which the earth cools and warms over geologic time. While the city has created canal systems and neighborhood drainage system to help in drainage of water during periods of heavy rainfall, the problem of flooding continues to persist. When flooding occurs, it leads to considerable business disruptions, power outages, and other negative impacts on the community.
A hazard scenario in this area would involve a series of storms that are characterized with heavy rains for several weeks. The city's weather department has issued warnings that the heavy rains will continue for several…
"Flood Awareness." (n.d.). Miami Gardens. Retrieved from City of Miami Gardens, Florida
"Flood Emergency Response Plan." (2004). FM Global. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.fmglobal.com/shamrock/p0589.pdf
"Floor Risk Assessment." (2014, May). Floodplain Mitigation Plan. Retrieved from Town of Cutler Bay, Florida website: http://www.cutlerbay-fl.gov/announcement/1403186000_DRAFT%20Floodplain%20Mitigation%20Plan_Cutler%20Bay%20Risk%20Assessment%20Section.pdf
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.
The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).
Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from…
Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.
CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.
Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate
Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
FEMA (2010) characterizes flash floods as a "dangerous wall of roaring water that carries rocks, sticks, mud and other debris and can sweep away most things in its path." That such floods can arise without warning, and even without rain in the area, makes them especially dangerous. As flash floods typically occur along rivers, streams or in low-lying areas, the presentation will outline some of the major flash flood threat areas in our region. Estimates of potential damage will be given, based on the density of buildings, property and people in the potentially affected areas. The patterns of flash floods are less predictable and there is little advanced warning, which means that most flash flood management strategies are preventative in nature (i.e. keeping houses out of the most threatened areas).
The resource requirements for managing these flood risks will also be outlined in the presentation. There is a considerable amount…
NRC. (1994). Hurricane Hugo: Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and South Carolina, September 17-22, 1989. National Research Council Committee on Natural Disasters. Washington, DC: National Acadamies Press.
Chowdhury, S. & Kjelds, J. (2002). Simulation of coastal flooding with MIKE 11 and HEC-UNET. American Society of Civil Engineers. 2002. pp.205-214.
FEMA (2010). Flood. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved October 15, 2010 from http://www.fema.gov/hazard/flood/index.shtm
But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."
TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…
Clausen, Jan. (2000). Northwest Tribes Fight Against Formidable Odds to Save Endangered
Salmon. Nation. 270(3), 22-24.
Gelt, Joe. (2005). Managing the Interconnecting Waters: The Groundwater-Surface Water
Dilemma. University of Arizona. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2007, at http://cals.arizona.edu/axwater/arroyo/081con.html .
4. I did not obtain my current mortgage under any materially false pretenses.
As part of the Hope for Homeowners program, I would be able to attain a new affordable mortgage based on a current appraisal value. I would retain 10% equity in the property, and would be sharing the equity and future appreciation with the Federal government, which would prohibit me from taking out any additional loans against the property except for direct repairs and/or maintenance. There are also up front insurance premiums for this type of loan, which I am aware of.
If you would please consider one of these two options, I believe we can come up with a mutually satisfying solution to help avoid foreclosure on my home. I am writing this hardship letter to plead with your company to review my loan information, take into account my current financial situation, my excellent payment history prior…
Mortgage Bankers Association. Fannie Mae Posts Conventional Mortgage Servicing Modifications (06-18). Related Documents, 2008 Mortgage Bankers Association. Website with .pdf file:
Iowa After-Action eport
A close examination of the 2008 Iowa After-Action eport reveals the importance of communications systems in such emergencies. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2012), it is recommended that the State and healthcare coalitions, in collaboration with healthcare organizations conduct a resource assessment in preparation for emergencies by identification of gaps for incident response including communication. As evident in the report, the response information and communication system proved less effective.
The lapses in the information communication system included the failure to properly execute the Outlook Web Access (OWA) online e-mail application due to the programs time limit for access. The Emergency Coordination Center (ECC) was a critical communication center that coordinated operations for the Department of Public Health as well as the State Emergency Operations Center. It is apparent that the staff in the center could not access the standard Microsoft Outlook desktop…
Iowa Department of Public Health. (2008). Severe Weather Response 2008 After-Action-Report Qualitative Analysis Iowa Department of Public Health . Iowa Department of Public Health.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Healthcare Preparedness Capabilities: National Guidance for HealtHcare system PreParedness. Washington D.C: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.
" (Coates, et al., 2003) Solutions that are know to be effective are "co-management approaches in the fishery sector which are already in use and highly effective on a local basis.
There are 1200 known species of fish and it is thought that there are as many as 1700 living in the Mekong River Basin. High diversity is present due to plant groups and other aquatic animal groups. The Mekong's ecosystem is one of complexity with variations in climate, geology, terrain and water flow." (Coates, et al. 2003) the results of these variations are a rich habitat that is said to 'rival that found on tropical coral reefs. The pictures below show the impact of the flooding of the Mekong.
Figure 2.0 Figure 2.1
Source: (Coates, et al., 2003)
III. Cultural Significance of the River
Diversity is important for the following reasons:
Direct Use Value: biodiversity is used directly as…
Coates D. et al. (2003) Biodiversity and Fisheries in the Mekong River Basin Mekong River Commission, Mekong Development Series No.2, 2003 June
Coates, D. (2001) Biodiversity and Fisheries Management Opportunities in the Mekong River Basin "Blue millennium-managing global fisheries for biodiversity. GEF-IDRC 3-7 July 2001. World Fisheries Trust, Victoria, Canada CD Rom.
Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin Online available at http://www.mrcmekong.org/pdf/95%20Agreement.pdf
Mekong River Basin
psychological impact of Katrina & Lusitania
Hurricane Katrina which took place in the year 2005 is said to be one of the worst storm disaster that took place in the history of the United States. It led to loss of many lives, and it was unavoidable. The winds both from Louisiana to Alabama caused the level of water to arise at about 80% of the New Orleans and neighborhoods. The tragedy left many people with worries asking how the tragedy like that could happen to threaten the lives of many Americans (Brinkley, 2006).
The sinking of Lusitania on the other hand, contributed to various impacts on America as well as, the World War One. However, the Americans were never interested in joining the war unless they had finished another two years. The Lusitania sinking also enraged many Americans as well as, hastening the people from United States' entrance into the…
Brinkley, D. (2006). The great deluge: Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and the Mississippi Gulf Coast. New York: Morrow.
Guterman, P. (2005). Psychological preparedness for disaster. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://www.academia.edu/233646/Psychological_preparedness_for_disaster
Gant, P.G., & Gantt, R. (2011). Disaster Psychology. October 10, 2012 from http://www.asse.org/professionalsafety/pastissues/057/08/042_049_F1Gan_0812.pdf .
Ballard, R.D., & Dunmore, S. (2003). Exploring the Lusitania: probing the mysteries of the sinking that changed history. New York: Warner Books.
Disaster in Franklin County
Explain the role of the major public health personnel, including the public health nurse, involved in the disaster.
There are many expectations of the public health personnel in such a situation. The major one is to take care of the security of the affected right on the spot. In addition, the general welfare of the whole society is also a role that the personnel have to play immediately. Moreover, it is imperative that the personnel also give attention to any future issues that may arise in relation to the disaster. In this instance, the nurse is also part of this team and, therefore, is expected to perform all these obligations (Olson et al. 2010). In this particular disaster, the concerns that required urgent attention were the welfare of the people. These include food and water, which are necessary for the survival of the casualties. Power is…
Couig, M., Johnson, K.A., & Rick, S. (2011). Nursing Scope of Practice Issues in Public Health
Emergencies. Journal Of Nursing Regulation, 2(3), 13.
Olson, D., Scheller, A., Larson, S., Lindeke, L., & Edwardson, S. (2010). Using gaming simulation to evaluate bioterrorism and emergency readiness education. Public Health
Reports (Washington, D.C.: 1974), 125(3), 468-477.
In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?
Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…
Cervone, D., & Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research. Hoboken;NJ: . Wiley.
Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ:: Wiley.
Sue, D., & Sue, D.M. (2008). Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy: Evidence-based practices for a diverse society. Hoboken, N.J:: John Wiley & Sons.
Memo regarding building emergency sea gate with current funds
After studying the issue, and the costs thereof, we have come to the conclusion based on the following facts:
That building a Seagate may be feasible as per the advice of the engineers. However they also opinion that such a hurricane as sandy occurs once in 25 or so years. The cost of building such a barrier would be enormous. It would result in increased taxes and the efficiency of such a measure is not guaranteed.
The second alternate is to build smaller dykes that would keep off sea erosions but would do nothing against storms like sandy.
The third alternate is to increase the existing infrastructure in such a way that flooding can be avoided. And other programs are continued in a phased manner.
With consideration to all of the above, we believe that investing in a sea…
Earl, Michael J. (1988) "Information Management: The Organizational Dimension" Oxford
University Press: Oxford.
L.A. County Online. "Hazard Mitigation" Retrieved 26 April, 2013 from http://lacoa.org/hazmit.htm
Narasimhan, Ram; Kim, Soo Wook. (2001) "Information system utilization strategy for supply chain integration" Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 22, no. 2, pp: 51 -- 75.
The defined market is the new housing market; initially in the United States, then slowly expanding into Canada, Mexico and from there into the international markets around the world. Wherever new houses are being built, a prospective market will exist. The initial market will concentrate on residential housing only, but within the first five years, the market will be expanded to include the commercial real estate new building market as well. The first markets to be penetrated will include flood prone areas only. The flood prone areas are areas around lakes, waterways, rivers and oceans. These areas comprise approximately 25% of the overall new housing market(s), therefore; research will be based on the overall new housing market in the United States at a 25% ratio, and then expand to include other countries who may or may not be calculated at the same percentage depending on flood areas for those…
unrealistic images that society portrays towards the male sex in general. I find this to be an interesting issue since usually the attention is drawn to the unrealistic images that are used for females. However, men face many cultural challenges in modern society with stereotypical concepts of what it means to be a male flooding media. I found two basic concepts of the male. One was what I referred to as a "doofuses" and the other was what I referred to as an unrealistic heroic type stereotype. In this meta text essay I will reflect on the challenges I had in expressing my feelings on this issue by outlining many of the specific changes I made between the original document and the revised document. By providing examples of the specific changes I can provide the reasons that I decided to make these changes. While most of the changes were either…
Stated examples include: "cessation of mining or farming or causes of erosion, restricting livestock from riparian areas, removing toxic materials from soil or sediments, and eradicating invasive exotic species; (4) restoration of processes/disturbance cycles and this involves restoration of important ecological processes including natural flooding or fire regimes so that natural integrity is restored; (5) rehabilitation of substrates which may be any type of activity focused on repairing soil texture or chemistry that has been altered or the restoration of hydrological regimes or the quality of water; (6) vegetation restoration which may include direct revegetation of a site and generally with species that are native to the local conditions of the environment. This involves collection of seeds or cuttings from various sources in the local region; (7) Maintenance and monitoring the restoration site across time is required to ensure that objectives are being met. Observation assists in knowing when something…
Ecological Restoration Option (2014) Humboldt State University. Retrieved from: http://humboldt.edu/environment/programs/environmental-science/ecological-restoration-option
The Croton Waterworks (2014) Retrieved from: http://crotonaqueduct.wordpress.com/field-notes/individual-structures/jacqueline-kennedy-onassis-reservoir/
Vaughn, K.J., Porensky, L.M., Wilkerson, M.L., Balachowski, J., Peffer, E., Riginos, C. & Young, T.P. (2010) Restoration Ecology. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):66. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/restoration-ecology-13339059
The drought in California is a maddening study in contradictions. The state is an epicenter for drought even as other parts of the United States are awash in rain. At the same time, many of the people of California are subject to strict very strict conditions on the use of water. However, not only are the restrictions rather harsh, they are not being applied in many cases to the people that use up to four fifths of the water in the state. This does not make much sense to many people on a number of levels but yet the problems and uneven enforcement persist. While there must be better ways to address the drought in California, the application of these better methods seems to be uneven at best according to the work of Vice and its reporters.
The clips at the very beginning of the video lay bare the…
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
Risks of Climate Change
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
Climate Change Impacts on Engineering Infrastructure
Key Impacts on Water and Resources
Risk Management Analysis Coping Methods Possibility And Probability
Recommendations And Guidelines For The Vulnerability Of Climate
Change Impacts Using Risk Management Methods And Analysis
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
This work examines climate change in relation to impacts upon infrastructure, utilities, and water in relation to the affects from projected sea level rise, flooding, and other related impacts expected to result from climate change. This work also reviews models used for risk assessment and analysis and examines their usefulness and the associated limitations with these models. Knowledge and expertise is growing in the risk-assessment and analysis field of study and reliable models are being developed although the primary effective and appropriate use for the majority of these models…
Adapting to Climate Change Impacts on Water Management: A Guide for Planner (2006) AEA Technology - Prepared for the South East England Regional Assembly. May 2006. Online available at http://www.southeastra.gov.uk/our_work/planning/sust_nat_res/planners_adaptation_guide/planners_adaptation_guide.pdf
Sandell, 2007) ABC News Report Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/Technology/GlobalWarming/story?id=3582433&page=1
Blakemore, Bill (2007) Greenland: Where Towering Icebergs Raise Sea Levels. 9 Sept 2007. ABC News Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/story?id=3579084&page=1
Cities Should Plan Now for Effects of Global Warming on Infrastructure (2005) University of Maryland 21 Feb 2005 Science and Technology Online available at http://www.newsdesk.umd.edu/scitech/release.cfm?ArticleID=1036
Mold emediation in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Mold emediation in the Aftermath of Flooding in Wilkes-Barre, PA
Pennsylvania was hit hard in September, first by Hurricane Irene and then by the remnants of Tropical Storm Lee (Huber, 2011). Close to 100,000 residents living in areas that were inundated in 1972 due to Hurricane Agnes were ordered to evacuate on Thursday, September 8, 2011 (The Times Leader, 2011) and were not allowed to return until Saturday afternoon or later (Olson, 2011). Fortunately, the levees built in the aftermath of Hurricane Agnes did their job and a comparatively low number of 5,400 homes were exposed to floodwaters (Huber, 2011). However, those residents whose homes were flooded will be faced not only with physical damage to their property, but also the threat of significant exposure to mold-generated bioaerosols if their homes were exposed…
Brandt, Mary, Brown, Clive, Burkhart, Joe, Burton, Nancy, Cox-Ganser, Jean, Damon, Scott et al. (2006). Mold prevention strategies and possible health effects in the aftermath of hurricanes and major floods. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55, 1-27. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5508a1.htm
Cabral, Joao P.S. (2010). Can we use indoor fungi as bioindicators of indoor air quality? Historical perspectives and open questions. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 4285-4295.
Committee on Damp Indoor Spaces and Health (CDISH). (2004). Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. NAP.edu. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2012 from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309091934
Cummings, Kristin J., Cox-Ganser, Jean, Riggs, Margaret A., Edwards, Nicole, and Kreiss, Kathleen. (2007). Respirator donning in post-hurricane New Orleans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13, 700-707.
These short-term agreements should be among contingency plans drawn up before a flood arrives, although it would not always be possible to predict the dimensions of floods and the resourcefulness and responses of individuals facing the emergency. The proper approach would be a mingling of a lot of intergovernmental planning and voluntary agreements among city, county and State governments and federal agencies (Wahl).
The widespread human and material distress, caused by the 1993 Mississippi River Flood would provoke the mind of sober individuals as the wisdom of the policies and programs, which contributed to that disaster (Myers 1993). In confronting the cause and effects of the Great Flood, the nation first needed to decide whether to rebuild, strengthen, raise, lower or simply abandon the levees along the Upper Mississippi and lower Missouri Rivers. Then focus should be made on the long-term quality of natural landscapes and human communities in the…
1. Gomez, Basil, et al. Sediment Characteristics of an Extreme Flood: 1993 Upper Mississippi River Valley, 1995. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~fjmagill/geology_ms_miss_pdf
2. Gutin, James E. Effect of 1993 Flood on Plant and Animal Life. Discover, 1994. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1511/is_n1_v15/ai_14902683
3. Kolva, James R. Effects of the Great Midwest Flood of 1993 on Wetlands. U.S. Geology Survey, 2002. http://www.usgs.gov/nwsum/WSP2425/flood.html
4. Knutson, Melinda and Klaas, Erwin E. Declines in Abundance of Species, Richness of Birds Following a Major Flood in the Upper Mississippi River. The Auz: American Orinthologists Union, 1997. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1076/is_n10_v35/ai_14687892
The student editors continue, "Prior to the appearance of Lake Nasser [...] the Nubians cultivated plots along the shore. Those areas are now completely underwater. Many people have left the settlements that were created for them and returned to the lake's edge, trying to recreate their lost culture."
Sadly, because the dam has affected the flow of the Nile, and because the lakeshore is different from the river's edge, their way of life has been permanently changed. Many nomadic Egyptian tribes were also affected. They did not understand the effect the lake would have on their tribal lands, and these changes altered the way they care for their livestock and make their livings. In short, the dam affected people's lives adversely in many areas, and the human cost of the dam has been extremely high.
The dam added 30% to Egypt's usable agricultural land, but it has had an adverse…
Editors. 2000. The Aswan Dam. Denver, CO: University of Colorado at Denver. Available Online at http://carbon.cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/index.html. Accessed 7 May 2007.
Osman, Hassan. Hydro Development in Egypt- Lessons from High Aswan Dam. Dams.org. Available Online at http://www.dams.org/kbase/submissions/showsub.php?rec=opt041Accessed 7 May 2007.
Swain, Ashok. Managing Water Conflict: Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. London: Routledge, 2004.
Water Wars: Fact or Fiction?" Futures (2001): 769.
Social isk and Vulnerability Analysis Comment by Babyliza: There's No Abstract
Vulnerability to hazards is affected by several factors, comprising age or income, the power of social networks, and neighborhood individualities. Social vulnerability takes into account the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the resilience of populations. The Sovi for Bexar County is 0.230416 whereas that for Philadelphia County is 3.418284. This indicates that Philadelphia County as a geographical expanse has a higher vulnerability and susceptibility to environmental and public health hazards. A key group that ought to be taken into consideration is one of people lacking insurance. This is a group that is severely impacted in the course of disasters and after disasters, and are not able to easily recover. Individuals that are not self-insured are generally excluded from these calculations.
All expanses of the United States have experienced disasters, both natural and anthropogenic. The vulnerabilities that are…
Bexar County Emergency Management. (2016). The Mission & Vision of the OEM. Retrieved from: http://www.bexar.org/675/OEM-Mission-Vision
Chavi. (2015). Here Are The 10 Worst Disasters to Occur in Pennsylvania History. Only in Your State. Retrieved from: http://www.onlyinyourstate.com/pennsylvania/pa-disasters/
City Data. (2016). Philadelphia: Geography and Climate. Retrieved from: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Northeast/Philadelphia-Geography-and-Climate.html
Dunning, C. M., Durden, S. (2013). Social Vulnerability Analysis: A Comparison of Tools. Institute for Water Resources.
In fact, environmentalists were often dismissed during that time period. Moreover, environmental regulation was seen as an area of concern for each individual country, so that other countries would rarely, if ever, provide international pressure for environmental issues. However, the growing body of scientific literature about the environment changed the game between the 1970s and the 1980s/1990s. For example, when the James Bay Project was first conceived, it was considered a very green source of electricity because it lacked emissions and other hallmarks of pollution. The reality, however, is that the project resulted in incredible environmental damage:
It has been shown that environmental impacts of the first phase include: methyl mercury contamination of water in reservoirs and downstream rivers and mercury accumulation in fish; reversal of the natural seasonal flow pattern of rivers; conversion of La Grande estuary from a saltwater environment to a freshwater one because of regulated peak…
Bethune, D.N. (1997). Environmental Damage and Aboriginal Health. Retrieved February 21,
2010 from NIICHRO
Coffee, H. (1992). James Bay Hydroelectric Project Hits a Dam. Retrieved February 21, 2010
They then separated the core, according to Science News, into 2-mm layers. Those 2-mm layers were carbon-dated (a very accurate way of telling how long a substance has been in the ground) and carefully examined for G. bulloides.
As a result of this research, the team was able to check the intensity of monsoons for as far back as 1,000 years. And what did they discover regarding monsoons over the past one thousand years? There was a "low in monsoon wind intensity" around the year 1,600, the article reports, but since then there has been "a steady increase." And moreover, the abundance of G. bulloides shows the scientists that there has been "a more marked increase in monsoon during the past 100 years.
Researchers attribute the rise in wind intensity from monsoons over the past 100 years to global warming. The reason scientists involved with this research feel sure that…
McKnight, Tom L.; & Hess Darrel. Monsoons. Physical Geography. A Landscape Appreciation.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall
New Scientist. "Deluged Nepal blames India. 195.2626. August 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2008 at http://www.newscientist.com .
Science News. "Data hint at wet and blustery future." 162.4. July 2002. Page. 54.
After examining her national and family history, Williams came to believe that the 1950's aboveground detonation of a nuclear bomb near her family's home could be the source of her family's struggle with cancer, as well as the cause of the community's propensity to contract cancer as a whole. Williams details her feelings about this fact in a personal as well as a clinical manner. This is not simply a natural and historical tragedy, but a tragedy she must live with for the rest of her own life -- she will never have another mother, just as many of the flooded-out birds will never have another home. The author admits that the bomb she remembers seeing explode as a young child, the bomb that could have caused the cancer that killed her mother, haunts her in her dreams.
Thus her search for a source of blame for an apparently random…
Systems Thinking Applied to Sustainability Challenges
"SYSTEMS THINKING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS TO SUSTAINAILITY CHALLENGES"
POLLUTION IN THE OCEANS
"Systems Thinking is Critical in Developing Solutions to Sustainability Challenges"
Pollution in the Oceans
Ocean pollution is an issue for both society and individuals. Such complex issues exhibit some commonality, including being nonlinear, being heterogeneous, interdependent and self organized. It follows, therefore, that the issues require well thought-out and equally complex solutions. Venturing on pursuing causes without structured frameworks is a waste of time.
'Systems thinking' provide a new model for solving complex problems that afflict society; including pollution issues. In the system, biology interacts with social, cultural and manmade environmental elements in permutations and combinations that continue to evolve, discontinuously. The causes of pollution (Anon., n.d.) arise at various levels. They also interact at these varying levels. Organizations and individual entities are important at any given level. There is…
Anon., n.d. [Online]
Available at: http://www.enesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SC/pdf/interagency_blue_paper_ocean_rioPlus20.pdf
Anonson R., B. B. J. F. P. W. e. a., 2003. Causes of Corol ref degradation.. [Online].
Business Dictionary, n.d. [Online]
successful entrepreneur takes a lot of hard work. People often require a great idea and excellent implementation of said idea to gain success. Using the business competition chain, people can come up with an idea and through effort, turn it into an innovation and therefore, a marketable product. The business competition chain is as follows: Idea attracts entrepreneur that seeks capital that enables a team/business to compete in the market. So considering those, I suggest the idea of flashlights that have an end piece that expands or narrows for both focused, intense light on the narrow version and weak wide-covering light on the open version. Many products already have the idea of opening and narrowing the end piece of an object. For example, a metal steamer opens and closes in order to accommodate a range of food items. Joseph Schumpeter understood that by taking the business cycle approach, during financial…
Kokemuller, N. (2015). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Debt and Equity Financing. Small Business - Chron.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-debt-equity-financing-55504.html
Lynn, G., & Akgun, A. (2015). Innovation Strategies Under Uncertainty: A Contingency Approach for New Product Development. Engineering Management Journal, 11. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10429247.1998.11414991
Shepherd, D., & Wiklund, J. (2005). Entrepreneurial small businesses. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
The Weather Channel,. (2015). Tornadoes Cause Destruction, Flooding Continues in Texas; 5 Dead, 2 Missing. Retrieved 31 October 2015, from http://www.weather.com/storms/severe/news/severe-weather-impacts-southern-plains-texas
The study revealed that pollution in the are run off water was measurably reduced after running through the ecosystem. Ron Turco, a soil microbiologist and senior researcher of the project had this to say, "Golf courses are a perfect place for constructed wetlands used as part of a water management system, because wetlands can filter chemicals out of surface water, and they can also store excess water during storms," ("Cleaning ater and Controlling Flooding with etlands" 53) So there may be some hope on the back nine for some wetlands after all. But all kidding aside, this is the type of project, smaller and more immediate, that needs to be funded along with the philosophy of co-habitation of wetlands and human beings kept in mind. This kind of thinking helps to counter the "manifest destiny" concept that the American culture has in regarding land and their possession of it. It…
Blumenauer, Earl. "Water Vision 2001." Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 16.1 (2001): 82.
Cleaning Water and Controlling Flooding with Wetlands." Journal of Environmental Health 68.1 (2005): 53.
Gale, Thomas. "Wetlands." Gale Encyclopedia of Science. 2001:
Grant, Dave. "Disappearing Wetlands." Underwater Naturalist 26.4 (April 2004): p11
Another consequence of the exploitative use of water resources is the destruction of mangrove forests and the fragmentation of the habitats of endangered species. The United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna listed 189 endangered species in China among the 740 in the world.
Sand content is quite high in the Yellow iver. In the dry season, sand rises and flies up with the wind and soil desertization becomes severe. In addition, the iver's dri-up directly reduces the quantity of water for farmland irrigation. The supply of ground water decreases while the exploitation quantity of ground water increases. The results would include a deep crescent of ground water, a decrease of land evapo-transpiration, local climate drying, soil desertization, a reduction of biotic population and a simplification of biocommunity structure.
Another serious problem confronted in the Yellow iver is nitrogen contamination. A study found…
Federal Reserve Division. Country Profile: China. (Library of Congress, August 2006)
Retrieved April 23, 2007 at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/China.pdf b) Jiang, Gooming and Jixi Gao. The Terrible Cost of China's Growth. Part I. (Creative Commons, January 12, 2007)
Luo, Yufing, et al. The Lower Yellow River Basin: a System Dynamics Approach. ACIAR
Proceedings number 123. (Agricultural Water Management in China, September 2005). Retrived April 23, 2007 at http://www.aciar.gov.u/web.nsf/att/ACIA-6s79R7/$file/ACIAProc123WebPart3.pdf
experienced a series of extreme and devastating weather events including Hurricane Katrina's destruction of New Orleans, Louisiana and other parts of the south in 2005, flooding in Europe in 2005, heavy snowfall in Europe in 2010 and 2011, and flooding throughout Asia from 2005 to the present. Many of these weather patterns are related to El Nino or La Nina storms, which are two-to-eight-year weather patterns where changing wind streams pick up warm surface water from the oceans and increases humidity, according to Tim Flannery in his 2005 book The Weather Makers. When the clouds reach a saturation point, they release horrific storms and subsequent floods in some parts of the world and parching droughts in others.
Extreme weather caused by warming oceans is one of the many environmental disasters scientist link to global warming, which is the increasing warming of the planet. In the midst of a cold winter,…
Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish, Louisiana
Description of Caddo Parish, Louisiana
With about a quarter of a million residents, Caddo Parish, Louisiana is a fairly older community with almost two-thirds of its population aged 25 years or older. Most of the residents of Caddo Parish (82.3%) are high school graduate or higher and 22.3% have a bachelor's degree or higher compared to the national averages of 84.6% and 27.5%, respectively. There are slightly more females than males in Caddo Parish, and median family incomes are slightly lower than the national average at $48,522; per capita income is also slightly less than the national average at $22,323. There are also slightly more whites than blacks (50.3% compared to 46.4%, respectively) in Caddo Parish. ecent relevant statistical data for these and other areas of interest are presented below.
Biophysical Considerations: Caddo Parish
About the Parish of Caddo. (2011). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://
Annual report. (2007, 2010). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://www.caddo.
As such, the original construction for the building was completed between 1911 and 1913, after which point the factory underwent significant reconstruction resulting in an expansion that was largely different than its original design. The construction effort was largely financed by enscheidt, who worked in conjunction with foreign investors raise the necessary funding. The building's foundation was achieved by mixing compressed concrete and pebble dashing. While the majority of the rising structure was erected with brick, the floors were laid down with reinforced wood planks. The ceilings were constructed with a formwork shell (Gotz 138).
The glass windows that the Fagus Factory is noted for were erected upon steel frames and cover the building's entire exterior. What is of interest about this fact is that the corners of the building were constructed without supports, in much the same way that the Turbine factory was (Jaeggi 43-44). The glass was placed…
Driscoll, Molly. "Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: Father of 'less is more' architecture." The Christian Science Monitor. 2012. Web. http://www.csmonitor.com/Innovation/Tech-Culture/2012/0327/Ludwig-Mies-van-der-Rohe-Father-of-less-is-more-architecture-video
Filler, Martin. "Mies and the Mastodon." The New Republic. 2001. Web. http://www.tnr.com/article/mies-and-the-mastodon
Harris, Neil. "Mies on Lake Shore Drive." Architecture Week. 2004. Web. http://www.architectureweek.com/2006/0503/culture_1-2.html
Puente, Moises. Conversations with Mies van der Rohe. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. 2008. Print.
isks and Vulnerability Factors
The two counties I selected were Shelby County in Tennessee and Orleans County in Vermont. In 2011, Shelby County experienced $2,000,000,000 in property damage due to flooding on May 1, 2,470,000 in property damage due to severe storms and thunderstorms beginning on April 19, 150,000 due to flooding beginning on April 27, and $20,000 in property damage beginning April 26. During all of these disasters there were no injuries, fatalities, or crop damage.
In 2011, Orleans county incurred $500,000,000 in property damage from flooding beginning on August 28, $150,000 in property damage due to lightening beginning July 6, and $50,000 in property damage due to wind on August 28. There was also flooding on April 26 that accumulated $50,000 in property damage. Significantly, none of these hazards produced any injuries or fatalities. The only crop damage incurred was $250,000 attributed to flooding on August…
Hazards & Vulnerability Research Institute (2012). "The Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States, Version 10.0 [Online Database]." Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina. Retrieved from http://www.sheldus.org
Hazards & Vulnerability Research Institute. (2012). "Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI®) for the United States - 2006-10 Data." Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina. Retrieved from http://webra.cas.sc.edu/hvri/products/sovi.aspx
When women go to work in male dominated jobs, a clear message is given to them that they are not fit for the long hours and the organizational loyalty that the job requires due to the tug of children and the demand of family obligations. Many organizations, including hospitals put loyalty tests like long work hours to find out whether the employees will be able to meet the requirements of business. The main section where these hurt is the women employees. In the course of time, one can see men moving up the organizations much faster than women as the family obligations of women affect their job opportunities seriously. This restricts for the women a chance to get visible and revenue producing jobs with a brilliant career.
The 1997 National Study of Changing workforce dealt with the composition of jobs and the frequency levels of the work getting…
Female pediatricians work full-time equivalent hours: AAP survey" Retrieved at http://www.aap.org/research/periodicsurvey/ps20_35.htm . Accessed on 31 July, 2004
Flooding the Field" (August, 2003) Retrieved at http://www.healthleaders.com/magazine/feature1.php?contentid=47255Accessed on 31 July, 2004
Greene, Jay. (May 14, 2001) "A quest for balance: Personal vs. professional" AM News. Retrieved at http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2001/05/14/prsa0514.htm . Accessed on 31 July, 2004
Maume, David J; Houston, Paula. (2001) "Job Segregation and gender differences in work-family spillover among white-collar workers" Journal of Family and Economic Issues. Volume: 22; No: 2; pp: 171-189
The natural factors that influence infiltration rate include soil characteristics, plant and animals, and topography. Man can modify these features to highly influence runoff. For instance, areas with grass/vegetation will reduce runoff by reducing speed of water on surface hence increasing percolation chances. On the other hand, bare lands will offer less resistance to water hence faster runoffs. In the event that rainfall produces much water to the land surface than it can be absorbed by the soil, the excess water will be left on the surface to flow down slopes as runoff. et areas with higher vegetation covers can have higher water tables that lead to faster saturations hence runoff.
On soil characteristics, finer soils will reduce infiltration and increase runoff and vice versa. Still, the size of rain drops can help compact soil reducing runoff. Concerning plant cover, they increase infiltration rates in that they slow the pace…
Rodriguez, Daniel Andres, Javier Tomasella, and Claudia Linhares. Is the forest conversion to pasture affecting the hydrological response of Amazon catchments? Signals in the Ji-
Parana basin. 26 March 2010. Web. 25 April 2010. Article available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/123261361/PDFSTART
The land could not resist to the saturation caused by the winds and the heavy rain and it had not been long before the aftermath materialized into swollen mountain streams. This later resulted into cascades of mud mixed with water running down the slopes in serious amounts. In spite of the fact that the island had several drains and catch basins which could be very effective in case of a small flood, they had been no match for the one on the February 20. The three rivers crossing Funchal, apparently meant to prevent flood water from entering the city, had been one of the motives for the waters quickly moving towards the streets.
A state of panic overtook the area, as the authorities were practically powerless. The intervention of the military had been crucial, as engineers could repair some of the structures that had suffered minor damage, while military rescue…
1. Elliot Larry & Tremlett Giles. "Madeira floods: death toll rises to 40." Retrieved April 27, 2010, from the Guardian Web site: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/feb/21/madeira-floods-death-toll-rises
The sediment that could run off into streams and rivers due to the burn was estimated to be 13,440 cubic yards per square mile.
The USGS executive report -- well after the fire was extinguished -- asserted that the "greatest threat are to life and property from increased erosion and sedimentation, flooding potential, rockfall, and increased debris flow potential." That having been said, the USGS report went on to explain that "given the slope steepness, vegetative recovery, and amount of potentially treatable acreage within a sub-watershed there are no land treatments (hillslope treatments)" that could possibly be "effectively implemented" in order to provide cover to help reduce soil erosion. In other words, when the rains fall in winter -- as they do every winter season from roughly December to April -- there will certainly be rockslides, mudslides, and potential flash flooding as well.
It should be mentioned that the rugged…
Rayl, a.J.S. (2008). Flight from the Fire: A Dramatic Condor Rescue. Reader's Digest.
Retrieved July 5, 2010, from http://www.rd.com .
United States Geological Survey. (2008). Executive Summary: Basin Complex Fire/Indians
Fire / BAER Initial Assessment. Retrieved July 6, 2010, from http://www.ca.water.usgs.gov/webcams/bigsur/09_22_basini_2500-8redacted-pdf.
"From the junction of the East and West Forks the Trinity River continues southeast, forming all or part of the county lines between Kaufman and Ellis, Ellis and enderson, enderson and Navarro, Freestone and Anderson, Anderson and Leon, Leon and ouston, and ouston and Madison counties. It then cuts across northern Walker County to form a portion of the county line between Walker and Trinity counties and continues as the county line between Trinity and San Jacinto and Polk counties. At the northern line of Liberty County the Trinity turns almost directly south, cutting across Liberty and Chambers counties, to drain into Trinity Bay just west of Anahuac (at 29°45' N, 94°42' W)."
So it is easy to see how complicated any undertaking at revitalization of the river would be. The pollution that plagues the Trinity are not so unlike other rivers across the country that have been successfully revitalized;…
Handbook of Texas Online, s.v.," http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/TT/rnt2.html (Accessed May 8, 2007).
Ingrassia, 2000, p. 20.
United Way 2000-2002 Annual Report to Metropolitan Chicago, p. 6.
Damns on Wildlife and the Environment
Background to Dams and Levees - One of the issues resulting from civilization and urbanization is that most of the places humans chose to locate, for reasons of convenience, agriculture, transportation, and economic independence, have been near water. Dams provide hydroelectric power, help control floods, and make rivers navigable. Levees are quite similar to dams in their purpose, although they are primarily build to restrict water in times of high flow -- and for the majority of time are not under water. Per capita, floods are the most destructive and frequent of Mother Nature's natural disasters. In the last 50-60 years, in fact, the number and severity of flooding has worsened globally. Several reasons have contributed to this: global warming and worsening of storm activity; the deforestation and paving of natural watersheds; and more people living and working on known flood-plains. However, many scholars…
Dams Solution. (2010). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved from: http://www.fws.gov/r5crc/Habitat/damsolutions.html
Berga, L. (2006). Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21st Century, Volume 1. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Chiras, D. (2010). Environmental Science. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Drijiver, C. (1986). Taming the Floods: Environmental Aspects of Floodplain Development in Africa. Nature and Resources. 22 (4): Retrieved from: http://openagricola.nal.usda.gov/Record/IND87078020
Salee Company Limited suffers this setback. Therefore, it should align itself in a position to maximize profits by looking in to the ways of reducing the loss. Mr. Somsak Pruksawan of the Salee Industry Public Company Limited admits that every organization, large or small businesses suffers various types of obstacle when performing businesses. Their problem is the management of the waste and the plastic defects. The management of the company notes that the company faces various difficulties. These problems range from the upstream of supply chain processes to the end customers or the consumers of their products. The material cost varies with the mass of material that that facilitates the process and the price unit of that material. The heaviness of material is vividly a result of the proportion volume and material density. However, the fraction's maximum wall widths play a role (Lindsay, 2010, p.57).
The weight of raw material…
Packham, D. (2010). Mould sticking, fouling and cleaning. Shropshire: Rapra Technology.
Groover, M.P. (2010). Fundamentals of modern manufacturing: Materials, processes, and systems. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
ASM International. (2009). Characterization and failure analysis of plastics. Materials Park,
OH: ASM International.
Fire Suppression Systems
Fire results when fuel, oxidant, and sufficient heat combine in time and place (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The fuel is typically a carbon-based material like paper, wood, oil, or gas, while ambient air typically provides the oxidant in the form of oxygen. Other oxidants include nitrates, chlorates, and peroxides and therefore should never be stored alongside fuel materials. For combustion to occur the heat must sufficient to ignite the fuel. Once ignited the chemical reaction is typically extremely exothermic and becomes self-perpetuating in the presence of fuel and oxidant. If heat accumulates faster than it can be dissipated to the surrounding environment an explosion will occur.
The three ways in which heat can be dissipated is through conduction along a temperature gradient, convection due to movement of the gaseous fire matter, and radiation to other surfaces (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The primary method…
IFSTA (International Fire Service Training Association). (2009). Fire Inspection and Code Enforcement, Seventh Edition. Stillwater, OK: Fire Protection Publications.
Knowlton, B.E. (2012). The effects of using fire-fighting foams: GC-MS pattern analysis of fire debris. (Masters of Science dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. UMI No. 1520731.
Moore, P.E. (1996). Suppressants for the control of industrial explosions. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 9(1), 119-123.
New Zealand Institute of Chemistry. (n.d.). Chemistry in fire fighting. Retrieved from http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/environment/14C.pdf .
John Postal and the environmental protection agency and army corps
John Pozsgai vs. The EPA
Google the name 'John Pozsgai' and you will immediately summon up a series of articles from very divergent sources, some of which laud Pozsgai as a hero, others of which call him as a villain. Conservative sources like The Wall Street Journal and the online magazine eason laud him while others are far more suspicious of the idea that Pozsgai is a victim of the modern environmentalist movement. The evidence is overwhelming that despite numerous warnings that his actions were unwarranted and illegal, Pozsgai persisted in his actions. While it is true that his sentence may have been extremely harsh and that the government may have been able to have gone about mitigating the damage and dealing with Pozsgai in a more sensitive manner before things got out-of-hand, that does not excuse his actions.
Gardner, R. (2011). Lawyers, swamps, and money. Island Press.
Kilpatrick, J. (1990). Scofflaw Pozsgai is due no sympathy. The Morning Call. Retrieved from:
McLarin, J. (1990). Facing jail in a wetlands case. Philly.com. Retrieved from:
Hurricanes are frequent in certain parts of the United States like Florida. The most prevalent toxin that can wreak havoc after a hurricane is asbestos. "Asbestos is a naturally-occurring mineral that was used extensively up until its dangers became truly evident in the last quarter century. It was used in nearly all aspects of home and building construction because of its fire-retardant and insulation qualities" ("Asbestos emoval after a Hurricane -- Safe handling of asbestos," 2016). While Asbestos does not present an immediate danger when left undisturbed, after a hurricane, potential flooding could release the particles into the air through structural damage of buildings, floors, and pipes lined with asbestos. When released into the air, the particles become 'friable' and can affect humans in a deadly way through diseases of the lung like mesothelioma.
The exposure limit is 0.1 fiber/cm3TWA 1.0 fiber/cm3 Excursion Limit (30 minutes). The target organs are…
Asbestos Removal after a Hurricane -- Safe handling of asbestos. (2016). Mesothelioma.com. Retrieved 22 April 2016, from http://www.mesothelioma.com/asbestos-exposure/handling/hurricanes.htm
CDC, (2016). CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards -Asbestos.Cdc.gov. Retrieved 22 April 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0041.html
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall on the coast of Texas. While it was predicted to hit the United States as less destructive tropical storm or Cat 1 hurricane, a number of factors combined to make Harvey extremely destructive. First, Harvey strengthened as it approached land. Second, the storm was slow-moving, so that it continued to drop rain on the coast. Finally, Harvey’s rains hit one of the most heavily-populated areas of the United States. Combined together, these factors made Harvey one of the most destructive natural disasters to ever hit the United States.
One of the reasons that Harvey was so destructive is that people did not have adequate time to prepare for the storm. Harvey formed very quickly and was expected to make landfall as a tropical storm or, at most, a Category 1 hurricane. The upgrade to above Category 1 status occurred very quickly before landfall. Although local employers and school districts struggled…
This occurs when a server happens to receive more connection requests that are incomplete and that it cannot possibly handle. This kind of attack's source code were released in 2006 by 2600 and Phracks two well-known underground hacker magazines. The second threat is IP Spoofing which is an attack which involves the impersonation of a legitimate host user at the IP layer. The third one is sequence number attack. The third one is TCP session hijacking. The third threat is denial of service attacks Security strategies to address various threats that are addressed by IPSec that users who use unsecured TCP/IP face
In order to ensure that users of unsecured TCP/IP don't fall victims to the threats outlined above, the following strategies must be employed;
Countering SYN Flooding:
The ISPs that are responsible for the IP packets must block the non-internal addresses that are responsible for the flooding. The attacker…
CEEnet (2000)Applications of IPSec
Ferguson, B Poulton, D and Barrett, D (2004). MCSA/MCSE 70-299 Exam Cram 2:
Implementing and Administering Security in a Windows 2003 Network
According to many historians, that relief effort was instrumental in propelling Hoover into the national spotlight and eventually helped him win the 1929 presidential election.
The Mississippi Flood as the ause of Racial Tension
Approximately 650,000 people were directly affected by the Mississippi Flood of 1927, having to relocate because their homes, property, and entire communities were completely destroyed by the flood. Almost half of them were housed in relief camps of whom almost three-quarters were African-American. In many cases, the conditions sparked racial tensions and events such as what occurred in Greenville, Mississippi. More than 10,000 people were stranded without drinking water, food, or any other supplies for several days.
When boats finally arrived, they initially rescued only children and white women, leaving white men, and African-Americans. In another event that made nationwide headlines, police had been sent to round up relief workers from the "Negro" areas. When an…
The Mississippi Flood of 1927 was a natural disaster not attributable to human error or oversight. Unprecedented rainfall simply overwhelmed the physical barriers provided by the levees that relied on early 20th century technology, materials, and building methods. Ironically, major aspects of the federal government's response to the disaster and the subsequent relief efforts were so efficient that they helped propel their principal architect to the U.S. presidency two years later.
On the other hand, the immediate aftermath of the flood also rekindled intense racial inequalities and showed many African-Americans that the American South was simply not a place where they could ever hope to achieve racial or economic equality. As a result, many southern African-Americans decided to migrate north, more so than at any other time since the end of the American Civil War. To a great degree, the modern-day demographics of many Northeastern American cities reflect the long-term results of events that were initially caused by the Mississippi Flood of 1927.
Besides the fact that flooding destroys agricultural lands leading to a disruption of food supplies to millions of people, one also has to consider the social impact on areas where there are large population groups. This can lead to forced migration and often to refugee situations, with all the related negative social implications. .
Another important aspect is the increase in serious diseases as a result of global warming. Scientists warn that an increase in temperature also means that infectious diseases could become more widespread. Infectious diseases carried by insects and rodents may also appear in new areas and regions where the population may be unprepared to deal with them. This has already been seen in cases of serious insect -- borne disease, such as Dengue fever, Malaria, West Nile virus, and Yellow Fever.
One also has or bear in mind that in order to understand the devastating effects of…
Climate change responsible for 300,000 deaths a year. Retrieved from http://www.peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=3574
Then, in 1861, Mississippi became the second state to secede from the Union. ith approximately 80,000 Mississippians serving in the Confederate Army, the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and Robert E. Lee's surrender on April 9th, 1865, ending the Civil ar, were dramatic events for the state ("Chronological History"). These events changed the state politically and socially.
In 1868, Mississippi's first bi-racial constitutional convention was formed. Deemed the 'Black and Tan' Convention, the new constitution drafted guaranteed the rights of ex-slaves as well as punished ex-Confederate soldiers. Voters in the state reject the Constitution. The next year, a modified version, not punishing ex-Confederate soldiers, is ratified. This paves the way for readmittance to the Union, on February 23rd, 1870 ("Chronological History"). The 20th century continued with many advancements and challenges for the state.
At the beginning of the century, the boll weevil made its appearance and, in 1907, most of Mississippi's…
Aubrey, R. A History of Mississippi Baptists, 1780-1970. Jackson, MS: Mississippi Baptist Convention Board, 1971.
Chronological History of Mississippi. 2009. State Handbook & Guide Resources. December 3, 2009 .
Lowry, R. & McCardle, W. A History of Mississippi: From the Discovery of the Great River by Hernando Desoto. New York: Kessinger Publishing, 2007.
Nationwide to Reopen 500 Katrina Cases. 20 Apr 2007. Routers. December 3, 2009 .
This makes it easier to anticipate likely flood areas and the severity of the flood's impact upon the area.
Multiple data series and frequent measurements are necessary to have a truly scientifically accurate result with predictive powers. "In order to accurately determine streamflow, measurements must be made of its width, depth, and speed (velocity) of the water at many horizontal and vertical points across the stream. To develop a stream-stage/streamflow relation (rating curve), streamflow must be measured at many different stages" and must be recalculated on a regular basis ("How streamflow is measured," USGS, 2008). "Rating curves frequently shift due to changes in the factors that determine the relation between stream stage and streamflow" ("How streamflow is measured," USGS. 2008). These factors include the slope of the stream which affects the water's velocity, the roughness of the channel, the area of the channel at each stream stage, the shifting backwater…
"How streamflow is measured." U.S. Geological Society (USGS). U.S. Department of the Interior. 2008. 2009 at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/measureflow.html
it's a style that never actually seems to go out of style. Most of the first private residences that were built as the Keys became more inhabited were built with the Caribbean and West Indian architectural theme in mind (Keith, 2002).
The idea of keeping homes on stilts has changed, as was previously mentioned. However, living right on the ground is still something that most building codes in the Keys will not allow for (Keith, 2002). Most of these places are only a few feet above sea level, so flooding is very common. Changes to recent building codes have allowed for the floor of the home to be closer to the ground, however, resulting in shorter stilts (Keith, 2002). In addition, that stilted area can now be enclosed. It cannot be used for a living space, though, and must only be used as storage. A lot of people use this…
Caemmerer, Alex. (1992). The Houses of Key West. Pineapple Press
Goodwin-Nguyen, Sarah. (2008). Key West (Tourist Town Guides). Channel Lake, Inc.
Hemmel, David L, and Smith, Judi S. (2004). Living in the Key West style anywhere. Duval Publishing
Keith, June. (2002). June Keith's Key West & the Florida Keys: A guide to the Coral Islands. Palm Island Press
cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/).In some cases it has happened that the entire reservoir becomes filled with silt and the investment in the dam is lost (the Aswan Dams (http://carbon.cudenver.edu/stc-link/aswan1/)."
World news from the Washington Post's Foreign Service.
The Aswan High Dam, completed in 1970.
Alexandra Garcia - washingtonpost.com
The Aswan High Dam is one of the largest dams in the world and it provides a multitude of benefits to those who live in the surrounding area.
The electricity it generates is clean, and does not contribute to air or environment pollution. It maintains the river to control flooding which allows the environment to grow and prosper without fear of destruction.
The problems it created while being constructed included the destruction of artifacts that were thousands of years old. In addition it flooded a nation and the entire population had to be moved with their lifestyles and history destroyed.…
The Aswan Dams (Accessed 5-1-07)
The Aswan High Dam (Accessed 5-1-07)
Urban sprawl is not something that too many people really seem to spend that much time thinking about. Despite this, however, many people do have to deal with it. Those that are faced with the problem are often unsure about what they should be doing about it, and those that work in the field of trying to control it often struggle between making sure that there are enough places for people to live and making sure that the environment is not destroyed by the new houses and other buildings that are being created. Sometimes, balancing this is very difficult, and this is at the heart of the problem. For this reason, this paper focuses on urban sprawl and the environmental impact that is often seen when it takes place.
Environmentalists have so many concerns that they often can overlook the problems that urban sprawl is causing when it comes to…
Garreau, J. (1991). Edge City. New York: Anchor Books.
Gordon, P. & Richardson, H. (1998). Prove it: The costs and benefits of sprawl. Brookings Review 16(3): 23-26.
Lomax, T. & Schrank, D. (1998). Urban Roadway Congestion, 1982 to 1996. College Station, Texas: Texas Transportation Institute.
Reid, A. (10 December 1996). Area traffic stuck in a costly jam. Washington Post, A1.