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My aunt was born in Hong Kong. She has two children, one is twenty and the other is twenty-two. Both her parents, my grandparents are still alive but live in Hong Kong. The interview took place in my aunt's business, which is a travel agency that she owns and operates. After the travel agency shut down for the day, we sat down over cookies and tea for this ethnography interview. I informed my aunt of the purpose of the interview, and she offered to sign an informed consent agreement that I prepared for her. This informed consent process is important for ethical and legal purposes when conducting any research. The information I collect from my aunt will be used for the purposes of this class only, and she must be informed if her name or any personal information is used in other contexts.
The interview focused on her perception…
Folklore-St. Joseph's Table
In an online article posted by St. Francis of Assisi Roman Catholic Church, St. Joseph is described as: "...the husband of the Virgin Mary and the adoptive father of Jesus Christ. He is the Patron Saint of fathers, families, house hunters, carpenters, workers, of Canada, of Peru, of social justice and of a happy death."
Joseph is also honored as the patron saint of the poor and desperate and it is in this role we find the custom of St. Joseph's Table, which is an elaborate, meatless and literal feast. St. Joseph, in his many protector roles, is primarily honored in ethnic groups which follow Catholicism, although his day, March 19th is also recognized in the liturgical calendar of the Episcopalian church. The groups that celebrate with a St. Joseph's Table include Sicilians, Italians, in general, Poles and occasionally Irish. Apparently, just being Catholic doesn't necessarily include…
Chaba, Louis and Marge -- telephone interview April 9, 2004
Author unknown. "Saint Joseph's Table 2003." http//:francisanhackensack.tripod.com/sjhist.html (4-9-2004)
Folklore of American Holidays. 3rd ed.
Christian, Diane. "Not One New Truth and all the Old Falsehoods" Journal of American Folklore vol. 101-1988: 53-55
Multicultural education does not only have to be comparative, however. "Family Drama" tales may lend themselves to creative involvement with the narrative. Children can use modes of expression from modern culture, like creating a play that depicts the different protagonists of a tale such as "The Spider oman" of the Navajo (Norton 2005: 85). This sense of personal involvement and using everyday objects, even modern artifacts to recreate a myth is a way to make folkloric lessons and Native culture real and relevant.
Threshold tales are also likely to be popular for children, as they examine transitional phases like adolescence or transformation. Reading a book like Storm Boy about the protagonist's "separation, initiation, and return" may be useful to examine during transitional phases, like the end of the school year or the coming of spring (Norton 2005: 86). Change is common to all cultures during childhood, and provides a useful…
Starr, Christopher. (1999). "Anasi the Spider Man: A West African Trickster in the West
Indies." Arcarology Conference. Aug 1999. Retrieved 18 Mar 2007. http://users.carib-link.net/~rfbarnes/anansi.htm
Norton, Donna. (2005). Multicultural Children's Literature. 2nd Ed. New York: Pearson.
This general abhorrence of gender roll reversal is common to much folk mythology, and Mills notes that the few exceptions -- wherein a gender roll reversal is cast in a favorable light -- exclusively involve females somehow taking on male aspects.
Yet another element may be examined in the Afghani version which is endemic to a wide range of Cinderella tales. The magical help herein comes through a cow which is inhabited by the spirit of the dead true-mother: "Later on, the father found a yellow cow in his stable, 'In place of the murdered mother,'" (Mills, 1978). The general formula found the world-wide is that the evil stepmother concocts a plan to kill the inhabited animal and consume it. Cinderella herself, being filially loyal, refuses to eat of the animal and instead gathers its bones and venerates them, by which means she receives supernatural aid from her late mother's…
1. Basile, Giambattista. "The Cat Cinderella." The Pentamerone of Giambattista Basile. Ed. N.M. Penzer. London: John Lane, 1932. 56-63. Print.
2. Perrault, Charles. "Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper." The Blue Fairy Book. Ed. Andrew Lang. New York: Random House, 1959. 96-104. Print.
3. Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm. "Aschenputtel (Ash Girl)." The Grimms' German Folk Tales. Trans. Francis P. Magoun, Jr. And Alexander H. Krappe. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1960. 86-92. Print.
4. Jameson, R.D. "Cinderella in China." Cinderella: A Casebook. ed. Alan Dundes. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1988. 71-97. Print.
Henry Fayol postulated that planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling were the four basic functions of a manager, and that all of a manager's tasks could be classified into one of these fundamental categories. While a neat and convenient way to describe managerial duties, these four words are inadequate to describe the full gamut of responsibilities that a business manager undertakes in the twenty-first century, according to Henry Mintzberg. A manager's work often goes beyond these four tasks or cannot be so simply classified. Almost a century after Fayol defined his theory of management, the business community needs to reexamine the role and function of a manager. In "The Manager's Job: Folklore and Fact," Mintzberg outlines the myths about managers that have been perpetuated, and how to dispel them. The author states that his intention is to "break the reader away from Fayol's words and introduce him to a more…
INTRODUCTION & HISTORY
WARS AND HEROES
POPULAR CHARMS, WAYS AND TRADITIONS
Irish culture is centered upon the folklore and myths that have been a significant part of Irish traditions and history. When it comes to folklore and Gaelic culture, the Irish are proud of their history and often distinguish themselves from the rest of the European culture. This paper will explore traditional Irish folklore and its significance on contemporary Irish culture customs and beliefs. It will also outline factors that have contributed to the development and reservation of the Irish folklore.
INTRODUCTION & HISTORY
In order to understand how Irish folklore has shaped the cultural beliefs, traditions and customs of the Irish people, it is important to understand how Ireland is culturally unique from the rest of Europe and how it differs in geography, history and tradition. The Irish people are known as some of the best…
Colun, Padraic. Ed. (1962) A Treasury of Irish Folklore. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.
Curtin, Jeremiah. (1890). Myths and Folklore of Ireland. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.
Glassie, Henry. (1998) Irish Folk History: Tales from the North. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press.
O'Sullivan, Sean. (1974) The Folklore of Ireland. London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd.
They virtually turned these stories into tales about lue Ridge and their ancestors. Some stories have been told as rumors or legends and this influenced people in having difficulty understanding whether they were real or not. Many people in lue Ridge are likely to believe that Jack tales are a hallmark when taking into account the area's history and the general character of people that lived there through the ages.
Many families of storytellers at lue Ridge have inherited tales through time and have been encouraged to continue to retell these respective stories using elements that they think would improve the storylines. The fact that individuals in the area came from diverse backgrounds made it possible for the region to have a unique influence on individuals living in the area.
For example, Donald Davis inherited a series of stories that were different from everything else presented in the U.S. because…
Bernard McCarthy, William, "Jack in Two Worlds: Contemporary North American Tales and Their Tellers," (UNC Press Books, 1994)
Chase, Richard, "The Jack Tales," (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003)
Davis, Donald, "Southern Jack Tales," (august house, 1997)
McNeil, W.K. "Appalachian Images in Folk and Popular Culture," (Univ. Of Tennessee Press, 1995)
Indeed, using the family unit as a way to discover history also helps individuals, especially children and adolescents understand that history does not exist in a vacuum, but instead, is made up of events from real people and real events. This also tends to involve more family members and encourage stories and events from the past that may also spur memories and take on new meaning to show that each family has often made important contributions to historical processes.
While family folklore is an invaluable tool for personal research and often a springboard for further research, it is also important to understand that family research carries some inherent challenges for the professional scholar. Anytime behavior is observed, stories are told and recorded, or verbal histories are given, there is a chance for bias to creep in. This may come from the researcher, from the memory of the event, or simply…
Kaupp, a. (1999-2000). Family Folklore in the Classroom. AnthroNotes. 21 (2): 13-19.
Author. (year). Chapter 7 -- Various Methods in Personality Assessment. In TITLE of
BOOK. City: Publisher, pages 207-33.
This difficulty has given rise to numerous theories of motivation throughout history, each with its own distinct value. Many generations after Adam, have created new and insightful methods of thought. The problem with many of these theories is that they are imperfect by nature and do not encompass all possible options of behavior. To begin, Elliot defines motivation as a basic innate drive for success. This drive encompasses the individual's desires, or ambitions for success. Achievement motivation therefore, is based primarily on reaching ones stated aspirations, which in turn motivates the individual's actions. This model assumes that individual aspirations or goals are incentive-based rather than that of intrinsic self-worth. These motives as the theory states are both implicit and explicit. Implicit motives are those that are impulsive or spontaneous acts. These are primarily the result of incentives embedded in the overall task at hand. Explicit motives on the other hand…
1) Patai, Rori the Jewish Alchemists, Princeton University Press, 1994.
2) Almond, Philip 'Adam and Eve in Seventeenth-Century Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999, 2008
3) David Rohl, Legend: The Genesis of Civilisation, 1998
4) Jones, Ronald W. 1961 Comparative Advantage and the theory of Trarrifs; a Multi-Country, Muti-commodity Model, Review of Economic Studies pp.161-8
The university's folklore department explains that folklore is displayed in times "of crisis, celebration, and change"; it is displayed "in hundreds of other forms of expression." And in a similar vein to Wilson's explanation, the Web site reports that folklore is part of the daily lives of people throughout the world.
Folklorists are both humanists and social scientists," the Indiana University site explains. "They examine individual and cultural creativity and tradition throughout the world." Folklorists, when they are on hand and experiencing directly from real life, as Wilson asserts is necessary, "learn how people use traditional knowledge and practices to understand and participate in new, often challenging situations of contemporary life."
Moreover, at the university, budding folklorists record the voices and actions of men and women directly; "these voices are not consilidated into statistical averages, merged into mass poloitical trends, or suborinated to the actions of world leaders or…
Indiana University. "The Department of folklore and Ethnomusicology." Available at http://www.indiana.edu/~folklore/faq.htm .
Wilson, William a. "Documenting Folklore." Folk Groups and Folklore Genres: An Introduction. Ed. Elliott Oring. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 1986. 225-
.." When one uses health foods it shows that person has "certain values and a commitment for a certain world view," Dubisch writes; and that person is experiencing a "mazeway resynthesis," a mental map, a mental image of the world that is entirely individual. Health food use is a "system of symbols" in which foods have life-giving properties. The Pentecostal Church also believes in "healing" and like the health food movement, is skeptical about doctors' ability to heal. "Even when a person receives medical assistance, he can still look to God for diving healing" (United Pentecostal Church International). "He can and often does heal miraculously without any human assistance...many people in our churches can testify to being miraculously healed by God..."
10 Occupational Folklore: When a person in an occupation learns and plays out certain rituals and beliefs, it is important for research to be conducted into those behaviors for…
1939 by Robert L. May, Rudolph Story
Rudolph, an American Folk Hero
The story of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer is an excellent example of taking a classic folk story theme and giving it new vitality by infusing the hero with distinctly American values and ideals. The combination of the classic theme and the American hero combined to make Rudolph's story an indispensable part of the Christmas holiday season for millions of people for the past 50 years. In fact, it seems as if Rudolph has always been a part of Christmas, but in reality he was only created 65 years ago. Because Rudolph has become such a celebrated part of America's Christmas tradition in such a relatively short amount of time, the study of the story of Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer is essential in any course examining the development of the fable or tale.
What is it about misfit stories…
Folk culture refers to the collection of "songs, tales, proverbs, jokes" that reflect a specific segment of society -- and can often refer to the expressions of marginalized groups like African-Americans. Popular culture is more mainstream, and is fabricated and consumed by the dominant culture. It would include newspapers, magazines, and books propagated throughout a country, as opposed to folk culture, which would be localized (either geographically or, if the group is geographically spread out, culturally). According to Levine, popular culture is "seen as the antithesis of folk culture."[footnoteef:1] There is also an impression that popular culture lacks the authenticity of folk culture in capturing the spirit of the people. As Levine puts it, popular culture does not emanate from the community but is created artificially for consumption by the community and usually with financial motives. For historians and other researchers, popular culture, "if it has to be…
Alverman, Donna E., Moon, Jennifer S. And Hagood, Margaret C. "Popular Culture in the Classroom: Teaching and Researching Critical Media Literacy. Literacy Studies Series." International Reading Association, 1999.
Bennett, A. Popular Music and Youth Culture: Music, Identity, and Place. CAB, 2000.
Davis, Natalie Zemon. "Toward Mixtures and Margins." AHR Forum.
Haque, Sabir. "Folk Culture, Mass Culture, Convergence Culture." Idea Minefield. Retrieved online: http://www.ideaminefield.com/2008/07/folk-culture-mass-culture-convergence.html
The high divorce rates in First World nations have encouraged researchers, family counselors, and religious advocates to investigate the core foundations for the creation of a successful marriage. Starting in the 1960s, evolving social context ultimately shifted the rationale in why individuals choose to marry, and over time, divorce has come to be viewed as the preferred alternative to an unhappy marriage. One main fundamental principle to achieve marital success is to recognize women desire love, while men simultaneously need respect to feel fulfilled within the relationship. Emotional intelligence within a relationship and acknowledging various marital myths also contribute to the fundamental elements of marital success. Dissociating from marital myths and misconceptions is an essential part to understanding the true foundations for a happy and successful marriage. Appreciating and understanding how attachment styles affect marital relationships is also essential. These beliefs and attachment styles contribute to the marital…
Eggerichs, E. (2004). Love and Respect: The Love She Desires, The Respect He Desperately
Needs. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
Gottman, J. (1993). A Theory of Marital Dissolution and Stability. Journal of Family
Psychology, 7(1), p. 57-75.
African-Americans and Diabetes
Diabetes in the African-American Adult Population
Diabetes is a serious public health issue, and often seen in the African-American adult population. According to the CDC, African-Americans are twice as likely to have type II diabetes as Caucasians (Diabetes, 2011). This is highly significant, since 90 to 95% of new diabetes cases each year are type II (Diabetes, 2011). There are several reasons for these cases, and genetics is one of them. Additionally, people can develop type II diabetes from obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, age, and poor eating habits. In order to thoroughly address the issue, it is important to look at what African-Americans know and do not know about diabetes, and how they handle the disease if they do develop it or are told they are at risk for developing it. Many of them have pre-diabetes, and can avoid the disease if they are conscientious regarding the…
Agurs-Collins, T.D., Kumanyika, S.K., Ten Have, T.R., Adams-Campbell, L.L. (1997). A randomized controlled trial of weight reduction and exercise for diabetes management in older African-American subjects. Diabetes Care, 20(10): 1503-1511.
Baptiste-Roberts, K., Gary, T.L., Beckles, G.L.A., Gregg, E.W., Owens, M., Porterfield, D., & Engelgau, M.M. (2007). Family history of diabetes, awareness of risk factors, and health behaviors among African-Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97(5): 907-912.
Diabetes. (2011). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/ddt.htm .
McCleary-Jones, V. (2011). Health literacy and its association with diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy and disease self-management among African-Americans with diabetes mellitus. The ABNF Journal: 25-32.
Charles Perrault was responsible for collecting and adapting many of the fairy tales best known to contemporary audiences, and his collection of Stories or Fairy Tales from Past Times with Morals, also known as Mother Goose Tales, offers a unique insight into both the evolution of fairy tales in general and the socio-political context of Perrault's own writing. In particular, Perrault's use of domesticated and wild animals in certain tales shed light on the gender and class conflicts that under-gird both the stories themselves and Perrault's own historical context. By performing a close reading of Perrault's "Little Red Riding Hood," "Puss in Boots," and "Donkeyskin," one can see how Perrault uses domestic and wild animals in order to reinforce notions of gender that idealized male autonomy and proactivity while condemning female exploration, in addition to simultaneously supporting the preexisting class structure that impoverished the majority while rewarding the nobility;…
Ashliman, D.L.. "Charles Perrault's Mother Goose Tales." University of Pittsburg. Web. 3 Dec
Ahmed, K. Al. "Charles Perrault's "Le Petit Poucet" and its Possible Arabic Influences."
Bookbird 48.1 (2010): 31-41.
The first reading allows the individual to react to it on a personal level, to relate the story of the tragic lovers in terms of his or her own experiences with love (Walker, 1995, p. 13). But secondary and tertiary (and so on) readings allow the individual to connect to the story on deeper and increasingly abstract levels so that an analysis of this story might come to understand it as a story of the temporary death of the individual and its potential and even expected rebirth as part of a universal mother, a submission of the identity of daughter and son into the more primary identity of creation and life. An individual who follows an analysis along such a path can explore his or her own feelings about love and loss, about autonomy and dependence, about fear and acceptance.
However, within the clinical setting, the client must choose his…
Armenian poetry. Retrieved from http://www.hyeetch.nareg.com.au/armenians/poetry_p15x4.html
Aziz, R. (1990). C.G. Jung's Psychology of Religion and Synchronicity (10th ed.). New York: The State University of New York Press.
Jung, C.G. (1985). Synchronicity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Odajnyk, V.W. (2004). The Archetypal Interpretation of Fairy Tales: Bluebeard. Psychological perspectives 47(1): 10-29.
The parents are negative examples of what "real" men and women should be. Eventually, the father agrees to leave the children alone in the woods in what amounts to a death sentence. The children have to rely on their wits to survive. Hansel fills his pockets with pebbles to drop along the path and mark their way back home. Abandonment happens again, however, and the next time Hansel cannot collect pebbles because his mother has locked the door, so he drops breadcrumbs instead. But birds eat the bread, and the children get lost. After three days, they find a house made of bread and candy and begin to eat it. An old witch owns the house. She entices children this way and then eats them for dinner. At first, she is very kind, but once they are under her spell, she puts Hansel in a cage to fatten him up…
Levine centers on popular culture and how it is an adequate mechanism in comprehending Depression America. The writer attempts to get away from austere adjective labels as often as possible. He notes that while culture may not be seamless, it is integrated or connected. The piece asks for the reader to re-evaluate a long history of preconcevied notions and images that prevent the serious study of popular culture. The image of the strictly docile, non-aggressive mass audience and the endless amount of consumption defines pop culture in the eyes of academics. Popular culture is percevied as purely formulaic.
The idea that popular culture was and still is "escapist" and the concept that popular culture is not considered to be cutting edge on knowledge or style creates the belief it is not an art form or does not represent art. ut what is popular culture? Popular culture is in its simplest…
1 Brookover, Sophie, and Elizabeth Burns. Pop Goes the Library: Using Pop Culture to Connect with Your Whole Community. Medford, N.J.: Information Today, Inc., 2008.
2 Danesi, Marcel. Popular Culture: Introductory Perspectives. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008.
3 De Groot, Jerome. Consuming History: Historians and Heritage in Contemporary Popular Culture. London: Routledge, 2009.
4 Foster, George M. "What is Folk Culture?." In American Anthropologist, 159-173. 1953.
The movie 'El Laberinto del Fauno' with 'Pan's Labyrinth' as English translation of the title directed by Del Toro revolves round the issue of the reason behind story telling. Although it is fact that in traditional fairy tales the validity and authenticity of magic and wonder is not questioned yet many characters in modern fairy tales fiction as well as movies are shown arguing that magic does not exist. Why it is so that several stories conclude at the end that magic that the character and audiences experience while going through a story either reading it or watching in the form of a film is dismisses like a dream? is it so that some characters insist to privilege truth upon lies in the fiction fairy tale and films is merely setting up the corny argument that some lies tell a greater truth than just facts?
The current essay…
Lanser, Susan S (1996). Querring Narratology. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology & British Women Writers. Ed. Kathy Mezei. Chapel Hill: U. Of North Carolina P, 1996. 250-261. Print
Pan's Labyrinth (El Laberinto del fauno).(2006 ) Dir. Guillermo del Toro. Perf.Ivana Baquero, Sergi Lopze. New Line Home Video, 2006. DVD
Propp, Vladimir.(1968) Morphology fo the Folklore. Trans. Laurance Scott. 2nd ed. Austin: U. Texts P. Print
Shepard, Lucius. (2008). Supercalifragilisticexpialimonstrous Rev. Of Pan's Labyrinth. Dir. Guillermo Del Toro. The Magzine of Fantasy and Science Fiction. 113.1(2007): 135-140.
Children's Literature Timeline
LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN: A SELECTIVE TIMELINE
Charles Perrault. Histoires ou Contes du Temps Passe: Les Contes de ma Mere l'Oie. (Tales and Stories of the Past with Morals: Tales of Mother Goose.) France.
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. Kinder- und Haus-marchen. (Children's and Household Tales.) Germany.
Hans Christian Andersen. Eventyr Fortalte For Born (Fairy Tales Told To Children.) First and Second Volumes. Denmark.
Heinrich Hoffmann, Struwwelpeter (Shock-Headed Peter). Germany.
Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Britain.
Louisa May Alcott, Little Women. U.S.A.
Mark Twain. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. U.S.A.
Carlo Collodi. Le Avventure di Pinocchio. (The Adventures of Pinocchio.) Italy.
1900. L. Frank Baum. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. U.S.A.
1926. A.A. Milne, Winnie the Pooh. Britain.
1937. J.R.R. Tolkein, The Hobbit. Britain.
1944. Astrid Lindgren, Pippi Langstrump. (Pippi Longstocking.). Sweden.
1952. E.B. White. Charlotte's Web. U.S.A.
1957. Dr. Seuss. The Cat in the Hat. U.S.A.
Hopefully, regardless of what happens in the rest of the communication world and media, such magazines either in print, electronic or digital form will continue to amaze children.
nfortunately, most young adult books have hit rock bottom, dealing with death, abuse, divorce, sexuality and all the other topics that these youth are bombarded with day after day. It is recognized that youths need to deal with the problems that are facing them, and living in a fantasy world is not helpful. However, do they ever have a time to "chill" as they say it? However, the Twilight Vampire Series is really not the answer to this. It has, what is said, little "redeeming value."
It's difficult deciding on a best YA book and not going back to the classics. The best bet is finding a book that offers imagination, education and entertainment. There are few, but Rebecca Stead's When You…
Unfortunately, most young adult books have hit rock bottom, dealing with death, abuse, divorce, sexuality and all the other topics that these youth are bombarded with day after day. It is recognized that youths need to deal with the problems that are facing them, and living in a fantasy world is not helpful. However, do they ever have a time to "chill" as they say it? However, the Twilight Vampire Series is really not the answer to this. It has, what is said, little "redeeming value."
It's difficult deciding on a best YA book and not going back to the classics. The best bet is finding a book that offers imagination, education and entertainment. There are few, but Rebecca Stead's When You Reach Me comes close. It combines the best elements of recent classics, such as A Wrinkle in Time as well as fun TV game shows like the $20,000 Pyramid, and a story about a girl, Miranda, whose structured world becomes a little more interesting. Miranda's bestest friend Sal stops talking to her he is beat up by Marcus. Marcus then challenges Miranda with arguments about her favorite book, A Wrinkle in Time, and finds flaws in L'Engle's time-travel narrative. Next, Miranda starts receiving notes from someone who seems to know the future. The book's earlier setting in 1980 gets away from all the heavy themes of today and back into "easier" life with Mom on the $20,000 Pyramid.
This is a book that can be enjoyed by readers and nonreaders alike and can be utilized in a variety of different ways for book reports. The teen and pre-teen readers can rely on many different visual arts, TV/film and drama to convey what they have learned from the book. It is also a great book for smaller groups of students to work together for a team project. Forget the horrible Twilight and instead focus on multithematic books like When You Reach Me.
With the help of Salome, she discovers Jamie's dual nature, and when he, offended by her lack of trust, leaves her, Rosamond goes after him. Her journey is the hero's quest, usually a male activity in myths and legends. It takes her through the wilderness where she suffers hardship and trials but emerges transformed, reconciled with Jamie's duality and enlightened (Carson). Rosamond's heroic journey also results not only with her achievement of knowledge, love, and happiness, but in the end she rescues the man Lockhart from his divided self and double life.
Welty's portrayal of the relationship between Salome and Rosamond reverses the typical stepmother-daughter antagonism found in fairy tales. Although Salome is hateful toward Rosamond early on in the story, she changes and becomes the girl's ally in her heroic quest. Salome gives Rosamond a recipe to remove the stain on Jamie's face so she can learn who he…
Had Tolkien been an American (shudder), it is likely that the trilogy would have assumed some gangster or other bad-guy qualities that would belie its roots in mythology and legend. Fortunately for generations of avid readers and now a motion picture-going audience, the world continues to delight in the writings of Tolkien precisely because he sends his modern readers to the dictionary once in awhile just to see what he is talking about. The precision of Tolkien's use of words and phrases in the books that comprise the trilogy are noteworthy if for no other reason than their ability to communicate exactly what the author intended, but the use of the right word in the right place has also contributed to the work's enduring popularity among readers who might not otherwise ever learn that a "coney" was something besides a hot dog with chili and cheese.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1991.
Clark, George and Daniel Timmons. J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-Earth. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
J.R.R. Tolkien Glossary. 4 Dec 2009 .
Regehr, Rudy. 2006, "Following Gandalf: Epic Battles and Moral Victory in the Lord of the Rings," Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, 12, 37.
The psychoanalysis attempted to decipher the meaning of the most popular folk tales though the lenses of psychology and psychiatry and went as far as the archetypes of humanity presented under the form that could be digested by children. Thompson considers such attempts to generalize and explain the phenomena simplistic and rather deceptive. He emphasizes, however, the importance of the study of primitive society in coming closer to a theory regarding the origin and role of folk tales. The availability of folk tales databases from around the world made possible a conclusion regarding the globalization of the phenomena from ancient times (the Folktale, 400).
If for religious purposes or mere entertainment, folk tales are a component of childhood that can hardly be ignored. They were the first forms of the written form of art a child came in contact with. Their role is undoubtedly essential in a child's development of…
Thompson, Stith. The Folktale. Kessinger Publishing, 2006
Panttaja, Elisabeth. Making Reality Evident: Feminine Disempowerment and Reempowerment in Two Grimms' Fairytales. Retrieved: Apr. 9, 2009. available at: https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/2045/21(2)%20166-180.pdf?sequence=1
Lang, Andrew. Cinderella, or the Little Glass Slipper, and Other Stories. Altemus, Henry. 1905
Donald Haase. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Folktales and Fairy Tales. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007
Many of those who have claimed to have found evidence have been proven to be fake or based on other phenomenon which was then mistaken for the existence of ghosts. Physical evidence would include actual photographs which prove not to be doctored or caused by other events which could cause similar results; rather in many cases ghosts prove to be the human imagination, (Frood 2003). herefore, this lack of proven evidence can lead the logical mind to dismiss the existence of the unreal. hese images of ghosts have come from years of folklore and imagination, (afoya 2008).
Franks, M. (2008). Do ghosts exist? Magical miracles. Retrieved 2 Dec 2008 at http://www.magicalmiracles.com/GhostsExist.htm.
Frood, Arran, Ghosts "all in the mind:" Ghosts are the mind's way of interpreting how the body reacts to certain surroundings." BBC News. Retrieved 2 Dec 2008 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3044607.stm.
New England Skeptical Society. (2008). Ghosts. Encyclopedia of Skepticism…
Tafoya, Nathan. (2003). Myth or reality? Ghosts at the UA. Arizona Daily Wildcat. Retrieved 2 Dec 2008 at http://wc.arizona.edu/papers/97/49/04_1.html .
Verbruggen, Robert. (2006). Physicist 'disproves' existence of ghosts. Robert's
Rationale. Retrieved 2 Dec 2008 at http://robertsrationale.blogspot.com/2006/10/physicist-disproves-existence-of.html .
Succinct structural form marks all Disney's pictures and makes other animated cartoons, no matter how ingenious they may be, look pallid."
The narrative source of the production is consistently the characters themselves, and the film's style is a mixture of realism in terms of the lush and colorful scenery and a caricature of the protagonist and antagonist, Toby and Max, as the bullied and bully, the show-off and the showed-off, respectively. As Nowell-Smith points out:
The technical advances explored in the Silly Symphonies partly arose from a rivalry with the Fleischers, who, among all the other animation studios that survived into the sound era, consistently produced excellent cartoons in the early 1930s. Unlike the Disney product, which tended increasingly to an 'illusion of life' live-action imitation, the earlier Fleischer cartoons reveled in stylization, caricature, unrealistic transformations, elaborate repetitive cycles, direct address to the audience, and illogical developments which seem inherent,…
Hunggyu, Kim and Robert J. Fouser. 1997. Understanding Korean Literature. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe.
Jacobs, Lewis. 1939. The Rise of the American Film: A Critical History. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Lounsberry, Barbara, Susan Lohafer, Mary Rohrberger, Stephen Pett and R.C. Feddersen. 1998. The Tales We Tell: Perspectives on the Short Story. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey. 1997. The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The legend itself tells very significant things about the Native Indian cultures in general and the Oneida culture in particular. The story offers at once hints to the heroic ideal of the Iroquois, to the cult of the female gender specific to some Native American peoples and to the metaphoric significance of the tribe's name. The most important conclusion to be derived from the analysis of the story is therefore the fact that there is a tight connection between the legend and the values and ideals specific to the Oneidas. Other versions of the arrior Maiden legend, such as the variant told by the Hopi tribe, also render the image of feminine modesty combined with spiritual strength. In the Hopi tradition, the maiden actually fights against the enemies of her people, because she is left alone at home with her mother, who at the time of the attack was just…
Erdoes, Richard and Alfonso Ortiz. American Indian Myths and Legends. New York: Pantheon Fairy Tales and Folklore Library, 1984.
Oneida Culture. Indian Country Wisconsin. http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-57.html
Oneida Culture and Language. http://www.native-languages.org/oneida.htm
Oneida Culture. Indian Country Wisconsin. http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-57.html
In modern society, myth is identified with something of the past, something historical taught in schools and read in books. However, one needs to acknowledge that communication has enabled people to receive information in various ways: television, cinema, video games, comic books, books. These are the elements that demonstrate the presence of archetypes within modern mythology. One ancient Greek hero is one Spiderman, or Batman, one moral leader is Frodo, the hobbit. Thus, ancient archetypes resemble modern ones, making Jung's theory viable.
In Greek mythology, a hero was not just the personage who fought monsters, but a hero that was able to fight his own ego and come to terms with his nature, his goal in life. In this respect, Oedipus was thought of as a noble hero who was subjected to making mistakes because of a faulty judgement. By disregarding the divine will and giving in to an inner…
Education - eading
Violence in Folk Literature
The primary question of the paper is: is there too much violence within the texts or narratives of folk literature? Before the answer is provided, another question appears after this one -- they are too violent compared to what? The question, is there too much violence in folk literature, such as in the Brothers Grimm tales, implies a comparison, but the comparison is incomplete. Are the fairy tales by the Brother Grimm violent? That is affirmative. There is often explicit violence and cruelty in these tales that are supposedly for children, but if readers of the 21st century want to evaluate or qualify the level of violence present, readers and education professionals need to provide standards and criteria by which to gauge the levels of violence. The Brothers Grimm were born into 18th century Germany. Are we comparing the violence and cultural standards…
Carnegie Mellon University. (2012) Grimm's Fairy Tales. Available from http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~spok/grimmtmp/ . 2012 June 03.
Film and Culture
The Grimm brothers began collecting folktales around 1807 and began a legacy that has been ingrained in popular culture. Although the tales that they collected were representative of the culture at the time, the brothers worked to canonize some of the archetypes that were present in their day. Instead of seeing them as just random works of literature, the brothers were able to identify various themes which served as the main focuses on their fairy and folk tale. These themes seemed to be generally available in the stories that the two individuals documented just as they are also present today. These archetypical characters which formed can make one wonder whether it is the culture that shapes the story or whether it is the stories that shape the culture.
Very few Grimm's Fairy Tales deviate from the stereotypes of the hero, villain, and damsel in distress…
personalities who have, by their actions, become notable individuals this writer must first explain why a different direction has been opted for in this assignment. In doing so the written response will be somewhat lengthier than the initial assignment requested. With the advent of mega technology and virtual reality bombarding the computerized twenty first century, information is at the fingertips of anyone owning a computer and having Internet access. The Internet user can instantly find answers to questions that before would take hours and hours of diligent investigation and research. Today, simply sitting in front of a computer screen, entering a few search words though Google, massive amounts of information are immediately available. Whether the user is inquiring about Federal eserve policies, reviews on literature classics, or new car prices someone else has likely all ready made a presentation that can be viewed. Unfortunately extensive computerized information retrieval has, however,…
Cooley, Charles Horton, (1902). Human Nature and the Social
Order. New York: Scribner's.
C.G. Jung, Psyche and Symbol: A Selection from the Writings of C.G. Jung, edited by Violet S. de Laszio (1958). Garden
Forces Beyond Their Control -- hat does not kill you, makes you stronger in the fairy tale as well as the real world
The idea that what does not kill or harm you makes you stronger is a popular cliche. However, in many fairy tales, this theme is underlined by the introduction of a protagonist whom is regarded as weak or strange by society, but whose personal gifts not only enable him to overcome this negative self and societal impression, but also ultimately help him or her to deploy what at first seemed to be a negative characteristic, in a positive fashion.
For instance, at the beginning of the first Harry Potter book, the young Harry Potter is a wizard whom is still unaware of his identity. In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Harry Potter is forced to live amongst Muggles, of whom he is the disfavored son,…
Hamilton, Virginia. (1985) The People Could Fly. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers.
Rowling, J.K. (1991) Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. New York: Bloomsbury.
Lord, Bette. (1984). The Year of the Boar.
In Zhu's study (2005), because of the priority to the tenet of righteousness, the Chinese viewers questioned the validity of various fighting scenes. For instance, one commented that the ferocity of the fight between Jen and Shu Lien, using a variety of weapons against the stolen sword seems hardly justified by the nature of their quarrel or the substance of their friendship based on sworn sisterhood." In other words, the director seems to have added a ferocious fight that is not justified by the relationship itself or the plot development.
The literature thus far analyzed as a whole shows that the main concern about the movie "Crouching Tiger" especially by the Chinese viewers and critics is that it does not portray China's culture and values, but rather the intercultural viewpoint of the director, Lee. This can impact viewers who interpret this as true Chinese culture. In Kenneth Chan's essay, he…
Chan, K. (2004) The global return of the Wu Xia Pian (Chinese Sword-Fighting Movie): Ang Lee's "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." Cinema Journal, 43(4),
Katz, H.M. (2002). Escaping gravity. Movie magic and dreams of flying. Psychoanal. Study Child 57, 294-304.
Klein, C. (2004). Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon: A diasporic reading. Cinema Journal 43(4), 18-42
Leung, W. (2001) Crouching sensibility, hidden sense. Film Criticism 26 (1), 42-55
Because ranchers have long distrusted wolves, most ranchers in the surrounding area saw the wolves as a threat to their livestock and their very way of life. They also cite history that shows wolves are quite difficult to dissuade from attacking vulnerable livestock, and that many ranchers and farmers saw eliminating the wolf as the only real way to protect their stock and their families. Writers Smith and Phillips continue,
Although several methods have been developed to minimize or prevent depredations, few have proven successful. Guard dogs have been used widely, but with marginal results. Generally one guard dog is not sufficient, as several dogs seem necessary to deter a wolf attack. Another approach requires farmers and ranchers to intensify husbandry of livestock (e.g., confine sheep to structures overnight, develop calving areas near ranch headquarters, or monitor open range stock daily). Ultimately, killing the wolf or wolves responsible for the…
Donnelly, K.J. (1999, January). Canine in the wild. World and I, 14, 180.
Editors. (2005). Gray wolf. Retrieved from the National Wildlife Federation Web site: http://www.nwf.org/wildlife/graywolf / 26 Aug. 2005.
Jones, K. (2002, March). Fighting outlaws, returning wolves: Karen Jones examines the significance of the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park. History Today, 52, 38+.
Li, J. (2000). The wolves may have won the battle, but not the war: How the west was won under the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf recovery plan. Environmental Law, 30(3), 677.
Evolution of the Zombie
An element which was not examined in great detail by Bishop was the evolution of the "undead" creatures of which zombies are one of many. It would appear that Hollywood is always evolving new concepts in terms of these creatures, so much so that the idea of the zombie begins to become blurred. For example some films, most notably 28 Days Later and 28 Weeks Later have toyed with a concept which is very similar to that of the zombie, but is induced by a virus. The creatures in these movies are not technically zombies as they have never died, they have simply changed into flesh-eating monsters. In addition, Shaun of the Dead takes the traditional conventions of the zombie film, but adds an element of comedy, creating what is arguably a new style of film. It would therefore appear likely that given the popularity of…
Like most other animals, the artic fox's cot changes to reflect the summer arctic habitat, becoming a brown or gray color that matches the summer environment (National Geographic, 2008). The photograph by Norbert Rosing (National Geographic, 2004), demonstrates the usefulness of the animal's camouflage: (Norbert Rosing, National Geographic, October, 2004, online at http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/finaledit/0410/,2008).
The artic fox contributes to the balance of nature because its diet includes rodents, which have a tendency to multiply rapidly in any conditions; birds, and fish (National Geographic, 2008). However, rodents are more plentiful during the summer months in the artic. During the winter months, when its food sources are scarcer, the fox will be follow the trail of the polar bears, acting as a scavenger to the remains of the larger animal's kills (National Geographic, 2008). The arctic fox also eats some amounts of vegetation, usually vegetables (National Geographic, 2008).
The arctic fox is a…
The Fox in World Literature: Reflections on a "Fictional Animal." Asian Folklore Studies 65.2 (2006): 133+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018927838 .
National Geographic, 2008, found online at http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/mammals-animals/dogs-wolves-and-foxes/fox_arctic.html?fs=animals-panther.nationalgeographic.com, retrieved 8 February, 2008. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000329203
Sims, Grant. "Paradox of the Arctic Fox." National Wildlife Feb.-Mar. 1996: 16+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000329203 .
As will be shown below, the bottled water market is increasingly competitive and consumers have a dazzling array of choices available to them. It is clear that Voss has taken this into account when developing its sophisticated packaging, some samples of which are shown in Figure ____ below.
Figure ____. epresentative Sampling of Voss Packaging Techniques.
Source: noisedfisk.com/illustrations/vosswater.jpg, www.uncrate.com/men/images/voss-water.jpg, http://www.urbanfare.com/featuredfare/images/weeklyad/voss_water.jpg
In fact, one new admirer of the Voss brand unashamedly proclaimed that even though she liked the water, it was the "wicked cool" Voss packaging that sold her: "Yesterday, I drank a few bottles of Voss Artesian Water from Norway. One was Still. One was Sparkling. Both were pretty good but its wicked cool glass bottle is the best thing about it. My friend Sharon said she paid $20 for a bottle of Voss at the tres upscale Michael Mina estaurant in San Francisco, which was more than she…
AquaMaestro: The Source for Fine Waters. (2007). Available: http://www.aquamaestro.com/innerview.asp?catid=33 .
Aras, Bulent. (2004). "The Future of Liberal Islam," Futures, 36(9), 1034.
Beer, Cider and FABs in Turkey to 2010," 2007, MarketResearch.com. Available: http://www.market research.com/product/display.asp?productid=1474151&xs=r.
Brown, F.E., S.J. Neary and M.S. Symes. The Urban Experience: A People Environment Perspective (London: E & FN Spon), 1994.
5% alcohol per volume being the original average proof of the original recipe of the Rum offered in either full strength or "Grog" (mixed with water) to the sailors of the British Royal Fleet. The Rum itself is available in bars and liquor stores in mainly the U.S. And Britain but is also available at the Pusser's outposts all over the world.
In fact the strength changes of over the years have a long tradition and are the source of the term "grog" applied to many forms of alcohol when mixed with water. The term first affectionate and then the derogatory term for Admiral Vernon, Commander-in-Chief, est Indies Station, the prime area for Spanish trade in the Caribbean) who made the regulation of mixing the sailors rum with water, so as to reduce its effect a rule.
The men had affectionately nicknamed Vernon Old Grog on account of the old…
Unfortunately, the Natives are still facing many social and economic barriers to success.
In conclusion, "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee" is a compelling and difficult book to read. It tells the graphic history of the Native Americans, and indicates that their way of life was paramount to their well being, their culture, and their very existence. So many of them attempted to hold on to their old ways even as they were ripped from their lands and moved to strange, uninhabitable places. Their character, their strength, and their dignity comes through in their history, and Brown's book makes them sympathetic, but never undermined their proud determination to survive and thrive. As ed Cloud says in the book, "When the white man comes to my country he leaves a trail of blood behind him" (Brown 103). That blood may have dried, but it will always be there in Native American…
Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. An Indian History of the American West. New York: Henry Holt & Company, 2001.
Lyman, Stanley David. Wounded Knee 1973: A Personal Account. Eds. Floyd a. O'Neil, June K. Lyman, and Susan McKay. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.
Mieder, Wolfgang. "The Only Good Indian is a Dead Indian: History and Meaning of a Proverbial Stereotype." Journal of American Folklore 106.419 (1993): 38-60.
Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
Assembling Southern Appalachian Belief Culture from the Foxfire Archive
This project looks at the belief structure of people in the Southern Appalachian mountains as recognized through the Foxfire archival project, documentary evidence and artistic interpretation. Through an examination of belief systems it is believed that unique cultural aspects of this isolated group of people can be determined. The Foxfire project is an archive that documents how the people lived prior to the mass introduction of outside influences that happened concurrent to the ability of residents to electrify their houses which occurred from approximately 1935 and into the 1950's. Prior to this time the residents of these southeastern mountains were isolated due to the remoteness of villages, and they were able to remain relatively self-contained even though some sections were being encroached by industry. The belief systems in this examination include religion and healing, but mainly relate to how…
Breton, Andre. Nadja. New York: Grove Press, 1960. Print.
Cheek, Angie, and Lacy Hunter Nix. The Foxfire 40th Anniversary Book: Faith, Family, and the Land. New York: Anchor Books, 2006. Print.
Cohen, Margaret. Profane Illumination: Walter Benjamin and the Paris of Surreal Revolution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995. Print.
De Caro, Frank. The Folklore Muse: Poetry, Fiction, and Other Reflections by Folklorists, Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2008. Print.
Ultimately, Osborn succeeds in using idiom of the period that is immediately accessible through various venues of popular culture (she describes Crockett as seeming to "be half varmint") and weaves the language of the legend into the story. This differs significantly from Fritz' work in that the story of Pocahontas involves primarily third person language and modern idiom with none of the tall-tale style phrasing. Overall, this story differs significantly from that of Fritz' work in that it challenges the reader to simultaneously deal with the fact and the legend - something that might be confusing for younger readers, but remains quite effective.
Finally, there is Julius Lester's John Henry. John Henry was a purportedly actual (his reality has been up for debate) rail-road worker who was certainly larger in physical stature and stronger than most people, but he certainly could not have accomplished what legend would credit him with.…
Fritz, Jean. The Double Life of Pocahontas. New York: Putnam Juvenile, 2002.
Lester, Julius. John Henry. New York: Puffin, 1999.
Osborn, Mary Pope. American Tall Tales. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1991.
However, as Baender demonstrates, it has to be too much of a fluke to have such "sophisticated" (192) humor. That is, telling the story tongue-in-cheek as such as serious anecdote. Twain, himself, reflected on using this device in "How to tell a story," when he said that the "humorous story is told gravely." And that the teller should "conceal the fact that he even dimly suspects...there is something funny." Even before he wrote the story he said about Coon's delivery: "He was a dull person, and ignorant; he had no gift as a story-teller, and no invention...he was entirely serious, for he was dealing with what to him were austere facts...he saw no humor in his tale..." (Baender 194)
Twain gives hints about his feelings of this seriousness by stating in his first draft of the story: "...the spectacle of a man drifting serenely along through such a queer…
Baender, Paul. The "Jumping Frog" as a Comedian's First Virtue. Modern Philology
1963) 60.3: 192-200
Bruggers, James. Biologist hopes to save celebrated frog. Contra Costa Times.
Cuff, Roger Penn. Mark Twain's Use of California Folklore in His Jumping Frog
In total contrast with these heroes lies the modern hero or better said the modern man defined by his struggle for power. The idea of an individual selling his or her soul to the devil for knowledge is an old motif in Christian folklore, one that is centered upon in Cristopher Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus."
Doctor Faustus, a well-respected German scholar unsatisfied with the traditional forms of knowledge decides he wants to learn to practice magic. He begins his career as a magician summoning Mephastophilis, a devil while Valdes and Cornelius instruct him in the black arts. Despite the devil's warnings about hell Faustus tells the devil to return to his master Lucifer with an offer of Faustus's soul in exchange for twenty-five years of service from Mephistopheles. As the twenty-five years have passed, Faustus begins to dread his impending death and on the final night he is overcome by…
1. The Norton Anthology of English, Norton Topics Outline. 2003-2006. W.W. Norton and Company. On the Internet at http://www.wwnorton.com/nael/middleages/topic_4/welcome.htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
2. The Sixteenth century topics: The Magician, the Heretic and the Playwright: Overview. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 2003-2006. W.W. Norton and Company. On the Internet at http://www.wwnortoncom/nto/16century/topic_1/welcome.htm
3. Jokinen, Aniina. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Luminarium: Anthology of English Literature. November 2006. On the Internet at http://www.luminarium.org/medlit/gawainintro/htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
4. Sera, Joseph. A character analysis of Sir Gawain. Pace University Student Projects on Gawain. November 2006. On the Internet at http://csis.pace.edu/grendel/projs2d/ana/page.htm.Last retrieved on November 24, 2006
Figure 3. Cover art for Miyazaki's Nausicaa DVD set
Source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_t68ar0SFX54/SrvMLVUJMyI/AAAAAAAADy4 / Ol1Z06z6YdE/s400/Nausicaa.jpg
The economic success of Nausicaa convinced its producers that the market for their type of work was viable, resulting in the explosion of the global manga and anime markets (Schilling, 1997). Launching Studio Ghibli as a framework in which to produce his theatrical follow-up to Nausicaa, Miyazaki's worked on Tenku no Shiro Laputa, another fantasy adventure story concerning a search for the lost flying island of Laputa. According to Schilling, "As in Nausicaa, a spunky princess was the heroine and the story contained a respect-nature-or-die subtext, but the action element was more central, the plotting less labyrinthine" (1997, p. 139). This release failed to achieve the financial success that Nausicaa enjoyed, though (Schilling, 1997). In 1988, Miyazaki wrote and directed a new movie, Tonarl no Totoro ("My Neighbor Totoro") in which he applied a different approach that…
Ishihara, T. (2005). Mark Twain in Japan: The Cultural Reception of an American Icon.
Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.
Koppelman, A. (2008). "Why Phyllis Schlafly Is Right (but Wrong) about Pornography."
Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 31(1): 105-107.
icca Animal Use
Shelley Rabinovitch has asserted that modern iccans see themselves as part of a world that includes all living beings in Nature (69), which generally prevents exploitative 'use.' This is not universal, but animal abuse would probably exclude a practitioner from the group "iccans." This has not been the case throughout history, and some modern Neo-Pagans include use of animals in ritual they claim falls within the harmonious balance of a non-dualistic participation in Nature (below). The result is a change in modern iccan relationship to animals compared to historical relationships as far as the available evidence shows. This requires defining the group "iccans," and also 'use' and 'animals,' because some groups typically classified alongside icca under the class "Neo-Pagans" are beginning to differentiate themselves through ritual animal use in ways iccans may perhaps want to dissociate themselves from.
"The language of self-identification to outsiders differs from that…
Church Of The Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc., et al. v. City Of Hialeah No. 91-948. 508 U.S. 520
(1993).United States Supreme Court, 11 June, 1993. < www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/91-948.ZS.html>
Faculty of Oriental Studies, the University of Oxford. "Gilgames and Aga." The Electronic Text
Corpus of Sumerian Literature. n. pag. < http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.22.214.171.124# >
In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.
The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…
references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x
Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526
Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.
Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978
Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.
(Singer Centennial, 2004)
Singer's family was quite poor, despite its religiously and socially prominent status. He later said that his early life was a constant education in the rough texture of humanity, as well as the struggle of common Jews. Gimpel, for instance, is "a gullible man who responds to a lifetime of betrayal, heckling, and deception with childlike acceptance and complete faith." "Though aware of his own suffering," Gimpel "is never cynical or resentful. No matter what mishap may befall him, "he retains a steadfast belief in human goodness. He accepts life as it unfolds, with all its paradoxes, "even enduring the constant and flagrant infidelities" of his wife. "Her deathbed confession that none of her children were fathered by him does not alter his love for the children. Gimpel is able to resist the Devil's temptations to take revenge against his deceivers only after Elka's ghost materializes, urging…
Isaac Bashevis Singer: Biography" Nobel Prize.org. 4 Oct. 2004. http://nobelprize.org/literature/laureates/1978/singer-bio.html
Isaac Bashevis Singer: Life and Works." Singer Centennial. 2000. 4 Oct. 2004. http://www.ibsinger100.org/life/1/
Saltzman, Arthur M. "Singer, Isaac Bashevis." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 4 Oct. 2004. http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wb/Article?id=ar511638.
Britannica.com, 1997. 4 Oct. 2004. http://www.britannica.com/nobel/micro/733_44.html
German Influences on Texas Culture
If one has lived in Texas for any length of time, they will realize immediately that the Texas culture is influenced by German culture in a number of ways. Modern day Texas culture would not exist as it does today if it were not for German influence. Today Texas culture can be described as a blending of German and Texas traditions. Though German culture is not the only culture that has impacted the Texas of today, it is often considered one of the most significant influences historically.
Whether one examines the architectural landscape of the towns and cities, examines the art and music or simply talks with many of the German descendants living in Texas, one must immediately acknowledge the significant influence the German people have had on the development of Texas as known today. In early Texas history German influence was widespread, often comprising…
Alvarez, A. (2002). "Oktoberfest in Fredericksburg." Texana Food and Events. 19, November 2004: http://texana.texascooking.com/news/oktoberfest_fred2002.htm
Butt, H.E. (2004). "Oktoberfest in Texas." 20, November, 2004: http://www.heb.com/mealtime/celeb-oktoberFestTx.jsp
Galan. (2001). [Online]. "Accordion Dreams: cultures of music and dance." Available
Hee, howeve, a geat many of the components of the ex-USSR have been facing anothe majo poblem: Unde Soviet nationality policy the diffeent peoples of the U.S.S.R. wee tapped in the midst of thee incompatible pocesses - nation-building by the diffeent titula goups, the constuction of 'Soviet patiotism' and the foging of 'poletaian intenationalism'. Suggested is the need fo a collective initiative in joining fo a ewiting of histoy and a edefinition to be given to cultual heitages and it is stated that this is a geat need fo the Chechen people in the following paagaph:" (Gamme, 2002)
In tadition Chechens eithe have subscibed to the Sunni Islam Shafi'I Islam, which is the least as to estictions as any othe fom in Islam and is not a faith that is laced with intoleance. Sufis ae the most peaceable of the Muslims and is focused on spiituality as well as toleant…
references already stated within this work and finally upon the February 24, 2005 report in the Chechen Times that relates the fact that the European Court of Human Rights has passed down a ruling that finds Russia guilty of the commission of extreme harm which is inclusive of torture and of having killed civilians in the country. Moscow was ordered by the court to pay fines totaling 135, 710 euros and states that:
The panel of judges, among them one Russian, were unanimous in condemning Russia for breaching the European Convention of Human Rights article on the right to life. The court also said that Moscow had breached the plaintiffs' right to a full hearing. It said in two cases that Moscow had also violated the ban on torture and inhumane or degrading treatment and, in the case of one person, breached a clause on the protection of property." (the Chechyan Times, 2005)
This verdict in itself is clear and compelling evidence against the Soviets and supports the statement that the Chechen people have suffered abuses and violence at the hands of the Soviet Government who have dealt harshly with those of Chechnya. This work has shown that the Soviet Russians have had their own agenda for the Chechen people and that the violence and violations to human right perpetrated again the Chechen people are indeed heinous and of a harsh rule that has given those same people good reason to fight again the Russian invaders, perpetrators and abusers of human rights and liberty.
Russian Oppression of the Chechen People
Usmanov, Lyoma (1999) the Chechen Nation: A Portraint of Ethnical Features 1999 Jan 9 Washington DC [Online at http://www.truth-and-justice.info/chechnat.html ]
O rother, Where Art Thou?
Homer in Hollywood: The Coen rothers' O rother, Where Art Thou?
Could a Hollywood filmmaker adapt Homer's Odyssey for the screen in the same way that James Joyce did for the Modernist novel? The idea of a high-art film adaptation of the Odyssey is actually at the center of the plot of Jean-Luc Godard's 1963 film Contempt, and the Alberto Moravia novel on which Godard's film is based. In Contempt, Prokosch, a rich American dilettante film producer played by Jack Palance, hires Fritz Lang to film a version of Homer's Odyssey, then hires a screenwriter to write it and promptly ruins his marriage to rigitte ardot. Fritz Lang gamely plays himself -- joining the ranks of fellow "arty" German-born directors who had earlier deigned to act before the camera (like Erich von Stroheim in Wilder's Sunset oulevard, playing a former director not unlike himself, or…
Peter Biskind, Easy Riders, Raging Bulls How the Sex-Drugs-and-Rock'N'Roll Generation Saved Hollywood. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999. Print.
Cavell, Stanley. Pursuits of Happiness: the Hollywood Comedy of Remarriage. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984. Print.
Connors, Catherine. Petronius the Poet: Verse and Literary Tradition in the Satyricon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.
Doom, Ryan P. The Brothers Coen: Unique Characters of Violence. Santa Barbara, Denver and Oxford: Praeger / ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison. Specifically, it will contain a brief biography of the author; address the topic of alienation as it pertains to the work, and include some critical reviews of the novel. Many critics consider novelist Ralph Ellison's "The Invisible Man" a classic in American literature, and a treatise on how blacks have been treated by white society throughout the decades. His story is a tale of alienation, prejudice, and the strength one man has to rise above these obstacles to become the best man he can be.
The Invisible Man - The Author, Ralph Ellison
Ralph Ellison was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on March 1, 1914. His parents, Lewis and Ida Ellison, were from the South, but had moved to Oklahoma searching for racial equality they could not find at home (Watts 33). His father died when Ellison was three, and his mother raised her two…
Choice # 2: I also made the decision to make citical thinking a pat of this couse, instead of meely focusing on the histoy o technical aspects. I want students to be able to fom thei own opinions about folk medicine based on what they have leaned.
Name and descibe one of you pojects stengths.
One of the main stengths of this poject is that it combines fun with fact. In othe wods, it is not just a dy look at the histoy of folk medicine, but it will include inteesting anecdotes and some bizae and funny ituals and pactices as well. I went this diection because I want to keep things inteesting and keep the students engaged.
Name and descibe one of my pojects weaknesses.
The main weakness of this poject is that it may be difficult to include all of the many aspects of folk medicine in detail…
Additional Source #3: UCLA's Online Archive of American Folk Medicine. Web. http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/
This online searchable database will provides students with access to thousands of articles and texts related to the course topic.
Two Guest Speakers
Guest speaker #1: D.C. Jarvis, author of the book Folk Medicine. Having him as a guest speaker would be an excellent supplement to the book. It would also allow students to ask questions related to his book.
Troy Boone writes Van Helsing "affirms a utilitarian view of the vampire-fighter, whose role is to minimize human suffering by combating evil" (Boone). He goes on to explain how Stoker explores this notion by adding to his summation that Van Helsing realizes the different forces at work. Dracula is "finite, though he is powerful to do much harm" (Stoker 320-1) and he cannot be avoided or ignored, he must be stopped. Such a character leaves Van Helsing as a kind of "monster of righteousness" (Bloom), writes Harold Bloom. Van Helsing is the vampire's enemy and opposite and Stoke has situated him in the novel as the only person qualified to fight this evil.
Another way in which Stoker presents Van Helsing as a hero is through the different characters he must face when fighting evil. He is not simply after stopping Dracula. Dracula's women pose the same great threat Dracula…
Bloom, Harold. "Bloom on Dracula." In Bloom, Harold, ed. Dracula, Bloom's Modern Critical
Interpretations. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishing, 2002. Bloom's Literary
Reference Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 13 Apr. 2010. http://www.fofweb.com
Boone, Troy. "He is English and therefore adventurous': politics, decadence, and 'Dracula.'."
Sherlock Holmes is presently associated with a deerstalker hat, a pipe and a magnifying glass, but few people know that the first description of the character has nothing to do with these items (with the exception of the magnifying glass, which he rarely used in "A Study in Scarlet"). Every popular character, regardless of its importance, is bound to change in appearance over a period of years. This is probably due to the intervention of various factors, such as the public's opinion and trends changing along with the passing of time. The general image of Sherlock Holmes has been gradually influenced by various depictions of the character, as each depiction has provided material for the one after it.
Doyle lived to see his novel adapted to be put in plays and to be transformed into film scripts. The character is part of a great number of books, motion pictures, and…
1. Browning, Gary & Eliason, Eric a. "Crypto-mormons or Pseudo-mormons?," Western Folklore 61.2 (2002)
2. Childers, Joseph W. "Recent Studies in the Nineteenth Century," Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900-38.4 (1998).
3. Doyle, Arthur Conan. (2007). "A Study in Scarlet." Filiquarian Publishing, LLC.
4. Mitchell, Lee. "White Slaves and Purple Sage: Plotting Sex in Zane Grey's West," American Literary History6.2 (1994): 234.
Reid (78) suggests that Sweetback's sexuality and his "controlled" violence are important elements when it comes to his escape. Prior to this film, Reid (78) points out that black male sexuality was portrayed as being "animalistic and instinctively violent," however, Van Peebles depiction of such a sexual being with "a controlled and motivated violence" was a "heroic idea" that certainly was different than anything the African-American community had seen before in its portrayal of sexual black men.
All three of the "road films" -- Easy Rider, Stroszek, and Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song -- are films about taking to the road in search of something or as a means to escape from something. All of the characters in the collective films -- Billy, yatt, Stroszek, and Sweet Sweetback -- are trying to escape some type of disillusionment, whether it is disillusionment with the government, disillusionment with life, or a disillusionment caused…
Hill, Lee. Easy Rider (BFI Modern Classics). British Film Institute, 1996.
Peuker, Brigitte. "Werner Herzog: In Quest of the Sublime." From Klaus Philips Ed.
New German Filmmakers. NY: Frederick Unger Co., 1984.
Reid, NAME, PUBLISHER, DATE?
Indeed, the period now spanning the so-called Modern Era and the Industrial Revolution has been dependent upon humanity taming and turning nature to our own ends. This has led to a process whereby we downplay the natural world and of native peoples in general who live in a more harmonious fashion with their surrounding world. hile this process, especially during the Industrial Age, has led to dehumanization process and it has also led to a cheapening of human life in general as well. One can therefore see in New Age approaches to nature (and religion) that there is a hunger to rediscover an intra-natural balance that was lost in the last few centuries. By studying and internalizing these myths and their moral lessons, we can recapture this lost balance. The author compared these other approaches and built upon what we learned in class, especially by comparing and contrasting and them…
Brightman, Robert Alain. (2002). "there was just animals before." Grateful Prey: Rock
Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.
Ibid. (2002). "they come to be like human." Grateful Prey: Rock
Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.
The warfare was also psychological because the looting of southern homes and the pillaging of southern farms greatly diminished the resources of the confederate army. The confederate army was running out of options. In addition to the use of psychological warfare, Sherman also used traditional warfare tactics to bring about surrender and ultimately victory.
Sherman's strategies during the Civil ar also had an influence upon the manner in which the Indian ars were conducted. Again the general utilized a combination of traditional and psychological warfare tactics. The Indian wars were a series of conflicts between the Colonists and Native American tribes. The Indian ars lasted foor several decades.
According to Hughes (2001) the 1840's saw a rise in negative attitudes towards colonists by Native Americans and vice versa. Native American's believed that hite men were taking over their native territories and pushing them off of the land where they had…
Dunkelman, Mark H. American History; Aug2002, Vol. 37 Issue 3, p28, 8p, 4 color
Fellman, Michael. Lincoln. Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 1995. p 125
Hanson, Victor Davis. "Sherman's War." American Heritage; Nov99, Vol. 50 Issue 7, p58, 8p, 3 bw
Hughes, Howard. American Indian Wars. Harpenden,, GBR: Pocket Essentials, 2001. p 7.
Another key component to the culture at FedEx is the leadership style, especially of founder Fred Smith. An ex-military man, Smith adopted a leadership style heavily influenced by military values. There was no model for overnight delivery, and to launch one required several things, all of which were influenced by Smith's values and leadership style (p.128). One was complete dedication to the company. Smith used all of his money to start FedEx and pushed the company through some tough times in its early life. Another was the concept of teamwork, and the forging of camaraderie. This was led from the top as well, with Smith not only working closely with all aspects of the firm but demanding that they all work together closely as well. This dedicated, tough, but team-oriented style flowed directly through Smith's leadership style and became a part of the corporate culture.
FedEx worked because its culture…
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of organization: Executive Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
In the case of the corn woman, food and god herself are the same. The love of the life-sustaining corn woman underlines the particular social and economic importance of corn in the tribe. Cooking corn, which is eaten green or boiled and roasted on the cob, is a daily part of the tribe's traditional activities. Corn is also pounded into meal with mortar and pestle to make flour meal, which was then, as one observer noted: "sifted through an open-mesh basket and then winnowed by being tossed into the air, the breeze carrying away the chaff, while the heavier, edible portion of the corn falls back into the flat receiving basket. In this condition the meal is mixed with water and boiled to make sofki. This is the name applied primarily to this corn soup, of which, in addition to the kind mentioned, there is fermented or sour sofki, and…
Greenlee, Robert F. "Folktales of the Florida Seminole." The Journal of American Folklore.
58. 228 (Apr. - Jun., 1945), pp. 138-144. Accessed on October 21, 2008 through JSTOR at the stable URL:
Macaulay, Clay. The Seminole Indians of Florida. Kessinger Publishing, 2006.