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Food additives are substances added to manufactured foods and beverages with the aim of prolonging their shelf life. Some additives are also used to boost the flavor of these foods with the aim of making them more appealing to the consumers. In this regard, food additives have an effect of bringing a desirable effect on the foods for the manufacturers. However, this might not be the case to the consumers because the additives have been shown to have some side effects to the users. The following study identifies the origin, benefits, and demerits of using food additives on the health of the users.
The Origin of Food Additives
Food additives were there from ancient days. In the olden days, the additives were mainly obtained from natural sources such as from dates and pepper crops. Some used salt to preserve the foods while others used the sun to preserve through drying.…
Passos, M. (2010). Innovation in Food Engineering: New Techniques and Products. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press.
Smith, J. (2011). Food Additives Data Book. Wiley-Blackwell
S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)
The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.
Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…
, 2006). The evidence reflects only a low level weight loss but is still worthwhile to consider in controlling weight at roughly 0.007 kg per week. It is useful for individual weight loss programs. Losing 0.2 kg per week requires a decrease of 220 kilocalories per day. Achieving a 32% reduction requires a sacrifice of 330 kilocalories a day from sucrose by substituting aspartame. Using aspartame replaces 70 g of sucrose or roughly two cans of soft drinks every day (Hunty et al.). This means less expense.
200 Times Sweeter and Cheaper
On the average, aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sucrose (Hu et al., 2008). Not only does it mean less calories but also less cost. The taste difference between them is that the sweetness of aspartame is detected by the taste buds longer than sucrose. This can, however, be resolved by adding acesulfame potassium. Aspartame also has limited…
FDA (2007). FDA statement on European aspartame study. Office of Food Additive
Safety: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on April 2, 2011 from http://www.fda.gove/Food/FoodingredientsPackaging/FoodAdditives/ucm200858.htm
Hendrickson, K. (2011). Differences in aspartame and fructose. Live Strong:
Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on April 2, 2011 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/278757-differences-in-aspartame-fructose
A farmer in each year can produce enough food to feed a hundred people, according to Pollan (2001), but this productivity comes with a heavy price: "The modern industrial farmer cannot grow that much food without large quantities of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machinery, and fuel. This expensive set of 'inputs,' as they are called, saddles the farmer with debt, jeopardizes his health, erodes his soil and ruins its fertility, pollutes the groundwater, and compromises the safety of the food we eat" (Pollan, 2001, p. 190). These accrued costs accumulated through generations may lead to catastrophic consequences such as global warming and scarcity of edible food and drinkable water.
The drive to industrial efficiency blinded us to several hidden costs of food production. Orr (1994) identifies six of the costs that, if we intend to maintain sustainable growth, need to be curbed. The first obvious cost of industrial food production is…
McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002) From cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things. New York: North Point Press.
Orr, D.W. (1994) Earth in mind: on education, environment, and the human prospect. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Pollan, M. (2001) The Botany of desire: a plant's eye view of the world. New York: Random House.
1A) in the 18th and 19th centuries, food adulteration was common, and usually done for profit. Expensive ingredients were commonly diluted with filler material to lower cost, but there were no controls on these fillers and many were unsafe. Some additives were added to extend the shelf life of food, but in several cases these additives were harmful to consumers -- common preservatives included borax, formaldehyde and sulfuric acid.
1B) The poison squad was a team that tried foods with common additives. They were to find out what the effects of those additives on the human body are.
1C) The video highlights what food scientists are doing now to adulterate food in ways to make it more addictive, if not more appealing. The scientists look for ways to add low-cost ingredients that in theory are more appealing to the human palate so that people will eat more. This…
production of food products has changed dramatically over the past several years. Technological changes in machinery, increased use of better and more expedient forms of transportation, and improved fertilizers have all contributed to a more efficient food production process. This more efficient process, however, has not come with some requisite problems.
The existing system of delivering food products in the United States is a major contributor to the world's global warming problem. The largest contributor to global warming is the use of fossil fuels. One study released in 2000 estimated that nearly ten percent of all the energy used in the United States was consumed by the food industry. (Heller, 2000).
This large use of fossil fuels is generated throughout the food production and delivering industry. A large measure of this use is through the extensive reliance upon artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Although the use of these products results in…
Center for Disease Control. (2003). Diabetes Public Health Resource. Retrieved December 4, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/figuretext.htm#fig1
Eckholm, E. (2010, August 11). Farmers Lean to Truce on Animals' Close Quarters. The New York Times .
Eisnitz, G.A. (2006). Slaugherhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhuman Treatment Inside the U.S. Meat Industry. Prometheus Books.
Fossil Fuels. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2010, from U.S. Department of Energy: http://www.energy.gov/energysources/fossilfuels.htm
Most canned versions of prepared foods are not as good as the same dish freshly prepared. For example, a can of soup tastes nothing like a freshly cooked soup, and canned spaghetti is mushy. Because canned foods often contain preservatives or added salt or sugar, they also taste different than that same food purchased fresh.
Convenience is a core difference between canned and fresh foods. Fresh foods are convenient for people who have a local produce market nearby, or who can visit a farmer's market regularly enough to stock up their produce bin. People who live in urban centers often have access to fresh food, and people who live in rural regions sometimes live near local farms or grow fresh vegetables themselves. Anyone who lives near a fishing center can procure fresh fish. However, buying fresh food is not always an option. Fresh foods are not always local foods and…
Apovian, Caroline M. "Foods -- Fresh vs. Frozen or Canned." Medical Encyclopedia. Oct 2007. Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002095.htm
Davies, Rhianon & Barrett, Amanda. True or False: Fresh Food Is Better Than Frozen or Canned Food. Health Library/EBSCO. Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://healthlibrary.epnet.com/GetContent.aspx?token=a4c1f00b-d245-44f2-a90e-20b047f84a6a&chunkiid=160561
Fast food is a phenomenon that has become part of the American way of life during the past few decades. However the convenience of fast foods has resulted in major health issues in the country, as well as in the rest of the world. The prevalence of fast food in American society is evident from the fact that "Americans now spend more money on fast food than they do on higher education, personal computers, software or new cars. They spend more on fast food than on movies, books, magazines, newspapers, videos and recorded music ? combined." (Schlosser Eric. 1998)
It is now become common news that obesity has become a major health concern in both developed "Westernized" and less developed countries around the world. One of the major factors that have been blamed for this increase in obesity and obesity related diseases is fast food -- often termed 'junk food."…
Adams. M. The real reason why processed meats are so dangerous to your health. 2005. Accessed August 25, 2005. http://www.newstarget.com/011148.html
(This is an extremely useful article as it covers some of the main reasons why fast food products are detrimental to health. The article was particularly good at outlining the negative aspects of processed foods.)
Berlau, John. "Big Food Fight: When Big Tobacco Was Taken Down by a Rash of Lawsuits, Consumers Were Assured That Other 'Bad' Products Wouldn't Be Targeted. But the Fast-Food Industry Appears to Be Next." Insight on the News 15 July 2002: 12+. Questia. 27 Aug. 2005 .
(An important article that deals not only with the health issues facing the fast food industry but also with the legal aspects and the comparison between the tobacco and fast food industries.)
sustainability foods eaten humans impact environment. hich foods highest impact environment? hich foods smallest? hy? How, individuals, make decisions-based data? Should information shape public policy? If, ?.
There is presently much controversy regarding sustainability and the diverse strategies people could use with the purpose of getting actively involved in helping the environment. The modern society has seven billion individuals and it is important for the authorities to be able to provide for the needs of these people. A great deal of crops and livestock are raised around the world and dominate most rural landscapes. However, the masses know very little regarding how these resources damage the environment as a result of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and methane gas.
Traditional agriculture has developed into industrial agriculture as society started to express more and more interest in experiencing progress when considering food production. Scientists have started to introduce additives as a means…
Koch, Bernhard A., and Askeland, Bjarte, "Damage Caused by Genetically Modified Organisms: Comparative Survey of Redress Options for Harm to Persons, Property, Or the Environment," (Walter de Gruyter, 14.10.2010)
"the issues," Retrieved October 15, 2012, from the Sustainable Table Website: http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/
Eat, Swipe and Leave -- The New Smartphone Apps for Diners
The SPREAD of the Smartphone apps for diners has REVOLUTIONIZED eating out all over the world. Through COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH and OBSERVATION, apps such as Qkr!, Velocity, Cake, MyCheck, Orderella, Uncover, Flypay and Zapper, aim to reduce customer waiting time at restaurants. For example, through one popular app, customers are given a four-digit code which is then given to the restaurant. This code provides the customer a table number as well as the bill. PARTICIPANTS can simply make their payment, or, if dining in a group they can split the bill equally. The app allows̴
3-D printing of food is a new DATA-driven trend of the future which allows users to customize meals and snacks. Despite being in only its early stages, this INVENTION will foster greater efficiency in the production of food and limit waste. RESEARCH shows that food can be created with precise nutritional formulations for people with specific dietary requirements. Furthermore, SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION proves that the 3-D food printer will remove the need for additives and preservatives. This PROCESS may be hard to adapt, leading to a slow RATE OF DIFFUSION as the degree to which people are willing to accept 3-D-printed food may be a problem. INCORPORATING TIME into evaluating this potential solution, the potential for this INNOVATION to generate benefits for users seems strong.
#alhih149 #3Dprinting #sustainable #invention #food
During the consumer movement of the 1960s and 1970s, Congress enacted a substantial amount of legislation to protect "the good of the people." There is only one problem with consumer protection laws -- they are slow to react and even harder to enforce. As a result of this situation, corporations are allowed to profit at the expense of consumers' health. The resistance comes in a number of stages. The first is denial of the problem, wherein the corporations argue that there is not enough evidence to link their products with the negative outcomes that are being reported. Then there is the lobbying that causes politicians to defer action until a later date, or ignore the call to action altogether. Too often, when statutes are enacted, corporations fight them to the end, resulting in flawed legislation that either has loopholes, require interpretation from the judicial branch or is difficult…
Bray, G., Nielsen, S. & Popkin, B. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 79 (4) 537-543.
Goldberg, C. & Zimmerman, R. (2011). What's making us fat? Researchers put food additives on suspect list. Common Health. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2011/08/food-additives-obesity
Hellmich, N. (2009). Rising obesity will cost U.S. health care $344 billion a year. USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2009-11-17-future-obesity-costs_N.htm
Miller, R. & Jentz, G. (2010). Business law today: 9th edition. South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Farms that contain the r-BST free labeling are typically from single farms that do their own proprietary retail packaging.
The study concluded that there were no differences in antibiotic levels in the milk samples. The purpose of the study stated, "the objective of this study was to compare these endpoints for conventional, rbST-free, and organic milk.," (Vicini, Etherton, & Etherton et al., p. 1199). By the time conclusions were drawn, the topic of rBST and organic milk, as stated in the research objectives, had been completely abandoned and replaced by conclusions regarding antibiotics, which are required to be zero for any milk, regardless of origin, that ends up on retail shelves.
The only studies that are provided to the public, and which are the basis of policy decisions, are highly suspect due to the financial interests between Monsanto and the research laboratory. The sampling techniques used, invalidate the conclusions drawn.…
Kroger. (2008). "Kroger to Complete Transition to Certified Rbst-Free Milk by Early 2008." Retrieved December 19, 2008 at http://www.thekrogerco.com/corpnews/corpnewsinfo_pressreleases_08012007.htm
FDA (n.d.)"Report on the Food and Drug Administration's Review of the Safety of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin." Retrieved December 19, 2008 at http://www.fda.gov/cvm/RBRPTFNL.htm
RBST-Facts.com (n.d.). The facts about rBST. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at http://www.rbstfacts.org/ .
Monsanto. (2007). www.monsantodairy.comMonsanto. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at http://www.monsantodairy.com/about/general_info/index.html.
Polycarbonate with Bisphenol a (#7) is found in water bottles and scientists have linked very low doses of it to cancers, early onset of puberty, obesity, diabetes, hyperactivity, impaired immune function, among a myriad of other problems (2011).
Some of the recommendations that are offered by the Ecology Center (2011) are to buy one's food in glass or metal containers as opposed to plastic ones. Avoiding polycarbonate drinking bottles that contain Bisphenol a is also recommended. One should not heat food in plastic containers or store any kinds of fatty foods in plastic containers or in plastic wrap (2011). As well as avoiding the plastic containers or wrap for food, the Ecology Center recommends staying away from giving young children plastic toys that they may put in their mouth or plastic teethers (2011). One other recommendation is to avoid all PVC and Styrene products (2011).
Because of the health risks…
Ecology Center. (2011). "Adverse health effects of plastics." Ecology Center. Accessed on January 18, 2011:
Moreover, vegetarianism is theoretically possible at McDonalds by eating the token salads on the menu. The token salads might still be in keeping with the tenets of agro-business but they do not contain meat products. Still, Pollan hints at how those salads support the same industries that sustain large-scale animal slaughtering.
In Chapter Seven, Pollan focuses on the ethics and the feasibility of the fast food business model as well as its effects on dietary health and well being. Without droning didactically, Pollan points out the problems with fast food: such as high levels of fat and sodium. The nutritional content of fast food is directly and causally related to heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. Pollan needs not delve into great detail about that which most Americans should already be aware. What Pollan does point out are the hidden ingredients in McDonald's menu items, especially in the chicken McNuggets. By…
Pollan, Michael. Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin, 2006.
Monosodium glutamate, otherwise known as MSG, is a commonly discussed food additive used throughout the world today. While some countries use it minimally, and place high restrictions on its use, other countries use it on a consistent basis, in many foods. This paper will examine MSG, and its uses. Additionally, this paper will examine each step of how MSG is made, using fermentation. The discussion will include technical details of the process, the equipment commonly used, the use of enzymes and bacteria, as well as an examination of the product packaging and quality control procedures. Finally, this paper will include a brief description of the market of MSG, and the socio-economic aspects of the product.
Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid. Glutamate is an amino acid that occurs naturally in many foods known for their flavor, such as tomatoes and mushrooms. Additionally, glutamate is found…
Aida, K., Chibata, L. Nakayama, K., Takinami, K., and Yamada, K. 1986. Biotechnology of Amino Acid Production. Amsterdam: Elsevier, p. 215.
Ajinomoto Company, Inc. 1996. Production process of amino acids. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Tokyo, Japan: Ajinomoto Company, Inc.
Blue Diamond. 2004. History of MSG. Facts About MSG. Obtained October 18, 2004 from Direct Food Ingredients, LTD. Web site: http://www.directfood.net/bluediamond/history.asp .
DeSilva, F.J. 1997. Removing organics with ion exchange resin. Water Conditioning and Purification Magazine, 2, p. 5-8.
The implant is inserted into the ear and is discarded at slaughter, thus, it does not enter the human food chain (Primer pp). The hormone in the implant is released into the bloodstream very slowly ensuring the concentration of the hormone remains relatively constant and very low (Primer pp). Moreover, the prescribed dosage is the level "which produces the maximum economic response in the animal -- the law of diminishing returns -- so that there is no economic incentive for a farmer to use additional implants," and ensures that the animals taken to slaughter have normal hormone levels (Primer pp). According to the Primer, beef from a bull contains testosterone levels over ten times higher than the amount in beef from a steer that has received hormones for growth promotion (Primer pp). Therefore, since the European beef market is predominately bull-sourced, while the American meat is steer-sourced, American hormone treated…
"Battle Over Beef Hormones." BBC News Online. 13 May 1999; pp.
"EU asks for end to beef sanctions.(European Policy News)"
Agra Europe; 17 October 2003; pp.
Consider what your firm produces. What are some things that would change the demand for your product? How does quantity demanded change?
McDonald's produces fast food products. Its main products are French fries, hamburgers, and various chicken products including chicken sandwiches and chicken nuggets. McDonalds also sells other products that face different demands depending upon location, including coffee, breakfast products, desserts, and even pork sandwiches. "Demand refers to how much (quantity) of a product or service is desired by buyers. The quantity demanded is the amount of a product people are willing to buy at a certain price; the relationship between price and quantity demanded is known as the demand relationship" (Investopedia, 2012). One of the reasons that demand for McDonald's products is relatively high is that McDonald's is able to keep pricing low because they have an adequate supply to meet demand. Therefore, changes in supply will lead…
3. What if the government raised the minimum wage? How would this policy affect your firm?
If the government raised the minimum wage, that policy would have some impact on McDonald's, but probably not as much of an impact as some people would fear. McDonald's is an incredibly profitable organization and a minimum raise in wages really would not impact its financial bottom line in a significant manner. Imagine a dollar per hour increase in minimum wage and that the average McDonald's is staffed with 10 employees during prime hours; this means that the business owner must spend an additional $10 per hour. The goal is customer service within 90 seconds, so they expect to service 45 customers per hour. Keeping in mind that each person's meal would also have a minimum increase in supply costs because of the increase in minimum wage, a price increase of $.25 cents spread over the entire order would completely absorb the costs of the wage increase without impacting sales. A parent purchasing an adult meal and two kids' meals might pay an extra $.13 for the adult meal and $.06 for each kid's meal without even noticing the difference. It is doubtful that a shift this small would move the equilibrium point between quantities supplied and demanded (NetMba, 2010). Given that a minimum wage increase would also mean more available income for many of McDonald's potential customers, teenagers and the poor, I do not believe that a minimum wage increase would have a tremendous negative impact on the firm.
People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.
There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…
Adler, N.E., & Stewart, J. (2009). Reducing obesity: motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank Quarterly 87 (1), pp. 49-70. Retrieved from Academic Search
Premier database December 29, 2010.
Baillie-Hamilton, P.F. (2002). Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8 (2), pp. 185-192.
DOI: 10.1089/107555302317371479. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database December 29, 2010.
Managing ADHD with a Diet
Diet has attracted considerable attention in the healthcare sector with regards to its significance and role in addressing childhood and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As shown by recent research, this increased focus on diet is influenced by the fact that ADHD's development is strongly linked to nutrition since it's characterized by deficiencies in minerals, omega-3 fatty acids. There are reports that improved nutrition through intake of mineral and vitamin supplements. While this evidence is yet to be fully determined scientifically, there are proofs that omega-3 fatty acids could have impacts on a child's behavior. The other dietary factors that allegedly have significant effects on behavior include refined sugars as well as food additives and allergies (Collingwood, n.d.).
The role of omega-3 fatty acids in enhancing the behaviors of ADHD patients, especially children, has been strongly supported by evidence that show the link between…
Collingwood, J. (n.d.). Managing ADHD with Diet. Retrieved February 18, 2017, from https://psychcentral.com/lib/managing-adhd-with-diet/
This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.
In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
Lee, H., Park, Y., Jung, J. & Shin, W. (2003). Chitosan oligosaccharides, dp 2 -- 8, have prebiotic effect on the Bifidobacterium bifidium and Lactobacillus sp.
Elsevier Science Ltd. Retrieved November 2, 2009, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W9T-48BKR97 -
The evidences presented in this regard explain how different studies and research support that obesity can have profound deteriorating psychological effects as well as health effects on children. The changing eating lifestyles leading to increased consumption of fast foods and sodas have contributed greatly in doing so however; children and parents cannot control obesity if it is genetically engineered. Genetics play a role in the bodily structure. If children are obese due to their genetic constitution, reduced consumption of food cannot help however, physical activities such as exercises have greatly shown results in maintaining their weight. Preventive measures can be taken on a broad level to reduce the spread of obesity among children. In this regard, schools can be helpful to plan a balanced diet for children. At lunch, sodas must be banned and replaced with fruit juices or clean water so that children get accustomed to drinking healthy beverages.…
Akhtar-Danesh, N. (2004). Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal, 4-24.
Bagchi, D. (2010). Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. London: Academic.
Butcher, P.M. (2006). Childhood Obesity. The future of Children, 3-18.
Cassell, D.K., & Gleaves, DH (2006). The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating Disorders. New York: Facts on File.
childhood obesity in the United States and many of the other estern nations have been growing at an alarming pace. This topic is interesting for many reasons. One such reason is that childhood obesity affects the first world at a much higher rate than developing nations. As society grows more technologically advanced and has mass produced foods then this seems to open many dietary challenges. Although food may be plentiful, the nutritional value is poor in cheaper foods in the United States that are processed and packaged. For example, there are a variety of cheap packaged pastries and soda drinks that are highly portable, inexpensive, and easily accessible which makes them popular among many demographics. This analysis will look at childhood obesity from many angles and try to develop a campaign that can help mitigate this growing trend.
Childhood Obesity Risks
There are many factors that have been identified that…
Baidal, J., & Taveras, E. (2014). Protecting Progress against Childhood Obesity -- The National School Lunch Program. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1862-1865.
Chen, M., Collins, E., Tao, L., & Lu, C. (2013). Simultaneous determination of residues in pollen and high-fructose corn syrup from eight neonicotinoid insecticides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry, 9251-9264.
Chicago Defender. (2003). Obesity and Fat Farm Subsidies. Chicago Defender, 1.
Chung, M., Ma, J., Patel, K., Berger, S., Lau, J., & Lichtenstein, A. (2014). Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 833-849.
American Drug Policy: Marijuana
Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.
Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.
THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)
WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?
MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE
State of the At of Cocoa
Is Cocoa good fo you?
Buden of Poof
CHOCOLATE AS A FAT
EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS
WHAT IS OK
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE
H. Immune Function
J. Othe Disodes
N. Dental Caies
K. Heat Health
Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…
references for fats in foods: relationships to diet and body composition. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1991; 53:908-915.
Green SM, Delargy HJ, Joanes D. And Blundell JE A satiety quotient: a formulation to assess the satiating effect of food. Appetite. 1997; 29:291-304.
Seligson FH, Krummel DA and Apgar JR. Patterns of chocolate consumption. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1994;60:S1060-S1067.
Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health; 1989. NIH Publication No. 89-2925.
Kritchevsky D. Effects of Triglyceride Structure on Lipid Metabolism. Nutrition Reviews. 1988;46:177-181.
In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:
Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.
Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.
American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.
Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.
Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/5533075/New-film-exposes-unsavoury-side-of-U.S.-food-industry.html
Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.
However, during the little more than 10 years of this research line, contradictory results have been found (Brynjolfsson, Hitt, & Yang, 2002). From the 1970s to 1980s, those companies that invested more in IT suffered a relative setback in the work factor productivity indexes. This paper will discuss the relationship between IT and competitive advantage in following content. We believe that IT is necessary to improve competitive position of the organization.
Many business professionals point to the use and deployment of IT as a point of weakness, not a point of strength in their organizations. They think that the reason for this is often that IT is being driven from a technical perspective, not from a business perspective (Orlikowski & Iacono, 2000). This phenomenon exists because many businesspeople think that the IT is too complicated, too expensive, too risky and too changeable. They would not like to spend time on…
About Us', Waseta International Trading Co., [Online]. Available at http://www.wasseta.com/gywm.htm
Advancing with e-Business: Pro-Angler Fishing Tackle Direct." [Internet]. 29 Jan 2005. Available at http://www.proangler.com.au .
Ahmed, P.K., & Rafiq, M. 2003, "Internal Marketing Issues and Challenges," European Journal of Marketing, 37 (9), p. 1177-1186.
Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P. 2003, Marketing: An Introduction, 6th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ., p. 10.
Beyond that, there is little evidence of clusterization either domestically or in the global market
The sugar industry is in decline. However, there remain a few opportunities. The first major opportunity is the growth in China. One of the true growth markets in the sugar world, China is increasing in affluence and increasing its consumption of sugar-laden estern foods. The Chinese market increased by two-thirds in just six years, from 2000 to 2006, and still lags estern sugar consumption levels. Another opportunity, albeit farther out in terms of time frame, is the U.S. market. To enter this market will involve the Australian government breaking down the trade barriers that U.S. sugar producers have erected. There are more threats. The first major threat is the growth of India and other producers. India is poised to become the world's largest sugar producer, and will have a significant impact on prices worldwide. Another…
CSR Profile and Information from Australian Stock Exchange, available online at http://www.asx.com.au/asx/research/CompanyInfoSearchResults.jsp?searchBy=asxCode&allinfo=on&asxCode=CSR#details
CSR Profile and Information also sourced from CSR, available online at http://www.csr.com.au
CSR Information and Ratios from FinAnalysis, available online at http://www.aspecthuntley.com.au.ezproxy-f.deakin.edu.au/af/company/mainview?ASXCode=CSR
Industry profile from IBISWorld, January 2008. [Online] Available at: Deakin Library.
(the National Institute of Mental Health, 2008) Though we are able to identify some external factors, like drug use, and development problems in the womb, mainly it is the genes which determine the occurrence of this disease. We may say that it is a biological disorder. The persons suffering by this disease are largely affected by programs on TV, games, bad environments food intake and similar occurrences. It is Genes that have control over the chemicals in the neurotransmitters and the affected child has these chemical output out of balance. The scans conducted reveal that these defects can be noted in the areas of the brain that deals with psycho motor reflexes. This imbalance creates and distorts the functions of the person in changing focus of thought, organization of things and methods, planning out things, memory, and emotion and reasoning and differentiating between the two. They have impairments of speech…
Adler, Lenard. (2007) "Scattered Minds: Hope and Help for Adults with Attention Deficit..."
American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008) "Child and Adolescent Mental
Illness and Drug Abuse Statistics" Retrieved 27 February, 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/resources_for_families/child_and_adolescent_mental_illness_statistics
Scientists have not yet figured out what causes ADHD, even though many studies propose that genes play a large part. Like a lot of other sicknesses, ADHD almost certainly can be contributed to a mixture of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at probable environmental factors, and are examining how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might add to ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (2010). Most research supports the hypothesis that ADHD is a physiological situation and is consequently present at birth. Nevertheless, the obvious beginning of ADHD indications characteristically takes place early in childhood. Prior to the age of five, ADHD indications may be hard to diagnose, for the reason that most young kids are extremely energetic, easily distractible, and impulsive. Consequently, the average age of diagnosis is eight years for ADHD and ten years for ADD. The dissimilarity in diagnosis age likely takes place…
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (2010). Retrieved May 30, 2011 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/complete-index.shtml
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. (2011). Retrieved May 30, 2011,
from http://www.bing.com/health/article/mayo-125656/Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-ADHD-in-children?q=attention+deficit+hyperactivity
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Treatment Overview. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/guide/adhd-treatment-overview
Teratology is the scientific study of causes and mechanisms of malformation during the human development. Fetal diseases, mechanical effects and retarded development of the embryo and the fetus are some of the causes of CDDs (congenital developmental disorders) according to various studies. oth mystical and scientific theories were developed in the past to explain the origin of Teratology; some theories stating that it originated from the position of the stars, maternal impressions, hybridization, and oligohy dramnios, among others. Today, biological assumptions on abnormalities seem to have more weight than the unproven theories given in the past. Scientific studies have revealed that the real causes of congenital developmental disorders include: mechanical effects, biological factors, physical factors and chemical substances (Ujhazy, Mach, Navarova, rucknerova, & Dubovicky, 2012).
Fig. 1. 1. The irth of Modern Teratology (McCormick, 2012)
The contemporary science of teratology started in the 1930s with the release of a study…
Agrawal, S. (2007). Genetic Causes of Congenital Malformation. Anthropologist Special, 425-434 .
Can, O. G. (2007). Principles of Human Teratology: Drug, Chemical, and Infectious Exposure. JOGC, 911-917.
Chung, W. (n.d.). TERATOGENS AND THEIR EFFECTS. 1-8. Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/humandev/2004/Chpt23-Teratogens.pdf
HoRC. (n.d.). FASD and alcohol consumption patterns. Retrieved from Parliament of Australia: http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_Business/Committees/House_of_Representatives_Committees?url=spla/fasd/report/chapter2.htm
" May (2003) emphasizes the need exists for greater technological sense and knowledge for all current and future students. Consequently, this need has led to incorporation of technology in classrooms settings, as technologies aim to increase students' intensity of wisdom, cooperation and text assessment. Today, literacy reading skills prove to be vital for both normal and special-needs students, as exposure to literacy encompasses more than books. In fact, the range of information is more fast and varied in accordance with contemporary technical improvements. A book review, using software programs such as Kidspiration and Timeliner, provides one pertinent illustration of incorporating technology in a classroom setting to better comprehend. Using software programs such as these could help students, in individual tasks or as they work in a group exercise, visualize their thoughts and opinions, as well as communicate them more effectively. (May, 2003)
To improve their reading skills of special-needs students,…
Anonymous. (2004). Teacher demographics (2004). Reading Today 21(5). Retrieved January 22, 2005, from eLibrary database. http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5020677369' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including te Monera, te Protista (Protoctista), te Fungi, te Plantae, and te Animalia. Eac kingdom is furter subdivided into separate pyla or divisions. Generally "animals" are subdivided into pyla, wile "plants" are subdivided into divisions.
Kingdom of Protista
Laminariales (kelps) etc.
Te Brown algae are a large group of multi-cellular algae, including various sorts of seaweed. Teir distinctive greenis-brown color comes from te pigment fucoxantin. Well-known members include kelps and bladder wrack. Genetic studies sow teir closest relatives are te yellow-green algae.
Te red algae (Rodopyta) are a large group of mostly multi-cellular, marine algae, including many notable types of seaweed. Most of te coralline algae, wic secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building…
Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%
in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac
Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,
March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1
Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
Badesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
The problem was: that the distances were much further and many of the different explorers (such as: Columbus) began to seek out other routes to these areas. This led directly to: the colonial ambitions of many European nations and their desire to explore the new world to achieve these objectives. (Willner, 2008, pp. 255 -- 294)
The Role that the Individual will Play in Society
A third development of the Middle Ages, was that the individual is playing a vital role in: matters of government and society. This developed out of frustration that many people were feeling about the different monarchies. As, everyone was expected to follow: the various traditions and the laws that were imposed upon them by the nobility. This became problematic over the years, as this would turn into a sense of anger. At which point, many of these different monarchies faced direct challenges to their power.…
Middle Ages. (2011). Free Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Middle+Ages
Holt, J. (1992). Magna Carta. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Willner, M. (2008). Global History. Hauppauge, NY: Barons.
Organic sugar is also brown in color, as some of the molasses properties remain. Thus, organic sugar is healthier for a person, yet just as inorganic sugars, the risks may outweigh the benefits if one eats too much sugar.
Information taken from: "What Is Organic Sugar Cane?" WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. .
5. Corn Syrup Solids and High Fructose Corn Syrup:
The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) puts both corn syrup solids and high fructose corn syrup on its cut back list, which means that this agency believes that these elements are not very healthy for the public, if consumed in large quantities. Though extracted from corn, the risks associated with these two food additives outweigh the benefits, and the greatest risk is weight gain and the problems that come with it or its extremes, such as obesity. Thus, though corn…
children in the U.S. has a learning disability and nearly 3 million have ADHD. Most of them are between the ages of 5 and 21, males whose mothers have less than 12 years of education, of poor health and socio-economically disadvantaged. One in every 25 or 30 school children in one classroom will have a learning disability. Learning disabilities also persist for a lifetime. At present, these affected children and adults can only be helped to make the best use of their skills and themselves through stimulants and psychotherapy as well as the combined support of their families, school, community and public services.
Learning disabilities in children and adults have yet to be thoroughly understood and adequately contained.
A learning disability generally refers to one of specific kinds of learning problems, such as the difficulty in learning and using certain skills (NICHCY 2002). These trouble areas are often reading, writing,…
1. Blair, Clancy. (2002). Proportion of Learning Difficulty Placements Associated with Low Socio-economic Status: Evidence for a Gradient? Journal of Special Education, Pro-Ed. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOHDF/is_1_36/ai_85916838
2. Farmer, Jeanette. (2004). Retrain the Brain Your Family Health Site. http://www.retainthebrain.com/?OVRAW=learning%20disabilities&OVKEY=learning%20disability&OVMT
3. Kidsource Online. (2003). General Information About Learning Disabilities. Kidsource Online, Inc. http://www.kidsource.com/NICHCY/learning_disabilities.html
4. National Institute of Mental Health. (2003). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Firstgov.com http://www.nimh.nih.gov/healthinformation/adhdmenu.cfm
1.7. Key definitions of terms
esearch process = a sustained effort concentrated around a topic or subject of study aimed at generating new findings, and characterized by identification and labeling of variables, research design, collection of data, analysis of data and evaluation of the problem (Shinde).
Qualitative research = esearch method through which researchers address the studied phenomenon by observing it in its natural environment and strive to make sense of it (Klenke, 2008).
Drive through = a window or another open and easy access facility, through which business can be conducted, and the customer does not have to leave their car (MacMillan Dictionary).
Startup business = a business that finds itself in the first stages of business operations (Investopedia, 2012).
Target market = the group of people to which an economic agent has decided to market and sell its products and/or services (Preddy, 2004).
1.8. Chapter 1 summary
Acs, Z.J., Audretsch, D.B., 2010, Handbook of entrepreneurship research: an interdisciplinary survey and introduction, 2nd edition, Springer
Analoui, F., Karami, a., 2003, Strategic management in small and medium enterprises, Cengage Learning EMEA
Becherer, R.C., Helms, M.M., 2009, the value of business plans for new ventures: company and entrepreneur outcomes, Journal of Small Business Strategy, Vol. 20, No. 2
Brigham, E.F., Ehrhardt, M.C., 2010, Financial management theory and practice, 13th edition, Cengage Learning
And in response to big power lobbying, Senate and House Republicans on the Agriculture appropriations inserted a provision in 2005 into the department's budget, which would allow the use of certain artificial ingredients in organic foods. Many players in the organic industry today also argue that they are willing to use some synthetics in producing organic food. Joseph Mendelson and other advocates of strict organic standards argue that these provisions will open a "Pandora's box," allowing big organic food producers to lobby for further loosening of the USDA standards (arner).
The downsides of big food producers going organic is well-illustrated by the experience of hole Foods Market. It grew out of a small vegetarian store opened by Mackay and his girlfriend in 1978 in a garage in Austin, Texas. In 1992, the company went nationwide, opening stores in several cities. Now, the company owns more than two hundred stores across…
Cloud, John. "Eating Better Than Organic." Time Magazine. 2 March 2007. Web. 22 March 2011.
"It's Easy Being Green: Organic vs. Conventional Foods -- the Gloves Come Off. Center for American Progress. 10 September 2008. Web. 22 March 2011.
"Organic Foods: Are They Safe? More Nutritious?" MayoClinic. Web. 22 March 2011.
"Organic Food Sales See Healthy Growth: Mainstream Food Companies Promote Natural Brands" MSNBC. 3 December 2004. Web. 22 March 2011.
activities which are more popular or enjoyable than sitting down to watch a movie with a steaming bag of freshly popped microwave popcorn. The smell and taste of microwave popcorn both invoke strong sensory cues often associated with the pleasant experience of cinema viewer-ship. It is not often that we stop to consider the content of these convenient single-serve bags, either nutritionally or chemically. However, new evidence is emerging all the time to suggest that there are significant and alarming health imperatives to begin examining our popcorn more closely. As the discussion here will show, popcorn as a snack-food is fairly innocuous and, in fact, if served properly, can be an excellent low-calorie source of carbohydrates. However, when combined with the synthetic substances, the additives and the packaging compounds used in a bag of microwave popcorn, popcorn can present its consumer with severe health risks.
This is particularly troubling because…
Adams, M. (2011). Did you know? Microwave popcorn gives off a toxic, lung-damaging gas when cooked. Natural News.
Hendrickson, K. (2011). The Cancer Risk of Microwave Popcorn. Livestrong.com.
Noble, K. & Noble, L. (2011). When Popcorn Attacks! Microwave Popcorn, Infertility and Cancer. This Green Earth.
Richards, P. (2008). New Research Suggests Microwave Popcorn Contains High Levels of Cancer-causing Chemicals. Yahoo! News.
Animal Production: Biotechnology
Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied…
Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).
Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)
Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…
Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our
World. Boston: Conari Press.
Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company.
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…
American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003
Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003
Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62
Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London
Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…
Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm .
Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.
Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.
Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214 .
Oakley Pub and Gill
As John R. Walke (2008) descibes in The Restauant: Fom Concept to Opeation, "chain estauants have some advantages and some disadvantages ove independent estauants" (p. 8). What the chain offes in its favo is public ecognition of a name customes can tust, moe extensive advetising, and geate ability to discount. Independent estauants, on the othe hand, also have some advantages -- they ae not bound by any copoate model, they ae significantly easie to stat up, and they can even boom into thei "chains." This pape will look at one independent estauant, called Oakley Pub and Gill, and identify its stengths and weaknesses, fom cost-contolling to sanitation, food poduction, leadeship, and staffing.
One cost-contol challenge fo Oakley would have to be the fact that its food and beveage costs outinely hove aound 35%. Cost, accoding to Randy White (2005), should not be something so high,…
references checked -- all before the hiring process is completed (Staffing Best Practices).
In this way, Oakley could easily eliminate some of the problems it has been having lately through the kind of nepotism that never translates into success. A better plan of action would serve the restaurant well when it comes to recruiting and staffing its outfit. In fact, some of the same qualities that Arlinghaus should be showing (humility, trust, integrity) could easily be characteristics that one would find on the hiring template. Creating that template would be the best way to improve the staffing process at Oakley Pub and Grill.
As John R. Walker observes, a casual restaurant like Oakley has a defining presence: "it fits the societal trend of a more relaxed lifestyle…[with] signature food items, creative bar menus…[and] a comfortable decor" (p. 9). Oakley does all this -- now all it needs to do is fine-tune its services, reduce its costs, employ better food production, enhance its managers' leadership skills, and afford itself a staffing template. Then Oakley will be a more successful independent restaurant.
Business plan for a Multi-National Enterprise that conducts Foreign Direct Investment
Description of the MNE
Paradise Baby Food Company (PBFC) proposes to invest in a factory in India, one of the countries where Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is growing at a momentous pace, and from there not only create its unique product but also have access to a growing market that is interested in western products. PBFC intends to develop a complete line of health food products for children, using minimal processing techniques. All products will contain wholesome ingredients such as herbs and naturally derived vitamins, minerals, and other supplements. They will be free of chemicals and additives. The herbs are more plentiful in, and cheaper to gain and process, from India. Other companies claim to sell healthy and nutritious baby food, but their herbs are either processed so finely that little remains, or they are imported from long distance…
IBEF. Foreign Direct Investment (May, 2011) http://www.ibef.org/india/economy/fdi.aspx iloveindia.com
Merinews.com. Fast Food Industry in India on the Rise.
Hypoglycemia is a condition of low blood sugar, caused by the body's inappropriate metabolism of glucose and insulin. Diabetics who experience temporary hypoglycemia can remedy the problem by ingesting some simple sugars to immediately reintroduce glucose into the bloodstream.
A proper diet for diabetics is one that reduces intake of refined sugars, reduces sodium, and in many cases, helps the person lose weight. Most adults who acquire Type 2 Diabetes have poor lifestyle habits. Type 2 Diabetes is caused by obesity and poor nutrition even if some individuals are at a greater risk for developing the disease. Any person who might be at risk for diabetes should learn proper eating habits as early as possible in their life. Becoming overweight or obese is a difficult process to reverse and may lead to other health problems like heart disease. Persons who are overweight but who are willing to change their eating…
American Dental Association. "Diabetes and Your Oral Health." Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.ada.org/public/topics/diabetes_faq.asp
American Diabetes Association. "Hypoglycemia." Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.diabetes.org/type-1-diabetes/hypoglycemia.jsp
American Diabetics Association. "What Can I Eat?" Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.diabetes.org/food-nutrition-lifestyle/nutrition/what-can-i-eat.jsp
Oral Health and Nutrition." Retrieved Mar 8, 2009 at http://www.ringsurf.com/online/1173-oral_health_and_nutrition.html
Quiznos Subs Marketing Plan
Quiznos is a fast food restaurants specializing in sandwiches. Quiznos operates in a highly competitive market and needs to market effectively to increase sales and market share. The following analysis will describe a marketing strategy for Quiznos. This will begin by looking at the current situation and trends. This will be followed by looking at the key issues for Quiznos, including strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities. Based on this analysis, a marketing strategy with the objective of increasing the dinner market is recommended. The final sections will describe how this will be achieved by describing the marketing strategy, actions to be taken, and control.
Current Situation and Trends
The U.S. fast food market is around $150 billion annually (Euromonitor, 2005).
The U.S. fast food market is expected to increase by about 1.7% from 2004 to 2008, to reach $153 billion in 2008 (Euromonitor,…
Euromonitor (2005). Fast food in USA. Retrieved June 3, 2005, from Euromonitor International. Web site: http://www.euromonitor.com/Fast_food_in_USA_ (mmp)
McPherson, J.R., Mitchell, A.V., and Mitten, M.R. (2003). Fast-food fight. Retrieved June 3, 2005, from The McKinsey Quarterly. Web site: http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/article_abstract.aspx?ar=1295& ; L2=11
he new organic smoothie can be made out of the same fruits as regular smoothies commercialized by Orange Julius.
he objectives of the marketing plan and marketing strategies include: increasing the market share by 10%, increasing sales by 12%, developing the image for the new organic smoothie, and expanding the company's overall image.
As mentioned above, more and more people turn to organic food, which means the company must take advantage of this market expansion period. Even more, after the new organic smoothie will be strongly established in customers' buying preferences, it is recommended that the company develops other types of organic food.
When launching a new product, the marketing mix is very i8mportant, as well as controlling the launch and the immediate period. he target market for the new organic smoothie is consisted of individuals aged 14-60, with medium income, medium to high education, health oriented. It is recommended…
The Morning Berry Smoothie (2008). Organic Eating Daily. Retrieved July 26, 2008 at http://organiceatingdaily.com/organic-beverages/morning-berry-smoothie/ .
Smoothies - Your Best Fast Food Alternative (2008). Retrieved July 26, 2008 at http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Smoothies-Your-Best--Fast-Food -- Alternative/107809.
Yogurt and smoothie opportunities are booming, says Dairy Innovation Forum 2005 speaker (2005). Dairy Management Inc. Retrieved July 26, 2008 at http://www.innovatewithdairy.com/InnovateWithDairy/Articles/Articles_DBV2_081505.htm.
strategically relevant components of the global and U.S. beverage industry macro-environment? How do the economic characteristics of the alternative beverage segment of the industry differ from that of other beverage categories?
One of the most important components is whether or not the U.S. can afford to continue spending money on its beverages. To elaborate, whilst energy drinks were a fad in the early 2000s, the nation being now in a recession, finds them too costly and may likely opt for cheaper beverages. Secondly, the global and U.S. beverage industry depend not only on market spending capacity but also on trends. The trend for energy drinks, sports drinks, and vitamin-enhanced beverages may be shifting, particularly since critics contend that energy drinks, energy shots, and relaxation drinks present health risks for consumers and that some strategies of producers promoted reckless behavior. Possibly the most powerfully relevant component thoguh is the recession.
4. What does your strategic group map of the energy drink, sports drink and vitamin enhanced beverage industry look like? Which strategic groups do you think are in the best positions? The worst positions?
I think that sales in this market will continue to decline particularly since it has come to be realized that sports drinks contain salt and sugar, and added sweeteners. PowerAde and Gatorade, for instance, are made with sugar, syrups, and salt (Warner, 2007). Much of their appeal is hype, and I think their appeal was a passing fad with health-concerned consumers ultimately realizing that they are no substitute for water. The poor economy reinforces declension of appeal for these drinks. Vitamin-enhanced drinks, on the other hand, may retain more of a popularity depending on whether or not physicians stress inclusion of vitamins and accord with their merits.
I think that Coca-Cola will always have a certain edge since, as soft drink business, it is the oldest industry in the field and has become inextricably linked with the American name itself. Extraordinary success in the soft drink industry gives Coke a certain edge. Even though Coke may
Synthroid, Drug Profile
SYNTHROID® (levothyroxine sodium tablets, USP) is an important drug, used to treat hypothyroidism. Synthroid has been extensively studied for over 42 years. It is the most widely prescribed thyroid medicine in the United States. Currently, over eight million people are using Synthroid for thyroid replacement therapy. [Abbott, 2001]
Synthetic Levothyroxine (T4 ) is identical in chemical composition and molecular weight to naturally secreted T4. Synthroid tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: acacia, confectioner's sugar, lactose, magnesium stearate, povidone, talc, and color additives.[Abbott, 2001].
Synthroid is pregnancy category A. Studies have shown that Synthroid increases the risk of fetal abnormalities if given during pregnancy. The possibility of fetal harm does appear to be remote, however, Synthroid should only given during pregnancy if it is clearly needed [Abbott, 2001]. In addition Abbot Laboratories reports that thyroid hormones do cross the placental barrier to some extent. T4 levels in the…
Abbott Laboratories, (2001) Synthroid Product Information. Synthroid,.com. Abbott Park, Illinois Accessed February, 2002 URL: http://www.synthroid.com/
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. (AACE) (1995)clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 1;1995:56-62.
Banahan BF, et al.(1998) Generic substitution of NTI drugs: Issues for Formulary Committee Consideration. Formulary. 33;1998:1082-1096.
BASF Pharmaceuticals.(2002) Synthroid. Drug Manufacturer Information. Found on Commercial website. Drug InfoNet. Com Accessed February, 2002. http://www.druginfonet.com/synthrod.htm
Economics and Ethics of Sustainable Design
Dos Toros is a U.S. food manufacturing company. The company manufactures foods of different types from plant food to animal food. At this company, there are several deliberate measures that are employed to ensure that these kind of food produced meets the desired standards. In this case, Dos Toros managed to carve a sizeable market share by distinguishing itself. Chipotle Company, on the other hand, is a beef producing company located in Texas. This company sells meat from naturally raised cows. The cows that they slaughter are bred under natural conditions with no adulteration of chemicals. There is no use of drugs in sustaining the lives of the animals. The kinds of food that the cows eat are those availed by nature. This is similar to Dos Toro's approach to business. As a result, both companies have earned a name for their consideration of…
Dasmann, Raymond F. Environmental Conservation. 2d. ed. New York: Wiley, 2010. Print.
Henningfeld, Diane Andrews. Genetically Modified Food. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2014. Print.
Leff, Enrique. Green Production: Toward an Environmental Rationality. New York: Guilford, 2011. Print
com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec
Fitday.com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec 2006
Severson, Kim. (13 Dec 2003) "New York Gets Ready to Count Calories."
The New York Times. Retrieved 13 Dec 2006 at
Schlosser, Eric. (2005) Fast Food Nation. New York: Harper Perennial.
"Supersize Me." (2004). Directed by Morgan Spurlock.
"Overweight and Obesity."(2006) CDC: Council for Disease Control.
Retrieved 13 Dec
Entrepreneurship: Growth Plan eport
Geetha Jayarman and her business venture thus far have had a unique and interesting value proposition in which she has created for her consumers. She has created many food items that are distributed and sold through various distribution channels that all incorporate many of the new trends that are developing within the healthy eating phenomenon that is sweeping the entire U.S. to a greater or lesser extent. Strategic management can be defined as the process of formulation and implementation of the company objectives and goals which are made keeping in mind the resources available with the company and the internal and external environment that the company is functioning in (David, 2005). Thereby strategy can be defined as the course of action that a company develops with the optimum use of resources with the aim of achieving its long-term goals. The three businesses that Jayarman…
David, F. (2005). Strategic Management. Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Homburg, C., & Vollmayr, J. (2014). Firm Value Creation Through Major Channel Expansions: Evidence from an Event Study in the United States, Germany, and China. Journal of Marketing, 38-61.
MBA & Company. (N.d.). What are marketing channels? Retrieved from MBA & Company: http://blog.mbaco.com/what-are-marketing-channels/
http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1)
There is no credible evidence about this statement. It must be noted that it is extremely illegal, not only in the U.S. But also to other or even milk-producing countries, for penicillin to be used specifically in low-level doses in the feed. In fact, penicillin is only use via injection, in concentrated doses, and only if the animals to be injected are sick or with high fever. Penicillin doses are usually once or twice only and the particular animal which has been injected with such medication is separated from other animals and would not be harvested within a certain period. This is to ensure that there is no penicillin residues left in any system or body parts of the animal http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1).
Moreover, as of latest survey, only 1% (or even less) of the cattle have recorded to ever had any doses of penicillin. Cattleman's Beef…
WTO Dispute Panel Report 1997. European Communities -- Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones): Complaint by the United States, Wr/DS26/R, August 18, 1997.
WTO Appellate Body Report 1998. European Communities Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), Wr/DS26/AB/R, January 16, 1998.
Zekos, Georgios I. An Examination of GATT/WTO Arbitration Procedures. Dispute Resolution Journal, 54(November): 72-74. 1999.
High Fructose Corn Syrup
There has been some discussion in certain quarters about the idea of banning high fructose corn syrup from the food supply. Before such a determination can be made, one must understand what high fructose corn syrup is and what it is not. HFCS became popular by the mid-1970s as a replacement for sucrose. It has the same sweetness level of sucrose, but is more stable (White, 2008). Further, it derives from corn, a crop which is more plentiful in the United States that sugarcane. At this point, HFCS has nearly the same market share as sucrose in the United States (White, 2008).
One of the issues with high fructose corn syrup is that it is said to be less healthy than other sugars. Since the mid-1970s when it came into popularity, high fructose corn syrup use increased by 10,000%. It contributes 132 kcal per day, on…
Bray, G., Nielsen, S. & Popkin, B. (2004). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 79 (4) 537-543.
FDA (2014). High fructose corn syrup Food & Drug Administration. Retrieved October 13, 2015 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/FoodAdditivesIngredients/ucm324856.htm
Stanhope, K. & Havel, P. (2008). Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 88 (6) 1733-1737.
Tordoff, M. & Alleva, A. (1990). Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 51 (1990) 963-969.
Elliot, D.L., Moe, E.L., Goldberg, L., Defrancesco, C.A., Durham, M.B., & Hix-mall, H. (2006). Definition and Outcome of a Curriculum to Prevent Disordered Eating and Body haping Drug Use. Journal of chool Health, 76(2), 67+. Retrieved February 15, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5028537762
Maletto, Pete. (2008, October 1). ports nutrition: past, present and future: in order to understand where this market is headed it's important to know where it's been. Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Publications, Inc. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-188444472.html
Ray, Tracy R., & Fowler, Rachel. (2004, eptember 1). Current issues in sports nutrition in athletes. outhern Medical Journal. outhern Medical Association. 2004. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1123332696.html
haw, Greg, Cox, Greg, & Barnard. Janelle. (2007). ports nutrition: case studies 2. Nutrition & Dietetics: The Journal of the DietitiansAssociation of Australia. Dietitians Association of Australia. Retrieved February 15, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-165578876.html…
Sports nutrition vital for athletes.(2005, May 15). New Straits Times. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-108754539.html
Tallon, Mark J. (2007, November 1). Enzymes' new potential in an emerging wellness market. Functional Ingredients. Penton Media OH & IL. Retrieved February 15, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1399950491.html
2008, March 1). Sports nutrition goes natural. Functional Ingredients. Penton Media OH & IL. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P31456902041.html
Meat Inspection: Theory and Reality
Gabriel Kolko's revealing article, Meat Inspection: Theory and Reality, attempts to debunk the myth that President Theodore Roosevelt was a champion of progressive reforms meant to benefit the working class -- particularly the major meat and food regulation laws passed during his presidency. It wasn't that meat and food regulation didn't have benefits for the common man, but that the driving force behind their passage was never the welfare of the lower classes. Instead, while these reforms were trumpeted and won approval as boons for the common man, in reality they were promoted by and intended to help big business. During the struggles for reform, it was not the people and Roosevelt against big business, but rather big business trying to persuade Roosevelt to take a stand. In general, despite the image he projected, Roosevelt preferred to remain conservative with respect to any reforms benefitting…
Human esource Management PBL exercise
Human esource Management
PBL exercise 1: Taking an HM job
The cereal company Sanitarium is currently seeking an H generalist. Sanitarium advertises itself as the company that transformed Australia's eating habits, shifting the tastes of the national palate from traditional 'fry-ups' to more healthy whole grains at the breakfast table. "We were the first to introduce healthy and innovative breakfast foods and soy foods. We promoted plant-based eating before it became trendy, and offered well-being clinics in our cafes throughout Australia. In caring for the health and well-being of all Australians, we have created great breakfast cereal foods, soymilks, spreads and healthy vegetarian foods" (About us, 2012, Sanitarium).
Sanitarium's flagship products include the popular wholegrain staple Weet-Bix, which is currently Australia's best-selling breakfast cereal. Sanitarium emphasizes sustainability in its product offerings as well as good health. It has made a particular commitment to…
About us. (2012). Sanitarium. Retrieved:
Lifestyle. (2012). Sanitarium. Retrieved:
With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.
This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…
7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, ( http://www.fluoridealert.org/health ...)
8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )
9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, ( http://www.who.int/water_sanitation ...)
Heinberg notes that peak oil is not just a simple supply-demand problem. Because peak oil signals an irreversible, steady decline of oil supply, prices of oil will never stabilize. The global economy has been based on a spurious foundation: faith in fossil fuels. Economic growth under the current market system depends on cheap oil. If oil is no longer cheap, we are facing a worldwide economic, social, and political disaster.
3. The most shocking aspect of the readings on peak oil was the litany of products that are made with petrochemicals and their impact on health and the environment, listed on "Oil, Chemicals, and Plastics." Products we take for granted, like the ballpoint pen, depend on petroleum.
Similarly, the use of petrochemicals in agricultural pesticides is shocking. To know that for so long people have put up with such harmful pollutants in their food and water supply is astonishing. Short-sightedness…
Cooper, Arnie. "Peak Experience: The Age of Oil is Coming to an End." The Sun. July 2006.
Oil, Chemicals, and Plastics." The Oil Depletion Protocol. http://www.oildepletionprotocol.org/getinformed/oilchemicalsandplastics
Oil Depletion." The Oil Depletion Protocol. http://www.oildepletionprotocol.org/getinformed/oildepletion