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Food Safety Manual
Purpose and Scope of Manual
Foundations for Use
Safe Food Handling
The Flow of Food
Purchasing and eceiving
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
Employee Food Safety Training
Food Safety Manual
Nearly 1 in 6 Americans will become sick due to foodborne illness each year and of these, 3,000 will die (CDC, 2011). Since 1997 the number of Escherichia coli has been cut in half, but the prevalence of Salmonella infections has remained stable. Salmonella infections are estimated to be responsible for $365 million in direct medical care costs each year, thus foodborne illness continues to represent a significant medical and economic burden in the U.S. Government agencies therefore continue to investigate and promote greater compliance with food safety practices.
Purpose and Scope of Manual
The apparent success in reducing E. coli infections due to food contamination is proof that foodborne illness…
CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2000). Appendix B: Guidelines for confirmation of foodborne-disease outbreaks. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 49(SS01), 54-62. Retrieved 1 Mar. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview / mmwrhtml/ss4901a3.htm.
CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2011, June). Making food safer to eat: Reducing contamination from the farm to the table. CDC Vital Signs, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 1 Mar. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/VitalSigns/AboutVitalSigns.html .
CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2012). CDC estimates of foodborne illness in the United States. CDC 2011 estimates: Findings. CDC.gov. Retrieved 1 Mar. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/2011-foodborne-estimates.html#annual .
CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2013). Incidence and trends of foodborne illness, 2011. CDC.gov. Retrieved 1 Mar. 2013 from http://www.cdc.gov/features/dsfoodnet/ .
hen shopping for food, one should always follow a few simple rules to ensure health and safety. The first basic rule is to always add refrigerated foods, such as meats and dairy products into the cart last, after canned and packaged goods, such as chips and sugar (Food pp). Make certain to check expiration dates, generally found on front, side or bottom, on all products, especially dairy and meats, and decide whether it will be used before the stamped date (Food pp). hen buying fresh beef, pork, poultry or fish, smell the package and if it has a strong odor, do not buy it, regardless of expiration date, and always place meats in plastic bags so they do not leak on other foods and separate them from vegetables and fruit and other foods that may be eaten raw (Food pp). Moreover, do not buy beef that is any…
Willett, Walter C.; Skerrett, P.J. Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy: The Harvard Medical
Food Safety for America
ecent food recalls: New safeguards for consumers
"According to a recent report by the Institute of Medicine and the National esearch Council, food-borne illnesses in the U.S. cause more than 5,000 deaths each year." (Suddah 2010). Food and product recalls have become increasingly commonplace: "there were 214 food recalls in 2006, 247 in 2007 and 310 in 2008 according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)" (Jana 2009). From spinach to peanut butter to Spaghetti-Os to pet food, it is hard to think of a sphere of the consumer market that remains untouched by the taint of food recalls. There has been growing demand for greater stringency and oversight over the safety of the food system. Few ordinary Americans know, however, exactly how, why, and when recalls take place. It may surprise people to know that the FDA did not have the ability to issue mandatory…
Food safety. (2011). USDA. Retrieved November 29, 2011 at http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=FOOD_SAFETY
Goodman, Amy. (2011). 36 million pounds of Cargill turkey recalled as budget cuts weaken oversight of food safety. Alternet. Retrieved November 29, 2011 at http://www.alternet.org/food/151923/36_million_pounds_of_cargill_turkey_recalled_as_budget_cuts_weaken_oversight_of_food_safety/?page=entire
Jana. (2010). Why so many food recalls? NC Healthcare Coverage.
Retrieved November 29, 2011 at http://nchealthcarecoverage.com/blog/2009/06/30/why-so-many-new-food-recalls/
The case of Stephanie Smith is certainly alarming, and having familiarized myself with both the ammonia in hamburger issue and the pink slime issue, I will argue that my faith in the USDA and FDA to provide protection to American consumers in terms of the food they eat is sorely lacking. I understand the reality that I have personally not become sick from eating food in America, but that does not mean that the system is working well. By looking at the history of the system, I feel that many of the issues we have today represent a shift away from the foundations of the system.
equired reading on this issue is Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, which detailed the practices of the Chicago meatpacking industry. This book was the first to bring many of these issues to light. In those days, it was not uncommon for people to become…
Karnowski, S. (2010). Stephanie Smith, Cargill settle on E. Coli case after NYT story about tainted meat. Huffington Post. Retrieved April 28, 2014 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/05/12/stephanie-smith-cargill-s_n_574290.html
Sinclair, U. (1906). The Jungle
Food is contaminated naturally because of how it is grown or from inherent hazards from transportation, harvest, storage, or sometimes processing. Food needs to be prepared and stored in a clean and safe environment. Food hygiene is very important and should be prioritized in every stage food is passed. Food products can be a source of bacteria and if not hygienically prepared, they become contaminated with a bacterium, which multiply rapidly producing toxins, which causes food poisoning.
Causes of food poisoning
aw food materials can be a source of bacteria, parasites or even viruses, which are harmful to humans. Putting food at suitable temperatures to make bacteria thrive well, moisture, presence of oxygen and suitable pH determine how bacteria will multiply. Improper hot storage, inadequate reheating, improper cooling of food, cross-contamination, contaminated raw food and infected people touching the food are also…
Adruser, L.B. (2005). HACCP and Sanitation. Atlanta: Atlantic Publishing Company.
BANHASSI, M.D. (2011). Global Food: Rethinking Agricultural and Rural. United Kingdom: Springer Publishers.
Kass, S. (2004). Biotechnology and Food security. New YORK: Gyan Publishers.
Marshal, J. s. (2001). Child Development. New York: Heinemam.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, n.d.), "food-related diseases affect tens of millions of people and kill thousands." Many of these incidents can be prevented with proper food safety awareness. The most common food safety issues are related to consumer awareness at the point of purchase (such as knowing what to look for in terms of food freshness); food storage; and food preparation. The following recommendations will help prevent food-borne illnesses: which affect 1 in every 6 Americans and cause about 3000 deaths per year in the United States alone (CDC, n.d.).
Wash hands, utensils, and surfaces often (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.).
Be extra careful when handling poultry, which is the number one cause of food-borne illnesses in the United States.
Pay attention to the Safe Minimum Cooking Temperatures, such as those outlined by the U.S. Department of Health and…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.). Food safety at CDC. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/
United States Department of Agriculture (n..d). Retrieved online: http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (n.d.). Food Safety.gov. Retrieved online: http://www.foodsafety.gov/
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (n.d.). Food safety. Retrieved online: http://www.fda.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Food afety, Urban prawl, & Land Use Issues
(01)In the United tates, we are fortunate to have an abundant supply of food, and much of this is due to our agricultural technology. However, there are many concerns about our food source, including genetically modified crops, the use of more chemicals, and climate change just name a few. Give examples of how humans have increased their food supply and what effects these methods have on the environment overall. Discuss concerns you have about the overall safety of the food you eat? (01,-page).
Clearly the discussion of the abundance of food supplies must occur nation-by-nation as the disparity is very broad and deep depending on the region under consideration. Regardless of where they are located, farmers must be concerned about their ability to sustain food production over time and still be profitable. Consumers desire foods and plant fiber products that are safe,…
Galindo, M.P.G., and Rodriguez, J.A.C. (2000). Environmental aesthetics and psychological well-being: Relationships between preference judgments for urban landscapes and other relevant affective respsonses. Psychology in Spain, 4 (1), 13-22.
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution Study on Urban Environments, Well-being and Health, Desk Study: Urban nature. Retrieved https://www.facebook.com/notes/palace-road-nature-garden/the-relationship-between-nature-and-human-health-and-well-being-in-urban-areas/158334140891119
Complete the first part of this lab at Footprint Calculator (accessible through the Labs section of Contemporary Environmental Issues). You will use the ecological footprint calculator to evaluate your environmental footprint. Then, complete the second part at Household Emissions Calculator (accessible through the Labs section of Contemporary Environmental Issues). You will use the EPA's household emissions calculator to quantitatively identify three to five everyday products or practices that contribute most to your footprint and identify measurable solutions to each. That is, you will estimate savings of both carbon emissions and money that can be achieved via the solutions. In the study questions, reflect upon your results and relate them to themes covered in Contemporary Environmental Issues. (01-page)
Food Safety for Children and Elderly
Children and elderly are the two groups that are extremely vulnerable in terms of their immune system. They are prone to infections that may be caused by the food that they eat or even water if the proper sanitation factors are not taken care of.
In an early childhood center, there is need for observing the various food safety and sanitation guidelines that are commonly known but are largely ignored. The first stage in ensuring that the children in such a center are kept safe from infection must begin with the storage facility. The danger with careless storage is that we can never realize the effects of improper storage until it is eaten and the children are all sick. According to Safe Kids (2012), it is recommended that is food is cooked and remains, it is stored in the fridge. However even the storage…
Colorado State University, (2011). Serving Children Safe Foods. Retrieved March 4, 2012 from http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/foodnut/09367.html
Department of Health, (2012). Hygienic Food Preparation and Handling in Food Businesses.
Retrieved March 4, 2012 from http://www.health.vic.gov.au/foodsafety/downloads/hygienic_food_prep.pdf
Safe Kids, (2012). Food Safety: Heating, Cooling and Storage. Retrieved March 4, 2012 from http://www.safekids.co.uk/foodsafetystorage.html
Food safety is of major concern and one of the ten most prevalent public health issues discussed in the United States. One the federal level actions have been made to address the issue of food safety. As years, have passed the quality of food in the country has (in the opinions of some), diminished. There are more fast food restaurants, processed food sold in supermarkets than ever before. People in the U.S. have also experienced obesity earlier in life and at a higher degree. Food safety must be addressed not just for adverse health reasons, but to help tackle the obesity epidemic in this country.
The United States federal government has taken steps towards improving the food safety system. The most recent step was the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). Signed into law on January 4 rth, 2015 by President Obama, the act grants the FDA the ability to…
City Harvest. (2016). City Harvest - Rescuing Food for New York's Hungry. Retrieved from https://www.cityharvest.org/programs/healthy-neighborhoods
FDA. (2015). Federal/State Integration. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Holley's (Chase, 2010) on grounds of dereliction of duty. If the State 'got paid' the same regardless of how many violations it prosecuted, that second dimension of moral hazard would overlap the primary incentive for producers to cheat.
Adverse selection is often considered a result, rather than a cause of moral hazard, where offering a risk-bearing product creates incentive for demand by the riskiest consumers. Obvious modern examples include offering expensive mortgages to high-risk home buyers, or selling life or health insurance at the same price regardless of consumer demographics. Not charging potentially sick or aged consumers more for health or life insurance sets up a stronger incentive for those customers to purchase than for the young and healthy, and therefore higher risk than the overall average. The resulting higher risk proportion is called 'adverse selection.' If credit costs extra for high-risk borrowers, low-risk borrowers will choose less-expensive product or…
Ausubel, L.M. (1999). Adverse selection in the credit card market. University of Maryland, 17
June 1999. Retrieved from www.ausubel.com/creditcard-papers/adverse.pdf
Chase, S. (2010). Part 1: The quest to put some bite into foreign food inspections. Globe and Mail, 19 Nov. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/time-to-lead/global-food/the-quest-to-put-some-bite-into-foreign-food-inspections/article1806035/
Dowd, K. (2009). Moral hazard and the financial crisis. Cato Journal 29(1), Cato Institute.
causes of foodborne illnesses include inadequate hand washing at any stage including the consumer, cross-contamination such as using the same cutting board for meat as cheese, improper storage temperatures such as a refrigerator that is not set cold enough, improper cooking temperatures, particularly regarding meat, the contamination of food by animal waste, which generally occurs in factory food production, and the contamination of soil or water supplies from natural sources or industrial pollution. Tracing the source of a food contamination problem requires an investigation of all the stages of food production from farm to table. Contamination can occur at any of these stages, but the type and severity of the contamination varies depending on when it occurs, and how. Optimal food safety involves safe practices at each and every one of the following levels: food sourcing, food production, food handling, and the end-user consumption of food.
Bartholomew, G.W. (2015). Hazard analysis of incidental condensation contamination in food manufacturing facilities. Food Safety. August/September 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.foodsafetymagazine.com/magazine-archive1/augustseptember-2015/hazard-analysis-of-incidental-condensation-contamination-in-food-manufacturing-facilities/
Caswell, J.A. (1991). Economics of Food Safety. New York: Elsevier.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). Food safety. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/
FDA (2015). Foodborne illness and contaminants. Retrieved online: http://www.fda.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
imported food labeling and safety aspects in China.
Of late, China has become a key food import source in the U.S. Chinese food imports increased more than thrice in value from 2001 to 2008. A number of highly publicized food adulteration and contamination cases in China's local food supply as well as in its imported goods to America have led public concern to be directed towards safety of Chinese foods (Gale and Buzby, 2009). Partly inspired by the above concerns, an American Governmental Import Safety IWG (Interagency Working Group) published an import safety action plan, while the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) published its 2007 Food Protection Plan. In the year 2008, the FDA established its very first foreign office in Beijing, China.
The Agency's refusals of food shipments from China indicate the product mix imported: shellfish and fish, vegetable and fruit products constitute the majority of refusals. A majority…
Balzano, J. (2015). Forbes Welcome. Revised Food Safety Law in China Signals Many Changes and Some Surprises. Retrieved June 25, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites#/sites/johnbalzano/2015/05/03/revised-food-safety-law-in-china-signals-many-changes-and-some-surprises/#2464c4ab30f9
Fu-Tomlinson, Y., & Wang, V. (2015). Home - Food Safety Magazine. Food Labeling for Companies Manufacturing or Distributing Food in China - Food Safety Magazine. Retrieved June 24, 2016, from http://www.foodsafetymagazine.com/magazine-archive1/februarymarch-2015/food-labeling-for-companies-manufacturing-or-distributing-food-in-china/
Gale, & Buzby. (2009). USDA ERS - Home. Imports from China and Food Safety Issues. Retrieved June 24, 2016, from http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/156008/eib52_1_.pdf
McKenna. (2011). WIRED. Food Safety in China, and the Risk to the U.S. -- WIRED. Retrieved June 24, 2016, from http://www.wired.com/2011/08/china-food-risk/
Food Safety Hazards of Livestock
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) tracks ongoing Eschericia coli outbreaks across the nation, including those arising from leafy green vegetables. For example, in 2012, 58 people were sickened by an E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the Midwest that was eventually tracked to a Missouri farm producing romaine lettuce (CDC). In 2006, close to 200 people became ill when exposed to O157:H7-contaminated baby spinach harvested from the Central Valley of California (arnert). The 2006 outbreak resulted in the death of two elderly women and a 2-year-old boy. Making matters worse, nearly 80% of the nation's leafy greens are grown in the Central Valley. Needless to say, the impact on public trust concerning the safety of farm produce was considerable.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also tracked the behavior of consumers following the 2006 outbreak (Arnade, Calvin, and Kuchler 734). hat was unique…
Arnade, Carlos, Calvin, Linda, and Fred Kuchler. "Consumer Response to a Food Safety Shock: The 2006 Food-Borne Illness Outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 Linked to Spinach. Review of Agricultural Economics, 31.4 (2009), 734-50. Print.
Benjamin, Lisa A. et al. "Risk Factors for Escherichia coli O157 on Beef Cattle Ranches Located near a Major Produce Production Region. Epidemiology and Infection, 143.1 (2015), 81-93. Print.
Berry, Elaine D. et al. "Effect of Proximity to a Cattle Feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 Contamination of Leafy Greens and Evaluation of the Potential for Airborne Transmission." Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81.3 (2015), 1101-10. Print.
CDC. Investigation Update: Multistate Outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce. March 23, 2012 (Final Update). U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mar. 2012. Web. 23 February 2015.
The safety, or lack thereof, of genetically modified foods is subject to considerable debate in the public sphere. In order to render a reasonable opinion on the subject of feeding GMO foods to my children, I would want to defer to the best available science, and add a dash of reason. The first thing that would need to be established is the methodology by which one assesses the concept of safety. Clearly, there are no safety issues in the sense of GMO foods being poison (i.e. having immediate negative health effects). The question of GMO safety therefore is more a question of long-term impacts on human health.
A major study on the safety of genetically modified foods determined that, based on the traditional human food consumption patterns, there are no safety issues with the consumption of plant-based GMO foods (Konig et al, 2004). Further studies have examined the…
Wal-Mart specifically is pioneering the development of adio Frequency Identification (FID) projects with up to two thousand of its key suppliers today (Kumar, 2007). The goal of this pilot is to enable food and beverage suppliers to coordinate more effectively with Wal-Mart on mixed pallet mode shipping of products (Kumar, 2007). This is critical for Wal-Mart from the standpoint of supporting their expansion strategies into smaller, more diverse stores in terms of selection. The focus of Wal-Mart going forward will be on smaller stores in urban and suburban locations in the U.S., and smaller stores throughout their most successful global locations as well. The use of FID as a technology to enable greater logistics and supply chain performance is already showing signs of supporting much greater levels of shipping accuracy and cost control. FID tags can be read on pallets traveling at 40 miles per hour through warehouses and from…
R Cigolini, & T. Rossi. (2006). A note on supply risk and inventory outsourcing. Production Planning & Control, 17(4), 424.
Joanna Cosgrove. (2003, February). Riding the retail wave. Beverage Industry, 94(2), 35-46.
Sameer Kumar. (2007). Connective technology as a strategic tool for building effective supply chain. International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, 10(1), 41.
Liao, C.. (2009). Consumers' behavior in the food and beverage industry through data mining. Journal of Information & Optimization Sciences, 30(4), 855.
food production and distribution in the world today?
Despite Malthusian predictions to the contrary, there is generally enough food currently available to adequately feed the world's six billion people. In fact, Searchinger (2011) recently observed that, "Economists have made such a fuss about how complicated the food crisis is that they have created the impression that it has no ready solution. . . . This view is wrong" (p. 14). Indeed, agricultural crop production has continued to keep pace with population growth, with record-setting grain production being achieved in 2010 (Searchinger, 2011). The real problems with food production and distribution in the world today relate to rising demand during a period when an increasing amount of food crops are being diverted for the production of biofuels. In this regard, Searchinger emphasizes that, "Since 2004, biofuels from crops have almost doubled the rate of growth in global demand for grain and…
Kaufman, C. & Heri, S. (2007). Liberalizing trade in agriculture and food security - Mission impossible? Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 40(4), 1039-1041.
Miller, C. (2003). In the sweat of our brow: Citizenship in American domestic practice during
WW II-victory gardens. The Journal of American Culture, 26(3), 395-397.
Searchinger, T. (2011, July). A quick fix to the food crisis. Scientific American, 305(1), 14.
LMT 307 Food and Beverage everse Logistics -- Fall 2015
The implementation of sustainable rules and regulations as well as constraints in the markets across the world, have compelled international industries, in this case, the food and beverage industry, to establish reverse logistics, which is the backflow management of the supply chain system. everse logistics encompasses the waste management of products and merchandises in the backward supply chain. There has been a gap or limitation in research studies on the implementation of reverse logistics on the food and beverage industry. Due to the fact that food and beverage products are delicate in nature, the backward flow of packing and food supplies compel the formation of a free-flowing reverse logistics system throughout the supply chain. The development of an efficacious reverse supply chain practice for the food retail industry necessitates the conduction of studies on prevailing…
Gustavsson, J., Otterdijk, R. (2011). Global food losses and food waste: extent, causes and prevention. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 1-29.
Hawks, K. (2006). What is Reverse Logistics. Reverse Logistics magazine. Retrieved 1 October 2015 from: http://www.rlmagazine.com/edition01p12.php
Kabir, M. I. (2013). Reverse Logistics in Pharmaceutical Industry. International journal of supply chain management, 2(1).
Petersen, J.A., Kumar, V. (2009). Are product returns a necessary evil? Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 73, No. 3, pp. 35-51.
Any organization that deals directly with petroleum-based products, including storage facilities, will be affected by the act. The act also provides for Area Contingency Plans in case of emergency. The Pollution Prevention Act aims to reduce pollution "through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use," ("Pollution Prevention Act"). Recycling programs fall under the Pollution Prevention Act; therefore, organizations might be required under this law to participate in large-scale recycling programs. Moreover, the Pollution Prevention Act is designed to curb source pollution, so the act applies especially to organizations that are potential polluters. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act applies especially to storage of toxic waste. The act will pertain to employees of waste management facilities or of any organization that must dispose of its waste material in an environmentally sound and legally authorized way.
About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm.
Clean ater Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm.…
About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm .
Clean Water Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm .
Endangered Species Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/esa.htm .
Freedom of Information Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/foia.htm .
The etiology of the majority of cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown. What is known is that the disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the area of the brain known as the substantia nigra (Hatfield, 2013). In addition, it is speculated that the disease is related to some type of genetic susceptibility and environmental risk factors that largely remain unidentified. Epidemiological research has suggested that there may be an association between exposure to pesticides and the onset of PD; however, this research is very mixed with some studies indicating that there is such relationship and a number of others failing to demonstrate such an association (Dardiotis, Xiromerisiou, Hadjichristodoulou et al., 2013). Dardiotis et al. (2013) reviewed the research and made a case that perhaps the relationship between pesticide use and PD is moderated by a genetic susceptibility. However, one of…
Dardiotis, E., Xiromerisiou, G., Hadjichristodoulou, C., Tsatsakis, A.M., Wilks, M.F., & Hadjigeorgiou, G.M. (2013). The interplay between environmental and genetic factors in Parkinson's disease susceptibility: the evidence for pesticides. Toxicology, 307, 17-23.
Hatfield, R.C. (2013). The everything guide to the human brain. Avon, MA: Adams.
Liew, Z., Wang, A., Bronstein, J., & Ritz, B. (2014). Job Exposure Matrix (JEM)-derived estimates of lifetime occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of Parkinson's disease. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 69(4), 241-251.
S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)
The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.
Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…
health, safety, nutrition interrelated. How health, safety, nutrition interrelated? Give examples readings relations importance. Think relationship preventative health care health promotion.PAGE 1 Emotional regulation important skill learned early childhood. Your textbook states "One important aspects emotional regulation predicts development. Preschoolers elementary-age children express a great deal anger, hostility, negative emotions show poorer social competence school isolated rejected peers (Eisenberg al,.
Individuals' health is often a cumulative of factors. These come in relation to certain safety extends that a person can assume, as well as other, external elements, external in that they come about as the result of other people's actions. For example, smoking will not only affect the individual in cause but as well those around him. Further, individuals can be predisposed to particular illnesses due to hereditary traits, which is why medical controls, especially for children, are proper safety measures that do not only diagnose but as well help…
Consumer Product Safety Commission. (2013). Recalls: Toys R Us recalls Imaginarium Activity Walker due to choking hazard. cpsc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Recalls/2013/Toys-R-Us-Recalls-Imaginarium-Activity-Walker/
Food Safety and Inspection Service. (2011). Strategic plan FY 2011 -- 2016. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/65602d92-d017-4edc-8536-5ed6aaa6b52a/Strategic_Plan_2011-2016.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=0934ae30-583b-46e9-be35-1603c707228c
Marotz, L.R. (2012). Health, safety and nutrition for the young child (Seventh Edition). Australia, Canada, Mexico, Singapore, Spain, United Kingdom, United States. Retrieved from http://abiiid.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/health-safety-and-nutrition-for-the-young-child-7th-edition.pdf
98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…
What Are Transgenic Plants? (2010) Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide.
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004. Online available at' http://www.cls.casa.colostate.edu/TransgenicCrops/what.html
Melton, Margaret and Rissler, Jane (2009) Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Food Crops -- Recent Experiences. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture. Online available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/science_and_impacts/impacts_genetic_engineering/environmental-effects-of.html
Raney, Terri ( 2006) Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries. Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17:1-5. Online available at: http://www.agbioworld.org/pdf/raney.pdf
The problem with this is that the underlying issue is not addressed. The headmaster and staff completely ignored the contents of the petition, and the fact that numerous students have complained about the food they receive. They have also ignored the fact that the complaint, in the light of a more health-conscious society, is in fact legitimate.
Another problem is a basic lack of communication. It can be that the school has a legitimate reason for the quality of food offered by the cafeteria, such as finances. The children were also summarily punished without being given an opportunity to state their case. Thirdly, the parent conference was conducted without the presence of the children, further limiting their opportunity to communicate. In this light, they saw their only opportunity to bring their point across by means of trespass. Furthermore, by encouraging parents to also punish their children, the problem is exacerbated…
However, as coffee creamer and margarine have demonstrated, there is risk of substitution even with long-established consumer staples.
The intensity of rivalry is becoming greater. Firms in both dairy and soy are fighting for market share, one because of market contraction and the other because of market expansion. Firms compete for shelf space at major retailers and because the products lack differentiation, firms in the industry tend to compete strictly on brand name, rather than product attributes. Overall, this leaves the industry moderately unfavorable. Soy is more favorable that milk generally, but milk is the much larger industry and for a sizeable, established player with strong distribution networks it is still a good industry to be in.
The regulatory environment is important to Dean. The federal government has a stake in agricultural industries because of the impact on the nation's food security. There are variety of programs and subsidies available…
hormones in our agricultural food and the adverse effects it has on the animals and the human consumers. The writer provides an outline of the effect the hormones have both physically and politically on the consumer and the nation's that support the use of hormones. The writer also presents evidence of the health problems hormones are thought to cause as well. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
As the world becomes more crowded the demand for fast growing resources including food increase. The use of growth hormone in cattle has sparked a worldwide controversy as several nation's wrestle with trade organizations mandates against what they believe the hormone treated cows can cause by way of health problems.
The most common hormone used today in the cow industry is Bovine Growth Hormone, which is also referred to as BGH. This hormone is a genetically engineered hormone. It is…
Hormones spark meaty debate Jul. 23, 2001
Provided by: Sun Media Written by: Marilyn Linton (accessed 5-4-2003)
Beef Hormones Linked to Premature Onset of Puberty & Breast Cancer
" (Guelph Food Technology Centre, 2008) This report additionally relates four "meta trends" in the packing industry which are those of:
2) Health and wellness;
3) Upscale experiences; and 4) Sustainability. (Guelph Food Technology Centre, 2008)
The work entitled: "Generational Change and Marketing Indicators" states that five decades ago "when supermarkets were 'stores of the future' retailers and manufacturers pretty much knew where to find their customers. Food came from food stores; drugs from drug stores and cooked meals were consumed at drive-in or sit-down restaurants." (Mogelonsky, nd) it is important to know where shoppers intend to buy their food today. Generation Y, at a total population of 72 million, is an important consideration for marketers. Potato chip shopping including tortilla chips and pretzels are stated to "round out the top three snack categories, with household penetration rates of 76 and 62% respectively." (Mogelonsky, nd)) Also noted is…
Ramierz, Andrea (2008)Leveraging Consumer Megatrends National Association of College & University Food Services. Online available at http://www.nacufs.org/i4a/pages/Index.cfm?pageID=4425
Sloan, a. Elizabeth (2005) Top 10 Global Food Trends. Food Technology April 2005 Vol. 59 No. 4.
How to Connect with Generation Y (2007) Times Online. 20 May 2007. Online available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/career_and_jobs/recruiter_forum/article1813031.ece
Generation Y: Graduates Who Dare to Demand More (2008) University of Liverpool. Online available at http://www.liv.ac.uk/news/features/generation-y.htm
How Fast Food Restaurants are Reacting to the Shift to More Organic Foods:
To remain competitive, fast food restaurants have had to turn to
innovative products, often redeveloping their product lines, to meet the
changing demands of consumers for organic foods specifically, and healthier
foods in general. The demand for organic foods has been the mechanism for
industry evolution. As noted, McDonalds phased out their supersize menu
items, in response to society's growing health concerns. In addition,
they've begun to offer more healthy menu choices, such as low-fat items and
fresh salads, to their customers, as well as promoting healthy lifestyles
in their marketing campaigns. In the New England area, McDonald's even
replaced their coffee with Newman's Own Organic blend, in an attempt to
take further advantage of more organically-discriminating tastes of
consumers. This move has been well-received in the region. In
addition, new fast food restaurants are being introduced…
Abelson, J., "An Overarching Goal: Innovation," Boston Globe (September 24,
2006): E2 (database online); available from ProQuest, ProQuest ID:
Brunning, R. "Organic Fast-Food Restaurant to Open in Boulder," Knight
Ridder Tribune (October 12, 2006): 1 (database online); available from
ProQuest, ProQuest ID: 1157712541.
"Fast Food in the United States." Market Line (August 2005) Database
online. Available from Datamonitor.
Peter Andree entitled "GM Food egulation: An Analysis of Efforts to Improve Genetically Modified Food egulation in Canada." Andree reports on a trade dispute of an ongoing nature over genetically modified organisms occurring between the European Union and the United States and Canada reporting that a "more precautionary approach" has been witnessed recently in regulating GMOs. Andree examines the regulatory approaches toward GMOs.
According to Andree (2006), the regulatory approach in Canada has been influenced greatly by the model in the United States and there have been more than sixty genetically modified foods that Canada has approved upon the basis of "limited sets of compositional and nutritional data" demonstrating the "substantial equivalence to products already on the market." (Andree, 2006, p.377-8) Andree states that there are major differences in the data requirements for GM regulation between that of the European Union and the United States and Canada. The EC regulations…
Andree, P. (2006) GM Food Regulation: An Analysis of Efforts to Improve Genetically Modified Food Regulation in Canada. Science and Public Policy, volume 33, number 5, June 2006, pages 377 -- 389, Beech Tree Publishing, 10 Watford Close, Guildford, Surrey GU1 2EP, England.
' (EurActiv 2008)
'The traffic light Scheme was shown to be the most effective of by the FSA. hat they also discovered was that consumers wanted product labeling; they liked separate information on 4 key nutrients that include fats, carbohydrates, proteins and salts and sugars.' (EurActiv, 2010) Consumers found traffic color coding easy to understand and use. As a result they wanted numerical information on amount of nutrients in a serving. However they found GDA percentage rather confusing. Also the importance of making nutrition and ingredient labeling mandatory on wines, beers and spirits and having a consistent mandatory labeling system with color codes was emphasized by the NGOs representing different areas of health at the hearing. These products could not be eliminated from the labeling because they were part of the foods that contributed to obesity.
At the public hearing on efficient food, (Public Hearing on Efficient foods, 2011) Mr.…
DN Sanco, (2011) European Vegetarian and Animal News Alliance (EVANA): Renewed Commitment of stakeholders to Combat Overweight and Obesity Related Health Issues Brussels, Belgium
European Public Health Alliance, (2011) putting citizens' health at the heart of Europe, Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from www.epha.org/a/3107
EurActiv, (2008) European Food Safety Authority: Food industry, food labeling Retrieved from http://www.euractiv.com/en/cap/smes-hit-cost-eu-food-labelling-proposals/article-174970
EurActiv, (2011) Europe Urged to recognize Chronic Obesity Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from http: / www / euractiv.com.en/health / Europe
Supply Chain Technology in the Food Industry
In the past few years, manufactured food stuffs have become important parts of the diet of many individuals across the globe. This trend has been fueled by changes in eating habits that incorporate a combination of local produce and imported food stuffs. As manufactured goods continue to be important elements in many individuals' diets, the development of sustainable food supply chains has become a major issue. The significance of this issue is particularly fueled by the need to ensure the safety and health of food stuffs given that they incorporate both local produce and internationally conserved food items. Actually, the food industry has experienced the development and increased use of supply chain technologies that are geared towards enhancing the safety and health of food stuffs in business across the world. These supply chain technologies are also utilized by retail businesses in the food…
Freed, D. (2013, August 13). Compliance with the Produce Traceability Initiative. Food Safety Magazine. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://www.foodsafetymagazine.com/signature-series/compliance-with-the-produce-traceability-initiative/
Kane, D. (2013, September 18). Are You Ready for the Produce Traceability Initiative? Three Key Steps to Prepare. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://www.foodmanufacturing.com/articles/2013/09/are-you-ready-produce-traceability-initiative-three-key-steps-prepare
Intrapreneurial Opportunity Within 3 Squares Restaurant
Identification of the Opportunity
Squares Restaurant has identified various opportunities it intends to pursue. The most interesting opportunity is the company's strong interest in things like organic eating, healthy diets, and the ability to combat food deserts. The area in which the establishment is located lacks quality food options. Therefore, the company has an opportunity to market healthy, organic food options that can improve the quality of lives. As the baby boomers enter the seniors' age and as the society develops a strong interest in the quality of life, the company can approach this opportunity from various angles to succeed and differentiate from other eateries.
An Assessment of the Opportunity
Today, organic food is one of the growing trends. The consumer demand for organic food has been on the rise in the last five years, which means 3 Squares Restaurant may reap, from such…
The United States has allowed the use of genetically modified (GMO) foods for human consumption. This has led people to fight for measures to decrease exposure to GMO foods in America. From food labeling to encouraging the purchase of foods that are non-GMO sourced, these measures have painted a stigma on GMO. Several reasons exist for the removal of GMO foods. One reason is that most genetically modified genes inserted into the seeds that yield fruits and vegetables are derived from foreign species like bacteria and viruses (). These bacteria and viruses can cause harm to the human body in the form of sterility, allergic reactions, and deceased livestock.
For example, one article noted that GMO corn may change the histological structure of living organisms if they consume it long-term. The animal they experimented on were two albino adult male rats. “Marked ultrastructural changes of some enterocytes…
Premise/Theory: Functional foods are all the rage nowadays. As such, a fad diet that focuses on those functional foods, which are usually fruits and vegetables (or involve them to some degree) would be a great cornerstone for a fad diet. The diet will be known as the "Functional Foods Diet."
Dietary Recommendations/Guidelines: A person who wants to partake in the Functional Foods Diet just needs a litany of what are known as functional foods and a blender. In practice, it will break down like this:
The meal system will basically mimic that of Slimfast in that a person will have a functional food "smoothie" for breakfast and then another one for lunch.
The person will then need to eat a responsible dinner to close out each day.
For snacks, people can eat low-calorie fruits and vegetables like carrots or a small salad. Again, there will be focus on…
Cherry Creek Nutrition. 'Top 10 Functional Foods For Your Health | Cherry Creek Nutrition'. Cherrycreeknutrition.com. N.p., 2009. Web. 15 July 2015.
Food Insight. 'Functional Foods Fact Sheet: Antioxidants - IFIC Foundation - Your Nutrition And Food Safety Resource'. Foodinsight.org. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 July 2015.
WebMD. 'FDA Warns Cheerios On Health Claims'. WebMD. N.p., 2015. Web. 15 July 2015.
A farmer in each year can produce enough food to feed a hundred people, according to Pollan (2001), but this productivity comes with a heavy price: "The modern industrial farmer cannot grow that much food without large quantities of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machinery, and fuel. This expensive set of 'inputs,' as they are called, saddles the farmer with debt, jeopardizes his health, erodes his soil and ruins its fertility, pollutes the groundwater, and compromises the safety of the food we eat" (Pollan, 2001, p. 190). These accrued costs accumulated through generations may lead to catastrophic consequences such as global warming and scarcity of edible food and drinkable water.
The drive to industrial efficiency blinded us to several hidden costs of food production. Orr (1994) identifies six of the costs that, if we intend to maintain sustainable growth, need to be curbed. The first obvious cost of industrial food production is…
McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002) From cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things. New York: North Point Press.
Orr, D.W. (1994) Earth in mind: on education, environment, and the human prospect. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Pollan, M. (2001) The Botany of desire: a plant's eye view of the world. New York: Random House.
foods you shouldn't feed baby. (2008). Parents. Retrieved:
Lack, Evonne. (2011). Ten best foods for babies. Baby Center. Retrieved:
Solid foods: How to get your baby started. (2012). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved:
Your baby's first meals are the one and the only time you will have total control over baby's eating habits: Choose those meals wisely
Introduce solid baby foods safely
List the available in this order with contact information.
Community Resource #1
Community Resource #2
How to avoid common hazards:
Everyone knows that breastfeeding is the best food for infants, but some parents experience confusion about what is the best, first 'real food' to give their children.
Why the first foods you feed your baby are so important:
Every parent wants their children to get a good start in life: just as with adults, "you are what…
Investigations related to incidents that occur at a certain worksite, help both workers and employers recognize the dangers and health risks along with limitations of their health and safety programs. In most cases, the necessary preventive measures are identified and implemented to ensure that those incidents don't occur in the future. Investigating incidents with the aim of identifying their causes and finding preventive solutions increases productivity and the morale of the employees. This is because it shows that the employer is committed to ensure a healthy and risk free workplace. Supervisors are mostly responsible for conducting investigations on these incidents. For the investigation to be successful, the employees and managers should cooperate and work together considering that they all have different perspectives, knowledge and understanding of the incident. The team conducting the investigation should try to see beyond the incident's immediate cause. Most of the time there is the misleading…
Also, this should be seen as a short-term solution for people who are temporarily out of jobs in the U.S. And not as a long-term means to living comfortably.
Social Security Benefits
Social security benefits help many elderly and disabled people to live a reasonable life. In 2010, more than 53 million Americans received social security benefits that amount to a whopping $703 billion. Out of these, 34 million retired workers accounted for $40 billion and $1.7 billion went to 2.9 dependents of retired workers at an average amount of $1,170 per month. The eight million disabled workers and their $1.9 billion dependents received an average of $1,065 per month and this amounted to $8.5 billion and $0.6 billion respectively. The remaining $6.3 billion went to 6.4 million survivors at an average monthly benefit of $1,129. (Social Security Administration USA, 2010).
The Social Security Administration of the U.S. estimates that…
USDA Food and Nutrition Service. (December 2010). State Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation Rates in 2008. Washington, DC:Author. Retrieved from: http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane/MENU/Published/snap/FILES/Participation/Reaching2008.pdf
DeParle, Jason. (November 28, 2009). Food Stamp Use Soars and Stigma Fades. New York Times.
Social Security Administration USA (2010). Fact Sheets. Washington, DC:Author. Retrieved from: http://www.ssa.gov/pressoffice/factsheets/basicfact-alt.pdf
Trumball, Mark. (2011, January 17). The Retirement Workforce. Christian Science Monitor.
Fast Food Delivery
Green Bean Delivery delivers fresh produce to the door of customers who sign up for deliveries. So instead of purchasing produce (fruits, vegetables, dairies) from the grocery store (and not knowing where they come from -- Mexico, California, South America), Green Bean Delivery does all the work for you. The only question is: where do Green Bean's products come from? To find out, some investigative work was needed. This paper will show who is behind the produce that Green Bean Delivery delivers straight to the door of its customers, how it is produced, what goes into the process of growing, harvesting, transporting and preparing the items that are then sorted and shipped to customers.
The number one claim of Green Bean Delivery is that it uses organic produce and natural groceries to please its customers. This is a great claim and one that makes a lot of…
Claren, R. (2005). The Green Motel. Ms. Magazine.
Gottlieb, R., & Joshi, A. (2010). Food Justice. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Schlosser, E. (2012). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal.
Boston: Mariner Books
On the plus side, though, the research also showed that innovations in technology, both high- and low-tech, hold enormous promise for improving miner safety by providing early warnings of impending disasters and by providing rescuers with better techniques for locating and rescuing trapped miners. In the final analysis, the technology already exists to accomplish these improvements and it remains a matter of establishing the relevant priorities at the state and federal levels to ensure that all mines are equipped with these devices before disaster strikes, and that these technologies are available for rescue efforts when the inevitable does occur. Future studies should investigate how these technologies can be deployed more cost effectively for developing nations and what steps should be taken ahead of time to ensure that these devices provide the maximum amount of protection for the investments involved.
Cooper, S., yan, J., & Sinback, M. (2003). Employment-related crimes.…
Cooper, S., Ryan, J., & Sinback, M. (2003). Employment-related crimes. American Criminal Law Review, 40(2), 367.
Kravitz, J.H., Kovac, J.G., & Duerr, W.H. (1994). Advances in mine emergency communications. Proceedings of the International Emergency Management and Engineering Conference, 23-26.
Mining disaster incidents and fatalities, 1900-2006. (2007). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2007). Retrieved October 2, 2007 at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/statistics/disasters.htm .
Peters, C. (2006, March). The other mine disaster. Washington Monthly, 38(3), 8.
S. Department of Health and Human Services et al., 2006). This first study will involve limited human exposure and extreme caution.
Most significantly, the study itself has to be based on sound scientific principles with a thorough knowledge of the properties of the chemical, and the potential results on the human subject. Standard clinical safety evaluations will include serial assessment of patient symptoms, physical signs, and clinical laboratory tests amongst other tests monitoring possible adverse effects. These tests will be of sufficient duration in order to catch potential negative effects. Safety hazards for patients and health care workers during and after administration of the radio labeled product will also be identified, evaluated and appropriately managed.
Finally, as prescribed by Section 505(d) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) (21 U.S.C. 355(d)), adequate tests must be taken on the drug first before applying to a human individual. The…
Farde, L. et al., 2007 Using Positron Emission
Tomography (PET) microdosing. Focus, The Organisation for Professionals in Regulatory Affairs,1-8
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services et al. (2006). Guidance for Industry, Investigators, and Reviewers Office of Training and Communication, http://www.fda.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In "McDonald's in Taipei," u describes the radical changes to Taiwanese culture that took place during the 1980s. The introduction of American fast food to Taiwanese markets symbolized the nature of the changes to Taiwanese culture that ensued. McDonald's is not singularly to blame for the decimation of the diversity of traditional Chinese food from the mainland, but prior to its introduction, there was a cornucopia of independent eateries boasting food from various regions. However, u also discusses the symbolic role of McDonald's in Taiwan in relation to the development of Taiwanese national identity.
According to u, Taiwanese identity has formed largely in response to its need to politically and culturally distance itself from mainland China. As Taiwanese people sought new ways of expressing its food culture as being distinct from the mainland cuisines that once flourished there, it turned to the indigenous foods of the island as well…
Kottack, Conrad P. "Rituals at McDonald's."
Wu, David Y.H. "McDonald's in Taipei."
Genetically Modified Crops -- America says 'Yes' while the European Union and the Sudan says 'No!
Recently, the famine-stricken nation of the Sudan turned away an entire load of crops and seeds that could have filled the bellies of many of its hungry citizens. hy did it do so? as it madness? No, it was because of the fact that the products in question contained genetically modified crops. "Eat GM or Starve," said the United States, according to an association designed to prevent the introduction of GM crops into the international as well as the national food supply. (OCO, 2004) Proponents of these crops, however, pointed out that the genetic modifications were to make the crops more disease resistant and hardier to the harsh climates of the Sudan.
Genetically modified crops remain one of the most controversial agricultural issues today. Despite fears regarding the safety of these so-called franken-foods,…
Conference on Coexistence -- COC. (2004) Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.foeeurope.org/GMOs/conference/home.htm
U.S. bullying impoverished Sudan." (March 19, 2004) Organic Consumers Organization (OCO). Retrieved on September 20, 2004 at http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge/sudan031904.cfm
Acme Fireworks is facing tremendous challenges which are similar to growing businesses. This occurs when firms need to adjust with increasing demand and expand their operations. During this process, they must examine their business model and determine if it is economically viable moving forward. In this case, the company is currently organized as a sole proprietorship.
Fireworks are known to be deadly products. This is because a flame is ignited and travels into a tube filled with gunpowder. Even those who are exercising extreme caution, have the possibility of becoming injured from debris or being too close to the explosion. In these cases, there is a likelihood of death or the person receiving extensive injuries. This is problematic, as it exposes Acme Fireworks to potential litigation from these challenges. (Okrent, 2014)
At the heart of these challenges, are potential work safety issues. This is because the company is…
Guide to Developing Environmental Management Systems. (2014). EPA.gov. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/ems/implement.html
Damali, N. (2006). Environmental Management Systems. Business Strategy and the Environment,17, (1), 30 -- 45.
Delmas, M. (2006). Greening the Supply Chain. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 18, 117 -- 122.
Deming, W. (2000). Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Occupational Health and Safety in Catering Industry in Hong Kong
Occupational Safety and Health
The incidence rate of workplace accidents in the catering industry in Hong Kong is higher than that of other sectors, even those associated with inherently high risk to workers. Despite corrective action within the catering industry, the accident rate remains stubbornly high. This research identifies causal factors in occupational accidents in catering companies and delineates effective strategies that can be emulated by catering businesses in Hong Kong in efforts to reduce their accident rates and worker injuries.
Hong Kong is known for its international cuisine and, characteristically, a high number of restaurants -- many offering catering services -- exist in the city. Yet, the polished environments of the dining areas of world-class restaurants contrast greatly with the restaurant kitchen and backroom workspaces. The catering industry in Hong Kong attains extraordinarily high rates of accidents and has,…
Bailey, K. (1994). Methods of social research, (4th ed.) New York, NY: The Free Press.
Denscombe, M. (2007). The good research guide for small-scale social research (3rd ed.). Open Up Study Skills. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill International. Retrieved http://valsci-edu.weebly.com/uploads/2/7/9/1/2791482/
Dyer, J.G, Schatz, I.M., Rosenberg, B.A., and Coleman, S.T. (2000, January). Constant comparison method: A kaleidoscope of data. The Qualitative Report, 4(1/2).
Genetically Engineered Food
Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. hen the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods,…
Goldman, Karen A. "Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods: Legal and Scientific Issues."
Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12.3 (2000): 717-60.
Jefferson, Valeria. "The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food." Journal of environmental health 69.1 (2006): 33-4.
Laros, Fleur J.M., and Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp. "Importance of Fear in the Case of Genetically Modified Food." Psychology & Marketing 21.11 (2004): 889-908.
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…
American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003
Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003
Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62
Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London
However, although fewer cases of milkborne ailments exist today, the possibility is still realistic. For example, more than 300 people in the United States got sick from drinking raw milk or eating cheese made from raw milk in 2001, and nearly 200 became ill from these products in 2002 (ren, 2004). Most health people recover from foodborne illnesses within a short period of time, but others may have symptoms that are chronic, severe, or life-threatening. Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly, children and those with certain diseases or conditions, are most at risk for severe infections from pathogens that may be present in raw milk. In pregnant women, listeria monocytogenes caused illnesses that resulted in miscarriage, fetal death, or the illness or death of a newborn infant (ern, 1994). Furthermore, escherichia coli infection has been linked to hemolytic uremic syndrome, a condition that…
Bren, L. (2004). Got Milk? Make sure its Pasteurized. FDA Consumer Magazine, September-
Cornell University. 2000. Pasteurized vs. Ultra0Pasteurized Milk - Why such Sell-by
Dates? Retrieved September 29, 2006, from Cornell University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Web site.
Q1. The Gauley Bridge disaster took place in the 1920s, before appropriate health and safety requirements were imposed upon industries to protect workers. Workers were often forced to tolerate such conditions because they had no other options by which to make a living. Furthermore, a certain degree of physical risk to workers was acceptable in the eyes of employers. To some extent, this is also true in many developing world nations such as India, where the Bhopal gas tragedy took place. If there was a sudden absence of federal and state mandates in the United States, workers would still bring contemporary safety expectations to the workplace in many industry sectors. Also, despite the fact there has been substantial attrition of the power of unions, unions still have enough clout in some areas to demand better conditions.
Thus, lapsing back to where things were within a year might be overstating the…
Tesco UK food department
a.) Legislative risks: The decision to provide healthier food by labeling the ingredients on the packages to include the calories, sugar, fat, sodium, and saturated fat content needs to also comply with the U.K. food and labeling law. According to the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of eading, "In most cases, ingredients have to be listed in weight descending order determined as at the time of their use in the preparation of the food. This is commonly referred to as the 'mixing bowl stage'. The following exemptions are however permitted" (A Guide to UK egulations, 2011)
Water and volatile products used as ingredients have to be listed in order of their weight in the finished product. The weight of water is calculated by subtracting from the weight of the finished product the total weight of the other ingredients used.
If an ingredient is…
CSPI Reports International (1998) Functional Foods: Public Health Boon or 21st Century Quackery? http://www.cspinet.org/reports/functional_foods/uk_regltry.html
Feindt, P.H. & Flynn, A. 2009, Policy stretching and institutional layering: British food policy between security, safety, quality, health and climate change, Palgrave Macmillan.
Food Labels: A Guide to the UK Regulations. Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Reading. http://www.reading.ac.uk/foodlaw/label/index2.htm
Lacey, R. 1992, Scares and the British Food System: Problems and Policies in Relation to Food-Related Health Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, Limited.
More objectivity is however expected from scientists, but their opinions also vary. Specifically, the opinions of those who support growth hormones and those who reject them are all derived from scientific evidence. This in turn means that the results of scientific research could be manipulated and influenced so that the findings are indicative of the desires of those who initiated the study. In this particular sense, the most pertinent situation is revealed by the beef and dairy producers, who hire their own scientists to lead the research process in the direction desired by them.
Aside from these situations however, the scientists who have conducted studies tend to link various health problems with the growth hormones. Some of the side effects to consuming products with residual matters from growth hormones include the onset of early puberty in girls, an increase in the risk of breast cancer, an increase in the risk…
Leonard, a., the story of stuff, the Story of Stuff Project, http://www.storyofstuff.org / last accessed on February 21, 2012
McLaughlin, a. 2011, the effects of growth hormones in food, Live Strong, http://www.livestrong.com/article/98816-effects-growth-hormones / last accessed on February 21, 2012
Artificial hormones, Sustainable Table, http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/hormones / last accessed on February 21, 2012
EU scientists confirm health risks of growth hormones in meat, Organic Consumer Association, http://www.organicconsumers.org/toxic/hormone042302.cfm last accessed on February 21, 2012
Product Safety, And Intellectual Property
Legal and Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual
Ethics and legal issues refer to the morals and principles that govern the behavior and conduct of individuals or organizations. These legal principles and ethics serve to guide and offer directions on how to act or respond when faced with moral dilemmas. Marketing, advertising and product safety are areas of importance to everyone in the community. Production, distribution and use of products or services are areas guided by the laws of the land. The laws function to protect the community from exploitation or mishandling by the participants in the above sectors. In the marketing and advertising framework, the concept of ethics deals with personal moral principles and values. Under this framework, the society understands that laws are values and standards that are enforceable in the court. In the production of goods and services, the…
Ventola, C.L. (2011). Direct-to-Consumer Pharmaceutical Advertising. Journal List, 36 (10), 669-674,681-684. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov > Journal List > PT > v. 36 (10); Oct 2011
Hurd, H.M. (1996). Deontology of Negligence, The. BUL Rev., 76, 249.
Carden, S. (2006). Virtue ethics: Dewey and Maclntyre. New York: Continuum International
Furthermore, these crops could exhaust soil to such a degree that no more crops could be developed there, and thus contribute to rather than alleviate the problem of world hunger.
Another problem cited by opponents is the danger to biodiversity that might be created by GMO's. Genetically modifying foods may have a negative impact on the environment by destroying biodiversity, according to this group. Proponents however argue that biodiversity is encouraged rather than destroyed by genetic engineering. Indeed, they place it in the same category with modifications that have been brought about in nature itself in order to adjust to different environments, or by human beings in the past.
Biological engineering is a very controversial issue, and it appears that it will remain so for a long time, even while the field grows and develops beyond attempts to stop it.
Occupational Health and Safety
The objective of this study is to examine the issues surrounding the need for occupational health and safety.
Occupational health and safety specialists work conducting analysis of various types of "work environment and work procedures." (ureau of Labor Statistics, 2012, p.1) In addition, occupational health and safety specialists "inspect workplaces checking for compliance to safety, health, and environmental regulations. Occupational health and safety specialists further design programs that serve to prevent injury or disease to workers and environmental damage." (ureau of Labor Statistics, 2012, p.1)
Aims and Objectives of Occupational Health and Safety
Occupational health and safety has as its aim the following:
the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting…
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition, Occupational Health, and Safety Specialists,
on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/occupational-health-and-safety-specialists.htm (visited September 11, 2012).
Introduction to Occupational Health and Safety (2011) International Labor Organization. Retrieved from: http://actrav.itcilo.org/actrav-english/telearn/osh/intro/inmain.htm
Global strategy on occupational health for all: The way to health at work (1995) Occupational Health. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/occupational_health/globstrategy/en/
There is some hope within some countries but maybe no hope between countries. As long as there are disparities within the economic balances of different countries there will always be food being used as a political weapon. Those countries that do have adequate supplies of food though, have a hope to balance their food politics out within themselves. There is the possibility of providing more food for the poor within countries in order to better balance the accessibility across the nation.
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/eport_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? etrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
Smyth, Paul. (2009). Michael Pollan Makes Food Political. etrieved July 29, 2010, from City
Beat Web site: http://www.citybeat.com/cincinnati/article-18861-michael-pollan-makes-food-political.html
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/Report_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
Schlosser: Fast Food Nation
The fast food industry has been infused into the every nook and corner of American Society over the last three decades. The industry seen to have originated with a few modest hot dog and hamburger of Southern California have been perceived to have extended to every nook and corner of the nation, marketing an extensive range of food products to which affordable customers are found widely. Fast food is presently provided at restaurants and drive-through, at stadiums, airports, zoos, high schools, elementary schools and universities, on cruise ships, trains, and airplanes, at K-Marts, Wal-Marts, gas stations, and also at hospital cafeterias. As per an estimate the total expenditure of Americans on fast food during 1970 was about $6 billion. (Introduction: Fast Food Nation - The Dark Side of the All-American Meal)
The expenditure had a massive increase to about $110 billion in 2000. Americans presently perceive…
Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser: A Book Club Reading Guide. Retrieved from http://www.bookbrowse.com/reading_guides/detail/index.cfm?book_number=769 Accessed on 25 May, 2005
Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal by Eric Schlosser. Retrieved from http://www.readinggroupguides.com/guides3/fast_food_nation1.asp Accessed on 25 May, 2005
Introduction: Fast Food Nation - The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/s/schlosser-fast.html Accessed on 25 May, 2005
Rosenberg, Matt. T. Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser. February 2, 2001. Retrieved from http://geography.about.com/library/misc/blffn.htm Accessed on 25 May, 2005
production of food products has changed dramatically over the past several years. Technological changes in machinery, increased use of better and more expedient forms of transportation, and improved fertilizers have all contributed to a more efficient food production process. This more efficient process, however, has not come with some requisite problems.
The existing system of delivering food products in the United States is a major contributor to the world's global warming problem. The largest contributor to global warming is the use of fossil fuels. One study released in 2000 estimated that nearly ten percent of all the energy used in the United States was consumed by the food industry. (Heller, 2000).
This large use of fossil fuels is generated throughout the food production and delivering industry. A large measure of this use is through the extensive reliance upon artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Although the use of these products results in…
Center for Disease Control. (2003). Diabetes Public Health Resource. Retrieved December 4, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/figuretext.htm#fig1
Eckholm, E. (2010, August 11). Farmers Lean to Truce on Animals' Close Quarters. The New York Times .
Eisnitz, G.A. (2006). Slaugherhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhuman Treatment Inside the U.S. Meat Industry. Prometheus Books.
Fossil Fuels. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2010, from U.S. Department of Energy: http://www.energy.gov/energysources/fossilfuels.htm
Fast Food Nation
The Ramifications of Technology on Health Care and elfare of Animals and Meatpacking orkers in "Fast Food Nation" by Eric Schlosser
In the book "Fast Food Nation" by Eric Schlosser, newfound information about the behind-the-scenes operations of fast food establishments such as the well-known McDonald's, had been discussed critically. In revealing the 'hidden operations' behind the production of merchandise associated with the fast food industry such as meat production, Schlosser was able to convey his message that technology had been more of a detriment than beneficial to consumers of these fast food establishments.
In arguing his position that the fast food industry was detrimental to consumers, he provided examples in which the technology of machinery had led to developments that only increased the chances of dangerous diseases to spread and thrive and worsened the conditions in which meatpackers worked. Moreover, these detrimental effects of technology had important…
Schlosser, E. (2002). Fast Food Nation: the dark side of the all-American meal. NY: Perennial Books.
American Food Uses and Abuses
The uses and abuses of food in America are becoming clearer everyday mostly because we can no longer avoid the obvious concerns about the public's poor dietary health and obesity. This concern is leading us as a nation to take a closer look at our love of fast foods and the alternative ways for us to gain access to easy and convenient food that may or may not be healthier. It turns out that even as we look to organic or locally produced food, we cannot get away from safety and health considerations. The fact is that America's food preferences are tied closely to what it means to be an American and this often means they are tied to us using ingredients that are often first about simplicity and profits (Corporate Accountability, 2011).
We know that a good deal of what we eat is processed…
CDC (2011). Listeriosis. Timeline of Events: Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Whole Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms, Colorado. Viewable at http://www.cdc.gov/listeria/outbreaks/cantaloupes-jensen-farms/120811/timeline.html .
Corporate Accountability International (2011). Health Effects of Fast Food. Viewable at http://www.stopcorporateabuse.org/health-effects-fast-food .
Honey (2011). Honey.com. National Honey Board. Viewable at http://www.honey.com/nhb/technical/ .
Let's Move (2011). America's Move to Raise a Healthier Generation of Kids. Viewable at http://www.letsmove.gov/eat-healthy.
A good example of this can be seen with Whole Foods discussing how they are meeting these long-term objectives with the firm stating, "We believe that companies, like individuals, must assume their share of responsibility as tenants of Planet Earth. We actively support organic farming, the best methods for promoting sustainable agriculture and protecting farm workers / the environment. We also aim to protect the environment by supporting alternative sources of energy and recycling or compositing our waste. We are actively involved in our communities by supporting food banks, sponsoring neighborhood events and contributing at least 5% of the total net profits to charities. Our vision of a sustainable future means our children and grandchildren will be living in a world that values human creativity, diversity and individual choice." This is illustrating how Whole Foods Markets is dedicated towards specific groups that share similar performance goals and standards.…
Our Mission and Culture. (2013). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/careers/our-mission-and-culture
The Congruence Model. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved from: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_95.htm
Whole Foods. (2013). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/ae?s=WFM+Analyst+Estimates
Why Work Here? (2013). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/careers/why-work-here
GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER
The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).
The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…
Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.
The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015
CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment: