However, history is full of examples that would tend to indicate that the United States' foreign policy is driven by racism and bias against gender. Take for example, the Cold War situation of ritish Guyana. In his book entitled U.S. Intervention in ritish Guiana: A Cold War Story, author Stephen G. Rabe tells the story of a massive United States covert intervention between 1953 and 1969. It is Rabe's contention that the foundation of this covert intervention was a basis of gender bias and racism on the part of the United States Government.
What is today known as Guyana was at one time a colony of Great ritain. In the 1960's, Guyana was set to gain its independence. However, government officials in the Kennedy and Johnson White Houses were concerned that the a newly independent Guyana would become a communist nation under the leadership of Cheddi Jagan. Jagan was a…… [Read More]
A second lesson was found in Kennedy's management of the crisis. The basic lesson learned was that, in the midst of such a crisis, leaders need time away from the glare of the media to resolve their own thinking and communications, and they need the self-confidence to limit their objectives to only what is needed to resolve the crisis, not "win" it.
It is believed that the Soviet's lesson was that you can't mess with nuclear weapons. In other words, when it gets to the point that you know you might destroy millions of innocent people, that is the depth of fear that leaders must realize, confront, and not back away from. What they must do is back away from the unnecessary and catastrophic events their pride might trigger.
The lessons learned by European leaders were probably not good ones. Kennedy did not consult with them during this crisis. They…… [Read More]
Smaller nations with limited power can be coerced simply by the nature of economic dependence. For most of the world's major economies, however, a degree of soft speech is required.
Wielding a big stick on larger countries is likely to alienate them. In recent years, we have seen significant alienation of U.S. allies. The result has been that foreign policy objectives in Iraq and Afghanistan have not met with the anticipated success. Objectives with respect to much stronger adversaries, such as China or Russia, clearly cannot be met by the U.S. alone. Therefore, speaking softly will cultivate relationships and allegiances. Coalitions can be built to help the U.S. attain its foreign policy objectives.
Ultimately, it is worth remembering that size of the America's stick is limited by the extent to which it is can be used. Many adversaries have significant sticks of their own, which limits the willingness of the…… [Read More]
However, Dower goes beyond just tracing the foundation of racism between the United States and Japan during the Pacific War and also examines how this racial hatred was easily overcome during the post-war years. Dower points out that after the war, an amicable postwar relationship was created between the United States and Japan, one in which has continued to the present day. According to Dower, the same stereotypes that fed the super-patriotism and racial hatred that fueled the conflict were at the same time surprisingly adaptable to means of cooperation during times of peace.
For example, following the war Japan developed into an economic superpower and thus was a competitive player in the war of economics. The war of economics is essentially one vs. The Western superpowers and the developing East. In a business sense, Japan was seen as an economic enemy, or threat. Much of this vision was based…… [Read More]
McKinley, according to Herring (2008) was the first "modern commander." He worked to advance America's status as a power, using the war to advance America. His goals consisted of eliminating Spain from the Western Hemisphere, keeping rebel forces in Cuba and the Philippines at arm's length to ensure "maximum U.S. control and freedom of choice." Until the war finished, he said: "We must keep all we get; when the war is over we must keep what we want" (2008).
It seems that America had a sense that every other nation was (and is today) like itself in its imperialistic attitudes and goals. The pursuit of self-interest, especially when it comes to money and power, was used as a means not simply to judge people but to judge nations as well. A hierarchy of nations emerged when the world was seen through the lenses of early American foreign-policy-makers (Colorado Edu 2010).…… [Read More]
Rise of Soviet Union Power and the Fall of U.S.-USSR Relations: United States and Soviet Union in the Post-World War II Period
The onset of 20th century in the history of human society is characterized by three important events that changed the present socio-political landscape of nations of the world today: World War I, World War II, and the Cold War. These events are linked with each other, with the First World War being the primary reason for the eventual development and declaration of the Second World War. Similarly, WWII became one of the precursors that triggered the Cold War.
The Cold War, a long-term conflict between the Communist states in the Eastern region and the United States, began after WWII, wherein the rise in the popularity and increasing influence of Socialist (Communist) ideology was happening. While the rise of Communism became popular in USSR, China, and other countries like…… [Read More]
From the very beginning, the U.S. "ar on Terror" and related foreign policy has not been popular globally (Drexner 34). Many leaders and analysts worry that the unpopular actions of the U.S. internationally have actually put our nation at more risk of terrorist attack by clearly making us the enemy (Drexner 34). European nations are therefore reluctant to enter into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. On many objectives since they do not want to be associated with the war due to perceived risk of attack; close borders and trade between EU countries have made it more difficult to protect European national borders. Additionally, Europe's smaller nation size means that politics more closely represents the feelings of the people. ith higher populations of sympathetic Muslims in Europe, it would be a very unpopular move to support the United States, even in the lesser foreign initiatives.
Drexner, Daniel .…… [Read More]
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]
Summary of chapter on "Alternative Futures:
The United States as an Ordinary State"
In this chapter, the author argues that (despite appearances to the contrary), there are always choices as to the future direction of any state. America seems to be committed to a war on "terror" by the events of September 11th and the subsequent conquests in the Middle East. This author argues that no such commitment exists, but that America still has the freedom of action to allow any number of future policy directions to exist. The United States, the reader is asked to remember, has not always had an expansionist perspective or sought to save the world.
It is important, the author claims, that as America considers going to war that we also consider the "victor's strategy," which is the way in which the world will be ordered after the war. Many of the greatest…… [Read More]
S. directly. Evidently, the long-term objectives indirectly face the smooth running of the U.S. government. Priority should be given to those aspects that will pull the resources of the country to extreme levels. The U.S. As a super-power is privileged when tackling issues affecting other nations; it is mandated to help developing long-term solutions.
Long-term also implies that the impacts and effects need to be widespread in order to maintain balance and ensure the prosperity of all sectors is recognized. The above long-term objectives are issues that need time and resources in order to be able to resolve the issue that affects the stability of these countries among other issues. The Soviet Union, for example, is crying to have political relations with ussia. This means that the military forces will be deployed to this country. However, the negotiation process is hefty and requires time and adequate resources in order to…… [Read More]
Foreign Monetary System
A monetary system is any structure initiated by the government and mandated to issue currency, acknowledged as the medium of exchange by its citizens and governments of other nations. The central bank manages the monetary system of a country; this same bank has the responsibility of printing money and controlling the economy. Since the colonial period, coins from the European colonies had circulated in all the colonies. The Spanish coins gained dominance due to the scarcity of coins, during this time; the main form of trade was barter trade. The trade-involved items such as rice, tobacco, or animal skins, which took the form of money paper and notes, had varying rates of discount in different colonies rendering them of very low value (onald & Wright, 2006).
The high population in the U.S. called for increased trade and commerce. This forced the United States government to look for…… [Read More]
S. billion in 1998. eported as the dominant source of inward FDI in China is that of Hong Kong, followed by Japan, the U.S. And Taiwan.
Summary and Conclusion
This study set out to examine Foreign Direct Investment in China by the multinational enterprise. At present China is a primary source for foreign direct investment due to the favorable laws and regulations governing Foreign Direct Investment in China and the attempt to make location siting of the organization equitable and fair. China has been attempting to pull the company in line with their own expectations as have the multinational enterprises who desire to directly invest foreign funds into China.
Investment (2008) Multinational Corporations. Cush & Wakefield. etrieved from: http://www.cushwake.com/cwglobal/jsp/audienceDetail.jsp?audienceId=18&Country=900095&Language=EN&groupBy=audience
Kroll, CA and Bardhan, a. (2007) Globalization and the eal Estate Industry: Issues, Implications, Opportunities Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley, Paper Prepared for the Sloan Industry Studies Annual Conference.…… [Read More]
There are price differences between the U.S. And UK sites for Toys 'r' Us. One example is the animated Talking Ben stuffed bear, which sells for $9.99 in the U.S. And £21.99 in the UK. The equivalent U.S. price in the UK should be £6.56, so there is a substantial price difference on this product.
Consumers do not, however, have the right to demand equal prices. Each nation represents its own market, so the economic conditions for each nation will be distinct. There are significant differences in the costs that underlie each product on retail shelves that are reflected in the retail price. Thus, the conditions for each market are different and the result will be different prices. Goods can flow across borders, but that does not imply that there is a global market -- each local market has its own conditions.
Furthermore, retail prices for consumer goods…… [Read More]
The research, methods will seek to establish a common basement of the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process. Equitable regard will be accorded to the state of affairs that exist between the U.S.A. And Iran
Questionnaires are samples of structured questions that will seek directive responses from the respondents in the field of study. In order to arrive at making decisions, there are several considerations that the president of the U.S.A. needs to know from the public and the secretary of state. Such questions will be included in the questionnaires. The questionnaires will be supplied to various respondents. These respondents are thought to have consistent information as regards the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process matters in the world. Questionnaires are relevant when it comes to exhausting on the exiting trends of management in the country.
Interviews refer to face-to-face approaches of seeking to elicit information…… [Read More]
Again, the press is not aware of all that goes on in the White House behind closed doors. Just because the matter was not publicly mentioned again in a direct fashion, does not mean that it was dropped. My team and I have continually discussed the best course of action for fostering trade with Tunisia and setting a much stronger precedent in the Middle East. The WSJ has actually zeroed in on the connection between this injection of fiscal support to Tunisia and our intentions to foster free trade with the entire Middle East.
The WSJ thinks that we should strike a trade deal with Tunisia and to also designate as a strategic economic nation. I and the entire White House is flattered that the Wall Street Journal would give us such obvious and prosaic advice on plans that we've already come up with ourselves. Of course the U.S. is…… [Read More]
Stern Hu himself cannot actually exert much control from the Chinese prison where he is being held on charges of espionage. The Australian firm he worked for however, Rio Tinto, has been very vocal -- especially through Hu's former boss John Dougall -- in its attempts to get the federal government and Prime Minister Rudd in particular to act quickly to free Hu. This would require heavy Australian pressure on the Chinese government, adding tension to one of Australia's biggest trading relationships (a relationship which, ironically, Hu helped to create and solidify).
The Mass media in both countries has not been helpful here but instead has exacerbated the issue, making it largely one of nationality. Especially in China, where the government and culture is still largely under the control of the Communist Party, this creates a great deal additional emotion surrounding the issue, requiring foreign policy ministers on both sides…… [Read More]
U.. Foreign Policies during 1920s and 1930s
The United tates was at a crucial point in its international relations after WWI. ome scholars say that the U.. pulled out of world affairs, that it didn't actively participate in post-war reconstruction of Europe, and that it failed to behave as a powerful nation should. They most often cite the enate's failure to ratify the treaty establishing the League of Nations as evidence of this unwillingness to participate in world affairs (Constitutional Rights Foundation 1).
Other scholars, however, say that in the post-war period "the U.. emerged as world's most respectable country," (Howard 1). They note that the U.. became more involved economically, that it joined in enforcing penalties against Axis powers and that it contributed immeasurable amounts of influence on world cultures.
One answer to this difference might be that the U.. did participate in world affairs, but that it did…… [Read More]
Similar ambitions of Mao and Stalin to establish pro-communist Korean state, which was divided into two spheres of influences Soviet, with communist regime of Kim Il Sung and pro-American nationalist authoritarian regime of Syngman hee. But according to authors Offner and Gaddis we can say that the role played by North Korean authorities was the main in this conflict. The war started North Korean in 1950 was over three years later, yet no result was achieved. This conflict revealed bankruptcy of United Nations to solve major conflicts and in many respects defined the course of history for 40 more years. These authors which are called "revisionist" and whose ideas are widely criticized today make a clear point that neither USA nor its allies in Europe (mainly France and Great Britain) were ready for a chain reaction of nationalism spread in the third world after the end of WWII, which sympathized…… [Read More]
S. officials and other entities were very well informed), but rather on indecisiveness and incapacity to react with direct, concrete means in these situations.
5. The major issues of American foreign policy during the 1950s were generally circumscribed to the Cold War between the U.S. And the Soviet Union and the relations between these two countries, ranging form mutual containment to escalation (towards the end of the decade).
The first issue emerging from this policy was the Korean War. The Korean War, characterized by the initial invasion of South Korea by North Korean troops and the subsequent implication of American and Chinese troops, was a direct consequence of the post-WWII conditions when each superpower attempted to promote and spread its own military and ideological system.
With the American army first pushed back all the way to Pusan and then following General Macarthur's landing at Inchon behind enemy troops and the…… [Read More]
China and Foreign Policy
With reference to any ONE country you have studied, how far does interdependence shape its foreign policy and in what ways
A Brief History of Chinese Foreign Affairs
Current Foreign Policy
Foreign elations and Interdependency
China is an emerging force in the world, and it seems only to be natural, as the Chinese civilization is one of the ancient civilizations of the world. In fact theorists seem to question the reasons for its downfall, as it is the largest and has historically been the cultural and educational center for the world.
As far as its foreign policy is concerned, the Chinese government deals with it in a unique way, where the foreign affairs are the business of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which falls under the ambit of a department called the "Foreign Affairs Leading Small Group of the Communist Party of China."…… [Read More]
All of these together constitute the full relationship, and it is confusing and contradictory" (1998, 3). The cast of public characters included U.S. diplomats, Navy and Marine officers, and congressmen. Private citizens, including bankers, journalists, lobbyists, and businessmen, rounded out the ensemble. All these groups interacted to influence U.S. relations with Trujillo, although rarely in a consolidated fashion. hile the Dominican Republic became a difficult place to do business, a querulous participant in negotiations, and a major cause of Caribbean disquiet, including genocide, war scares, and assassinations" Trujillo still continued to obtain U.S. support (1998, 3). Even after the Trujillo government was overthrown, the U.S. government insisted on maintaining its power over the region by insisting on "approving the new head of the army and keeping the military intact." In short, ashington moved to create a "guardian system" it could control or manipulate (McSherry 2003, 2). The United States support…… [Read More]
Fueled by massive inflows of foreign direct investment, rising exports, and one of the highest personal savings rates (around 40% of GNP) in the world, this exceptional economic performance has translated into a tripling of per capita incomes. A better material existence is apparent from the provision of food, clothing, and housing for the vast majority of China's 1.3 billion people to the widespread availability of basic consumer durables such as refrigerators, washing machines, and television sets for an increasingly large number of households.: China's growing prosperity was evident by explosive construction throughout the country (Shanghai reportedly has 20% of the world's high-rise construction cranes currently in operation) and by a proliferation of services such as restaurants, fashionable boutiques, movies, and discos in the cities. For the growing and increasingly consumer-oriented middle class, shopping and dressing fashionably is definitely "in." (Ahearn, 1998)
The businesses of China are managed by people…… [Read More]
For instance, McDonald's has a solid partnership with Starbucks that came as a natural solution to the increased consumption of coffee in its restaurants. Starbucks happens to be the world's leading specialty coffee retailer with a worldwide presence that matches that of the fast food producer.
Other factors affecting decision
Vietnam is an Asian country with strong oriental cooking habits, which might not be very compatible with McDonald's typical menu of cheeseburgers and fries with a Coke on the side. Furthermore, the local food seems to be relatively healthy, which again is not something that cam be said by McDonald's food.
In 1990s, the company tried to enter this market, but didn't due to the lack of suitable business partners. A few years later, KFC and Lotteria entered the market and consolidated their position. Therefore, at this point the restaurant chain would need a couple of strong breakthrough strategies…… [Read More]
But the U.S. must also set an example to the world on human rights, and that begins with a rejection of the kind of abuses that were carried out at Abu Ghraib in Iraq during the U.S. occupation of that sovereign nation.
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Butler, Desmond. (2010). Lawmakers stretching out Russia nuke pact debate. The Seattle
Times. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com.
Cardenas, Sonia. (2009). Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope.
Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hamid, Shadi, and Brooke, Steven. (2010). Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,
Policy Review, No. 59, 45-58.
McCain, John. (2010). National History and Universal Values: Prioritizing Human Rights…… [Read More]
The Japanese Government to usiness Model
The Japanese government has more direct control of private business. The difference is that it is doing so, as a partner to ensure that the business is able to maintain successful long-term economic growth. The government does not offer subsidies or any kind of bail outs. Instead, they help companies through loans, tax breaks and other forms of assistance. This helped to contribute to the success of the Japanese auto industry by allowing executives to focus on how their organization can grow in the future. (Johnson, 1985)
usiness, government and the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan
The Liberal Democratic Party helped to liberalize the relationship that the government would have with the auto industry. As it would be successful in helping Japan to eliminate protectionism; this is something that would allow Japanese cars to become more competitive in markets around the world.…… [Read More]
A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).
President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…… [Read More]
The State is just taking back its rightful property under the contractual obligations of the agreement signed between the host State and the foreign investor who' assets are being seized in the expropriation. Another cause for direct expropriation is the concept that the State will in some way gain financially, socially, or economically from the expropriate assets beyond their value of compensation. If a particular investment can generate more positive results in the hands of the State, it is legal to file expropriation proceedings if the full value of compensation is covered as determine by an international tribunal.
In the European Union, direct expropriations are most common. Based on a common peace and favorable diplomatic relations between the countries within the European Union, there is little need for many investors to worry about unlawful and forceful expropriation, as seen in developing or communist nations. Some investors may invest within a…… [Read More]
The administration's disregard for international norms led to the excesses at Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq, and attempts to circumvent congressional oversight over the activities of the Administration backfired. Faced with increasing criticism at home and the inability to stabilize Iraq, the Bush Administration began to temper its approach with realism. The Administration agreed to a bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by former Secretary of State James Baker and Democratic Congressman Lee Hamilton (Baker & Hamilton, 2006). The report prepared by the group was quite critical of the Bush Administration's policies in Iraq, and though many of those criticisms were rejected, the Administrated still took the criticism seriously, and a year later began to pursue a new approach, which eventually helped to decrease the level of violence in Iraq.
The Obama Administration's approach to Iraq War reflects the liberal views of Obama who warned in 2002 that "a U.S. occupation…… [Read More]
S. resident George W. Bush. Thus, when the blast in Bali, at the
southern point of Indonesia, directed the fury of 9/11 at a popular
attraction to Australian holiday-makers, Australia became a nation
motivated in foreign policy by the apparent threat of global terrorism.
This would be demonstrated by its unwavering willingness to follow the
United States even into its poorly-informed and ill-advised invasion of
Iraq, providing combat troops and civilian military aid. During the lead-
up to this war, in fact, John Howard would perhaps have been noted as only
second to Britain's rime Minister Tony Blair in the ranking of Iraq War
cheerleaders, appearing frequently in the media in order to endorse the
alleged provocations made by the U.S. and later proved false. Howard
echoed well the terms which Bush used to prompt war, remarking in a
February 2002 appearance that the Australian government was firm in
"backing…… [Read More]
Ronald Reagan Foreign Policy: Annotated Bibliography
ucker, Robert W. 1989. "REAGAN'S FOREIGN POLICY." Foreign Affairs 68, no. 1: 1-27.
he author of this article maintains that Ronald Reagan assumed the Presidential role rebuking the 70s' arms control attempts. As a majority of Reagan's fellow politicians were highly suspicious of any arms control pacts with Russia, the general belief was that the newly sworn-in President shared the same view. he cold-war agreement with respect to foreign policy remains consistently idealized since Vietnam. Rarely did it function with the now-envisaged efficacy and smoothness. his re-formation's key feature was, evidently, the restitution of a prevalent public opinion that perceived the exercising of U.S. power without guilt or distrust, once again. herefore, the chief Reagan foreign-policy legacy might well be that: the 40th President of the United States altered the inclination not to suffer for USA's global position into something of a firm resolve…… [Read More]
In April 2nd 1982, the then Argentinian government sent soldiers to take over the disputed Falklands Islands. The reason for this is that the South American country regarded the group of islands as part of its territory. However, the British, who already occupied the islands, also regarded the Falklands as their territory. Over the next one month, both countries made serious attempts to store the conflict from escalating. Alexander Haig, who was the then United States Secretary of State was right in the middle of the diplomatic negotiations to try and stop the conflicting from escalating. He and his team travelled frantically between the London and Buenos Aires to meet and negotiate with the leaders of the two countries, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom and President Leopoldo Galtieri of Argentina. Nevertheless, the countless hours of negotiations and the frantic efforts of the Alexander Haig and his…… [Read More]
“As Long as The Personal and Societal Safety of American Citizens Is at Risk from External Threats, Historical Precedents Suggest That Rather Few Limits Will Be Placed on The Use of American Military Power, Or on The Constraints the United States Will Impose on The Peoples of Other Countries.”
The government of America exists for its citizens’ welfare, an obligation which encompasses being in charge of both its internal and external affairs. US foreign policy’s key principles are: defense of the physical territory of America, safeguarding citizens from attacks by enemies, promoting the status and economic interests of America, and promoting the nation’s democracy- and freedom- related values across the world. By end-twentieth century, the US’s foreign policy entailed relationships with a total of 159 states that were typically competitive, supportive at times, and at other times clearly unfriendly (Deutsch, 1997).
The government’s executive wing has largely remained in charge…… [Read More]
Expanding the United Nations' mandate
The United Nations is a body that was formed after the WWII with the wider mandate of ensuring there is maintenance of peace globally. It is not partisan and non-political in nature hence geared towards making and maintaining peace across the world. The mandates of the UN as outlined in the United Nations (2014) website are; to stabilize conflict situations especially once a ceasefire has been agreed on and create an environment where the warring factions can achieve lasting peace. They can also be deployed in order to prevent conflicts from breaking out or from spilling over across the borders. Their work is also to ensure that the implementation of peace agreements. The UN is also charged with leading territories and states as they transition to stable governments that value good governance, democratic principles as well as economic development.
However, the above functions…… [Read More]
September 11, 2001 changed everything. We hear sentiments such as this one often; what do they really mean? Other than the obvious -- stricter security at airports, increased demand for Middle East experts -- what really changed? Are Americans fundamentally different people than we were on September 10? Perhaps as a nation our priorities changed, but has our personality been altered? The 9/11 Commission Report emphasizes national unity: "remember how we all felt on September 11...not only the unspeakable horror but how we came together as a nation -- one nation. Unity of purpose and unity of effort are how we will defeat this enemy." (National Commission 2004, executive summary 34)
The raw freshness of the attacks on September 11 inspires amnesia regarding other national security crises: the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis. America has never been without military involvement in the world, at…… [Read More]
S., become attracted to the U.S. And flee the country. Cuba certainly needs to prevent a brain drain at all costs. It could do so by encouraging the U.S. To invest in its infrastructure and for U.S. doctors to train and learn at Cuban facilities, which, by all accounts, have some of the highest standards of excellence in the world (Schoultz, 2010, 8). By helping to build up the Cuban infrastructure, further economic trade could be encouraged. This could also help both the U.S. And Cuba exploit its other natural resources by providing the necessary framework for extraction and export of its huge nickel and sugar stockpiles.
ith the coming economic recovery, the world will certainly need raw materials like nickel and steel as well as sugar to fuel the building and population boom that will more than likely follow a recovery. The political ties that bind the current U.S.…… [Read More]
The Republic of The Gambia used to be part of the Empire of Ghana and the Kingdom of the Songhais (ureau of African Affairs 2005). First records came from Arab traders of the 9th and 10th centuries who had commercial relations with the native for slaves, gold and ivory. The Portuguese took over through sea routes at the time The Gambia became part of the Kingdom of Mali. Exclusive trade rights were sold to the English under Queen Elizabeth I. In the 17th and 18th centuries, England and France fought for political and commercial control over it until the Treaty of Versailles of 1783 turned it over to Great ritain. Slaves from The Gambia were first taken to Europe when the labor market expanded in the West Indies and North America in the 18th century. The ritish established a military post at athurst or the modern-day anjul in…… [Read More]
2005). Instead of economic and military interventionism, the new American leadership proposed relations based on commerce and, more importantly, diplomacy. The United States would therefore keep interventionism at a minimum.
Because it was based on a keen common sense and core values, FDR's vision came to be known as the "good neighbor" foreign policy. Together with his wife Eleanor, FDR drew up the blueprints for a system based on "common ideals and a community of interest, together with a spirit of cooperation." Rather than seeing other nations as means to promote American interests, FDR believed that American well-being depended heavily on the well-being of its satellite countries as well. This was a direct contrast to the paternalistic attitude that characterized interventionism.
As a result of these non-interventionist policies, FDR was able to build much more goodwill. Thus, by World War II, many Western nations threw their support behind the Allies.…… [Read More]
Sino-U.S. elations in the Post-Cold War Era
Today, China and the United States are inextricably linked in the modern world and some observers maintain that any disagreements that emerge between the two countries are relatively insignificant and will not adversely affect this growing economic and political relationship. By contrast, other international analysts argue that recent trends in China's economic and military growth will inevitably result in armed conflict between these two superpowers. To determine the facts, this paper provides a discussion concerning the accuracy of these respective viewpoints concerning the status of Sino-U.S. relations in the post-Cold War era, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
China's development in the 20th century
The 20th century was a turbulent one for China, marred by major famines, foreign occupation and civil unrest.[footnoteef:1] Despite these problems and the enormous challenges in achieving self-sufficiency in food production, the…… [Read More]
Determine which institutional and risk factors must be considered and whether they support entry or not.
The company needs to evaluate critically the risks and institutional factors before deciding on entering the foreign market. The institutional and risk factors must be relevant to the ambitions and expectations of the company. Institutional factors constitute three principal aspects. The first aspect of institutional factors is the political institutions for instance the nature of policymaking, regulations, and adjudications in the foreign market. The company intending to enter the foreign market must ensure that the political institutions support its mission and vision in the process of exploiting the scarce resources within the economy (Baek, 2011). The second institutional factor is the economic situation of the foreign country. Economic nature of the nation would be in the form of structure of the national factor markets and accessibility of the international factors of production.…… [Read More]
foreign immigrant groups California share similar struggles quest American citizens
Following the development of western countries in the nineteenth century, there emerged a prolonged immigration of Asian communities into the American society. Iran had a shock in their culture. Individual personality such as language proficiency, learning level, and job skill influences their ability to adapt. Immigration is a key life challenge, although well thought-out to be stressful, particularly for women coming from environments with observance to traditional gender roles, through the exposure, organizations of these societies disintegrate.
Shared struggles of Iranian & Mexican immigrants
Economic factors like financial resources, loses and gains in social status intimidates the immigrants. The attitude of the host country with the level of similarity of the two cultures is also an influential factor. Individual factors such as character strength, decision-making skills, declaration of feeling of loss, and the ability to endure uncertainty about gender roles…… [Read More]
It was however an essential move for the foreign policy of the United States in its quest for containment of the communist threat.
A proper example of the way in which the decisions taken in terms of foreign policy were the reflection of the interests of political parties vs. their electorate was the Carter administration that took some of the most important steps in the discussions with the ussian Communist forces on human rights issues. Better said, usually the first steps in improving the diplomatic relations with a country or a set of countries is the start of negotiations on smaller and less important aspects for the political forces. One such subject, in the late 70s and early 80s was the discussion on human rights. As opposed to the more stringent and real problems the U.S. had with the U.S.S.. that included nuclear threats or economic competition, the issue of…… [Read More]
For both teachers, however, Boxer and Cortes-Conde highlight moments where the teacher talk lends itself to greater student interaction. At these moments, the teachers often fostered group discussions by asking students about their own cultural norms. When teachers took on the role of information brokers, students resumed the role of passive learners. The authors argue that open dialogue is crucial to fostering pragmatic and sociocultural competence, and that teachers can create this open dialogue and a place of comfort and still encourage pragmatic awareness. (Hall & Verplaetse, 2000, p. 15)
Stressing among new and existing foreign language educators the importance of classroom interaction as well as cultural expression is essential, as the manner in which context is delivered, as apposed to content lectured upon creates foundational interest and potential independent motivation to learn. Curriculum, must be inclusive and collaborative to engender individual motivation, which is essential to foreign language learning,…… [Read More]
Foreign Intelligence Services
There is much controversy with regard to the foreign policy practiced by the majority of powerful nations in the contemporary society. In an environment where intelligence is often the key to success, emerging powers have the tendency to improve their intelligence services and to get actively involved in competing with some of the established actors in the international setting. hile Russia proved to be an impressive adversary for the U.S. during the Cold ar era, new powers such as China and Iran currently represent significant opponents for the est. hen considering the U.S.' current role in international affairs, it would be important for someone to gain a complex understanding of the degree to which countries such as Russia, China, and Iran represent significant threats today.
Russian-American relations have been turbulent throughout the second half of the twentieth century. The 1990s have brought a breath of fresh air…… [Read More]
China's Relations With Latin America And Caribbean Countries
China's presence in Latin America and the Caribbean countries has increased in the past decade following the country's improved diplomatic initiatives. China has essentially increased its presence in this region through establishing cultural, military, trade, and financial relations. o enhance its diplomatic ties with Latin America and the Caribbean countries, China has used several foreign policy initiatives that have contributed to deeper relations. Actually, the strategies used by China to develop ties with Latin America and the Caribbean countries have not only deepened relations but pose an imminent threat to the United States.
One of the ways through which China has achieved its deeper relations with Latin America and the Caribbean countries is through emphasizing on developing South-South cooperation. his emphasis has granted governments and business in the region an alternative to the U.S., which has in turn created stronger political, military,…… [Read More]
China and the Korean War
The fall of China to Communism in 1949 came about because of many different reasons. One, Mao Zedong was popular with the people, and this helped him overpower Jiang Jieshi and his government. Mao also had territory and Japanese military items left over from World War II, which Jiang did not. Mao had more military might, and he was simply more popular than Jiang with the Chinese people. China fell to Communism because of Mao's popularity more than his power. He was a farmer like most of the population of China, and he spoke to their needs and wants. The Chinese civil war did not result from the National Security Council's Memorandum 68; it had been going on for years before and after World War II.
However, NSC-68 did have far-reaching consequences in American foreign policy with China and the Soviet Union and regarding the…… [Read More]
Clash of Civilizations?
Politics, ideology, and economics have been sources of conflict throughout modern humanity. All have played out in the rise and fall of every empire to date. Be it the oman, Ottoman, British, or American Empire; they have all gained influence by exerting these aspects of existence. Huntington (1993: 22) asserts future conflicts will not be of previous natures; rather conflict will be of cultural origins. To use his term, conflict will be among cultural fault lines. In other words, clashes of civilizations will dominate global politics, (Huntington 1993: 22)
This is a bold assertion on Huntington's behalf.
Conflicts have every thing to do with ideology, economy, and politics. Culture has every thing to do with ways of life, geography, and as Huntington states, most importantly religion. Here he wants to separate religion from ideology; this is short sighted, and contrary to the following argument. The battle of…… [Read More]
Culture, Dreams, And Artwork
Dreams and artwork are two things that seem to provide an invitation for interpretation, and cultural perspective is almost always going to influence that interpretation. At first blush, this statement may seem to fly in the face of Jungian interpretation, since the collective unconscious and the enduring interpretation of symbols might suggest that symbols would not vary across cultures. However, such an interpretation ignores the fact that Jung acknowledges the impact that individual culture has on the interpreter. While symbols may retain a broader overall meaning across cultures, the details of those symbols are certainly influenced by the surrounding culture. Moreover, some symbols may be culturally specific. In fact, this paper will discuss the veil and its relation to Islam, and how the surrounding culture can color interpretations of the veil in art and in dreams.
Because the symbols in dreams and artwork are influenced by…… [Read More]
Strategy that has always been used in regard to foreign policy has somehow left the United State not to be in a position to implement the domestic policy effectively and this has made the citizen feel the effect of this wrong strategy towards foreign policy. Economically, in terms of security, and our relation with other countries have deteriorated because of this. Different scholars and some politician have already voiced their concerns on how the rise of China is slowly shipping away at the United States' preponderance of power, the budget crisis, and involvement into the two long wars that have left the U.S. military as well as the public be exhausted. Hence they have seen the need for United State to minimize its global military presence, shed the security ties it has overseas, and minimize its effort of leading the liberal international order and just concentrate more domestically.…… [Read More]
S.; b) assess correctly the readiness of America's partners to back up the sanctions; and c) engender the support of minor trading partners ("black knights") to increase their willingness to trade with Iran as the big players leave in obedience to the U.S. led sanctions (Kozhanov, 145).
The Russian writer uses some of the space in his article to review the history of U.S. sanctions against Iran, and mentions a brief thaw in the bitterness between the two countries. That came in 1998, when a team of American wrestlers visited Tehran and were welcomed with flowers. In that moment of detente, the U.S. lifted the ban on exported medical and agricultural goods to Iran, and allowed imports (dried fruits, caviar, and carpets) from Iran into the U.S. But along came the new Iranian president, hard-liner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who took up the slogan "Death to Israel and the U.S.A." And made…… [Read More]
Indian Legal Environment Foreign Companies Introduction Today, International Businesses buy sell, India. It essential a foreign company planning enter India, understand culture, traditions peoples' mindset.
Conflict in Employment elations
The issue of conflict in employment relations presents great importance to companies because of the effects it has on the activity of employees and on the performance of the company. There are several types of organizational conflicts. The most important types of conflict are represented by individual, collective, overt, covert, and others. Based on the paradigms that these situations refer to, conflicts can be industrial, like strikes, breaches, misbehavior, sabotage, and resistance. The numerous causes of organizational conflicts lead to different types of conflicts and strategies used in these cases.
Job egulation Paradigm
Conflicts in job regulation are important because they help reach a level of stability and balance in the system. This objective can be reached by identifying different interests…… [Read More]
One of the major issues that have characterized international relations (IR) discourse is the role and significance of gender. Steans (2006) states that gender issues in international relations (IR) are usually very controversial and highly political. The controversy associated with this issue is attributable to the fact that gender IR is an increasingly political issue. This paper focuses on examining the role and significance of gender in international relations given the increased controversy and politics surrounding it. This paper demonstrates that gender is an important issue in IR, especially with the increased role of men and women in world politics. The first part shows that gender relations are crucial in international law and politics. The second part shows that incorporating both genders in IR discourse helps in establishing fair social policies and inclusive peace strategies. The third part will demonstrate that gender plays a major role in formulating policy agenda…… [Read More]
However, the speech is rather vague and filled with generalities and idealistic views. Precisely because it is not clear and directed against a named aggressor it does not have the strength to create a major change in our foreign policy. The speech should rather be analyzed as a sign of where our security policy is headed than as a clear statement of foreign policy. Perhaps the President's speech could have had a bigger impact if the aggressors were named. It is clear that Japan, Italy and Germany can be portrayed as aggressors, but the Chicago speech does not identify any country. From this it is simple to draw the conclusion that this is the first step towards taking measures against aggressors.
The quarantine of the aggressor nations represents an alternative for America's current foreign policy and the president showed support for forming alliances against aggressive nations. The Chicago speech marks…… [Read More]
8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…… [Read More]
In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of calculated self-interest. They follow a utilitarian and pragmatic philosophy in which "decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs" (Goldstein and Pevehouse 127). Individual leaders will have their unique personalities, experiences and psychological makeups, and some will be more averse to risk than others, but essentially they all follow a rational model of policymaking. American presidents are generally skilled politicians as well or they would never have achieved such high office in this first place, and this means that their rational calculations will always include public opinion, the needs of their electoral coalitions and the wishes of various interest…… [Read More]
By way of introduction to the topic, Legro examines the general presumption that a state's sense of identity defines the parameter of its national interests, thus directing its domestic or international conduct. Rather than subscribing blindly to this fundamental precept of neorealism, Legro offers a competing theory of identity and its influence on international relations, surmising that "states become what they do as much as they do what they are, they desire what they do as much as they do what they desire" (20). It is Legro's contention that a state's distinct set of cultural norms, social values, and other markers of identity can direct governmental actions on the world stage, but that these actions will inevitably influence this identity, thus providing an entirely different contextual framework for international relations as time progresses and circumstances change.
Legro cites the example of America's divergent approaches to participation in each of the…… [Read More]
Perhaps that more timely international cooperation could do better to save innocent people.
Stephanie Power covers a period from 1915 to 2001 with the increasing capacity of U.S. response to genocide. While in 1915, nothing could be done about the urkish genocide in Armenia, the U.S. role increased constantly to the ones played at the end of the 20th century in Yugoslavia and with the role in Saddam's Iraq. Perhaps such examples can help develop preemptive action towards genocide that can be acted upon in the future.
4. Between 1939 and 1941, Germany had started the war in Europe with its attack on Poland, on September 1, 1939, preceded by a series of aggressive actions such as the remilitarization of the Rhineland and the annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia. With Great Britain and France declaring war on Germany, armed conflict proceeded in Europe with the rapid German victories over Poland,…… [Read More]
Far from being contrite, Southerners more emphatically held to the perceived, innate superiority of their race and breeding, comparing themselves to Biblical patriarchs as a means of validating these perceptions and justifying slavery (432). If Perry's journey had demonstrated Northern hubris, Stowe's novel generated its Southern equivalent.
Then, there was an ironic unification of the British and the Americans in the development of Samuel Colt's revolver in these years. hile the new gun was proving remarkably effective in aiding American conquest of Native American territories, it meant more than this; it was evidence of Anglo-Saxon superiority, which inspired the British as well (424). Old animosities, it seems, were lost in the greater commonality of a shared idea of racial superiority. On the strictly American front, this belief in Protestant and white superiority was also fueled by challenges coming from other nations. Long before the great tide of European immigration at…… [Read More]
Executive ranch Authority to Conduct Foreign Affairs
Executive Power is vested in the President of the United States by Article II of the Constitution. Article II, Section 1, Clause 1 of the American Constitution, called the 'Executive Vesting Clause' has been the constant focus of constitutional analysis, even at the time of its ratification. James Madison and Alexander Hamilton famously debated this clause in 1793, on the specific issue of residual authority given to the President above and beyond powers as enumerated in the Constitution. The power and authority of the President affects not only the President himself, and the two arms of the Congress, but also the freedoms and rights of U.S. citizens. The precise delineation of executive power has been the subject of notable Supreme Court cases particularly with respect to foreign affairs and war. In the United States now, due to the 'War on Terror', issues of…… [Read More]
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…… [Read More]
In addition the United States has provided many new products to be used for agricultural production so that the war torn fields can again become fruitful and prosperous (Adamson, 2002).
The infrastructure assistance provides the roadways so that the agricultural products can be transported into needed areas and crops can be transported out for sale and for export.
While helping the nation rebuild the roads and highways and bridges that were destroyed during the conflict the United States also has devoted time and funding to the development of the nation's communication system. Engineers, technical training and technical instruments have all been provided by the U.S. To Vietnam in the attempt to use the international strategy of development for the purpose of defining and carrying out the United States foreign policy toward Vietnam (Adamson, 2002).
The second international strategy being used by the United States for the purpose of…… [Read More]