Forensic Science Essays (Examples)

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Forensic Fabric Analysis

Words: 2310 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67517095

Forensic Fabric Analysis

Some of the basic tools that a fabric examiner should at least have at any given moment include a stereomicroscope, along with a composite light microscope that is fitted with polarized light capability, and a comparison microscope. When examining both questioned and known fabric, the examiner must do this side by side, and within the same magnifications in terms of visible light. Alternative lighting, which includes fluorescent lighting and polarized light, is not necessary but when the equipment used allows, is highly recommended. In certain types of analyses, such as when testing for solubility, you may need to examine the questioned and known fabric near each other, and on one slide, or in the spot plate's wells that are adjacent to each other. However, you need to exercise extreme caution where loose fabric is concerned not unless you have no problem with identifying the source of each…… [Read More]

References

Innes, B. (2000). Bodies of Evidence. Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Press.

Lyle, D.P. (2004). Analyzing Trace Evidence. Forensics for Dummies. Chapter 17, pgs. 269-275. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Saferstein, R. (2004). Hair Fibers, and Paint. In Criminalistics, An Introduction to Forensic Science. (8th Ed.) Chapter 8. Pgs. 194-219. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Bartos, L. (2012). No Forensic Background? No Problem. Pro-Publications.
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Forensic Case Study Enrique Camarena the Abduction

Words: 1293 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79150009

Forensic Case Study

Enrique Camarena

The abduction of Enrique Camarena

The abduction of Enrique Camarena presents numerous interesting and unusual features regarding the gathering of forensic evidence. Many of obstacles that arose over the course of the investigation can be traced to the fact that the DEA Special Agent was apprehended in Mexico, where U.S. laws about preserving evidence did not apply. The Mexican police force (at least at the time of the abduction in 1984) was much more prone to corruption and bribery by persons engaged in illegal drug trafficking than U.S. law enforcement. Rather than seeing to assist the DEA in bringing the murderers of Camarena to justice, the Mexican police often acted as obstacles, not assistants.

The real perpetrators of the murder of Camarena concocted a scheme with certain select members of the Mexican policy whereby Camarena's body (and the body of Capt. Alfredo Zavala, a Mexican…… [Read More]

References

Collecting evidence from human bodies. (2001). CA Department of Justice. Retrieved:

 http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/CAbodies.pdf 

Gaensslen, R.E., & Larsen, K. (2013). Introductory forensic science. San Diego, CA:

Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
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Forensic Nursing Goes Far Beyond Traditional Medical

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41015000

Forensic nursing goes far beyond traditional medical care; it is "an innovative expansion of the role nurses will fill in the health care delivery system of the future," (Lynch, 1995, p. 489). This is why the Vice President of the United States Joe Biden has stated, "Forensic Nurses play an integral role in bridging the gap between law and medicine. They should be in each and every emergency room," (cited by the International Association of Forensic Nurses, 2006). Until recently, I was not aware that the profession existed. I learned what I know about forensic science from television, and also from years spent watching autopsies being performed at the morgue near by dad's office. Oddly, I would spend hours watching actual autopsies so when television shows started to depict forensic science in documentary and fiction shows more and more, the field broadened and opened up to me. I soon learned…… [Read More]

References

Hammer, R. & Pagliaro, E.M. (2006). Forensic Nursing: A Handbook for Practice. Jones & Bartlett.

International Association of Forensic Nurses (2006). What is forensic nursing? Retrieved online: http://www.iafn.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=137

Lynch, V.A. (1995). Clinical forensic nursing: a new perspective in the management of crime victims from trauma to trial. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 1995 Sep;7(3):489-507.
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Forensic Pathology

Words: 907 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91852648

Forensic Pathology as Scientific Evidence

Forensic Pathology is generally understood as having to do with the investigation of causation of injuries or death as a legal requirement. In the pursuit of this, pathologists usually investigate injury or death scenes and other relevant records to ascertain the cause of death.

Practically, forensic pathology incorporates the performance of post-mortem examination, which is an examination of body tissues and organs as well as investigations such as X-rays and toxicology testing. Forensic pathology makes it possible to interpret such results and reveal cause of end point of death as required by the law.

Interpreting Evidence

The results driven from forensic pathology are bound to be subjected to interpretations. The body can transform during the process of death or after, this transformation or changes are referred to as post-mortem changes or "artefacts," these changes can be misinterpreted as ailment or injuries that took place when…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Goudge, S.T. (2008). Inquiry into Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Ontario. Qubec: Ministry of the Attorney General.

Hickman, M., Hughes, K., Ropero-Miller, J., & Strom, K. (2007). Medical Examiners and Coroners Offices. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

National Research Council of the National Academics. (2009). Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. washington DC: The National Academies Press.

R. v. Sherret-Robinson, [2009] O.J. No. 5312 . (n.d.).
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Forensic Lab Forensic Crime Labs Are Important

Words: 975 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89844619

Forensic Lab

Forensic crime labs are important institutions within the criminal justice system and each lab must be up to standard in order for this system to operate at a high and fair level. A good crime lab begins with a good design based on solid fundamentals and thorough planning. The purpose of this essay is to design a digital forensic crime lab that can be used in a university setting. In order to this, the essay will explain the budgeting process while keeping business objectives in mind. The next step of the design will introduce how the physical controls can be used to implement this design. Criteria for success will also be discussed as well as a suggested floor plan to house the lab.

Budgeting

The setting for this digital forensic lab is within a university setting which denotes that funds could most likely be attained for these purposes.…… [Read More]

References

Al Falayleh, M. (2013). Building a Digital Forensic Laboratory For an Educational Institute. American University in the Emirates, 2012. Retrieved from http://sdiwc.net/digital- library/web-admin/upload-pdf/00000357.pdf

Mount, M. & Denmark, A. (nd). Digital Forensics: Architectural and Engineering Facility Design Requirements. AIA, . Retrieved from  http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/ek_members/documents/pdf/aiab092706.pdf 

Taylor, M. (2012). NIST Offers Guidance on Building 21st Century Forensics Labs. NIST Law Enforcement Standards. Retrieved from http://www.nist.gov/oles/forensics/facilities_forensics.cfm

Vacca, J. & Rudolph, K. (2010). System Forensics, Investigation and Response. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 1 edition (September 24, 2010)
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Forensic Nursing in the Past

Words: 2240 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87651556

Batchen (2005) defines the components of the nursing process as the client, the environment, the definition of health, and the definition of the nurse's role. Another trend in healthcare to be addressed is the reduction of enrollment in Registered Nurse (RN) programs, which has led to a shortage of trained nurses. This trend is important because the role of the forensic nurse has changed as a result of the increase in a nurse's range of function, with the rise in the number of the elderly due to improved healthcare systems and the introduction of community-based preventive projects.

In the future, the role of the forensic nurse may become more specialized and considered a separate profession from the registered nurse. According to the Federal Bureau of Health professions, in 2000, the National supply of registered nurses was estimated at 1.89 million, while the demand was projected at 2 million, a shortage…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allert, L. & Becker, M. (2003). Death investigation: Nursing on the cutting edge.

Retrieved March 26, 2007, from: http://www.forensicnursemag.com/articles2811lifedeath.html.

Batchen, M. (2005). Forensic Nurse Death Investigators. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://www.lifeloom.com.

Hufft, a.G. & Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2000). Forensic nursing: An emerging specialty. Nursing now: Today's issues, tomorrow's trends (pp. 427-448).
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Forensic Entomology

Words: 1904 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3275813

Forensic

According to Elvidge (2014), the first record of the use of forensic entomology is Song Ci (Sung Tz'u), in 13th century China. However, using insects and arthropods like arachnids to aid in forensics investigations is a relatively new field, and one ripe with potential. The most notable applications of forensic entomology are in the identification of time elapsed since death, and the geographic location of death. When applying forensic entomology to homicide and other death studies, the specialist will take into account the various stages of decomposition. Forensic entomology can also be used to elucidate other types of crimes in which any type of decaying organic matter is a clue, in cases of human or animal abuse in which wounds have festered, in analyzing dried blood samples, in the investigation of botanical drug trafficking, and when detecting the presence of drugs in the deceased. Less glamorous but equally as…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, G.S. (n.d.). Forensic entomology: the use of insects in death investigations. Retrieved online:  http://www.sfu.ca/~ganderso/forensicentomology.htm 

Byrd, J.H. (2014). Forensic entomology. Retrieved online: http://www.forensicentomology.com/info.htm

Byrd, J.H. & Castner, J.L. (2009). Forensic Entomology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Byrd, J.H., Lord, W.D., Wallace, J.R. & Tomberlin, J.K. (2010). Collection of entomological evidence during legal investigations. Retrieved online: http://www.esf.edu/efb/parry/fsc%20lectures/sampling.pdf
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Forensic Pathology

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22642945

Forensic Pathology: Forensics and DNA

DNA is part of the building blocks of human life and individuality: "DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin, drops of blood, hair, and saliva all contain DNA that can be used to identify us" (Norrgard, 2008). DNA has long been a major part of forensics testing used in criminal cases for over forty years. "At its inception, DNA testing could only be performed by laboratories with molecular diagnostic capabilities" (Calaluce, 2010, p.2). The controversy surrounding DNA testing that made it more heavily scrutinized when it first debuted largely revolved around the fact that it was considered a "soft science" and that DNA evidence was viewed as simply not as reliable as other types. However, this controversy has since been eliminated: and there is absolutely no valid…… [Read More]

References

Calaluci, J. (2010). Guide to Forensic Pathology. New York: CRC Press.

Dvorsky, G. (2012, October 1). How forensic pathologists used maggots to identify an "unrecognizable" body. Retrieved from io9.com: http://io9.com/5947925/how-forensic-pathologists-used-maggots-to-identify-a-badly-burned-body

Norrgard, K. (2008). How ethical is it to keep a database of convicted felons' DNA profiles? Can we rely on DNA fingerprints for conviction? Many ethical issues surround the use of DNA in forensic technology. Retrieved from Nature.com:  http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/forensics-dna-fingerprinting-and-codis-736 

Rosner, D. (2004, May 20). How does DNA Fingerprinting Work. Retrieved from thenakedscientist.com: http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/articles/article/dalyacolumn8.htm/
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Forensic Toxicologist

Words: 819 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89546765

Forensic Toxicology in the 21st Century Courtroom

Innovations in forensic technologies in recent years have introduced a wide array of powerful law enforcement tools that can be used to help identify criminal perpetrators and establish the credible evidence needed to convict them. As a result, today, forensic toxicologists play an increasingly vital role in the criminal justice system where the need for accurate and valid evidence is paramount. To determine the precise role and importance of the forensic toxicologist today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and significant findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

By definition, forensic toxicology is focused on providing scientific evidence for the courts. For example, Anderson and Volker (2008) report that, "The term 'forensic' is effectively a synonym for 'legal' or 'related to courts' and in Latin means 'before…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, S.J. & Volker, J.X. (2008, Winter). The forensic marketing case study methods.

SAM Advanced Management Journal, 73(1), 4-9.

Buker, H. (2012). Fraudulent forensic evidence: Malpractice in crime laboratories. El Paso,

TX: LFB Scholarly.
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Forensic Unit Justification

Words: 1272 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95676396

Justification of a Forensic Unit

Our Agency has just received $3 million grant from the federal government because of the efficient method that the unit employs in running the department. Additionally, the City Council has agreed to continue assisting the unit with additional funding at the end of the three years provided the department is productive and serve the citizens well. However, the department requires presenting a different budget from the previous budget. This proposal will create a new budget for the forensic unit to describe where all the funding will be allocated. The budget will consider the specialized personnel for the unit because smooth running of the unit depends on the specialized personnel.

Mission Statement of the Specialized Unit

The specialized forensic unit will deliver highest quality forensic services to all our customers, and our unit will deliver accurate service through analysis and the state of art technology. We…… [Read More]

Reference

Bureau of Forensic Service (2009). California Crime Laboratory Review Task Force. California Department of Justice.

Police Executive Research,(2002). Police department budgeting: A guide for law enforcement chief executives. Washington, D.C: Police Executive Research

Forum.

Spence, D. Webster, B. & Connors, E.(2009). Guideline for Operating a new Police Department. U.S. Department of Justice.
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Forensic Procedure for Digging Up

Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86572126

But on the other hand, a reader who is also interested in the subject doesn't have to necessarily enjoy the idea of decomposing human corpses - or have really thick skin - to get educated regarding the forensic science / anthropologic value of this book.

Being a student in Forensic Anthropology in fact makes it easier to get through the potentially offensive parts of the book, because there are many things to be learned from the novel. This book reflects real-life issues pertaining to forensic research and crime-related applications to forensic science. The book is dedicated to "All victims of murder, all those who mourn them, and all who seek justice on their behalf."

Bass's "Body Farm" is designed so that cases where bodies are found in similar circumstances may have a foundation in terms of the forensic police personnel being able to know how and when - if not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bass, Bill; & Jefferson, Jon. (2003). Death's Acre: Inside the Legendary Forensic Lab the Body

Farm Where the Dead Do Tell Tales. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.

Burns, Karen Ramey. (2006). Department of Anthropology Faculty. Retrieved July 29, 2007, at http://www.anthro.uga.edu/people/burns.htm.

Cornwell, Patricia Daniels (1990). Postmortem. New York: Charles Scribner's Son.
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Field of Forensic Chemistry Investigation

Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83961468

Forensic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that applies the techniques and concepts of chemistry to provide evidence and testify in court. Some federal agencies such as FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and National Institute of Justice use forensic chemistry experts to investigate the crimes committed against the society, which include environmental pollution, food adulteration, and distribution of unsafe chemical substances. In the United States, cocaine and other illegal drugs can put society at risks. Thus, experts in forensic chemistry uses different processes to perform a laboratory test to identify the presence of substances. A chemical analysis carried out in the laboratory can help to detect illegal drugs, which will assist the police or other law enforcement agents to prosecute offenders in the law courts. (Drug Enforcement Administration 1).

Moreover, the forensic chemistry analyzes non-biological materials to detect a trace of evidence from the crime scenes to found unknown material…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buffalo State SUNY. Forensic Chemistry, B.S. Program. 2015 02 December. 2015.

http://chemistry.buffalostate.edu/forensic-chemistry-bs-program

The Buffalo State SUNY is one of an accredited universities in the United States that offers a forensic chemistry. The university mandates all students wishing to pursue the study to have a strong background in chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. Forensic Science Technicians, United States Department of Labor. 2015. 02 December. 2015. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/forensic-science-technicians.htm
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Forensic Chemistry Forensics Is a Very Important

Words: 1230 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88348926

Forensic Chemistry

Forensics is a very important part of a crime scene investigation. There used to be a time when murders or crimes were left unsolved due to the lack of evidence. However with the advances in technology and research in forensics, crime solving has become a lot easier. The branch of science, which helps out in finding out important evidence, is known as Forensics Chemistry. Forensics Chemistry employs methods, which help in finding clues, which couldn't be found in any other circumstances. We can simply call it the application of a brand of chemistry at the scene of a crime. This is a science which helps us investigate chemical substances and can help trace the cause of the death of a human being by finding useful evidence. However it's not important that the crime scene may be a site of murder or theft. It could also be due to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Neufeld, Peter L. & Colman, Neville 1990, 'When Science Takes the Witness Stand', Scientific American, vol. 262, no. 5, May, pp. 46-53

Coelli, Andree 1989, 'One Chance in 165 Million', Australian Law News, September, pp. 22-6

Scutt, Jocelynne 1990, 'Beware of New Technologies', Legal Service Bulletin, vol. 15, no1, February, pp. 9-12.

Introduction to Forensic Chemistry
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Criminal Justice - Forensics Twentieth-Century

Words: 846 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7988390

, 2005)

In the same way that traditional techniques of criminal identification have enabled law enforcement authorities to establish national fingerprint information databases for the purposes of connecting evidence to possible previous offenders, DNA-based forensic evidence has allowed the creation of similar databases greatly expanding the types of forensic evidence used to increase the security of sensitive facilities and restricted areas.

When combined with the ever-increasing power of modern computer technology to cross reference and match different types of physical evidence, law enforcement authorities have already developed the ability to establish terrorist watch lists incorporating forensic evidence of previous acts of terrorism with uniquely identifying features of perpetrators still at large. The continued evolution of such marriages between criminal forensics and identification techniques will greatly enhance homeland security, both at checkpoints and in terms of tracking the possible whereabouts and activities of persons of interest in connection with possible terrorism.…… [Read More]

References

Johns, L.G., Downes, G.F., Bibles, C.D. (2005). Resurrecting Cold Case Serial Homicide Investigations; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 74 No. 8). Kobalinsky, L., Liotti, T.F., Oeser-Sweat, J. (2005). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.

Markey, J. (2007). After the Match: dealing with the New Era of DNA;

The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10). Yost, J., Burke, T. (2007). Veterinary Forensics: Animals Curtailing Crime; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10).
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Criminal Science Applying the Scientific

Words: 1382 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30620261

At the same time, there is a different element introduced in the pursuit of forensic science that is not dealt with in other branches of scientific inquiry. As the question of justice is also central to any forensic proceeding, the suspect's account of events and/or hypothesized explanations for observations must also be taken account (Young 2009). In this way, both verification and falsification can be used during experimentation.

Before these experiments take place, however, the predictions must lay out a way to clearly identify the expectations of the experiments, as well as a way the methods by which they should be conducted. Several predictions can usually be made rather quickly after the hypothesis that are fully testable and easily determined. Based on hairs found at the crime scene, for instance, it could be predicted that skin found under the victim's fingernails was of the same DNA as the on-matching hairs…… [Read More]

References

Palmer, G. (1998). "Forensic Analysis in the Digital World." Accessed 16 November 2009. http://74.125.155.132/search?q=cache:mSArrV3VjMQJ:www.utica.edu/academic/institutes/ecii/publications/articles/9C4E938F-E3BE-8D16-45D0BAD68CDBE77.doc+forensics+scientific+method&cd=7&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari

Shodor. (2009). Forensic Science. Accessed 16 November 2009.  http://www.shodor.org/workshops/forensic/ 

Vogt, W. (2009). "Forensic investigation." Paradigm. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.paradigmconsultants.com/content.asp?secnum=60&pid=73

Young, T. (2009). "Forensic Science and the Scientific Method." Heartland Forensic Pathology. Accessed 16 November 2009. http://www.heartlandforensic.com/writing/forensic-science-and-the-scientific-method
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Odontology in Criminal Justice Forensics

Words: 7122 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49210575

In 2002 the crime lab in the state of Mississippi found that the semen in the victim's body belonged to two different men and neither of them was Kennedy Brewer. Balko concludes by stating: "Forensic scandals have been troublingly common of late, with phony experts, fake results, and incompetent testing recently uncovered in Virginia, Maryland, Kansas, Illinois, and Texas, to name just a few. Courts need to take a more active role in weeding out the Michael Wests of the world before they ever take the witness stand. But professional organizations also need to be more vigilant about policing their own. Dr. West's peers should more vocally have questioned his methods long before he was permitted to testify more than 70 times in courts across the country. One would think they'd step up their standards to protect the integrity and reputation of their profession. But these continuing scandals suggest another,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Danger to Society: Fooling the Jury with Phony Experts (nd) Chapter Three. State of Texas Law Review.

Bite Mark Evidence Dispute in Murder Cases (2008) CNN.com Crime. 29 Feb 2008. Online available at http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/02/29/bite.marks.ap/

Bowers, C. Michael and Johansen, Raymond J. (2001) Digital Rectification and Resizing Correction of Photographic Bite Mark Evidence. Forensic Science Communications. July 2001. Vol. 3 No. 3. Online available at;

http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/july2001/bowers.htm
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Alternative Approach to Computerized Tomography in Forensic

Words: 1983 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82013039

alternative approach to Computerized Tomography in forensic pathology.

Thomsen, A.H., Jurik, A.G., Uhrenholt, A.G., Vesterby, A. (2009).

Journal: Forensic Science International.

Publication Information: 2008, 183, 87-90.

Publisher Information:

The main purpose of this article is to see whether or not CT scans are necessary as a means of augmenting autopsies. The research question is: do the benefits of CT scans match the effort required to implement this technology? There is no hypothesis for this article; the authors were certainly non-partisan in their approach and assumptions. The sample was 20 dead bodies (including 15 males) with CT scans performed by the Department of Radiology at Aarhus University Hospital. I reviewed this article to ascertain the relevance of CT scans to forensic pathology.

Abstract: This article denotes the boons and the detriments associated with using CT scans as compared to, and augmenting the usage of conventional autopsies for forensic pathology. Original research…… [Read More]

references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment.

Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology

Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N.

Journal: Medical History

Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60.
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Unnecessary Presence and Poor Communication in the Conduct of Forensic Investigation

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88791627

obstacles to prompt and efficient forensic investigation in major crime scenes. The presence of too many unnecessary personnel in the crime area and poor communication or reporting of the details are these obstacles. The applicable FBI rules and an analysis of each issue follow. A conclusion is also provided for each issue.

Too Many Unnecessary Personnel at the Crime Scene

The presence of too many extraneous personnel is considered the biggest hindrance to effective and prompt crime investigation (Schiro, 1999). What makes it worse is that most of these unnecessary people are police officers themselves (Schiro).

Rule

The policy mandates the initial responding officer or officers to identify all personnel or persons at the crime scene and to oversee their movements (FBI, 2000). Then the officer or investigator in-charge shall evaluate the scene in order to come up with a list of specialized resources needed in the investigation (FBI).

Analysis…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

FBI (2000). Crime scene investigation. Office of Justice Programs: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.fbi.gov/about.-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/april2000/twgcsi.pdf

Schiro, G. (1999). New crime scenes -- same old problems. Southern Lawman Magazine:

Forensic Science Resources. Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.forensicsciencresources.com/NewScenes.htm

Yolasite (2012). Crime scene analysis. The Investigation, Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.theinvestigation.yolasite.com/crime-scene-analysis.php
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Inadequacy of Forensic Hair Analysis

Words: 6513 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4071943

Hair is also in contact with chemicals in shampoos, and any dyes, gels, sprays or other cosmetics that may be placed on the hair (11).

Since there is no standardized method for cleaning these external contaminants off of the hair prior to analysis, the potential for inaccurate results from external contamination is widespread. There is no way to tell in the laboratory if a chemical is contained within the hair, and therefore came from with in the body, or if it is on the surface of the hair and did not come from within the body (12). An enormous amount of scientific research studies have indicated that hair analysis is unreliable as a diagnostic tool in crime solving. For example, in one study, the researchers took hair from the head of a single individual and sent portions of the sample to six laboratories; the results varied widely from laboratory to…… [Read More]

43. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).

44. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).

45. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
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Capture Data Sources Using the Digital Forensics Tool

Words: 3217 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98473105

Digital Forensics to Capture Data Sources

Network Intrusion

Prioritizing Data Sources

Account Auditing

Live System Data

Intrusion Detection System

Event Log Analysis

Malware Installation

Prioritizing data sources

Activity Monitoring

Integrity Checking

Data Mining

Insider File Deletion

Prioritizing data sources

Use of Uneraser program Recovers the Deleted Data

Network Storage

A recent advance in information technology has brought about both benefits and threats to business organizations. While businesses have been able to achieve competitive market advantages through the internet technology, the hackers are also using the opportunities to penetrate the organizational network systems to steal sensitive data worth billions of dollars. A recent wave of cybercrimes leads to the growth of forensic investigation dealing with a collection of evidence to track cyber offenders. The study investigates different data sources that can assist in enhancing digital forensic investigation. The study identifies event log analysis, port scanning, account auditing, and intrusion detection system…… [Read More]

Stallings, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice (Fifth Edition). Pearson Education, Inc. Prentice Hall.

Vigina, G. Johnson, E. Kruegel, C. (2003). Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection: 6th International 6th International Symposium, RAID 2003, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, September 8-10, 2003, Proceedings, Volume 6. Springer Science & Business Media.

Xu, M., Yang, X. Wu, B. et al. (2013).A metadata-based method for recovering files and file traces from YAFFS2. Digital Investigation. 10 (1); 62-72.
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Role of a Forensic Psychologist

Words: 1820 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64054676

Courtroom Psychology

This assessment addresses forensic psychological assessment. This question addresses some of the differences in forensic psychological work and clinical work. Most forensic psychologists are clinical psychologists who specialize in forensic work. These clinicians bring their clinical skills to the forensic assessment; however, there are unique circumstances in the forensic assessment that the clinician must consider. For example, it is infrequent that a client would lie, malinger, or withhold information in a clinical setting.

Differentiate between forensic assessment and clinical assessment.

The critical distinction between forensic assessment and clinical assessment is its juncture with law ("ABFP," 2009). Clinical assessment is focused on determinations of the mental, physical, and functional states of an individual, and on a determination of what -- if any -- interventions are needed to assist the person with adaptation ("ABFP," 2009). Forensic assessment is located in the intersection between clinical assessment -- the necessary basis for…… [Read More]

References

American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP). (2009) Forensic psychology. Found online at http://www.abfp.com/brochure.asp

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 509 U.S. 579, 113 S.Ct. 2786, 125 L.Ed. 2d 469, (U.S. Jun 28, 1993) (NO. 92-102)

Dixon, Lloyd, and Brian Gill. (2001). Changes in the Standards for Admitting Expert Evidence in Federal Civil Cases Since the Daubert Decision. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation.

Forensic Science and Standards Act (July 12, 2012). House Bill 6106. Retreived  http://aafs.org/sites/default/files/pdf/Forensic_Science_and_Standards_Act_2012.pdf
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Cyber Crime Investigation and Digital Forensics

Words: 862 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69241099

Digital Forensics and Cyber Crime Investigation

HCC Partner is the top healthcare company in the United States, and the management has noticed an intrusion in the systems based on the alerts from their IDS (Intrusion Detection System) logs that causes the management to question the reliability of the system. Analysis of their systems reveals that HCC uses the Snort IDS that is running in Linux system. Moreover, the HCC database administrator has received and downloaded the strange email from the Human Resources Department, which makes the system behaving strangely after they open the attachment.

The objective of this project is to analyze the HCC database server, the network system and other workstations suspected leading to data leakage. The project will investigate whether there is a possibility of evidence of data breach.

A: Plan for Processing the Incident Scene and Potential Crime

The study uses the staircase model for the investigation…… [Read More]

The next step is to develop a documentation of the evidence. The study suggests using the digital camera take the photos of all the evidence. The photo must ensure 360-degree coverage of the scene. The photo must reveal the location of all the seized computer systems. The front, back, and, side by all photos must photograph. However, there is a need for a videotaping of the active screen monitor. The photographs should reveal the position of mice, computer components, cables and other evidence.

Reference

Casey, E. (2011). Digital evidence and computer crime: forensic science, computers and the Internet. Waltham: Academic Press.
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Criminal Justice - Forensics Collection

Words: 384 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93155927

They prepare a holding statement for the media if necessary. They must record everything they survey and assess. They assume interim control of investigation. They should take photos of the scene. Following investigation, they then contact all necessary officials and make a report.

Explain fingerprints and palm prints, the three possible findings, and their value person can be positively identified through their fingerprints. Fingerprints and palm prints are relied on for (1) verifying a person's identity and linking them to a criminal history or other background check records. Fingerprints and palm prints are (2) collected as evidence at crime scenes and used as evidence. They are also used in (3) processing persons through the criminal justice system, as a fingerprint is unique and cannot be passed to another, or assumed, as a name may be. Fingerprints may positively identify a person taken into custody when the person arrested claims to…… [Read More]

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Predictive Forensic and Carrier Genetic

Words: 1365 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5849911

(Human Genome Project, DNA Forensics, 2006) Examples of genetic testing use of DNA in forensic identification are: (1) identification of potential suspects from DNA left at crime scene; (2) exoneration of those wrongly accused of crimes; (3) identification of crime and catastrophe victims; (4) establishment of paternity and other family relationship; (5) identification of endangered and protected species in aiding wildlife officials and in prosecution of poachers; (6) detection of bacteria and other organisms that may be pollutants of air, water, soil and food; (7) matching of organ donors with recipients in transplant programs; (8) determination of pedigree for seed or livestock breeds; and (9) authentication of consumables such as caviar and wine. (U.S. Department of Justice, 2003; DNA Forensics, 2006) DNA typing is accomplished through obtaining DNA samples through designing "small pieces of DNA probes that will each seek out and bind to a complementary DNA sequence in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology (2003) Using DNA to Solve Crimes. U.S. Department of Justice. Executive Summary. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/dnapolicybook_exsum.htm

DNA Forensics (2006) Human Genome Project. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Online available at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml

Genetic Testing - Patient Privacy and Discrimination Considerations (2007) American Cancer Society. Online available at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_6X_Genetic_Testing_-_Patient_Privacy_and_Discrimination_Considerations_5.asp?sitearea=

Guidelines for Genetic Testing (2003) Genetic-Medicine Related Societies. August 2003.
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Forensic Accountants and Their Role

Words: 2417 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53076989

In the late 1990s, this was not a problem as the stock was continuing to climb to all-time highs. However, once the economy began to slow, is when this strategy backfired by forcing them to issues more stock to cover these losses. As shares were declining, many investors became weary of continuing to participate in these activities. (Healy, 2003)

In late 2001, these activities were brought to the attention of regulators and investors (which resulted in the eventual bankruptcy of the firm). This is illustrating how forensic accounts overlooked or ignored key areas that could have uncovered fraudulent activities. As a result, one could argue that the lack of ethics and the close relationship with company executives helped to perpetuate these abuses. (Healy, 2003)

Insider Trading

Another type of fraud that is most prevalent is insider trading. This is when executives will have specific knowledge of the financial situation surrounding…… [Read More]

References

Albrecht, S. (2006). The Ethics Development Model. Australian Accounting Review, 16 (38), 30 -- 40.

Bettis, J. (2000). Corporate Policies. Journal of Financial Economics, 57 (2), 191 -- 220.

Golden, T. (2011). A Guide to Forensic Accounting. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Gray, D. (2008). Forensic Accounting and Auditing. American Journal of Business Education, 1 (2), 1 -- 12.
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Forensic Dynamics in the Interviewing Process

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29996921

Alter the Forensic Dynamics during an Interviewing Process

In this paper, we reveal how professional's attitudes, views, and knowledge do not necessarily match forensic research findings. Witness issues will then be discussed concerning research community. The study identifies some of the key factors that can alter or improve forensic dynamics during the interviewing process. This study focuses primarily on forensic dynamics relating to the interviewing young children and the associated challenges.

Expert knowledge and attitudes

It has been proven that professionals and social researchers (biased) towards information confirming their initial beliefs by refuting established opinions. Once established, beliefs and impressions challenged to contrary proof. Thus, belief systems and generalization can create a confirmation prejudice that may result in faulty understanding and wrong presentation, adversely affecting important decisions. Regarding child victimization situations, such prejudice may result in dramatic repercussions presenting a serious risk to a person's legal rights or presenting a…… [Read More]

Reference

Bull, R., Valentine, T., & Williamson, T. (2009). Handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing: Current developments and future directions. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons, Inc.
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Forensic and Clinical Roles and Assessment While

Words: 1410 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27727725

Forensic and Clinical Roles and Assessment

While psychologists and psychiatrists may engage in both clinical and forensic practice, it important to recognize that clinical and forensic practice are distinct areas of practice. This means that the role of the forensic and clinical practitioner differs in several ways: "who the client of the psychologist is the nature of the relationship between the psychologist and the individual being evaluated, and the psychologist's approach to the material provided by the individual" (Packer, 2008). Moreover, it also means that the professional assesses the individual differently. These differences include: the purpose of the assessment, the goal of the intervention, and psycho-legal vs. psychological assessment. While the differences may seem clear, the reality is that even forensic evaluations can lead to the establishment of the type of relationships that develop in clinical practice, making it difficult for health care professionals and for their clients to differentiate…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2011). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.

Retrieved September 8, 2013 from American Psychology-Law Society website: http://www.ap-ls.org/aboutpsychlaw/SGFP_Final_Approved_2011.pdf
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DRNC Forensics Workgroup Planning

Words: 1261 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30909454

DRNC Forensics Workgroup Planning

It is the duty of this committee to set up sufficient security and forensic measures, while still ensuring "that the event continues safely and at the same time respect Constitutional rights, including freedom of speech and assembly" (Connors, 2007). Because of the highly controversy own nature of politics in the United States today, this will be a calculated effort. Undoubtedly, there will be issues with law enforcement dealing with protesters. The forensics task force must then be fully equipped to investigate any crimes committed sufficiently to produce evidence that can convict individuals later in a court of law.

To get started, it is important to understand what agencies are per feeding and how they will need to contribute their services at the time of the event. For planning purposes, it is important to set these responsibilities as early as possible to ensure that those responsible for…… [Read More]

References

Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling yourself the truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.

Adams, J.E. (1986). How to help people change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
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Fingerprints Improving the Science of Fingerprinting A

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22464708

Fingerprints

Improving the Science of Fingerprinting: A Literature Review

Fingerprints are one of the most commonly employed tools that we have in investigating crime. This powerful forensics methodology has contributed to the solving of countless criminal cases and has been used as convicting evidence in courts of law. However, as this literature review shows, even the use of fingerprints is in a state of evolution as we gain ever greater and more accurate tools in the struggle to investigate and solve crimes.

At the outset of the discussion, the text by Neumann (2012) helps to dismantle the notion that fingerprints are infallible as a way of drawing identity. According to the research provided by Neumann, fingerprints achieve a certain statistical probability that makes identity matches likely but not certain beyond a doubt. This finding helps to underscore the critical imperative of continuing forensics research, such that we may come in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Hess, E. (2010). Facial Recognition: A Valuable Tool for Law Enforcement. Forensic Magazine.

Hildebrandt, M.; Kiltzm, S. & Dittmann, J. (2013). Printed fingerprints at crime scenes: a faster detection of malicious traces using scans of confocal microscopes. Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics, 8665.

Merkel, R.; Breuhan, A.; Hildebrandt, M.; Vielhauer, C. & Brautigam, A. (2012). Environmental impact to multimedia systems on the example of fingerprint aging behavior at crime scenes. Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics, 8436.

Neumann, C. (2012). Fingerprints at the crime-scene: Statistically certain, or probable? Significance, 9(1), 21-25.
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Computer Forensic Investigation Making an

Words: 3228 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80414377

Typically, a database uses either the simple recovery model or the full recovery model. The full recovery model can be supplemented by switching to the bulk-logged recovery model before bulk operations." (Microsoft, 2010 P. 2).

Meanwhile, our company will need to implement the full back up safeguard all our data. Under the full recovery model, the first step is to back up the transaction log. Combination of full back-up with log back ups is equivalent of full database back up. Starting the back up from the log transaction is the best practice to perform a full database back-up. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals the strategy to implement a full back up. As being revealed in the Fig 2, the back up starts from the transaction logs and the next step is to schedule the full database back up and file backups at subsequent interval to satisfy our company requirements.…… [Read More]

References

Allaire, P. Augat, J. Jose, J. et al. (2012). Reduce Costs and Risks for Data Migrations. Hitachi White Paper.

Massachusetts Government (2012).South Shore Hospital to Pay $750,000 to Settle Data Breach Allegations. Boston.USA.

Mahoney, M.V. & Chan, P.K. (2011).PHAD: Packet Header Anomaly Detection for Identifying Hostile Network Traffic. Department of Computer Sciences Florida Institute of Technology.

Microsoft (2010). Introduction to Backup and Restore Strategies in SQL Server. Microsoft Corporation.
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Criminal Justice Forensics Undercover Is a

Words: 11198 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97252031

However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. By understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).

By examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.

Definition of Terms

Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.

Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html

Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.

Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.

Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
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Michel Eyraud Investigation

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83387273

Forensics and Michel Eyraud

When Toussaint-Augustin Gouffe was missing on July 27, 1889 in Paris, France authorities did not give much credence to his disappearance, however, when Gouffe still had not shown up three days later, the case was referred to Marie-Francois Garon, who resolved to find out what happened to Gouffe (Owen, 2008, p. 34). Three weeks later, a body was found near Millery, south of Lyon, and a few days after that, snail gatherers found a broken wooden trunk bearing a shipping label from Paris and smelling of death (Starr, 2010). It was only a matter of time before the victim's body would be identified and his killers were brought to justice, but only after a second autopsy was performed.

Gouffe was described as being 49-years-old, standing at 5'8," and having chestnut hair. However, after the initial autopsy, Dr. Paul Bernard concluded that despite the fact that the…… [Read More]

References

Owen, D. (2008). The Little Book of Forensics: 50 of the World's Most Infamous Criminal Cases

Solved by Science. New York: Harper Collins.

Starr, D. (2010, Oct 14). Murder in 19th century France and the birth of forensic science.

Gizmodo.com. Accessed 21 July 2013, from  http://gizmodo.com/5662454/murder-in-19th-century-france-and-the-birth-of-forensic-science
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Biological Science in Dr William

Words: 1574 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20995207

Often, bones have different shapes and/or sizes depending on whether they belonged to a male or female individual, and age also plays an important factor in the way bones look (Maples, 142). Whereas doctors usually specialize in a certain branch of medicine, as in pediatrics or gerontology, forensic anthropologists must retain a broad range of knowledge because they might be called in to identify bones or other remains from any individual of any age or pathology. If they only knew a small portion of the type of details that could aid them in such identification, that particular forensic anthropologist's usefulness would be severely limited. Throughout his book, Dr. Maples demonstrates quite clearly how vital it is that observation, research, and learning continue throughout one's career as a forensic anthropologist, especially in the area of biology. As medical and biological knowledge grows, the forensic anthropologist must stay up-to-date or run the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Maples, William R. Dead Men Do Tell Tales. New York: Random House: 1994.
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How to Collect and Analyze Data in Computer Forensics

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76987146

burgeoning field of computer or digital forensics has multiple applications. As Carroll, Brannon & Song (2008a) point out, the two primary functions of computer forensics include data extraction and data analysis. As with other areas of forensics, methodologies in computer forensics include scientific methods of data collection, data preservation, and data analysis with ultimate goals of documentation or presentation in accordance with the needs and demands of the investigative team. Although computer forensics is relatively new compared to other branches of the field, the methods whereby digital data can be collected and analyzed are systematic to ensure accuracy and validity.

Computer forensics experts should become familiar with the latest operating systems for the purposes of data collection and preservation. For example, Carroll, Brannon & Song (2008b) note that Microsoft Vista's BitLocker provides encryption storage, which has direct ramifications on data extraction and collection by law enforcement. It is also critical…… [Read More]

References

Carroll, O.L., Brannon, S.K. & Song, T. (2008a). Computer forensics. United States Attorneys' Bulletin 56(1): 1-8.

Carroll, O.L., Brannon, S.K. & Song, T. (2008c). Managing large amounts of electronic evidence. United States Attorneys' Bulletin 56(1): 46-59

Carroll, O.L., Brannon, S.K. & Song, T. (2008b). Vista and BitLocker and Forensics, Oh My! United States Attorneys' Bulletin 56(1): 9-28

Littlefield, M.J. (2008). Demystifying the computer forensic process for trial. United States Attorneys' Bulletin 56(1): 29-45
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Determining Race Through a Human Skeleton

Words: 4303 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37493530

Forensic anthropology is a relatively new field in anthropology. When it was first recognized as a forensic science about thirty years ago, there were only six forensic anthropologists, all of whom knew each other (Guntzel, 2004). The role of forensic anthropology in police work is to give investigators specific information about an unknown individual that they can use to help with identification. When the investigators have such information as age, sex, height and ancestry, they can compare that information to known missing people and perhaps identify the body (Byers, 2001).

One such forensic anthropologist is Clyde Snow, who has worked both on individual cases and scenes of political massacres around the world including Guatemala, El Salvador, Argentina, Iraq, Zaire, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe and Yugoslavia (Guntzel, 2004). He has also gathered forensic evidence from victims of serial killers such as the Green River Killer and Jeffrey Dahmer, as well as man-made and…… [Read More]

Guntzel, Jeff. 2004. "The bones don't lie': forensic anthropologist Clyde Snow travels continents to bring the crimes of mass murderers to light." National Catholic Reporter, July 30.

O'Donnell, Gene. 1994. "Forensic imaging comes of age." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, January.

Shreeve, James, 1994. "Terms of estrangement (race and science). Discover, November.
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Christopher Vaughn Case

Words: 1739 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42166029

Forensics

On June 14, 2007, a man covered in blood waved down a passing motorist on Interstate 55 in Illinois. He had gunshot wounds in the arm and leg. It was 5:40 in the morning in Channahon Township, Illinois. Nearby, the man's 2004 Ford Expedition carried the dead bodies of the man's wife and three children, ages 12, 11, and 8. They had all been shot to death. After pulling over, the motorist phoned 911, and the man was rushed to hospital. It was Christopher Vaughn, 32-year-old cyber crime and computer security investigator.

The police questioned Vaughn in hospital. Vaughn's initial statement revealed an outlandish story he would cling to during the course of his defense. Vaughn claimed that his wife asked him to pull over, then suddenly pulled out a gun, shot at him, killed her three children, and finally shot herself dead. The police did not believe Vaughn…… [Read More]

References

An, J.H., Shin, K., Yang, W. & Lee, H.Y. (2012). Body fluid identification in forensics. BMB Reports. Retrieved online: http://210.101.116.28/W_files/ksi3/02618129_pv.pdf

Boyle, L. (2012). Computer security expert 'shot dead his wife and three children in family SUV so he could move to Canada and live alone. Daily Mail. 20 Aug, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2191188/Christopher-Vaughn-case-Trial-dad-accused-killing-wife-kids-begin.html

Fisher, J. (2012). Christopher Vaughn Murder Case: A Matter of Ballistics and Blood Spatter Analysis. Retrieved online: http://jimfishertruecrime.blogspot.ca/2012/09/christopher-vaughn-murder-case-matter.html

Haggerty, R. & Walberg, M. (2012). Pathologist testifies in Vaughn case. Chicago Tribune. Sept 5, 2012. Retrieved online: http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-09-05/news/ct-met-christopher-vaughn-trial-0906-20120906_1_gunshot-christopher-vaughn-vaughn-case
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Computer Forensics Law Enforcement

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51633074

computer forensics tools and processes used by investigators continually evolve and change over time. Although the material published in the 2008 version of the United States Attorneys' Bulletin includes some stalwart information regarding processes and procedures, the specific issues at stake will have changed drastically in the nearly 8 years since the issue was published. For example, the operating systems and encryption methods would have completely changed from 2008 until 2016. Carroll, Brannon & Song's (2008c) analysis of Vista and its file structure will be outmoded for many individuals or organizations under investigation. Therefore, great care should be taken when investing into computer forensics tools that may be outmoded. Using outmoded tools can seriously jeopardize an investigation and lead to serious loss of credibility on the part of the departments involved and their team leaders. At the same time, computer forensics experts do need to maximize knowledge of retrograde technologies…… [Read More]

References

Carroll, O.L., Brannon, S.K. & Song, T. (2008a). Computer forensics. United States Attorneys' Bulletin 56(1): 1-8.

Carroll, O.L., Brannon, S.K. & Song, T. (2008b). Managing large amounts of electronic evidence. United States Attorneys' Bulletin 56(1): 46-59

Carroll, O.L., Brannon, S.K. & Song, T. (2008c). Vista and BitLocker and Forensics, Oh My! United States Attorneys' Bulletin 56(1): 9-28

Littlefield, M.J. (2008). Demystifying the computer forensic process for trial. United States Attorneys' Bulletin 56(1): 29-45
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Computer Forensics Solving Crimes Using

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23646832

Such information is collected using packet sniffers which are programs that can access all information passing through a computer, and not only information particularly sent to the computer. The packet sniffer can either pick all the information, or just selected what is needed, and at the specific time when the information passed through the computer. This is then copied into a given memory. However, for the packet sniffers to be used, the investigators must have proper authorization depending on what they are investigation. This is to help protect the privacy of computer users.

Computer forensics also works by disk imaging. This is a process where all information on a disk is copied in the form of an image and looked into. Disk imaging copies all files, both active and inactive, unlike when creating a backup where one only copies active files. One advantage of disk imaging is that it provides…… [Read More]

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Psychology - Intro to Forensics

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87791223



Despite the fact that the field of forensic psychology was formally recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) as a "subset" in 2001 (Salfati, 2009), aspects of this science have influenced law enforcement long before that. One of the most salient ways it does so is in terms of interviewing people for certain positions -- whether they be formal positions such as an appointment to a law enforcement position or informal ones such as witness and eyewitness testimony.

Various branches of the law have been made cognizant of the fact that individuals who work within law enforcement have a very tenuous, difficult job. There is a significantly greater amount of work -- and psychology -- involved in working as a police officer. Therefore, within the past several years law enforcement officials have included personality tests as part of the testing for police officers (Salfati, 2009). Although these tests are far…… [Read More]

References

Huss, M.T. (2001). "What is forensic psychology? it's not silence of the lambs." Eye on Psi Chi. Retrieved from http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_58.aspx

Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009). "Introduction to forensic psychology." Baltimore: Author. "Foundations of Forensic Psychology" with Dr. C. Gabrielle Salfati.
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About Controversial Science

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1423369

Scientific Objectivity and Scientific Irascibility:

Melvin Harris' rhetoric on the perpetration of the fraud of the Maybrick Ink test

According to author Melvin Harris, one of the most infamous hoaxes ever perpetrated against the community of scientists, historians, and laypersons was that of the Maybrick 'Jack the Ripper' diaries. Jack the Ripper, the serial killer who terrorized prostitutes during the late Victorian Era, remains a great unsolved crime. The supporters of the so-called Maybrick diaries claimed to solve the Jack the Ripper murders by implicating convicted 19th century murderer John Maybrick. The diaries were 'discovered' during the late 20th century and a subsequent book by Shirley Harrison was published to support this claim that Maybrick was 'Jack.' However, Melvin Harris in his essay "The Maybrick Hoax: A fact-file for the perplexed," disputes the scientific evidence presented by the supporters of the Maybrick theory. Scientific tests of the diaries proved contradictory,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harris, Melvin. "The Maybrick Hoax: A fact-file for the perplexed," 1997: 1-5.
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Insanity Evaluations Represent the Most Challenging Forensic

Words: 1904 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93289250

Insanity evaluations represent the most challenging forensic assessments in the criminal domain" (Rogers, 2008, p.126). This is due to the fact that insanity evaluations require the psychologist to assess whether a defendant had a mental illness at the time that an offense was committed, and, whether that mental illness was related to the commission of the crime in a way that would make the defendant "insane" under applicable state laws. First, whether or not the defendant is presenting as mentally ill at the time of the assessment is often not relevant to the assessment; most defendants, processed and in the jail system, have access to medications and treatment that they may have lacked at the time of the crime. Therefore, it is important to realize that a defendant's competency to stand trial is a different issue than whether a defendant is not guilty by reason of insanity. If a defendant…… [Read More]

References

Bonnie, R.J. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation.

Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10(3), 291-316.

Frontline. (2013). Instanity defense FAQs. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from PBS website:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/crime/trial/faqs.html
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Criminal Psychopathology Is the Science

Words: 2213 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72277983

He suggested the British model of profiling instead, based on the "bottom up" type of processing, which analyzes existing evidence of specific similarities between offense and offender characteristics. The CSA uses the reverse, the "top down" processing, which relies on subjective conclusions derived from investigative experience of crimes and criminal interviews by the police and investigators (Hayden).

Motive is the reason behind the commission of a crime (Zandt 2006). It is not an element of a crime, which needs to be proven in court. But some utterly heinous or unnatural crime may require it for the jury to understand and appreciate why it is committed. An example is the killing of one's own spouse or child. Prosecutors must clearly establish the motive, which is the offender's reason for committing what is considered unreasonable, heinous or unnatural. The prosecution must prove and convince the jury, explain and show how anyone can…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Court TV. (2006). The Art of Forensic Psychology. Criminal Profiling: Courtroom Television Network LLC. http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/forensic_psychology/10.html

2. Hayden, T. (2000). Offender Profiling. Murder in the UK: MurderUK.com, 2006. http://www.murderuk.com/Profiling/offender_profiling_htm

3. Muller, D.A. (2000). Criminal Profiling. Homicide Studies, Vol 4 (3), Sage Publications, Inc. pp 234-264

4. Strano, M. (2004). A Neural Network Applied to Criminal Psychological Profiling: an Italian Perspective. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology: Sage Publications. http://ijo.sagepub.com/cgi/reprit/48/4/495.pdf
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Staffing a New Crime Laboratory

Words: 1688 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86906306

The second is the methods of work that must follow a quality certified system.

Overall System Design

Since the work relates to scientific study, a scientific temperament and better equipped laboratory is a must. For each section of the system dealing with major and minor investigations, appropriate equipments, modern electronic gadgets and data processing systems must be provided and they must also be upgraded frequently. The personnel must be trained in the use and proper management of digital forensic laboratories and high technology crime detection and investigation. These must be installed and maintained on turnkey approach. One suggestion is to contract a company which has experience in setting up the lab and turn over the installation to them. For example, the Pyramid Company provides turnkey contracts for setting up such Laboratories and Centres. (Pyramic Cyber, 2012) Such service providers would provide for the commissioning of equipments and tools as specified…… [Read More]

References

ASCLD/LAB-International (2010) "Program Overview" Retrieved 14 November, 2012 from http://www.ascld-lab.org/documents/AL-PD-3041.pdf

CSTL. (2000) "Quality assurance standards for Forensicnda DNA Testing Laboratories"

Forensic Science Communications, vol. 2, no. 3, Retrieved 14 November, 2012 from  http://www.cstl.nist.gov/strbase/QAS/Final-FBI-Director-Forensic-Standards.pdf .

Forensic Access. (2011) "Quality management and quality standards support to the police:
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Green River Killer

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34182747

Green River Killer

In 1982, the remains of a number of young women started to show up in the area surrounding Seattle. These women were all relatively young and shared a lifestyle, prostitution and street life, that made them easy targets for a killer. Before the slayings officially ended in 1998, a total of 42 women would be thought to be potential victims of the Green River Killer with the potential for many more being added to the list. Some believe that as many as 90 women may have been murdered by Gary Ridgeway. Ridgeway eluded police for almost two decades, even though he was a suspect in several of the disappearances, and was finally caught as a result of DNA evidence garnered from some of his earliest victims. This paper looks at the early life of Gary Ridgeway as it applies to the case, the murders themselves, how forensic…… [Read More]

References

Douglas, J. (2007). Interviewing murderers and suspects: Learn about the crime and the killer. The Forensic Examiner, 16(2), 44-51.

Guillen, T., & Smith, C. (2003, Nov 6). What went wrong? Police at first failed to notice a pattern. The Seattle Times. Retrieved from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/news/local/greenriver/1987/part1.html

Lackey, B., Jones, C., & Johnson, J. (2005). Gary Leon Ridgeway: Green River Killer. Retrieved http://maamodt.asp.radford.edu/Psyc%20405/serial%20killers/Ridgway,%20Gary %20-%202005.pdf

Lewis, J.A., & Cuppari, M. (2009). The polygraph: The truth lies within. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 37(1), 85-92.
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Can Fingerprint Identifications Be Considered Valid Evidence

Words: 1580 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33083378

Fingerprint Evidence

Are Fingerprint Identifications Such that Can be Considered Valid Evidence

Fingerprint identification is a means of personal identification that is infallible and this is the reason that fingerprints have replaced other methods of identification of criminals. The science of fingerprint identification is stated to stand out among all other forensic sciences for the following reasons: (1) fingerprint identification has served governments across the globe for more than 100 years in the provision of accurate identification of criminals. In billions of human and automated computer, comparisons there are no two fingerprints found to be alike. Fingerprints are the basis for criminal history in every law enforcement agency worldwide; (2) the first forensic professional organization, the International Association for Identification (IAI) was established in 1915; (3) the first professional certification program for forensic scientists was established in 1977; (3) fingerprint identification is the most commonly used of all forensic evidence…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, Michael and Imwinkelreid, Edward (2006) How we can improve the reliability of fingerprint identification. Judicature. Vol. 90, No.2. September-October 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.ajs.org/ajs/publications/Judicature_PDFs/902/Cherry_902.pdf

Fingerprint Identification (2012) FBI. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/fingerprints_biometrics/fingerprint-overview

Leo, William (2005) What are the Effects of the Daubert Decision on Fingerprint Identification? e Southern California Association of Fingerprint Officers, The Print, July/August 2005, Vol. 21, #4

William Daubert, et Ux., Etc., et Al., Petitioners V. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 509 U.S. 579; 113 S. Ct. 2786; 125 L. Ed. 2d 469; 1993 U.S. LEXIS 4408; 61 U.S.L.W. 4805; 27 U.S.P.Q.2D (BNA) 1200; CCH Prod. Liab. Rep. P13,494; 93 Cal. Daily Op. Service 4825; 93 Daily Journal DAR 8148; 23 ELR 20979; 7 Fla. L. Weekly Fed. S 632.
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Paul Bernardo and Karla Homolka

Words: 2686 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96495734

John Wayne Gacy, Jr.

Crime Scene and Discovery

When the police were called to search John Wayne Gacy's home in Des Plaines, Illinois on December 13, 1978, they were not aware that their investigation into the disappearance of fifteen-year-old Robert Piest would lead them to uncover some of the most grisly murders committed in the United States (Evans, 2007). Piest was last seen leaving a pharmacy where Gacy, then working as a contractor, had recently completed a remodeling job (Office of the Clark County Prosecuting Attorney, 2012). Three hours after his disappearance, his mother, Elizabeth Piest, notified the Des Plaines Police Department and Lt. Joseph Kozenczak was tasked with leading the investigation (Sullivan & Maiken, 1983, p. 7; Bell & Bardsley, n.d.). During his initial investigation, Lt. Kozenczak learned that Gacy had recently offered Piest a job and proceeded to go to Gacy's home, located at 8213 Summerdale Ave, to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Associated Press. (2011, October 13). Detectives exhume bodies of eight unknown victims of 'Serial-killer Clown' John Wayne Gacy in bid to identify remains. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Mail Online:  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2048363/John-Wayne-Gacy-Detectives-exhume-bodies-8-unknown-victims.html 

Bell, R., & Bardsley, M. (n.d.). John Wayne Gacy, Jr. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from TruTV.com: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/gacy/8.html

Crime and Investigation Network. (2005). John Wayne Gacy: Killer Clown. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Crime and Investigation Network: http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/john-wayne-gacy-killer-clown/arrest.html

Donovan, D. (2011, November 29). Another Gacy victim identified thorugh DNA evidence. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Daily Herald: http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20111129/news/711299790/
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IAS and DF

Words: 9242 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56431796

Assurance and Security (IAS) Digital forensics (DF)

In this work, we take a look at three laboratory-based training structures that afford practical and basic knowledge needed for forensic evaluation making use of the latest digital devices, software, hardware and firmware. Each lesson has three parts. The duration of the first section of the three labs will be one month. These labs would be the largest labs. The Second section would consist of smaller labs. The training period duration in these labs would also generally be one month. The third section would consist of smallest labs. The duration of training period in these labs would be one week. The training will be provided in the field of software, programming concepts, flowcharting and algorithms and logical reasoning- both linear and iterative.

Part 1 Larger Labs:

Lab 1(Timeline Analysis)

Purposes and goals of the Lab (Lab VI):

Use MAC (Media Access Control, internet…… [Read More]

References"

[1] Lab VI: Timeline Analysis. Available at https://cs.nmt.edu/~df/Labs/Lab06_sol.pdf

[2] LAB IV: File Recovery: Meta Data Layer. Available at

[3] Lab V: File Recovery: Data Layer Revisited. Available at

[4] Windows Client Configuration. Available at
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Evans C 2004 Murder Two

Words: 1130 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17563671

Authors present the results of a national law enforcement technology survey and comparable forensics technology survey that was conducted by the RAND Corporation to assess the effectiveness of this support and constraints to applying forensic technologies at the state and local level. Authors devote several chapters to different types of forensic analyses, including what types of techniques are best suited for various types of crimes and the evidence that may be present. A discussion concerning the types of evidence, including controlled substances, firearms, explosives, fire debris, bullets, footwear, vehicle tire marks, latent fingerprints, blood, gunpowder residue and so forth that are typically encountered in different crime scenes is followed by a useful description concerning how and why specific forensic technologies are used. Authors also present a description concerning how computer-based technologies are facilitating the application of these forensic investigatory methods to achieve higher conviction rates by providing improved testing results.…… [Read More]

Watterson, J., Blackmore, V. & Bagby, D. (2006). Considerations for the analysis of forensic samples following extended exposure to the environment. The Forensic Examiner, 15(4),

19-21.

Authors are all forensic scientists who present a timely discussion concerning the harmful effects that extended exposure to the environment can have on forensic evidence, including its analysis and the interpretation of test results. Because crime scenes may produce less-than-optimum samples of DNA, blood and other molecular-based evidence based on environmental factors such as sunlight, rain, and microorganism growth, authors provide a review of the relevant literature to explain how these constraints must be taken into account when conducting forensic investigations and analyses. In particular, authors emphasize that biomolecular substances such as enzyme and DNA analyses are adversely affected by these environmental factors. While these biomolecular materials may remain amenable to forensic analyses over time if they are properly stored and maintained, extended exposure to environmental elements can cause them to degrade in ways that confound even the most sophisticated technologies. Authors also present a discussion concerning how both biological and non-biological samples are affected by exposure to environmental factors, and how toxicological tests to ascertain time and cause of death can be hampered by these effects. Authors point out, though, that it is possible to interpret the results of forensic analyses of even degraded biological samples if forensic scientists are cognizant of the processes these samples tend to undergo as they degrade. Although some types of samples such as paint chips and glass fragments may not be adversely affected by extended exposure to the environment, other substances such as volatile ignitable liquids tend to evaporate altogether, making time of the essence in gathering evidence and conducting suitable testing protocols. Authors also emphasize, though, that there remains a dearth of timely and relevant guidance in the literature concerning the interpretation of biological samples that have experienced extended exposure to these environmental elements and call for additional research in this area. Taken together, this journal article presents useful guidance for forensic scientists who are confronted with degraded samples as a result of extended exposure to the environment, and note that the nature of crime means that these types of samples will be far more common in forensic scientists' experience than the pristine samples with which they may have been trained.
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Role of Radiodiagnostic Imaging in

Words: 1581 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16579303

Certainly, it must be stated that more study is needed and worth pursuing in this diagnostic method in forensics.… [Read More]

References

Bisset, R. et al. (2002) Postmortem examinations using magnetic resonance imaging: four-year review of a working service BMJ 2002;324:1423-1424 (15 June) Online available: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/324/7351/1423

Post Mortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (2005) http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/developments.htm

Alderstein M.E., Peringa J., van der Hulst V.P.M, Blaauwgeers H.L.G., van Lith J.M.M. (2003), 'Perinatal mortality: clinical value of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging compared with autopsy in routine obstetric practice', BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol 110 Issue 4 pp. 378-382

Roberts I.S.D., Benbow E.W., Bisset R., Jenkins J.P.R., Lee S.H., Reid H., Jackson A. (2003), 'Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in determining cause of sudden death in adults: comparison with conventional autopsy', Histopathology 2003 42: 424-430 May 2003
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Criminal Personality Profiling

Words: 1040 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99599396

Criminal personality profiling has emerged as an important forensic science tool because of the growing need for professionals in the behavioral science sector to help law enforcement personnel in dealing with various crime scenes. The paper discusses this technique in light of its definition and recent advances as a science rather than an art. The discussion demonstrates how various attributes of a crime scene and investigations have led to its development and use in modern criminal justice system. The discussion also includes a brief analysis of the three major stages in the process of criminal personality profiling. These stages are generation of hypotheses to be used as leads for arresting and prosecuting unknown offenders, providing suggestions for interviews, and evaluation of physical evidence.

The modern criminal justice system is characterized by a growing demand for professionals in the behavioral science field to help experts in law enforcement and criminal justice…… [Read More]

References:

Davis, J.A. (1999). Criminal Personality Profiling and Crime Scene Assessment -- A

Contemporary Investigative Tool to Assist Law Enforcement Public Safety. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(3), 291-301.

McCann, J.T. (1992). Criminal Personality Profiling in the Investigation of Violent Crime:

Recent Advances and Future Directions. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 475-481.
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Using DNA From Hair to Gather Evidence

Words: 971 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57400623

Hair Evidence-Advanced Forensic Science

Hair evidence has been utilized for high profile cases that include homicide and robberies with violence. The paper will highlight the real issue that surround the use of hair for evidence and evidence processing, the viability of obtaining DNA transcriptions that are admissible in the forensic evidence presentation and the guiding principles of using such crime scene evidence as hair and other bodily materials.

There are central roles that hair evidence plays in the investigations to a crime omitted and these are the reasons why many forensic investigators find hair invaluable in their process. A thorough investigation of the hair evidence can more often than not indicate the race of the subject. They can also be easily compared to each other to determine whether multiple people were at the scene or a single subject also referred to as common origin of evidence. The hair gives the…… [Read More]

References

Ramsland, K.(2010).Hair evidence analysis. Retrieved July 7, 2014 from www.crimelibrary, com/criminal_mind/forensica/trace/5.html

Claridge, J.(2014). Hair and fibers in Forensics. Retrieved July 7, 2014 from http://www.exploreforensics.co.uk/hair -- and -fibres.html
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DNA Techniques

Words: 445 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84068428

Filtration-Based DNA Preparation for Sexual

Assault Cases. Journal of Forensic Science 9/2003 Vol.48, No.

The precision of DNA technology allows law enforcement authorities to definitively identify perpetrators of sexual assaults from microscopic amounts of their

DNA collected from victims using a cotton swab. It has enabled the FBI to establish the Combined DNA Index System ("CODIS"), a nationwide DNA data bank and identification system modeled in principle, after the AFIS automatic fingerprint identification system.

It is estimated that crucial DNA evidence collected in approximately half a million unsolved rape cases awaits scientific processing, partly because of the complexity and time consuming nature of technical aspects of the techniques involved. The U.S. House of Representatives has already passed legislation in the form of the DNA Sexual Assault Justice Act that would allocate a quarter of a billion dollars to the problem. The Senate is expected to do likewise.

Chief among the…… [Read More]

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Teaching System in the United States and

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50812650

teaching system in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Rigorous daily challenges face teachers who are striving to offer their students the best of their knowledge with regard to their subject matter. Scenarios in which more than one subject is incorporated help both teachers and students to derive greater enjoyment and learning from their education. A teaching scenario as the one described, therefore, could be of great benefit to students aiming at a career in teaching.

Such students may for example learn much regarding the subject matter to be incorporated in the lesson, as well as specific teaching methods to impart this knowledge to students. It is for example important to gather enough information regarding the specific issues and subjects involved in order to teach effectively. A variety of research methods can then be used in order to do this.

Teaching students can also learn how to make…… [Read More]

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Opportunity Create Evaluate Impression Evidence As Read

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1991404

opportunity create evaluate impression evidence. As read textbook, pattern evidence, part, examined naked eye. Select learning activities base assignment. a. Create impression patterns choice.

Impressions: Footprints and tire marks

The first of the forensic impressions I selected for my analysis consisted of footprints. "Impressions occur when two objects come in contact with one another, and one object leaves behind distinguishing markings on or in the other" (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 213). A footprint is classified as an impression because it has depth (three-dimensional character) in material space (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 213). "A positive impression is identical to the object that made it, whereas a negative impression is its mirror image. The shoe prints left in the mud are negative impressions; they are negatives of the shoes' soles. In this scenario, the positives would be the shoes' soles" (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 214). In this instance, the impression of the…… [Read More]

References

Gaensslen, R.E., & Larsen, K. (2013). Introductory forensic science. San Diego, CA:

Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Murray. (n.d.). Footprints can play an important role in solving crimes. Footprint lab.

Retrieved:  http://www.science.marshall.edu/murraye/Footprint%20Lab.html
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Statement of Purpose for Phd in Public Health

Words: 1270 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73324675

working with a diverse population of Native Americans, Hispanics, and other individuals in the prison systems and public clinics of this country, I have come to two, crucial conclusions. Firstly, that the currently cost-strapped environment of the national health care system cries out for innovative financial and sociological solutions. Secondly, I believe I require further education in the field of public health to accomplish my goals in seeking to remedy the systemic abuses I have personally witnessed in my own, current capacity as a physician's assistant. These two crucial reasons combine and fuse in my desire to pursue a PhD at Walden in the field of public health.

"Physician, heal thyself," goes the famous quotation -- and indeed, I have sought to heal my own gaps of knowledge through continually educating myself in the technical innovations of the medical field and of the current state of public health in America.…… [Read More]

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Case Information Police Report

Words: 1533 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14026874

Police Report

On the afternoon of February 8, 2007, I received a dispatch call on a potential homicide at 1100 SE Lynn Boulevard, Prineville, Oregon. This location is the local high school, named Crook County High School. The information given to me prior to my arrival at the scene is as follows:

Upon arrival to the scene, school security guard William Parkins and responding Officer Edward Richardson of Crook County Police department provided some information to me. Parkins provided to me the name of the victim, Marc Hollingsworth. Officer Richardson informed me that Hollingsworth's mother, Karen Lynn Griesel Hollingsworth, was already notified and currently en route to our location. Parkins then told me that student and girlfriend of the victim, Amber Johnson, had been the one to find Hollingsworth's body after seeing his red 2000 Ford F150 in the back row of the school parking lot. Soon before seeing him,…… [Read More]

References

Bend Bulletin. (2007, February 14). Marc Adam Hollingsworth. Retrieved January 19, 2011

from http://www.bendbulletin.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070214/NEWS05/702140312/1010

Fisher, B. (2004). Techniques of crime scene investigation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Saferstein, R. (2004). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science. Upper Saddle River,
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DRNC Event Biological Agent Release

Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45142755

DRNC Scenario

Overview of Subject Matter: Biological warfare has got to do with the utilization of a wide range of microorganisms such as fungi, viruses, or bacteria to harm a human target (or in rare cases, to harm plants and animals). Essentially, "biothreat agents have the potential to produce a life-threatening illness" (The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2012).

Situation: a Democratic-Republican National Convention (DNRC) event has been convened in Miami, Florida.

Threat: Biological WMD Agent. In the recent past, there have been reports of "biological development programs and arsenals in foreign countries, attempts to acquire or possess biological agents by militants…" (CDC, 2000). These, coupled with terror threats the U.S. faces warrants an assessment of the threat posed to the DNRC event with regard to the release of a biological agent.

Facilitator/Crime Scene Investigations Workgroup Chairperson: Major Susan Baker, Commander of the Crime Investigations Bureau of the Miami-Dade Police…… [Read More]

References

ABC. (2011). 2001 Anthrax Attacks Timeline: Five Die after Letters Mailed. Retrieved from http://www.wjla.com/articles/2011/10/2001-anthrax-attacks-timeline-five-die-after-letters-mailed-68155.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- CDC. (2000). Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr4904a1.htm 

FBI. (2000). Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for Law Enforcement- Research Report. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/april2000/twgcsi.pdf

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Biological Attack: The Danger. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/biological-attack-danger
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DNA Testing Backlogs in Criminal Justice

Words: 448 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64628472

National Institute of Justice claims that DNA is "not used to its full potential in the criminal justice system," partly due to the lack of capacity of current laboratories (p. 1). Scores of cases are on hold because of delays and backlogs in testing, even when DNA samples have been collected from crime scenes and suspects. There is also a dire lack of trained personnel who are qualified to analyze the samples, and no concerted effort to improve criminal justice and forensics training in DNA analysis. Budgetary constraints are, on the whole, the root cause of many of the problems hampering efforts to use DNA to its full advantage and ensure a more efficient and effective criminal justice system.

I do believe that DNA testing should ideally be mandatory in cases in which DNA evidence was collected, in order to reduce numbers of wrongful convictions and to positively identify suspects…… [Read More]

References

Oberg, T. & Seibert, T. (2015). Delayed DNA testing allowed alleged rapists to commit new crimes. ABC News. Retrieved online: http://abc13.com/news/while-the-dna-sat-alleged-rapists-did-not-/496780/

United States Department of Justice (2003). Report to the Attorney General on delays in forensic DNA analysis. Retrieved online: https://www.victimsofcrime.org/docs/dna-resource-center-documents/report-to-the-attorney-general-on-delays-in-forensic-dna-analysis-(2011).pdf?sfvrsn=6
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Art Imitates Life but the

Words: 4074 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50458139

This places a significant burden upon the labs and the forensic experts that prosecutors depend on to produce forensic evidence. The article explains that there is a serious problem associated with crime lab ethics, which has been heightened in recent years. The article asserts that many crime labs have been cited for sloppy procedures and producing erroneous evidence (Morrison and Roane, 2005). The fact that crime labs are not required to be accredited adds to the problem because there are not any standard procedures that govern the management of the labs. Under new laws all federally funded crime labs will have to be accredited by 2006 but currently 30% of the federally funded crime labs do not have any accredidation (Morrison and Roane, 2005).

The article also reports that many experts such as crime lab technicians, coroners, forensic anthropologists and police chemists have been fired for presenting erroneous evidence in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Botluk, D., Mitchell B. 2005. "Getting a Grip on the 'CSI Effect': The National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology and the Law at Stetson University College of Law.  http://www.llrx.com/features/csieffect.htm 

Morrison D., Roane K.R. (2005) The CSI Effect.. U.S. News. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/050425/25csi.htm

Prosecutors feel the CSI Effect. February 10, 2005. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/02/10/eveningnews/main670360.shtml

Rincon, P. (2005). CSI shows give "unrealistic view." BBC News. Retrieved August 13 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4284335.stm
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Personalities and Motivations of Murderers

Words: 3011 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38966076

Nonetheless, Bill never hurts other people simply because he thinks that it is irrational to hurt others. He thinks that any rational person would be like him and not hurt other people. Does Bill really understand that hurting others is morally wrong? (Nichols, 2002, p. 285)."

This presents some interesting directions of thought. However, it is time to go into the relationship between serial murderers and forensic psychology as it applies to the crime scene. Ted Bundy seemed very much aware that he was committing crimes against society, certainly crimes against his victims. Berkowitz, it was argued, was more psychotic, and for that reason perhaps less aware of his actions as crimes against society or individuals. Berkowitz was known to have started more than a thousand fires, and had a history of cruelty to animals; both manifestations of deeper emotional problems (Schlesinger, 2004, p. 328). This does not make any…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107452894

Horley, J. (2003). Personal Construct Perspectives on Forensic Psychology. Hove, England: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107452916 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020572304

Inside the Mind of the Mind Hunter: An Interview with Legendary FBI Agent John Douglas Criminal Profiler John Douglas Will Share His Understanding of the Criminal Mind at September's APA Conference. (2007). Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 10(1), 8+. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020572304 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002475027

Nichols, S. (2002). How Psychopaths Threaten Moral Rationalism: Is it Irrational to Be Amoral *?. The Monist, 85(2), 285+. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002475027 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99956702
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Dexter the Television Series

Words: 817 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50907830

Dexter (The television series)

There is an increase of interest in Hollywood movies and television series set to expand on crime investigation. There are arguments as to how realistic these representations on the screen are in regards to real life experiences and this is what we aim to discuss in this paper with a focus on the television series, ?Dexter, ? which is still running almost eight years after its first appearance on screen. We will be focusing on what appears more realistic in regards to how forensic science is presented in the series while also directing the focus on Hollywood's distinct trademark. We will also look at how such TV series may influence real life and affect people's expectations.

When ?Dexter, ? The television series, started airing in 2006, there already were a few other serial television shows that embedded forensic investigation. But, this time, there was something new…… [Read More]

Reference List

Babiak, P., Folino, J., Hancock, J., Hare, R.D., Logan, M., Mayer, E., Meloy, J. (July 2012). Psychopathy An Important Forensic Concept for the 21st Century. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/july-2012/psychopathy-an-important-forensic-concept-for-the-21st-century

Salzberg. (2010, December 13). The Pseudo-Science of Dexter. [Web Log Post]. Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/The_PseudoScience_of_Dexter.php
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DNA Analysis on Criminal Cases'

Words: 3648 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2009717

" Giannelli (2003) stresses that advantages and reliability of scientific and technical evidence depend on whether a scientific culture exists. For reliability of DNA and other scientific evidence, there have to be sufficient written protocols and "an empirical basis for the most basic procedures." (Giannelli, 2003)

Barry Scheck, Peter Neufeld, and Jim Dwyer (cited by Giannelli, 2003) conclude that their investigations revealed that a third of the criminal convictions of 62 men, later exonerated by DNA evidence cases, involved "tainted or fraudulent science." In some instances, the fault could be contributed to rogue experts. The greater problem, albeit, stems from a greater problem, the forensics profession, an environment where misconduct may sometimes thrive. Forensic science needs more science, Giannelli (2003) stresses.

On an individual level, one of the most notorious cases involved Fred Zain, the chief serologist of the West Virginia State Police Crime Laboratory. A judicial report found that…… [Read More]

References

Burges, Audrey J. "Patterson v. Commonwealth: An Illustration of the Legal Complexity of DNA Databases." The Richmond Journal of Law and Technology. (Volume IX, Issue 2). Winter 2002-2003. Retrieved February 6, 2008 at http://law.richmond.edu/jolt/v9i2/note2.html#I.%20INTRODUCTION

Butler, John M. (2005). Forensic DNA Typing: Biology, Technology, and Genetics of STR Markers. Academic Press. Retrieved February 6, 2008 at http://books.google.com/books?id=gwDyBq2xLjIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Forensic+DNA+Typing:+Biology,+Technology,+and+Genetics+of+STR+Markers&sig=2G8fFWvv39zTRgMPzPDdU32K6OI

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved February 6, 2008 from: www.bartleby.com/66 / www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002075102

The Fingerprint Controversy. (2004, Wntr). Issues in Science and Technology, 20, 9+. Retrieved February 6, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002075102 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002041735
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Madeleine Mccann Case

Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9203474

Madeleine McCann

When Madeleine McCann's parents put her down to sleep and went out to eat with friends while on holiday in Portugal in at a tapas bar approximately 50 meters from their apartment, they never thought that their 3-year-old daughter would be snatched from their room. While the McCann's immediately reported their daughter's disappearance to Portuguese authorities, massive procedural errors including failure to secure the crime scene, contaminating the scene, and failure to collect evidence have impeded efforts to locate or determine if Madeleine was alive at the time of her disappearance. Portuguese and Scotland Yard continue to probe into Madeleine's disappearance six years after her disappearance as new evidence and eyewitness testimony surfaces.

Madeleine McCann's Disappearance

Madeleine McCann was less than a week from turning 4-years-old when she disappeared from the apartment her family was renting while on holiday in Praia da Luz in Portugal on May 3,…… [Read More]

References

Allen, V. (2007, 16 November). Madeleine: How the police ruined the forensic evidence in her bedroom. The Daily Mail Online. Accessed 19 August 2013, from  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-494203/Madeleine-How-police-ruined-forensic-evidence-bedroom.html 

Gammell, C. (2007, 5 September). Madeleine police handed forensic evidence. The Telegraph. Accessed 19 August 2013, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1562217/Madeleine-police-handed-forensic-evidence.html

Grice, E. (2013, 15 April). Kate McCann: 'It's dreadful living with this void.' The Telegraph.

Accessed 19 August 2013, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/madeleinemccann/9995377/Kate-McCann-Its-dreadful-living-with-this-void.html
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Personalizing Punishment-Based on Brain Psychology

Words: 1884 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2325030

Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part

What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?

In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…… [Read More]

References

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992384/#!po=74.5614 

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356218

Blonigen, D.M., Hicks, B.M., Krueger, R.F., Patrick, C.J. & Iacono, W.G. (2005, May). Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35(5): 637 -- 648. doi: 10.1017/S0033291704004180. PMCID: PMC2242349. NIHMSID: NIHMS38985. Retreived http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242349/#__ffn_sectitle

Franklin, K. (2010, May 30). Psychopathy guru blocks critical article. Will case affect credibility of PCL-R test in court? In the News: Forensic psychology, criminology, and psychology-law. Retrieved http://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2010/05/psychopath-guru-blocks-critical-article.html