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Therefore, the ability to determine facts in a case from very small particles of matter has proven to be of invaluable assistance in criminal investigation and procedure; for example, forensic analysis has been used successfully in many paternity cases.
3. Myths and realities
There many misconceptions surrounding forensic science and especially CSI or Crime Scene Investigation. This is mainly due to the way that CSI has been portrayed in film and media. As has been suggested above, forensic science and CSI is much more complex than is generally known.
CSI procedures are based on the fact that "….An extremely diverse array of materials may be located or associated with a crime scene. Each may have some potential for providing reliable forensic evidence" (Horswell and Fowler, 2004, p. 45). Therefore, in reality the forensic scientist usually specializes only in one area, which means that it usually takes a team of specialists…… [Read More]
Forensics in Criminal Investigations
Exploring the Use of Forensics in Criminal Investigations
Forensic Science and Technology
This paper explores the role of forensic science and technology in modern criminal investigations. It first examines the nature and role of physical evidence in regards to how it is uncovered, preserved, and analyzed within forensics today. Physical evidence is described in the varying types and categories. Then, the paper moves to evaluating different types of forensic sciences. This evaluation includes pattern evidence, like fingerprinting, tire and foot prints, as well as firearm pattern evidence like ballistics. DNA forensics and techniques are then discussed, as this is one of the most recent and widely accepted forensic methods used in today's investigations. Then, the paper discusses anatomical forensics, including the modern use of entomology in order to help determine the time of death in murder investigations. Finally computer forensics are explored, as crimes are not…… [Read More]
free construct entry, answering questions entry. In page respond watching video answer questions . Keep page. The page journal questions related a pdf file attached.
There is much controversy with regard to forensics in the contemporary society, especially considering that the media world bombards the masses with information that is often false or that influences people to develop unrealistic expectations concerning this domain. People would have to understand that forensic science is both limited and often likely to produce results that are not valid.
There are certainly flaws in forensic testing, especially considering that experts are, in some cases, likely to make mistakes. This can lead to significant issues and can actually put good people behind bars while actual criminals are being left on the streets. It would be ignorant for someone to consider that forensic science is perfect and that it would be wrong to question it. The reality…… [Read More]
Fingerprints put forward a dependable way of individual identification. That is the vital method for the law enforcing agencies having displaced other means of determining the identities of criminals unwilling to confess preceding crime records. Additional individual distinctiveness modifies with the passage of time, however, fingerprints do not (James, 22).
In prior nations and societies, trade marking, as well as even defacement were employed to spot the criminal for what he was. The thief who committed the thievery, was dispossessed of the hand. The Romans made use of the tattoo needle to recognize, as well as put off abandonment of mercenary soldiers.
During the 1870's French anthropologists developed a structure to determine, as well as document the scope of certain bony parts of the body. These dimensions were cut down to a formula which, hypothetically, would be relevant only to one person and would not alter all through his/her mature…… [Read More]
Since its introduction in the 8th century by Chinese authorities who used fingerprints to identify the authenticity of clay sculptures and documents (Forensic science history, 2016), modern forensic science has experienced a number of trends that have fundamentally changed the manner in which practitioners use technology to investigate crime scenes to provide courts of competent jurisdiction with the information they need to formulate decisions concerning guilt and innocence. To gain some new insights concerning these recent trends, this paper reviews the relevant literature to describe four salient features each of objective forensic techniques such as DNA and empirical forensic techniques such as fingerprinting. An assignment of weights to various measures that are intended to improve the performance of forensic science practitioners and supporting rationale is following by a discussion concerning recent federal ruling concerning forensic science evidence. Finally, a description of two measures that can be used to…… [Read More]
Response to Reketer Barber
The popularity of shows like CSI has led to widespread misperceptions about the quality and nature of forensic science. As you point out, the CSI effect could lead to wrongful acquittals, but it is equally possible that jurors might wrongfully convict based on perceptions of the strength of forensic evidence admitted into the trial. As Gaensslen & Larsen (2019) “jurors bring expectations to the jury room that are based on watching television,” (1.1). One of those expectations is related to the amount of time it takes to process forensic evidence. On television, the scripted shows make it seem like forensic evidence is processed almost instantaneously, and that the results offer cut and dry facts, when in reality the time it takes to process the data is much longer and the results less conclusive.
Response to Barbara Larios
It is interesting to focus on both the sentencing…… [Read More]
Forensic Science: Its elevance Within the Criminal Justice System
Forensic science has, since its inception, had an impact on a number of fields, including education, health, law enforcement (the criminal justice system), to name but a few. Of these, the criminal justice system can be rightly considered the greatest beneficiary of forensic science (Fantino, 2007). Thanks to technological advancement and increased public awareness, all aspects of the justice system today including but not limited to policing, investigations of crime, security efforts and court processes rely, to a large extent, on forensic science (Garrison, 2013). Forensic science in the criminal justice system involves applying "medical knowledge to legal questions" (Garrison, 2013).
The disciplines of forensic science are either based on laboratory testing (such as drug and mitochondrial DNA analyses and toxicology) or on observed patterns (such as specimen analyses, bite marks, and fingerprints) (Garrison, 2013). During criminal investigations, samples of footprints,…… [Read More]
Forensic Science and Police Work
Forensic science has been playing a very crucial role in crime-solving activities of the investigative agencies for last many years. Its popularity has grown tremendously even though it cannot be trusted to formally indict someone. This is because while forensic evidence is considered important, there are certain specific problems attached with it, which can significantly limit the credibility of the results obtained from forensic examination.
Forensic evidence refers to detailed analysis of things found at the crime scene including apparently vague and elusive pieces of evidence such as hair, fingerprints, body fluids, handwriting etc. After thorough analysis of such evidence, the forensic scientist can at least find some clues to who might be the offender but usually they are not sufficient to bring indictment or charges against one particular suspect. This is why not everyone is in favor of forensic evidence as there are several…… [Read More]
S., and convictions in many of those cases were based, at least partially, on this particular type of evidence used to connect suspects to bullet fragments associated with the crimes for which they were prosecuted. In some cases, such as that of Lee Wayne Hunt, imprisoned for 21 years for murder in North Carolina, conviction was based exclusively on this type of forensic evidence (Solomon, 2007) on the basis of which prosecutors connected Hunt to ammunition in the possession of a codefendant, establishing Hunt's guilt by virtue of the felony murder rule (Kobalinsky and Liotti, et al., 2005).
Comparative Bullet Lead Analysis and Violation of the Scientific Method:
In 1998, William Tobin, a recently retired FBI metallurgical specialist who had previously been credited with identifying the cause of high profile accidents like the 1996 crash of Flight 800 initiated a series of tests in conjunction with a metallurgist at the…… [Read More]
Picture a place where criminals could roam freely, detectives, and police officers went about gathering evidence the same way that they do now, except the one main difference is that they do not use science. Without the use of scientific analysis, you would not have a lot of useful evidence that you could use to convict someone of a crime. Criminals could get away with everything from common theft to a homicidal rampage unless you had a witness who was present at the time of the crime who could testify against them. These criminals would continue stealing, murderers would continue murdering people and drug dealers would still be out in the streets selling drugs and ruining society. With forensic science, the clue that these criminals leave behind can be traced back through scientific evidence and today we are able to use science as a method in solving crimes.
These clues…… [Read More]
The Role of Forensic Science in Crime Scene Investigation
The scientific method begins with the identification of a problem. Questions are asked, data is collected, a hypothesis is formed and then tested. The scientific method is essentially no different from the kind of investigative work that investigators of a crime scene do on a daily basis. They a faced with a problem: a crime has occurred. The questions they must ask are: what happened, why, when, who was involved, where did it occur, and how did it happen? They collect data and using forensic science to analyze the data, they come up with a narrative that answers those questions (Shaler, 2011). Lab work helps to verify the story by providing more evidence that can give more details. This paper will show how the scientific method is applied to forensic science.
The forensic scientific method consists of five steps:
1. Acquisition…… [Read More]
forensic science considered a historical science? In your opinion, does this make it inferior to non-historical sciences (i.e. experimental sciences)? Why or why not?
Forensic science is considered a historical science because the theories and assumptions it has constructed about criminal behaviors reflect the biases of the eras in which they were constructed to some extent and cannot be tested like a scientific hypothesis about a natural law like relativity. While the classical theory of crime was heavily influenced by Enlightenment theories of rationality, sociologically-influenced theories such as strain theory and social disorganization theory reflected the 20th century emphasis on the influence of outside social influences upon an individual's propensity for criminal behavior. This does not make forensic science inferior to the natural sciences. All social sciences are more subjective in their nature than physics, chemistry, and to a lesser extent biology because of researcher bias and the fact that…… [Read More]
Forensic Sciences in the USA and the United Kingdom
Over the last two decades, the forensic science has assisted in producing valuable evidence that has contributed to a successful conviction and prosecution of criminals and exoneration of innocent citizens. Typically, an advanced in forensic science and DNA technology have been a great assistance for law enforcement agency for an identification and prosecution of criminals. In the United States and the UK, many cases that have been formally unsolved have now been solved based on the great assistance of the forensic science investigators. (National esearch Council, 2009). Forensics or forensic science is a field of investigation drawing different scientific disciplines in law, criminal and civil services. This practice requires an application of scientific knowledge, quantitative, qualitative and empirical skills to collect and analyze data that will assist in presenting evidence in a tribunal or court of law. However, the method the…… [Read More]
Forensic Fabric Analysis
Some of the basic tools that a fabric examiner should at least have at any given moment include a stereomicroscope, along with a composite light microscope that is fitted with polarized light capability, and a comparison microscope. When examining both questioned and known fabric, the examiner must do this side by side, and within the same magnifications in terms of visible light. Alternative lighting, which includes fluorescent lighting and polarized light, is not necessary but when the equipment used allows, is highly recommended. In certain types of analyses, such as when testing for solubility, you may need to examine the questioned and known fabric near each other, and on one slide, or in the spot plate's wells that are adjacent to each other. However, you need to exercise extreme caution where loose fabric is concerned not unless you have no problem with identifying the source of each…… [Read More]
Forensic Case Study
The abduction of Enrique Camarena
The abduction of Enrique Camarena presents numerous interesting and unusual features regarding the gathering of forensic evidence. Many of obstacles that arose over the course of the investigation can be traced to the fact that the DEA Special Agent was apprehended in Mexico, where U.S. laws about preserving evidence did not apply. The Mexican police force (at least at the time of the abduction in 1984) was much more prone to corruption and bribery by persons engaged in illegal drug trafficking than U.S. law enforcement. ather than seeing to assist the DEA in bringing the murderers of Camarena to justice, the Mexican police often acted as obstacles, not assistants.
The real perpetrators of the murder of Camarena concocted a scheme with certain select members of the Mexican policy whereby Camarena's body (and the body of Capt. Alfredo Zavala, a Mexican…… [Read More]
Forensic nursing goes far beyond traditional medical care; it is "an innovative expansion of the role nurses will fill in the health care delivery system of the future," (Lynch, 1995, p. 489). This is why the Vice President of the United States Joe Biden has stated, "Forensic Nurses play an integral role in bridging the gap between law and medicine. They should be in each and every emergency room," (cited by the International Association of Forensic Nurses, 2006). Until recently, I was not aware that the profession existed. I learned what I know about forensic science from television, and also from years spent watching autopsies being performed at the morgue near by dad's office. Oddly, I would spend hours watching actual autopsies so when television shows started to depict forensic science in documentary and fiction shows more and more, the field broadened and opened up to me. I soon learned…… [Read More]
Forensic Pathology as Scientific Evidence
Forensic Pathology is generally understood as having to do with the investigation of causation of injuries or death as a legal requirement. In the pursuit of this, pathologists usually investigate injury or death scenes and other relevant records to ascertain the cause of death.
Practically, forensic pathology incorporates the performance of post-mortem examination, which is an examination of body tissues and organs as well as investigations such as X-rays and toxicology testing. Forensic pathology makes it possible to interpret such results and reveal cause of end point of death as required by the law.
The results driven from forensic pathology are bound to be subjected to interpretations. The body can transform during the process of death or after, this transformation or changes are referred to as post-mortem changes or "artefacts," these changes can be misinterpreted as ailment or injuries that took place when…… [Read More]
Forensic crime labs are important institutions within the criminal justice system and each lab must be up to standard in order for this system to operate at a high and fair level. A good crime lab begins with a good design based on solid fundamentals and thorough planning. The purpose of this essay is to design a digital forensic crime lab that can be used in a university setting. In order to this, the essay will explain the budgeting process while keeping business objectives in mind. The next step of the design will introduce how the physical controls can be used to implement this design. Criteria for success will also be discussed as well as a suggested floor plan to house the lab.
The setting for this digital forensic lab is within a university setting which denotes that funds could most likely be attained for these purposes.…… [Read More]
atchen (2005) defines the components of the nursing process as the client, the environment, the definition of health, and the definition of the nurse's role. Another trend in healthcare to be addressed is the reduction of enrollment in Registered Nurse (RN) programs, which has led to a shortage of trained nurses. This trend is important because the role of the forensic nurse has changed as a result of the increase in a nurse's range of function, with the rise in the number of the elderly due to improved healthcare systems and the introduction of community-based preventive projects.
In the future, the role of the forensic nurse may become more specialized and considered a separate profession from the registered nurse. According to the Federal ureau of Health professions, in 2000, the National supply of registered nurses was estimated at 1.89 million, while the demand was projected at 2 million, a shortage…… [Read More]
According to Elvidge (2014), the first record of the use of forensic entomology is Song Ci (Sung Tz'u), in 13th century China. However, using insects and arthropods like arachnids to aid in forensics investigations is a relatively new field, and one ripe with potential. The most notable applications of forensic entomology are in the identification of time elapsed since death, and the geographic location of death. When applying forensic entomology to homicide and other death studies, the specialist will take into account the various stages of decomposition. Forensic entomology can also be used to elucidate other types of crimes in which any type of decaying organic matter is a clue, in cases of human or animal abuse in which wounds have festered, in analyzing dried blood samples, in the investigation of botanical drug trafficking, and when detecting the presence of drugs in the deceased. Less glamorous but equally as…… [Read More]
Forensic Pathology: Forensics and DNA
DNA is part of the building blocks of human life and individuality: "DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin, drops of blood, hair, and saliva all contain DNA that can be used to identify us" (Norrgard, 2008). DNA has long been a major part of forensics testing used in criminal cases for over forty years. "At its inception, DNA testing could only be performed by laboratories with molecular diagnostic capabilities" (Calaluce, 2010, p.2). The controversy surrounding DNA testing that made it more heavily scrutinized when it first debuted largely revolved around the fact that it was considered a "soft science" and that DNA evidence was viewed as simply not as reliable as other types. However, this controversy has since been eliminated: and there is absolutely no valid…… [Read More]
Forensic Toxicology in the 21st Century Courtroom
Innovations in forensic technologies in recent years have introduced a wide array of powerful law enforcement tools that can be used to help identify criminal perpetrators and establish the credible evidence needed to convict them. As a result, today, forensic toxicologists play an increasingly vital role in the criminal justice system where the need for accurate and valid evidence is paramount. To determine the precise role and importance of the forensic toxicologist today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and significant findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
By definition, forensic toxicology is focused on providing scientific evidence for the courts. For example, Anderson and Volker (2008) report that, "The term 'forensic' is effectively a synonym for 'legal' or 'related to courts' and in Latin means 'before…… [Read More]
Justification of a Forensic Unit
Our Agency has just received $3 million grant from the federal government because of the efficient method that the unit employs in running the department. Additionally, the City Council has agreed to continue assisting the unit with additional funding at the end of the three years provided the department is productive and serve the citizens well. However, the department requires presenting a different budget from the previous budget. This proposal will create a new budget for the forensic unit to describe where all the funding will be allocated. The budget will consider the specialized personnel for the unit because smooth running of the unit depends on the specialized personnel.
Mission Statement of the Specialized Unit
The specialized forensic unit will deliver highest quality forensic services to all our customers, and our unit will deliver accurate service through analysis and the state of art technology. We…… [Read More]
But on the other hand, a reader who is also interested in the subject doesn't have to necessarily enjoy the idea of decomposing human corpses - or have really thick skin - to get educated regarding the forensic science / anthropologic value of this book.
Being a student in Forensic Anthropology in fact makes it easier to get through the potentially offensive parts of the book, because there are many things to be learned from the novel. This book reflects real-life issues pertaining to forensic research and crime-related applications to forensic science. The book is dedicated to "All victims of murder, all those who mourn them, and all who seek justice on their behalf."
Bass's "Body Farm" is designed so that cases where bodies are found in similar circumstances may have a foundation in terms of the forensic police personnel being able to know how and when - if not…… [Read More]
Forensic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that applies the techniques and concepts of chemistry to provide evidence and testify in court. Some federal agencies such as FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and National Institute of Justice use forensic chemistry experts to investigate the crimes committed against the society, which include environmental pollution, food adulteration, and distribution of unsafe chemical substances. In the United States, cocaine and other illegal drugs can put society at risks. Thus, experts in forensic chemistry uses different processes to perform a laboratory test to identify the presence of substances. A chemical analysis carried out in the laboratory can help to detect illegal drugs, which will assist the police or other law enforcement agents to prosecute offenders in the law courts. (Drug Enforcement Administration 1).
Moreover, the forensic chemistry analyzes non-biological materials to detect a trace of evidence from the crime scenes to found unknown material…… [Read More]
Forensics is a very important part of a crime scene investigation. There used to be a time when murders or crimes were left unsolved due to the lack of evidence. However with the advances in technology and research in forensics, crime solving has become a lot easier. The branch of science, which helps out in finding out important evidence, is known as Forensics Chemistry. Forensics Chemistry employs methods, which help in finding clues, which couldn't be found in any other circumstances. We can simply call it the application of a brand of chemistry at the scene of a crime. This is a science which helps us investigate chemical substances and can help trace the cause of the death of a human being by finding useful evidence. However it's not important that the crime scene may be a site of murder or theft. It could also be due to…… [Read More]
In the same way that traditional techniques of criminal identification have enabled law enforcement authorities to establish national fingerprint information databases for the purposes of connecting evidence to possible previous offenders, DNA-based forensic evidence has allowed the creation of similar databases greatly expanding the types of forensic evidence used to increase the security of sensitive facilities and restricted areas.
When combined with the ever-increasing power of modern computer technology to cross reference and match different types of physical evidence, law enforcement authorities have already developed the ability to establish terrorist watch lists incorporating forensic evidence of previous acts of terrorism with uniquely identifying features of perpetrators still at large. The continued evolution of such marriages between criminal forensics and identification techniques will greatly enhance homeland security, both at checkpoints and in terms of tracking the possible whereabouts and activities of persons of interest in connection with possible terrorism.…… [Read More]
At the same time, there is a different element introduced in the pursuit of forensic science that is not dealt with in other branches of scientific inquiry. As the question of justice is also central to any forensic proceeding, the suspect's account of events and/or hypothesized explanations for observations must also be taken account (Young 2009). In this way, both verification and falsification can be used during experimentation.
Before these experiments take place, however, the predictions must lay out a way to clearly identify the expectations of the experiments, as well as a way the methods by which they should be conducted. Several predictions can usually be made rather quickly after the hypothesis that are fully testable and easily determined. Based on hairs found at the crime scene, for instance, it could be predicted that skin found under the victim's fingernails was of the same DNA as the on-matching hairs…… [Read More]
In 2002 the crime lab in the state of Mississippi found that the semen in the victim's body belonged to two different men and neither of them was Kennedy rewer. alko concludes by stating: "Forensic scandals have been troublingly common of late, with phony experts, fake results, and incompetent testing recently uncovered in Virginia, Maryland, Kansas, Illinois, and Texas, to name just a few. Courts need to take a more active role in weeding out the Michael Wests of the world before they ever take the witness stand. ut professional organizations also need to be more vigilant about policing their own. Dr. West's peers should more vocally have questioned his methods long before he was permitted to testify more than 70 times in courts across the country. One would think they'd step up their standards to protect the integrity and reputation of their profession. ut these continuing scandals suggest another,…… [Read More]
altenative appoach to Computeized Tomogaphy in foensic pathology.
Thomsen, A.H., Juik, A.G., Uhenholt, A.G., Vesteby, A. (2009).
Jounal: Foensic Science Intenational.
Publication Infomation: 2008, 183, 87-90.
The main pupose of this aticle is to see whethe o not CT scans ae necessay as a means of augmenting autopsies. The eseach question is: do the benefits of CT scans match the effot equied to implement this technology? Thee is no hypothesis fo this aticle; the authos wee cetainly non-patisan in thei appoach and assumptions. The sample was 20 dead bodies (including 15 males) with CT scans pefomed by the Depatment of Radiology at Aahus Univesity Hospital. I eviewed this aticle to ascetain the elevance of CT scans to foensic pathology.
Abstact: This aticle denotes the boons and the detiments associated with using CT scans as compaed to, and augmenting the usage of conventional autopsies fo foensic pathology. Oiginal eseach…… [Read More]
obstacles to prompt and efficient forensic investigation in major crime scenes. The presence of too many unnecessary personnel in the crime area and poor communication or reporting of the details are these obstacles. The applicable FI rules and an analysis of each issue follow. A conclusion is also provided for each issue.
Too Many Unnecessary Personnel at the Crime Scene
The presence of too many extraneous personnel is considered the biggest hindrance to effective and prompt crime investigation (Schiro, 1999). What makes it worse is that most of these unnecessary people are police officers themselves (Schiro).
The policy mandates the initial responding officer or officers to identify all personnel or persons at the crime scene and to oversee their movements (FI, 2000). Then the officer or investigator in-charge shall evaluate the scene in order to come up with a list of specialized resources needed in the investigation (FI).
Analysis…… [Read More]
Hair is also in contact with chemicals in shampoos, and any dyes, gels, sprays or other cosmetics that may be placed on the hair (11).
Since there is no standardized method for cleaning these external contaminants off of the hair prior to analysis, the potential for inaccurate results from external contamination is widespread. There is no way to tell in the laboratory if a chemical is contained within the hair, and therefore came from with in the body, or if it is on the surface of the hair and did not come from within the body (12). An enormous amount of scientific research studies have indicated that hair analysis is unreliable as a diagnostic tool in crime solving. For example, in one study, the researchers took hair from the head of a single individual and sent portions of the sample to six laboratories; the results varied widely from laboratory to…… [Read More]
Digital Forensics to Capture Data ources
Prioritizing Data ources
Live ystem Data
Intrusion Detection ystem
Event Log Analysis
Prioritizing data sources
Insider File Deletion
Prioritizing data sources
Use of Uneraser program Recovers the Deleted Data
A recent advance in information technology has brought about both benefits and threats to business organizations. While businesses have been able to achieve competitive market advantages through the internet technology, the hackers are also using the opportunities to penetrate the organizational network systems to steal sensitive data worth billions of dollars. A recent wave of cybercrimes leads to the growth of forensic investigation dealing with a collection of evidence to track cyber offenders. The study investigates different data sources that can assist in enhancing digital forensic investigation. The study identifies event log analysis, port scanning, account auditing, and intrusion detection system…… [Read More]
Digital Forensics and Cyber Crime Investigation
HCC Partner is the top healthcare company in the United States, and the management has noticed an intrusion in the systems based on the alerts from their IDS (Intrusion Detection System) logs that causes the management to question the reliability of the system. Analysis of their systems reveals that HCC uses the Snort IDS that is running in Linux system. Moreover, the HCC database administrator has received and downloaded the strange email from the Human Resources Department, which makes the system behaving strangely after they open the attachment.
he objective of this project is to analyze the HCC database server, the network system and other workstations suspected leading to data leakage. he project will investigate whether there is a possibility of evidence of data breach.
A: Plan for Processing the Incident Scene and Potential Crime
he study uses the staircase model for the investigation…… [Read More]
They prepare a holding statement for the media if necessary. They must record everything they survey and assess. They assume interim control of investigation. They should take photos of the scene. Following investigation, they then contact all necessary officials and make a report.
Explain fingerprints and palm prints, the three possible findings, and their value person can be positively identified through their fingerprints. Fingerprints and palm prints are relied on for (1) verifying a person's identity and linking them to a criminal history or other background check records. Fingerprints and palm prints are (2) collected as evidence at crime scenes and used as evidence. They are also used in (3) processing persons through the criminal justice system, as a fingerprint is unique and cannot be passed to another, or assumed, as a name may be. Fingerprints may positively identify a person taken into custody when the person arrested claims to…… [Read More]
(Human Genome Project, DNA Forensics, 2006) Examples of genetic testing use of DNA in forensic identification are: (1) identification of potential suspects from DNA left at crime scene; (2) exoneration of those wrongly accused of crimes; (3) identification of crime and catastrophe victims; (4) establishment of paternity and other family relationship; (5) identification of endangered and protected species in aiding wildlife officials and in prosecution of poachers; (6) detection of bacteria and other organisms that may be pollutants of air, water, soil and food; (7) matching of organ donors with recipients in transplant programs; (8) determination of pedigree for seed or livestock breeds; and (9) authentication of consumables such as caviar and wine. (U.S. Department of Justice, 2003; DNA Forensics, 2006) DNA typing is accomplished through obtaining DNA samples through designing "small pieces of DNA probes that will each seek out and bind to a complementary DNA sequence in the…… [Read More]
In the late 1990s, this was not a problem as the stock was continuing to climb to all-time highs. However, once the economy began to slow, is when this strategy backfired by forcing them to issues more stock to cover these losses. As shares were declining, many investors became weary of continuing to participate in these activities. (Healy, 2003)
In late 2001, these activities were brought to the attention of regulators and investors (which resulted in the eventual bankruptcy of the firm). This is illustrating how forensic accounts overlooked or ignored key areas that could have uncovered fraudulent activities. As a result, one could argue that the lack of ethics and the close relationship with company executives helped to perpetuate these abuses. (Healy, 2003)
Another type of fraud that is most prevalent is insider trading. This is when executives will have specific knowledge of the financial situation surrounding…… [Read More]
Alter the Forensic Dynamics during an Interviewing Process
In this paper, we reveal how professional's attitudes, views, and knowledge do not necessarily match forensic research findings. Witness issues will then be discussed concerning research community. The study identifies some of the key factors that can alter or improve forensic dynamics during the interviewing process. This study focuses primarily on forensic dynamics relating to the interviewing young children and the associated challenges.
Expert knowledge and attitudes
It has been proven that professionals and social researchers (biased) towards information confirming their initial beliefs by refuting established opinions. Once established, beliefs and impressions challenged to contrary proof. Thus, belief systems and generalization can create a confirmation prejudice that may result in faulty understanding and wrong presentation, adversely affecting important decisions. egarding child victimization situations, such prejudice may result in dramatic repercussions presenting a serious risk to a person's legal rights or presenting a…… [Read More]
Forensic and Clinical oles and Assessment
While psychologists and psychiatrists may engage in both clinical and forensic practice, it important to recognize that clinical and forensic practice are distinct areas of practice. This means that the role of the forensic and clinical practitioner differs in several ways: "who the client of the psychologist is the nature of the relationship between the psychologist and the individual being evaluated, and the psychologist's approach to the material provided by the individual" (Packer, 2008). Moreover, it also means that the professional assesses the individual differently. These differences include: the purpose of the assessment, the goal of the intervention, and psycho-legal vs. psychological assessment. While the differences may seem clear, the reality is that even forensic evaluations can lead to the establishment of the type of relationships that develop in clinical practice, making it difficult for health care professionals and for their clients to differentiate…… [Read More]
DNC Forensics Workgroup Planning
It is the duty of this committee to set up sufficient security and forensic measures, while still ensuring "that the event continues safely and at the same time respect Constitutional rights, including freedom of speech and assembly" (Connors, 2007). Because of the highly controversy own nature of politics in the United States today, this will be a calculated effort. Undoubtedly, there will be issues with law enforcement dealing with protesters. The forensics task force must then be fully equipped to investigate any crimes committed sufficiently to produce evidence that can convict individuals later in a court of law.
To get started, it is important to understand what agencies are per feeding and how they will need to contribute their services at the time of the event. For planning purposes, it is important to set these responsibilities as early as possible to ensure that those responsible for…… [Read More]
Improving the Science of Fingerprinting: A Literature Review
Fingerprints are one of the most commonly employed tools that we have in investigating crime. This powerful forensics methodology has contributed to the solving of countless criminal cases and has been used as convicting evidence in courts of law. However, as this literature review shows, even the use of fingerprints is in a state of evolution as we gain ever greater and more accurate tools in the struggle to investigate and solve crimes.
At the outset of the discussion, the text by Neumann (2012) helps to dismantle the notion that fingerprints are infallible as a way of drawing identity. According to the research provided by Neumann, fingerprints achieve a certain statistical probability that makes identity matches likely but not certain beyond a doubt. This finding helps to underscore the critical imperative of continuing forensics research, such that we may come in…… [Read More]
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…… [Read More]
Forensics and Michel Eyraud
When Toussaint-Augustin Gouffe was missing on July 27, 1889 in Paris, France authorities did not give much credence to his disappearance, however, when Gouffe still had not shown up three days later, the case was referred to Marie-Francois Garon, who resolved to find out what happened to Gouffe (Owen, 2008, p. 34). Three weeks later, a body was found near Millery, south of Lyon, and a few days after that, snail gatherers found a broken wooden trunk bearing a shipping label from Paris and smelling of death (Starr, 2010). It was only a matter of time before the victim's body would be identified and his killers were brought to justice, but only after a second autopsy was performed.
Gouffe was described as being 49-years-old, standing at 5'8," and having chestnut hair. However, after the initial autopsy, Dr. Paul Bernard concluded that despite the fact that the…… [Read More]
Often, bones have different shapes and/or sizes depending on whether they belonged to a male or female individual, and age also plays an important factor in the way bones look (Maples, 142). hereas doctors usually specialize in a certain branch of medicine, as in pediatrics or gerontology, forensic anthropologists must retain a broad range of knowledge because they might be called in to identify bones or other remains from any individual of any age or pathology. If they only knew a small portion of the type of details that could aid them in such identification, that particular forensic anthropologist's usefulness would be severely limited. Throughout his book, Dr. Maples demonstrates quite clearly how vital it is that observation, research, and learning continue throughout one's career as a forensic anthropologist, especially in the area of biology. As medical and biological knowledge grows, the forensic anthropologist must stay up-to-date or run the…… [Read More]
1. When you hear the word “scientist” what do you envision?
When I hear the word “scientist”, what I picture is an individual conducting practical experiments and also proving theories with the endeavor of advancing the field of science and the world at large. However, I also picture both aspects of science encompassing the scientists that wish to make the world a better place, for instance, preserving the earth and also advancing scientific theories as well as the scientists that use knowledge for negative purposes such as creating bombs and viruses.
2. Discuss at least three characteristics of your vision of a scientist
One of the characteristics of my vision of a scientist is having had formulated and developed a scientific theory that had massive impact. A second characteristic of a scientist is someone who is extremely smart and intellectual and lastly I consider scientists to be revolutionary.
3. Which…… [Read More]
On June 14, 2007, a man covered in blood waved down a passing motorist on Interstate 55 in Illinois. He had gunshot wounds in the arm and leg. It was 5:40 in the morning in Channahon Township, Illinois. Nearby, the man's 2004 Ford Expedition carried the dead bodies of the man's wife and three children, ages 12, 11, and 8. They had all been shot to death. After pulling over, the motorist phoned 911, and the man was rushed to hospital. It was Christopher Vaughn, 32-year-old cyber crime and computer security investigator.
The police questioned Vaughn in hospital. Vaughn's initial statement revealed an outlandish story he would cling to during the course of his defense. Vaughn claimed that his wife asked him to pull over, then suddenly pulled out a gun, shot at him, killed her three children, and finally shot herself dead. The police did not believe Vaughn…… [Read More]
Despite the fact that the field of forensic psychology was formally recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) as a "subset" in 2001 (Salfati, 2009), aspects of this science have influenced law enforcement long before that. One of the most salient ways it does so is in terms of interviewing people for certain positions -- whether they be formal positions such as an appointment to a law enforcement position or informal ones such as witness and eyewitness testimony.
Various branches of the law have been made cognizant of the fact that individuals who work within law enforcement have a very tenuous, difficult job. There is a significantly greater amount of work -- and psychology -- involved in working as a police officer. Therefore, within the past several years law enforcement officials have included personality tests as part of the testing for police officers (Salfati, 2009). Although these tests are far…… [Read More]
Scientific Objectivity and Scientific Irascibility:
Melvin Harris' rhetoric on the perpetration of the fraud of the Maybrick Ink test
According to author Melvin Harris, one of the most infamous hoaxes ever perpetrated against the community of scientists, historians, and laypersons was that of the Maybrick 'Jack the Ripper' diaries. Jack the Ripper, the serial killer who terrorized prostitutes during the late Victorian Era, remains a great unsolved crime. The supporters of the so-called Maybrick diaries claimed to solve the Jack the Ripper murders by implicating convicted 19th century murderer John Maybrick. The diaries were 'discovered' during the late 20th century and a subsequent book by Shirley Harrison was published to support this claim that Maybrick was 'Jack.' However, Melvin Harris in his essay "The Maybrick Hoax: A fact-file for the perplexed," disputes the scientific evidence presented by the supporters of the Maybrick theory. Scientific tests of the diaries proved contradictory,…… [Read More]
Insanity evaluations represent the most challenging forensic assessments in the criminal domain" (ogers, 2008, p.126). This is due to the fact that insanity evaluations require the psychologist to assess whether a defendant had a mental illness at the time that an offense was committed, and, whether that mental illness was related to the commission of the crime in a way that would make the defendant "insane" under applicable state laws. First, whether or not the defendant is presenting as mentally ill at the time of the assessment is often not relevant to the assessment; most defendants, processed and in the jail system, have access to medications and treatment that they may have lacked at the time of the crime. Therefore, it is important to realize that a defendant's competency to stand trial is a different issue than whether a defendant is not guilty by reason of insanity. If a defendant…… [Read More]
The second is the methods of work that must follow a quality certified system.
Overall System Design
Since the work relates to scientific study, a scientific temperament and better equipped laboratory is a must. For each section of the system dealing with major and minor investigations, appropriate equipments, modern electronic gadgets and data processing systems must be provided and they must also be upgraded frequently. The personnel must be trained in the use and proper management of digital forensic laboratories and high technology crime detection and investigation. These must be installed and maintained on turnkey approach. One suggestion is to contract a company which has experience in setting up the lab and turn over the installation to them. For example, the Pyramid Company provides turnkey contracts for setting up such Laboratories and Centres. (Pyramic Cyber, 2012) Such service providers would provide for the commissioning of equipments and tools as specified…… [Read More]
Green iver Killer
In 1982, the remains of a number of young women started to show up in the area surrounding Seattle. These women were all relatively young and shared a lifestyle, prostitution and street life, that made them easy targets for a killer. Before the slayings officially ended in 1998, a total of 42 women would be thought to be potential victims of the Green iver Killer with the potential for many more being added to the list. Some believe that as many as 90 women may have been murdered by Gary idgeway. idgeway eluded police for almost two decades, even though he was a suspect in several of the disappearances, and was finally caught as a result of DNA evidence garnered from some of his earliest victims. This paper looks at the early life of Gary idgeway as it applies to the case, the murders themselves, how forensic…… [Read More]
Are Fingerprint Identifications Such that Can be Considered Valid Evidence
Fingerprint identification is a means of personal identification that is infallible and this is the reason that fingerprints have replaced other methods of identification of criminals. The science of fingerprint identification is stated to stand out among all other forensic sciences for the following reasons: (1) fingerprint identification has served governments across the globe for more than 100 years in the provision of accurate identification of criminals. In billions of human and automated computer, comparisons there are no two fingerprints found to be alike. Fingerprints are the basis for criminal history in every law enforcement agency worldwide; (2) the first forensic professional organization, the International Association for Identification (IAI) was established in 1915; (3) the first professional certification program for forensic scientists was established in 1977; (3) fingerprint identification is the most commonly used of all forensic evidence…… [Read More]
John Wayne Gacy, Jr.
Crime Scene and Discovery
When the police were called to search John Wayne Gacy's home in Des Plaines, Illinois on December 13, 1978, they were not aware that their investigation into the disappearance of fifteen-year-old Robert Piest would lead them to uncover some of the most grisly murders committed in the United States (Evans, 2007). Piest was last seen leaving a pharmacy where Gacy, then working as a contractor, had recently completed a remodeling job (Office of the Clark County Prosecuting Attorney, 2012). Three hours after his disappearance, his mother, Elizabeth Piest, notified the Des Plaines Police Department and Lt. Joseph Kozenczak was tasked with leading the investigation (Sullivan & Maiken, 1983, p. 7; ell & ardsley, n.d.). During his initial investigation, Lt. Kozenczak learned that Gacy had recently offered Piest a job and proceeded to go to Gacy's home, located at 8213 Summerdale Ave, to…… [Read More]
Assurance and Security (IAS) Digital forensics (DF)
In this work, we take a look at three laboratory-based training structures that afford practical and basic knowledge needed for forensic evaluation making use of the latest digital devices, software, hardware and firmware. Each lesson has three parts. The duration of the first section of the three labs will be one month. These labs would be the largest labs. The Second section would consist of smaller labs. The training period duration in these labs would also generally be one month. The third section would consist of smallest labs. The duration of training period in these labs would be one week. The training will be provided in the field of software, programming concepts, flowcharting and algorithms and logical reasoning- both linear and iterative.
Part 1 Larger Labs:
Lab 1(Timeline Analysis)
Purposes and goals of the Lab (Lab VI):
Use MAC (Media Access Control, internet…… [Read More]
Authors present the results of a national law enforcement technology survey and comparable forensics technology survey that was conducted by the RAND Corporation to assess the effectiveness of this support and constraints to applying forensic technologies at the state and local level. Authors devote several chapters to different types of forensic analyses, including what types of techniques are best suited for various types of crimes and the evidence that may be present. A discussion concerning the types of evidence, including controlled substances, firearms, explosives, fire debris, bullets, footwear, vehicle tire marks, latent fingerprints, blood, gunpowder residue and so forth that are typically encountered in different crime scenes is followed by a useful description concerning how and why specific forensic technologies are used. Authors also present a description concerning how computer-based technologies are facilitating the application of these forensic investigatory methods to achieve higher conviction rates by providing improved testing results.…… [Read More]
Certainly, it must be stated that more study is needed and worth pursuing in this diagnostic method in forensics.
Bisset, . et al. (2002) Postmortem examinations using magnetic resonance imaging: four-year review of a working service BMJ 2002;324:1423-1424 (15 June) Online available: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/324/7351/1423
Post Mortem Magnetic esonance Imaging (MI) (2005) http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/developments.htm
Alderstein M.E., Peringa J., van der Hulst V.P.M, Blaauwgeers H.L.G., van Lith J.M.M. (2003), 'Perinatal mortality: clinical value of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging compared with autopsy in routine obstetric practice', BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol 110 Issue 4 pp. 378-382
oberts I.S.D., Benbow E.W., Bisset ., Jenkins J.P.., Lee S.H., eid H., Jackson A. (2003), 'Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in determining cause of sudden death in adults: comparison with conventional autopsy', Histopathology 2003 42: 424-430 May 2003
Virtopsy: Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland 2005 the Technical Working Group Forensic Imaging…… [Read More]
Filtration-Based DNA Preparation for Sexual
Assault Cases. Journal of Forensic Science 9/2003 Vol.48, No.
The precision of DNA technology allows law enforcement authorities to definitively identify perpetrators of sexual assaults from microscopic amounts of their
DNA collected from victims using a cotton swab. It has enabled the FBI to establish the Combined DNA Index System ("CODIS"), a nationwide DNA data bank and identification system modeled in principle, after the AFIS automatic fingerprint identification system.
It is estimated that crucial DNA evidence collected in approximately half a million unsolved rape cases awaits scientific processing, partly because of the complexity and time consuming nature of technical aspects of the techniques involved. The U.S. House of Representatives has already passed legislation in the form of the DNA Sexual Assault Justice Act that would allocate a quarter of a billion dollars to the problem. The Senate is expected to do likewise.
Chief among the…… [Read More]
teaching system in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Rigorous daily challenges face teachers who are striving to offer their students the best of their knowledge with regard to their subject matter. Scenarios in which more than one subject is incorporated help both teachers and students to derive greater enjoyment and learning from their education. A teaching scenario as the one described, therefore, could be of great benefit to students aiming at a career in teaching.
Such students may for example learn much regarding the subject matter to be incorporated in the lesson, as well as specific teaching methods to impart this knowledge to students. It is for example important to gather enough information regarding the specific issues and subjects involved in order to teach effectively. A variety of research methods can then be used in order to do this.
Teaching students can also learn how to make…… [Read More]
opportunity create evaluate impression evidence. As read textbook, pattern evidence, part, examined naked eye. Select learning activities base assignment. a. Create impression patterns choice.
Impressions: Footprints and tire marks
The first of the forensic impressions I selected for my analysis consisted of footprints. "Impressions occur when two objects come in contact with one another, and one object leaves behind distinguishing markings on or in the other" (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 213). A footprint is classified as an impression because it has depth (three-dimensional character) in material space (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 213). "A positive impression is identical to the object that made it, whereas a negative impression is its mirror image. The shoe prints left in the mud are negative impressions; they are negatives of the shoes' soles. In this scenario, the positives would be the shoes' soles" (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 214). In this instance, the impression of the…… [Read More]
working with a diverse population of Native Americans, Hispanics, and other individuals in the prison systems and public clinics of this country, I have come to two, crucial conclusions. Firstly, that the currently cost-strapped environment of the national health care system cries out for innovative financial and sociological solutions. Secondly, I believe I require further education in the field of public health to accomplish my goals in seeking to remedy the systemic abuses I have personally witnessed in my own, current capacity as a physician's assistant. These two crucial reasons combine and fuse in my desire to pursue a PhD at Walden in the field of public health.
"Physician, heal thyself," goes the famous quotation -- and indeed, I have sought to heal my own gaps of knowledge through continually educating myself in the technical innovations of the medical field and of the current state of public health in America.…… [Read More]