Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Some plants have vey specific equiements fo light; too much o too little sunshine will kill them.
5. Low Fecundity: Species poduces few offsping. Note: species which cae fo thei young eithe befoe bith (long pegnancy) and/o aftewads have fewe offsping than those who do not.
6. High Human Value: Species has chaacteistics that make it valuable to humans. Many animals have been hunted to endangement, o even extinction, fo thei beautiful plumage o fu. Wild plants and fungi may also be ove-havested if they ae paticulaly tasty o contain useful medicine.
I ) Reseach and familiaize youself with the following concepts at http://www.fi.edu/tfi/units/life/habitat/habitat.html and/o http://www.maietta.edu/~biol/102/ecosystem.html o any othe eputable, educational website.
food chain food web pimay poduce pimay, seconday and tetiay consume decompose pyamids of enegy, mass and numbe community population niche theatened species endangeed species extinction.
II) Design a unique foest ecosystem with seveal esident species and…
1) Forest Type and Location (may be located anywhere in the world)
Temperate Rainforest; Northwestern United States (Washington State)
2) Biological community (list ONE species of each of the following):
Forest Fires and Suppression
Fires are a powerful, natural phenomenon that can have a huge impact on the ecosystem and the people living in the area. A forest fire (more commonly referred to as wildfire) is any fire that may occur in a combustible vegetative environment or wilderness area. Forest fires can be ignited by either natural forces or by man's negligence. Other causes are all man-made. Fires are instigated by fuel and sustained by oxygen and heat. In forests, the trees and bushes serve as fuel. Although in a very small percentage, some forest fires are caused by spontaneous combustion. Every object has a temperature at which it ignites. This temperature is known as Flashpoint. [1: Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Third Edition. (2008). Cambridge University Press.]
The Flashpoint for wood is 572 degree Fahrenheit. hen wood heats up to a temperature 572 degree Fahrenheit, it produces a gas that…
Work Cited (Australia), V.P. Press conference: Bushfires death toll revised to 173. Media Release. 2009.Ambrosia, V.G. Disaster Management Applications -- Fire. NASA-Ames Research Center . 2003.Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Third Edition. Cambridge University Press. 2008.China Makes Snow to Extinguish Forest Fire. FOXNews.com. 2006.Chronological List of U.S. Billion Dollar Events. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite and Information Service.Fok, C.-L., Roman, G.-C., & and Lu, C.W Mobile Agent Middleware for Sensor Networks: An Application Case Study . 2004.Group, N.W. (March 2003). The New Generation Fire Shelter .Laboratory, M.F. Fire Behavior and Danger Software. 2008. Retrieved 2012, from http://www.firemodels.org/Pyne , S.J. (n.d.). How Plants Use Fire (And Are Used By It). Retrieved from Nova Online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/fire/plants.html Schroeder, D. Evaluation of Three Wildfire Smoke Detection Systems. Advantage (Forest Enginerring Research Institute of Canada) . 2004.Specification 5100-304c Long-Term Retardant, Wildland Firefighting. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service . 2007.Townsend, H. City swelters, records tumble in heat. Melbourne: The Age. 2009.]
As the old saying goes, "prevention is better than cure." It is imperative that there is effective wildfire prevention methods employed in order to minimize the risk of eventual suppression. Prevention has its benefits as it reduces the threat of fire to the lives, environment and nearby land and buildings. It also aids in the reduction of the fire damage that is caused and reduces the costs of suppression. Smokey, the Bear was created by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, in 1944. He was created as a fire preventive messenger to warn unaware novice campers of the dangers of their careless actions. Other prevention techniques involve the supervising authorities in the area to manage the air quality and maintain the ecological balance of their region in order to prevent conditions that lead to the ignition of forests.
Forests have long been exploited. They are harvested for their timber, or cleared for agricultural land, both activities being entirely destructive to the ecosystem. The fen exists typically within the forest, and is not usually subject to exploitation until the forest itself is, because the forest acts as a natural barrier for the fen. The destruction of forests for timber is arguably the lesser of the two forms of exploitation, at least in countries with active silviculture programs, as the forests will have the potential to regenerate. However the destruction of forest ecosystems is associated with several negative outcomes. The biodiversity of the forest system is reduced, and this effect is stronger the more forest is cleared. Destruction for agriculture is permanent, which means that the loss of biodiversity is permanent. Endemic and endangered species are rendered extinct, or their numbers reduced (Chediack, 2008).
Fenland is often exploited…
Breward, N. (2003). Heavy-metal contaminated soils associated with drained fenland in Lancashire, England, UK, revealed by BGS Soil Geochemical Survey. Applied Geochemistry. Vol. 18 (11) 1663-1670.
Chediack, S. (2008). The effect of forest exploitation on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of palmito-dominated Atlantic forests at Misiones, Argentina. Rev. Bio. Trop. Vol 56 (2) 721-738.
Fredeen, A. (2007) . Climate change and the mountain pine beetle. University of Northern British Columbia. Retrieved April 27, 2015 from http://www.unbc.ca/releases/2007/climate-change-and-mountain-pine-beetle
Sasaki, N. & Putz, F. (2009). Critical need for new definitions of forest and forest degradation in global climate change agreements. Conservation Letters. Vol. 2009, 1-7.
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…
Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide: http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/sw153.htm4/10/03 .
Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.
Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.
Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
Ecosystems are changed by both biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors are all living things or their materials that directly or indirectly affect an organism in its environment. Biotic factors include organisms, their presence or parts, their interaction with the ecosystem, or their wastes. Additionally, parasitism, disease, and predation are considered biotic factors. Abiotic factors are factors of a non-living physical and chemical nature that affect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. These factors include light intensity, temperature, soil or rock type, pH levels, available water supplies, gasses, and pollutant levels (Bush, 2002).
Both types of factors change the equilibrium, but in different ways. For example, any change in temperature, an abiotic factor, may not only affect the ecosystem in general, but also affect the biotic factors in the ecosystem, such as aiding in the production of a given species. This species may then become overabundant, which can…
Resources. Web site: http://www.*****/studyguides/subjects/biology-edited/contents.asp.
The United States was also very much economically dependent on the old-growth conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest during the period of heavy deforestation that occurred there. This dependence was not as total as Brazil's is, due to the sheer size of the country and abundance of other resources in the nation, but during the development of the nineteenth century especially the lumber that the old -- growth forests provided -- as well as the land that was used for farming once the trees had been cleared -- were vital elements of the continuing expansion of the nation (Foster 1991). Brazil is experiencing its own era of rapid economic expansion in the current era, and limiting its deforestation would limit this growth potential.
In this light, it becomes difficult to see how the United States or anyone living there can simply ask Brazil to stop the massive deforestation of its…
Butler, R. (2008). "Deforestation in the Amazon." WSPA. Accessed 21 July 2010. http://www.mongabay.com/brazil.html
Foster, J. (1991). "Capitalism and the ancient forest - battle over old growth forest in the Pacific Northwest." CBS MoneyWatch. Accessed 21 July 2010. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_n5_v43/ai_11489365/
Trees cover nothing less than one-third of the earth's surface, and it is estimated that around 3 trillion trees exist worldwide. Forests are found in different climates and locations, they exist in wet, dry, sweltering and bitterly climates. Each of these forests types have the natural peculiarities that allow them to develop in their respective climate (Motivans). Unfortunately, in the past few decades, there has been an enormous level of commercial activities that have subjected forests all over the world to a dire consequential threat with adverse felt by most of the woodlands around the world. Deforestation, road and building constructions form a major part of human threats on the woodlands. Adding to the human activities is the climate change, which has been very devastating on many of the species that inhabit these forests. The threats on their inhabitants are a direct danger of extinction to these woodlands, as what…
Small fires, on the other hand, are less intense, and therefore cause less damage to the pine. The low air temperature in many areas of shortleaf pine growth help the heat of the fire dissipate, and therefore, more fire is required to raise the temperature of the plant cambium to the point of killing the tree. Also, if debris on the ground is only dry on top, but has moisture underneath, the fire is unable to spread to the base cambium, saving the pine (Little, 1978).
On the other hand, the frequency of fires in shortleaf pine areas also has an effect.
Young shortleaf pines sprout at the root if the crown of the tree is badly damaged, as mentioned. This ability, however, is confined to trees up to 8 inches in diameter, or the trees most likely damaged in a fire. Many of the sprouts on even these trees…
Bibliography of Conifers. 2nd edition. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Gilmore, G. Prescribed Fire for Forest Regeneration [Internet]. 2007 [cited Nov. 18, 2007]. Available at http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/forestry/sfrmp/documents/TimberRegen_Prescribed_Fire_Guidelines.pdf .
Halls, L.K. 1977. Pines Pinus. in: Lowell K. Halls, editor. Southern Fruit-Producing Woody Plants Used by Wildlife. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report SO-16. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.
Higgins, Kenneth F., Arnold D. Kruse, and James L. Piehl. 1989. Effects of fire in the Northern Great Plains. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Cooperative Extension Service, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota. Extension Circular 761. 47 pp.
Huggett, J. 2004. Fundamentals of Biogeography. New York: Routledge Sparks, J.C, Masters, R.E., and Engle, D.M. 2002. Season of burn influences: Fire behavior and fuel consumption in restored shortleaf pine grassland communities. Restoration Ecology 10(4): 714-722.
Environmental Problems and Deforestation
One of the most serious environmental problems facing society today is global warming. This problem has been related to the important issue of the depletion of trees and natural forests throughout the world. Scientists and medical experts are becoming increasingly concerned at the affect that global warming is having on human health and the environment. This sense of alarm is being increased by the fact that predictions about extreme weather and climatic changes that were previously seen to be an indication of the effects of global warming, are now taking place. This has also caused scientists to predict more dire effects of global warming for the future. Global warming has been linked to shortages of food supplies and the increase in infectious diseases as well as changes in the various biological ecosystems of the world, which are already having profound effects on human life and health.…
D'EMILIO, FRANCES ( 2003) "WHO Links Global Warming to More Deaths," AP Online, December 11.
Rainforests and Global Warming. Rainforest Action Network. Retrieved May 22, 2005. http://www.ran.org/info_center/factsheets/04a.html
Revington J. The Causes of Tropical Deforestation. May 21, 2005. http://www.ru.org/32defore.html
Revington J. Stopping Tropical Deforestation May 21, 2005. http://www.ru.org/stopping-deforestation.htm
I would also like to know the suggested length of the canopy trees and the measurements of this 'partial shade'. (a third variable that I would like to know is what type of cacao they experimented with since there are different kinds).
These three aspects are important for the following reasons:
. The researchers may have studied only 2 rainforests in which case their research is insignificant. The rainforests may have had conditions that may have supported the researcher's conclusions -- we need a diversity of rainforests that contain different conditions in order to more reliably test hypothesis. The researchers may have conducted their research in an ad hoc manner or with certain shortfalls that would invalidate their conclusions. A scientific study needs to be both reliable and valid (in both external and internal way) to be accepted. Certain conditions for both elements need to be addressed. I would like…
1. The researchers may have studied only 2 rainforests in which case their research is insignificant. The rainforests may have had conditions that may have supported the researcher's conclusions -- we need a diversity of rainforests that contain different conditions in order to more reliably test hypothesis. The researchers may have conducted their research in an ad hoc manner or with certain shortfalls that would invalidate their conclusions. A scientific study needs to be both reliable and valid (in both external and internal way) to be accepted. Certain conditions for both elements need to be addressed. I would like to know whether researchers met these in order to know whether to accept study http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0305-sulawesi.html#DR35bKAtoweXgSRq.99
2. The height of the trees as well as diameter of shade is important in order to recreate study
3. Cacao comes in various types. I would like to know whether researchers experimented with just one kind or several in order to know whether to generalize to cacao as a whole.
He also mentions how the lack of fire has affected whitebark pine, a species that supports a variety of high mountain flora and fauna, and attributes this to the fact that there is not sufficient fire to eradicate competing species.
H.E. cLean, writing in 1995 in American Forests, covers a handful of relevant topics. These include stating that there is an inherent risk in using prescribed fires because they are subject to the unpredictable forces of nature, but that this risk is acceptable. He discusses the need for prescribed burns in Alaska, due to the state's climate and corresponding slow decomposition rate. In addition, he outlines briefly the role of prescribed burns in Sequoia NP, Yosemite NP, and Stanislaus NF.
Further examples of controlled burning programs and a recap of the issues discussed above are found in other sources. The article "Wildland Fire in Yellowstone" discusses issues pertaining to that…
McLean, H.E. (1995) Fighting fire with fire. American Forests. Retrieved on June 15, 2008 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-17099755.html
No author. (2007) Wildland Fire in Yellowstone. National Park Service Retrieved June 11, 2008 at http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/wildlandfire.htm
Havnes, M.T. (2004) Officials set Largest-Ever Planned Burn in Zion National Park in Utah. The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved on June 14, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5553/is_200409/ai_n22242861
Economics of Forestry
Timber is the major product currently harvested from forests. Timber is used in a variety of products ranging from houses to paper and paperboard products. Long ago it seemed as if the supply of wood from forests was abundant and as if there would always be enough to provide everything that we could possibly need. However, recently we have realized that this is not the case. Timber is a major source of income and has become necessary to sustain out life-style as we know it. There has been a clash of ideology between ecologists and economists. Ecologists point out that forests have many other benefits besides just providing timber and are quick to point out that we need them to reduce the level of green house gases and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Economists are equally as quick to point out that we need timber to sustain…
Bradley, Dennis. "One of two parts of a chapter on EE for the Ecosystem Stewardship."
Workshop held in Tucson Arizona, December 4-14, 1995.
Bradley, D.P. Xu, Zhi, and Lewis, B.J. "Forests as Natural Capital: Parallels, Problems, and Implications." Unpublished paper: NCFES, Forest Service, USDA, St. Paul, Minn. 43
Bradley, D. And D. Lothner (ed.). "Achieving wood energy potentials: evidence in northeastern
Climate was also found to be a significant variable and it was hypothesized that landscape patterns may influence important microclimate conditions that have an affect on the reproduction and survival of pathogens. For example, temperature has been found be related to structural aspects of the landscape such as overstorey canopy,
The central hypothesis that was tested was that, "...small isolated forest fragments have lower levels of P. ramorum infection, owing to an associated larger grassland dispersal barrier and less suitable microclimate conditions." 7
In general it as found that landscape-scale configuration as well as local composition of host habitats are both linked to the degree of destructiveness of the disease. The result showed that the structure and composition of the forest or woodland was severely affected by the disease, which in turn had a serious effect on both host and pathogen. 5 More specifically it was found…
Rizzo D., Garbelotto M. Sudden oak death: endangering California and Oregon forest ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2003. 1 (4): 198.
Rizzo D., Garbelotto M. Sudden oak death: endangering California and Oregon forest ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2003. 1 (4): 199.
Rizzo D., Garbelotto M. Sudden oak death: endangering California and Oregon forest ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2003. 1 (4): 200.
Rizzo D., Garbelotto M. Sudden oak death: endangering California and Oregon forest ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2003. 1 (4): 203.
8 billion, and primary metal manufactures, $1.4 billion (Exports pp). Together, these five manufactured product categories accounted for 61% of the state's total exports of goods in for that year (Exports pp).
In dollar terms, the leading manufactured export growth category is transportation equipment, rising $294 million between 1999 to 2003, while others included miscellaneous manufactures, up $248 million, processed foods, up $192 million, and primary metal manufactures, up $171 million (Exports pp). In percentage terms, the fastest growing manufactured export category is fabric mill products, which grew 70%, from $99 million in 1999 to $169 million in 2003, while others included processed foods, up 52%, miscellaneous manufactures, up 48%, and beverages and tobacco products, up 48% (Exports pp).
The Port of Pittsburgh is the largest inland river port in the United States and the 11th largest port of any kind (Water pp). The Port Commission is the central point…
Coal Mining in Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/enved/go_with_inspector/coalmine/Coal_Mining_in_Pennsylvania.htm
This is a web page from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection web site. It provides a history of the state's coal mining industry.
Gordon, John Steele. "Iron and Steel Industry." Readers Companion to American History. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_046100_ironandsteel.htm
The women sustainably harvest items from the forest, and how produce essential oils, lotions, and soaps from the ingredients they harvest. Because they only harvest ingredients instead of using the entire plant, the forest lives on, while they still are earning an income from the sales of their products.
Many experts have ideas about how to improve on sustainable development in the region. Another expert says, "For instance, improving the monitoring of species loss reduces ignorance about the ecological system and may lead to patents for medicinal plants. The latter enables synergies that integrate indigenous knowledge into management/conservation" (eyer). Convincing companies to invest in these types of development have often fallen on deaf ears because of costs. Many very large global corporations have large operations in the rainforest, such as Mitsubishi and Georgia Pacific, and because the government essentially gives them free reign with little regulation, they exploit the rainforest…
Butler, Rhett a. "Deforestation in the Amazon." Mongabay.com. 2009. 19 March 2010.
Editors. "Rainforest Facts." Raintree Nutrition. 2010. 19 March 2010.
Damns on Wildlife and the Environment
Background to Dams and Levees - One of the issues resulting from civilization and urbanization is that most of the places humans chose to locate, for reasons of convenience, agriculture, transportation, and economic independence, have been near water. Dams provide hydroelectric power, help control floods, and make rivers navigable. Levees are quite similar to dams in their purpose, although they are primarily build to restrict water in times of high flow -- and for the majority of time are not under water. Per capita, floods are the most destructive and frequent of Mother Nature's natural disasters. In the last 50-60 years, in fact, the number and severity of flooding has worsened globally. Several reasons have contributed to this: global warming and worsening of storm activity; the deforestation and paving of natural watersheds; and more people living and working on known flood-plains. However, many scholars…
Dams Solution. (2010). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved from: http://www.fws.gov/r5crc/Habitat/damsolutions.html
Berga, L. (2006). Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21st Century, Volume 1. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Chiras, D. (2010). Environmental Science. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Drijiver, C. (1986). Taming the Floods: Environmental Aspects of Floodplain Development in Africa. Nature and Resources. 22 (4): Retrieved from: http://openagricola.nal.usda.gov/Record/IND87078020
The global ecological crisis is the largest challenge which humanity has ever had to face (Gare, 2017). Besides, abusing the natural resources, our present method of consumption and production of goods, all modeled on economic production and not based on bio-capability, is jeopardizing the living conditions of humans, yet simultaneously changing the social foundations of human beings. International threats and dangers evolved when the social fabric of the ecological and social system exceeds and supersedes its environmental counterpart. Global environmental or ecological threats and dangers are not just social-psycho constructs created for promoting a new method of social regulation on the people. They are the result of an economic development model wherein environmental deficiencies are being shared by everyone, while the financial benefits would be helpful to some and it shall change our planet for a considerable period. The most probable global cataclysmic threats and dangers seem to emerge from human actions,…
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
Abel K.M. (1984) Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Plant Physiology 76, 776-781.
Adam, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. 461p.
Agren, G., R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, J. Pastor and H.H. Shugart. 1991. State-of-the-art of models of production-decomposition linkages in conifer and grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 1:118-138.
Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.
There are several methods for achieving these conditions within the forest. The first is prescribed burning. The goal of prescribed burning is to reduce the amount and density of surface fuels in a controlled manner. Prescribed burns also scorch and kill the lower branches of trees, preventing laddering (Fitzgerald 2005). This technique lifts the canopy off the surface, lowering the ability of the fire to climb to the high-density crown. Prescribed burns are typically carried out in regular intervals, much like the natural low-intensity fires of the past.
One of the key difficulties in prescribed burns is that some preparation may be necessary in order to reduce the amount of fuels. Otherwise, the controlled burn could easily become an uncontrollable raging forest fire. Pruning and thinning of tree stands may be necessary in order to reduce the available fuel before the prescribed burn (Fitzgerald 2005). Mowing and grading…
1. Agee, J.K. 2002. Fire behavior and fire-resilient forests. In Fitzgerald, S.A., editor. Fire in Oregon's forests: risks, effects and treatment options. A synthesis of current issues and scientific literature. Special Report prepared for the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, or; 119-126. In Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available from:
2. Brown, Richard, Agee, James and Franklin, Jerry. 2004. Forest Restoration and Fire: Principles in the Context of Place. Conservation Biology. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; 18 (4): 903-912. Available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118784304/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
3. Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available at
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
etlands are the main link between the land and the water, and as such are vitally important to the ecology. etlands have been misunderstood and abused throughout the history of the United States -- and elsewhere in the world -- and that has led to enormous environmental losses. This paper explores all pertinent information with regard to wetlands.
hat are etlands?
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as those "…transition zones where the flow of water, the cycling of nutrients," along with the sun's energy, all meet in order to create "…a unique ecosystem characterized by hydrology, soils, and vegetation" (EPA). The four categories of wetlands are swamps, bogs, fens and marshes. The EPA describes marshes as wetlands that are "…dominated by soft-stemmed vegetation"; swamps are quite different, as they are composed of "mostly woody plants."
As for bogs, they are freshwater wetlands that were formed by glacier-made lakes;…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). Wetlands Overview: What is a Wetland? Retrieved
July 23, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov .
Moreno-Mateos, David, Power, Mary E., Comin, Francisco A., and Yockteng, Roxana. (2012).
Structural and Functional Loss in Restored Wetland Ecosystems. PloS Biology, 10(1), 1-8.
Technology and Global Ecosystem
An Analysis of the Implications of Technology and the Global Ecosystem
The 21st century promises to usher in innovations in technology that cannot yet be imagined, and the advancements to date have provided many in the world with unprecedented standards of living. Improved methods of transportation and communication, combined with more leisure time than ever in which to spend it has resulted in many people developing a keen appreciation for technology and what it promises for mankind; an unfortunate concomitant of these innovations in many parts of the world, though, has been an intensive assault on the globe's ecosystem in an effort to bring emerging nations into line with the productivity being experienced in the developed nations of the world. As a result, a debate over whether or not technology threatens the integrity of the global ecosystem has emerged in recent years, and pundits warn that…
Anton, Philip S., James Schneider and Richard Silberglitt. The Global Technology Revolution:
Bio/Nano/Materials Trends and Their Synergies with Information Technology by 2015.
Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001.
Bjornerud, Marcia. (1997). "Gaia: Gender and Scientific Representations of the Earth." NWSA
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Preservation and Conservation
Conservation, Preservation & Natural Regulation
Te purpose of tis paper is to define te difference between "conservation" and "preservation" and to researc "natural regulation" and define tat as well and to examine te results of "natural regulation" in terms of animal population, forest fires and any oter results wic may be discovered due to "natural regulation."
Te 'conservationist movement' was born in te decade of te 1960's and grew strong in te 1970's. Tere was a smaller movement of preservationists tat was bot ally and enemy to te conservationists in teir pursuits. Te survival is eac plant and animal in te ecosystem, or teir demise as a species if by te process of natural selection is only accomplised troug maintaining biodiversity in te ecological system of te eart. Biodiversity as been described as te "structural and functional variety of life forms at genetic, species, population,…
Covering of the Tree Tops
This paper to be used for reference purposes only
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Of the top 150 medications that are sold by prescription in the U.S. 118 of these are medications that are either "derived from or modeled on naturally occurring substances." (SEAM Global, 2005) Some of the medications that count on habitat presently being destroyed are "aspirin, morphine, vincristine, taxol, digitalis, and most antibiotics."(SEAM Global, 2005)
VI. Internet/Networking: Role Played in Preservation
Through global and subglobal assessments of the ecosystem and monitoring of data in relation to global changes information may be shared from one region to another and earlier attempts made in changing, slowing or altogether avoidance of more extreme conditions. As stated on the web page of "GreenFacts.org": "Some ecosystem problems have been reduced by innovative local responses...Therefore institutions are needed at multiple levels to strengthen the adaptive capacity and effectiveness of sub-national and local responses. (GreenFacts.org, 2005)
VII. Globalization and Changes in Production
Changes have been seen in the…
Globalization's Effects "A World Connected" Online available at http://www.aworldconnected.org/article.php/231.html
Shah, Anup (2005) Effects of Consumerism 2005 April 18 Online available at http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Consumption/Effects.asp
Globalization: Negative Effects of Development (2005) Walon Laboratories Online available at http://whalonlab.msu.edu/Student_Webpages/2003_EC_Projects / Globalization/page_6.html.
Robbins, Richard H. Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism. Allyn & Bacon. Copyright: 2002.
The apathy of private landowners discussed earlier may be due to the feeling that one may not feel that individual efforts are important. However, the case in Waldo, Florida demonstrates just how important the actions of one individual can be in averting danger.
Bend, Oregon has developed large community efforts to help reduce fuel in the area. They open up the landfill several times a year free of charge to allow citizens to dispose of debris from thinning and pruning (NCS, 2003). Thinning and pruning around houses creates a barrier of defensible space should a fire threaten. The landscape and fire resistance efforts in Bend have become a social factor.
These case studies demonstrate how communities can be spurred into action. The study conducted by eams, Haines, & enner et al., (2005) found owner apathy as the number one obstacle that they faced in preparing communities in case of a…
Bureau of Land Management (BLM)(2005) Snapshots: Successful BLM Projects Supporting the National Fire Plan. May 13, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2009 at http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc./medialib/blm/nifc/snapshots0/2005.Par.64322.File.dat/05-13-05.pdf
Davis, C. (2001). The West in Flames: The Intergovernmental Politics of Wildfire Suppression and Prevention. The Journal of Federalism. 31-93): 97-110.
FireWise. (2009). About Firewise. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at http://www.firewise.org .
FireWiseCommunities/USA. (2009). Fire wise Communities/USA. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at
" The report claims that the soft shell clam and oyster fisheries "have collapsed" and the commercial harvest of striped bass is now restricted to protect the survival of that species (Virginia Environment). In the last 30 years, according to the Executive Summary of the Arlington "Urban Forest Master Plan" (UFMP) Arlington County has lost "a significant amount of acreage with heavy tree cover"; this has had "a dramatic effect on the overall canopy coverage." Of the 16,500 acres of forests more than 3,000 acres have been "converted from heavy tree cover of over 50% to low tree cover of less than 20%" (UFMP).
How might global warming affect local ecosystems in and around Arlington? The rising level of the Atlantic Ocean is considered a major risk in terms of global warming. Already the rising waters have submerged several islands in the Chesapeake Bay. "The region's coastal habitats and the…
Natural Resources Management Plan. (2008). Natural Resource Conservation Areas. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from http://www.arlingtonva.us /departments/parksrecreation/documents/file76445.pdf.
National Wildlife Federation. (2008). Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Habitats of the Chesapeake
Bay: A Summary. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from http://www.nwf.org .
Parks, Recreation & Cultural Resources. (2010). Fort C.F. Smith -- History. Retrieved March 7,
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…
Applegate, Ed and Johnsen, Art. Cases in advertising and marketing management: real =
situations for tomorrow's managers Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Adhikary, Nripal. "Treatment Process." Abari Adobe and Bamboo Research Institute. 2009.
Web. Available at: . 09 October 2009.
The female wolverine delays implantation; the egg cells float in the uterus for some time attaching to the uterus wall. Delayed implantation means that the young can be born at the right time, from January to April, regardless of when mating takes place. The female produces one litter every two or three years. She digs out a den in a snowdrift, in a tree hollow, or under a rock, where she has her young, called kittens. Two or three kittens are born each year. The kits are born furry and their eyes are closed. The kittens feed only from their mother for two or three weeks. During this time she rarely leaves them, feeding on food she has stored. Later the mother brings food to the den, but the kittens are eight to ten weeks old before they are weaned. They reach adult size by early winter but may stay…
Campbell, N.C. (1996). An introduction to ecology: distribution and adaptation of organism.
Biology (pp. 1080). Menlo Park California: The Benjamin / Cummings Publication Inc.
Campbell, N.C., Mitchelle, L.G. & Reece, J.B. (1997). The Biosphere. Biology Concept and Connections (pp. 681). Menlo Park California: The Benjamin / Cummings Publication
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited…
Amazon rainforest destruction at 10-year high
By Raymond Colitt in Sao Paulo (accessed 5-19-05)
Published: May 20, 2005 03:00 | Last updated: May 20, 2005 03:00
http://news.ft.com/cms/s/4ea07b74-c8cd-11d9-87c9-00000e2511c8.html rainforest (accessed 5-19-05)
hat is the difference between primary and secondary succession? This paper delves into the difference between the two and presents good working definitions and examples for the importance of both primary and secondary succession.
Ecological succession is part of natural world changes that keep ecosystems healthy and involve the evolution of ecosystems as well. It may take hundreds and even thousands of years for nature to complete the succession process, which is a "…gradual process of change and replacement" of certain types of species in a community, according to the book Holt Environmental Science Chapter 5, How Ecosystems ork (Holt, et al., 2004, p. 129). Every new community of plants that take hold makes it more difficult for the preceding community to survive, Holt explains.
Primary succession generally occurs in an area where "no ecosystem existed before," Holt explains. New ecosystems for example might grow on sand dunes…
Holt, Rinehart & Winston. (2004). Holt Environmental Science. Chicago, IL: Hole McDougal.
North Ease Independent School District. (2006). Components of an Ecosystem & How they
Interact. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from www.neisd.net/curriculum/SchImprov/.../7_cs_unit6_ecology.doc.
Tompkins, Shannon. (2011). Flames from Bastrop fire will be felt for a long time. My San
134). In addition, ussian authorities have also joined with the international community to protect the lake. In this regard, Hudgins adds that, "Increased awareness of such threats to the unique ecology of Lake Baikal has prompted a number of international organizations -- including the Sierra Club and Baikal Watch in the United States -- to join the ussians in their efforts to protect this natural wonder of the world" (1998, p. 135). According to the Sierra Club, "Lake Baikal, arguably ussia's most significant environmental treasure -- it contains a fifth of the world's unfrozen freshwater and is a UNESCO World Heritage site -- is being polluted by toxic waste from a paper mill that Vladimir Putin ordered reopened for economic reasons" (Pollutin' Putin, 2010, para. 2). In fact, the recently reopened paper mill disposes of toxic wastes directly into Lake Baikal's fragile biological system (Hoare, 2008). While the Sierra Club…
Current programs. (2010). Baikal Watch. Retrieved from http://www.earthislandprojects.org / project/campaignPage.cfm?pageID=7&subSiteID=1&CFID=43926225&CFTOKEN=32
Gladkochub, D.P., Donskaya, T.V., Wingate, M.T., Poller, U., Kroner, a., Fedorovsky, V.S.,
Mazukabzov, a.M., Todt, W. & Pisarevsky, S.A. (2008). Petrology, geochronology and tectonic implications of C. 500 Ma metamorphic and igneous rocks along the northern margin of the Central Asian orogen. Journal of the Geological Society, 165, 235-237.
Wabash Watershed and Global Warming
Global warming is the gradual increase in the average temperatures of Earth caused by an increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in Earth's atmosphere. An unprecedented increase in GHG has induced the warming up of Earth. Since global warming impacts entire biosphere and ecosystems, watersheds are also distorted through warming of climate. The paper defines watersheds, their role in ecosystem, and explanation of changes that have taken place in Wabash watershed. Wabash watershed is composed of smaller watersheds such as Upper Wabash Watershed, Lower Wabash, Little Wabash Watershed, Middle Wabash-Busseron, and Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion Watershed. Human agency has caused the global warming to increase over a period of last two decades, though its signs are obvious much before that. Increases in average lower temperatures, precipitation, and stream runoff are some evident outcomes of global warming. Wildlife, water resources, agriculture, and human health will have an adverse…
EPA. (2013). Midwest Impacts & Adaptation. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved form: http://www.epa.gov /climatechange/impacts-adaptation/midwest.html
Goudie, A.S. (2005). The human impact on the natural environment: past, present, and future. Wiley-Blackwell.
Gregersen, H., Ffolliott, P., & Brookes, K. (2008). Integrated watershed management: Connecting people to their land and water. CABI.
IPCC. (2013). Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-3-6.html
law help protect the environment and what steps can citizens take to ensure that the law accomplishes this goal?
Protection of the environment is important for our health, but humans affect the system through various means such as through polluting water and atmosphere with toxic gasses, with oil, with car fuels, and with debris that is plunked into the waters as well as depleting the fisheries and filling the air with smog and the earth with pollution.
It is for this reason that legislation is put into effect to curb our destruction and to teach us how to look after the environment in better ways. The state employs its own regulations, but it needs a synthesis of both state, business and citizen involvement to safeguard the environment, and motivation from both business and citizen is not always forthcoming. The following essay discusses policies that have been implemented to help protect…
Amos, W. (2011) Development of Canadian Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling: Lessons from the Gulf of Mexico RECIEL 20 (1)
British Columbia v. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.,  2 S.C.R. 74, 2004 SCC 38
Bruce, JP (2011) Protecting Groundwater: The Invisible but Vital Resource C.D. Howe Institute
DeMarco, Jerry V;Valiante, Marcia;Bowden, Marie-Ann (2005) Opening the Door for Common Law Environmental Protection in Canada Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 15, 2
The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.
Climate Change: Precipitation
The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).
About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city…
Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.
Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.
Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .
Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
The combintion of the complexity of the forest model nd economic needs from forest products results in the need for greter mrrige of ecology, sttistics, economics, nd lnd nd forestry mngement. There re severl connections between forest nd ecosystem mngement. By plnning nd reserching forest growth nd forest stnd tending this industry cn form the bsis for vrious politicl guidelines nd policies to ensure tht timber resources re vilble for future genertions. The forests lso provide hundreds of benefits to mny people living in forested res cross the world. These include thousnds of jobs, lumber, pper products, clen ir, wter filtrtion nd mny recretionl opportunities. In order to ensure tht these benefits will exist for future use, studies of the growth rtes of tended nd untended trees re crried out. For exmple, trees cn be thinned out (removing unwnted or less desirble trees) llowing the best trees to…
and Applications. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academics.
Buongiono, J., Gilless, J. (2003). Decision Methods for Forest Resource Management.
San Diego: Academic Press.
Riparian Buffer Management
Current Knowledge and Standards
Most bodies of water, both running and standing, have a flood plain known as a riparian area. hether the waterway is a large river or a small, intermittent creek, the water directly affects and is affected by this adjacent land. The riparian area serves as a transition between aquatic and land habitats. It is the link between land and water. hen this area is planted in such a way to protect the waterway from negative impacts of the adjacent land use, it becomes a buffer, specifically, a riparian buffer. Recently, we have become aware of several important functions of the riparian areas. They are vital to the conservation of valuable farmlands and essential to the removal of harmful chemicals from our water supply.
Since the turn of the century, during the beginning of the industrial area, lands in the riparian area have been…
D.C. Environmental Management Council (DCEMC) Dutchess County Planning & Development. Poughkeepsie, NY. 2001. ww.dutchessny.gov Accessed May, 2002.
Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DDNR). Delaware
Riparian Buffer Brochure. October 2000.
Maille, Peter. Science and Society Series, Number 1 April, 2001 Cacapon Institute, Highview,
Stated examples include: "cessation of mining or farming or causes of erosion, restricting livestock from riparian areas, removing toxic materials from soil or sediments, and eradicating invasive exotic species; (4) restoration of processes/disturbance cycles and this involves restoration of important ecological processes including natural flooding or fire regimes so that natural integrity is restored; (5) rehabilitation of substrates which may be any type of activity focused on repairing soil texture or chemistry that has been altered or the restoration of hydrological regimes or the quality of water; (6) vegetation restoration which may include direct revegetation of a site and generally with species that are native to the local conditions of the environment. This involves collection of seeds or cuttings from various sources in the local region; (7) Maintenance and monitoring the restoration site across time is required to ensure that objectives are being met. Observation assists in knowing when something…
Ecological Restoration Option (2014) Humboldt State University. Retrieved from: http://humboldt.edu/environment/programs/environmental-science/ecological-restoration-option
The Croton Waterworks (2014) Retrieved from: http://crotonaqueduct.wordpress.com/field-notes/individual-structures/jacqueline-kennedy-onassis-reservoir/
Vaughn, K.J., Porensky, L.M., Wilkerson, M.L., Balachowski, J., Peffer, E., Riginos, C. & Young, T.P. (2010) Restoration Ecology. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):66. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/restoration-ecology-13339059
California's costal ocean region is characterized with both positive and negative attributes. The California Coastal egion is along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. This area is a beautiful, desirable area to live in, causing real estate to be among the highest in the United States. In fact, this area was one of the fastest to recover after the great recession of 2008, due primarily to its natural beauty. In addition, the per capita income for families in the area is also usually higher than the general population in the country. This fact is intuitive as higher income families are those best able to afford the beauty and natural elements in which the California costal region offers. There are many rivers and streams that lead out to the ocean. The popular edwood Forest is also within the vicinity of the costal region. There are beautiful mountains and sand…
1) Beckey, Fred W. (2000). Cascade Alpine Guide: Columbia River to Stevens Pass. Mountaineers Press. p. 11
2) Harris, S.L. (2005). Fire Mountains of the West: The Cascade and Mono Lake Volcanoes. Mountain Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-87842-511-2.
3) Smith, Genny; Putnam, Jeff (1976). Deepest Valley: a Guide to Owens Valley, its roadsides and mountain trails (2nd ed.). Genny Smith books. ISBN 0-931378-14-1.
4) Sawyer, John O. (2006). Northwest California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Issues in the Ownership and Management of Protected Areas: The Allegheny National Forest Management Plan
The Allegheny Plateau, which stretches form western New York, through much of Pennsylvania and parts of Ohio, and extends as far south as Kentucky, was the focus of the Forest Service and the Organic Act of 1897, which put forth the National Forest mission of the preservation and protection of the nation's forests and forested lands and waterways (FS 2011). The Allegheny National Forest is a federally protected and managed area on this plateau located primarily within Pennsylvania, and ongoing environmental, social, and economic issues have made the management of this particular National Forest particularly controversial and complex in some regards (FS 2011; Hopey 2006; Senecah et al. 2003). Though making this more burdensome for the Forest Service, the complexities and issues in the management of the Allegheny National Forest make it an…
FS. (2011). Allegheny National Forest. Forest Service. Accessed 18 February 2011. http://www.fs.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsinternet/!ut/p/c5/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3gjAwhwtDDw9_AI8zPwhQoY6IeDdGCqCPOBqwDLG-AAjgb6fh75uan6BdnZaY6OiooA1tkqlQ!!/dl3/d3/L2dJQSEvUUt3QS9ZQnZ3LzZfMjAwMDAwMDBBODBPSEhWTjBNMDAwMDAwMDA!/?ss=110919&navtype=forestBean&navid=091000000000000&pnavid=null&cid=null&ttype=main&pname=Allegheny%20National%20Forest%20-%20Home
Hopey, D. (2006). Critics assail draft of management plan for Allegheny National Forest. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Accessed 18 February 2011. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06234/715352-113.stm
Sencah, S., Walker, G. & Dadey, J. (2003). Allegheny National Forest Management Plan Revision. Accessed 18 February 2011. http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/forests/allegheny/projects/forest_plan_revision/Public%20Meeting%20Information_files/ANF%20NFC%20Suggestions%20for%20Improvements.pdf
The ecologies and environment: From the Atlantic Ocean to the Appalachian Plateau, Georgia is a very diverse state in terms of its ecology and geography. The state is the largest east of the Mississippi River, and its elevation ranges from sea level to more than 4,700 feet. The New Georgia Encyclopedia reports that there are five distinct "physiographic provinces" in Georgia: the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont, the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. In the extreme northwestern part of the state, the Appalachian Plateau has historically been a region where mining has taken place. That Appalachian Plateau actually connects some parts of Georgia with Tennessee and eastern Alabama.
The cities in Georgia are located in the Piedmont region, which is highly industrialized, and includes the sprawling megalopolis of Atlanta. The "fall line" in Georgia is the place where the coastal plain meets the…
Baxter, Tom. (2012). Georgia becomes Ground Zero for energy, environmental issues. Atlanta Business Chronicle. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from http://saportareport.com .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Climate Change and Georgia. Retrieved March 4,
2012, from http://www.epa.gov .
Georgia Department of Natural Resources. (2009). Georgia's Natural Resources. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from http://www.gadnr.org/resources .
Still, it is not unimaginable, within a lake as large as Victoria that they might also divide into separate populations along very subtle lines of variation -- like mating behaviors or feeding preferences.
This sort of interpretation of the situation in Lake Victoria, however, rests upon the notion that the species of cichlid found there evolved from a single ancestral species. Yet, even Meyer acknowledges that this might not be the case: "Within the past decade, however, morphology has increasingly emphasized the view that the flock may be polyphyletic." Put differently, it is possible that the species of cichlid that have evolved in Lake Victoria came from a group of distinct, but closely related, fish that colonized the region several thousand years ago. If this is the case, then the scientific importance of the Victorian cichlids would be somewhat diminished, because a less explosive series of adaptive radiations could explain…
Goldschmidt, Tijs. 1998. Land-Use Changes and NIS in Lake Victoria. Bright and Lodge, 1998.
Kolar, Cynthia S. And David M. Lodge. 2000. Invasive Species in a Changing World. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
Meyer, Axel et al. 1990. Monophyletic Origin of Lake Victoria Cichlid Fishes Suggested by Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Nature, 347.
Office of Protected Resources. 2005. Endangered Species Act of 1973. NOAA Fisheries. Available:
Lost Mountain' and look at what the writer say about coal mining and its overall effects to the overall environment and the entire human race. It will first analyze the problem at hand both from the political side and other actors involved in the coal mining on mountain tops. In addition to that the study will go ahead to see the varying criticism and proponents views on the issue and particularly on what the author of the book takes on the issue. According to Reece, the author of the book, the problem of coal miming on mountaintops has a political twist which makes it difficult to solve or work on its solution.
Lost mountain is a book by Reece Erik that has been eloquently been written and quite moving with the main agenda concentrating on the issue of cold mining at the mountain tops. Reece is mainly against the practice…
Reece E. (2006) Lost Mountain: A year in the Vanishing Wilderness: Radical Strip Mining and the Devastation of Appalachia, Riverhead Books Publishers
Lasswell H. (2007) American Political Scientist
In addition, large quantities of natural gas are required to produce fertilizers which are needed for growing corn. It is estimated that an average of 135 pounds of nitrogen (a potent-greenhouse-gas) per acre is used in growing corn in most U.S. farms. Besides, research by the U.S. Department for Agriculture (USDA) shows that tilled soil releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere in proportion to the volume of soil loosened (Kenny).
Most of all, it is erroneous to assume that ethanol is likely to reduce America's dependence on foreign oil. It has been estimated that the current ethanol production in the United States that has triggered such massive increase in grain and food prices around the world barely satisfies less than 3% of U.S. gasoline needs; and if the entire U.S. grain harvest were converted into ethanol, it would satisfy scarcely 18% of the country's automotive fuel need (Brown.). Furthermore,…
Brown, Lester R. "Why Ethanol Production Will Drive World Food Prices Even Higher in 2008." Earth Policy Institute. January 24, 2008. May 30, 2008. http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2008/Update69.htm
Carter, Colin a. And Henry I. Miller. "Hidden Costs of Corn-Based Ethanol." Christian Science Monitor. May 21, 2007. May 30, 2008. http://www.csmonitor.com /2007/0521/p09s02-coop.html
Corn...Fuel...Fire!" Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. December 17, 2007. May 30, 2008. http://www.stri.org/english/about_stri/headline_news/news/article.php?id=736
Flavin, Christopher. "Biofuels 2.0: It's Time for Congress to Act." World Watch.
Barrier island beaches generally develop where:
a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore
During storms in winter:
a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches
b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands
c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed
Along the Midocean ridge
a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur
Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?
c British Columbia and Alaska
d Texas and the Gulf Coast
Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?
d None of the…
Among the animals found in these relatively lush riparian zones are elk, deer, bear, sheep, and mountain lions. In addition, smaller animals that live and feed along this biologically vital corridor may include birds (like the ring-necked pheasant, grouse, geese, falcons, great blue herons, hummingbirds and warblers), small mammals (such as longtail weasel and striped skunk), reptiles (garter snake and the western painted turtle), and amphibians (red-legged frog and the Pacific giant salamander). The flora and fauna often include many threatened, endangered, or sensitive species, among which could be the bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and kit fox (The Columbia iver Basin watershed and its ecosystems 2005).
The plant life along the river can also has an effect on the health of the species living in the river by maintaining the health of the river by influencing the amount and kind of sediment in the river. The vegetation along the side…
Columbia River (2005). Center for Columbia River History. Retrieved September 10, 2005 at http://www.ccrh.org/river/history.htm.
The Columbia River Basin watershed and its ecosystems (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at http://www.fwee.org/crb.html .
How a hydroelectric project can affect a river (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html .
Human history in the Tetons (2001). Grand Teton History, retrieved September 10, 2005 at http://www.americanparknetwork.com/parkinfo/gt/history/ .
Mekong River Delta
The Management of the Mekong River has long been an issue of great debate and inquiry. The body of water is essential to the livelihoods of millions of people and must be managed accordingly. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate human-ecosystem conflicts. The research will analyze the nature of the conflict, the impacts on the natural ecosystem involved (you need to include raw scientific data that show human impacts), a description of the stakeholders involved, the options for dealing with the conflict (is this a good example of a sustainable solution to the conflict, the option selected and an evaluation of whether this is working including an update for the older case studies.
The Mekong River
The Mekong River is a perfect example of human-ecosystem conflict. According to a report entitled "People and ecosystems: The fraying web of life" the Mekong River is the 12th…
Baird I.G. Mark S. Flaherty1 and Ian G. Baird2. Mekong River Fish Conservation Zones in Southern Laos: Assessing Effectiveness Using Local Ecological Knowledge. Environmental Management. Volume 36, Number 3 / September, 2005
Friederich, H. 2000. The biodiversity of the wetlands in the Lower Mekong Basin. Paper submitted to the World Commission on Dams, Presented at the Commission's East/Southeast Asia Regional Consultation, Hanoi, Vietnam. 26-27 February
Hoa, Le Thi Viet, Nguyen Huu Nhan, Eric Wolanski, Tran Thanh Congb, Haruyama Shigeko. The combined impact on the flooding in Vietnam's Mekong River delta of local man-made structures, sea level rise, and dams upstream in the river catchment
Kummu M., Varis, O. (2007) Sediment-related impacts due to upstream reservoir trapping, the Lower Mekong River. Geomorphology 85 (2007) 275-293
The promising areas of Dutch expertise are in modeling, risk management, water quality management and also institutional strengthening. The Dutch stakeholders across the board can also contribute through a cooperative and integrated approach to river basin management. All of this has to be taken into account as well as the spatial aspects of water for te new water management to be effective. It is a recognition of the need for wetlands as a water retention resource that has to be maintained in the balance. Then, there will not be a crisis. The water-shed will be most sustainable if it can be developed as a protective barrier ("aterland Information Network") .
The Biesbosch is also becoming as an economic as well as a water retention resource. The future of the area lies in the field of sustainable tourism. In the history of the place, man has worked both with and against…
Biswas, Asit K. Water Management in 2020 and Beyond. 1st. New York, NY: Springer, 2009. 190.
De Velliers, Marq. Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource. 1st. New york, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001. 3.
Hobbelen, P.H.F., J.E. Koolhaas, and C.A.M van Gestel. "Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account." Environmental Pollution . 129. (2004): 40919. Print.
Hopkins, Anna. "Communities and Waterpoint Management." The Chapter Buzz. / blogs.ewb.ca/annahopkin, 21 Oct 2011. Web. 25 Oct 2011.
On the other side of the coin from the loggers and people who own the land with the timber on it are the environmental activists, who feel it is their duty to protect the planet.
Many environmental activists find that they struggle to be heard over other interests and that they are not popular people because they are seen as 'tree huggers' and stop people from undertaking activities that would allow them to make money. Lawyers who are interested in and focused on environmental litigation seem to be abusing what they are supposed to do in the sense that they will sue just about anyone for anything at this point. Of course, not all lawyers who are concerned about the environment do these kinds of things. The ones who do are often consumed with protecting everything from everything else, which is completely impossible to do. Many of the environmental activists…
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
The plan would be the result of the scientific method, through which the impacts and causes of the current environmental problems would be addressed. Additionally, the scientific method would sit at the basis of the future actions to be taken. These would traditionally include:
The search for alternative sources of energy
The search for renewable sources of energy
The creation of an infrastructure which allowed the propagation and populous use of alternative energies
The education of the population to reduce their levels of consumerism to life necessities
The implementation of stricter regulations which punish economic agents who pollute waters or cut the forests in an unsustainable manner
eplant forests, clean waters and support the sustainable life of the endangered species.
At a smaller size and specific level, the alternative and immediate action to be taken is that of reducing the harvesting of krill by commercial fishermen. This would be achieved…
Leonard, A., The story of stuff, http://www.storyofstuff.com / last accessed on October 13, 2010
Naik, A., 2010, Ozone layer and global warming, Buzzle, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ozone-layer-and-global-warming.html last accessed on October 14, 2010
Antarctic krill conservation project statement of principles and core goals, Antarctic Krill Conservation Project, http://www.krillcount.org/solutions.html last accessed on October 14, 2010
As the road is being laid the fumes from the chemical materials and the concussive force of the construction equipment are devastating to local wildlife (Forman & Alexander, 1998). The result, is displaced organisms which ultimately put increased pressure for food, land, and water on other ecosystems. The extent of these ripple effects are still yet to be fully known.
In instances where above or below ground water supplies must be altered in order to make way for a new road system the effects are if anything more dire. When laying the bed of a road, it is nearly impossible to prevent a percentage of the chemicals used in the road surface itself from leeching into the soil (Forman & Deblinger, 2000). When in the presence of water those toxins are carried the course of the water supply affecting all of the vegetation and wildlife which it comes into contact…
The attempts to penetrate the cove seems to be more thrilling to timepiece, as individual may be able to see the very real danger the creatures were subjected to due to the system or methods used in capturing them which did range from revolutionary, at night they indeed they used thermal-imaging to scout out the location.
There is No doubt that such a sturdy mix of factors has been involved in the reformation of the AME food web with which both climate alter and exhaustion of acme and middle atrophic level of genus playing a part which brings us to this question of whether we should seriously re think the relative contributions what it is that we actually measure or manage in the whole observed trends of SO organization
Johnston, E. "Mercury Danger in Dolphin Meat," Japan Times, 23 (September 2009).
Leigh, E.G., S.J. Wright, E.A. Herre, and…
Johnston, E. "Mercury Danger in Dolphin Meat," Japan Times, 23 (September 2009).
Leigh, E.G., S.J. Wright, E.A. Herre, and F.E. Putz. 1993. The decline of tree diversity on newly
isolated tropical islands: A test of a null hypothesis and the implications. Evol. Ecol. 7:76-102.
"Mercury levels of whale-eating town's residents 10 times average," Japan Today: Japan News
The study revealed that pollution in the are run off water was measurably reduced after running through the ecosystem. Ron Turco, a soil microbiologist and senior researcher of the project had this to say, "Golf courses are a perfect place for constructed wetlands used as part of a water management system, because wetlands can filter chemicals out of surface water, and they can also store excess water during storms," ("Cleaning ater and Controlling Flooding with etlands" 53) So there may be some hope on the back nine for some wetlands after all. But all kidding aside, this is the type of project, smaller and more immediate, that needs to be funded along with the philosophy of co-habitation of wetlands and human beings kept in mind. This kind of thinking helps to counter the "manifest destiny" concept that the American culture has in regarding land and their possession of it. It…
Blumenauer, Earl. "Water Vision 2001." Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 16.1 (2001): 82.
Cleaning Water and Controlling Flooding with Wetlands." Journal of Environmental Health 68.1 (2005): 53.
Gale, Thomas. "Wetlands." Gale Encyclopedia of Science. 2001:
Grant, Dave. "Disappearing Wetlands." Underwater Naturalist 26.4 (April 2004): p11
These calls are done in a rapid series of low-pitched throaty notes (Great1 pp).
A study titled, "A Comparative Analysis of Plasticity in Larval Development in Three Species of Spadefoot Toads," reported by David Reznick in the June 01, 2000 issue of Ecology, evaluated four salient features of the ilbur and Collins (1973) model for amphibian metamorphosis (Reznick pp) H.M. ilbur and J.P. Collins offered an evolutionary explanation for the labile nature of amphibian metamorphosis (Reznick pp). Their model has provided the most important framework for interpreting phenotypic plasticity in age and size at metamorphosis (Reznick pp). This model is attractive due to its simplicity, and the fact that it focuses on selection at the larval life stage, is time invariant, and ignores complex relationships between larvae and their predators (Reznick pp).
Reznick study performed an experiment on three species of spadefoot toads derived from environments that differ in their…
Aidem, Patricia Farrell. "Wildlife Shields Proposed Protected Areas May Expand." Daily
News. February 04, 2001. Retrieved October 08, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Biota Information System of New Mexico. Retireved October 08, 2005 at http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/states/nmex_main/species/020076.htm
Bransfield, Ray. "Lands of contrast, diversity, and beauty."
It may have seemed to many that Stegner was simply expressing a bitter lament or was being a naysayer, but in fact, what he predicted is actually quite close to the truth. The West is being settled as an insane rate, and there is simply not enough water to continue this growth. Certainly, there are other issues that make up the West, from its complex history to its varied ecosystems, peoples, and cities and towns. The fabric of the West is a patchwork, but if people do not evaluate it as "living space" above all else, and change their basic view of the West as never ending and always available, the West is going to undergo such a drastic and permanent change that it may not be inhabitable for a majority of those who live their now. Stegner, instead of being a negative doomsday predictor was a prophet who should…
The Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina is part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, a federally-recognized independent Native American Cherokee tribe whose home base is in Cherokee, North Carolina, south of the Smoky Mountains. The Eastern Band is comprised of the descendants of the approximately 800 Cherokee who did not join the Trail of Tears—the forced migration of the Native American nations from the Southern U.S. region to the western U.S. region designated by the U.S. government as Indian Territory following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This relatively small number of Cherokee (compared to the 16,000 Cherokee who were relocated) avoided relocation by living on privately owned land, as opposed to communal land. For example, some 400 Cherokee lived on acreage owned by William Holland Thomas in the Smoky Mountains. Thomas had been taken in by the Cherokee in his youth and now returned the favor in…
evolution and natural selection is the addition of information. The process of evolution requires massive amounts of new information be added to an existing gene pool. What most people refer to as evolution is, in fact, natural selection. Natural selection occurs when genes that already exist in an animals' DNA, or sometimes on defective genes that have lost information (called mutation) are somehow altered. Neither process adds information to the gene pool so cannot be considered to be evolution. The evolutionary process is a slow and meticulous one and is preceded by numerous incidents of natural selection. True evolution is truly rare and takes place over the span of many years. Natural selection occurs far more frequently and can occur in the space of several generations.
Natural field experiments are efforts by the scientific community to apply the scientific method to real life situations. This process allows scientists to test…
ethics and morality of Paul Taylor's view of the environment
One key ethical issue, contentious amongst environmentalists today as well as those activists who oppose the ethical philosophy of environmentalism, is whether environmentalism should be focused on improving the lot of the human animal on earth, or should attempt to benefit all species upon earth in an equal fashion. The philosopher Paul Taylor argues that environmental ethics should emphasize the interdependent nature all individual members of earth's biological community. He states that environmentalists should embrace the idea that no single species is superior to the others. However, although Paul Taylor's philosophy is commendable in its emotional intensity when he says, "we have a self-evident moral obligation to the individual members of the Earth's biotic community to protect and promote their good for their sake" (518), his philosophy of species equality is fundamentally flawed. Environmentalism is a human ideological construction. No…