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Detecting Art Forgeries
Artwork is a subjective object mostly bought and paid for depending on a client's aesthetic taste. Genuine art pieces from centuries past, however, become coveted items for avid art collectors and museum curators alike. Because of the high price some collectors are willing to go to possess authentic works of art, the forgery of supposed authentic artwork has become a habit for masters and amateur artists alike. Art forgeries have spanned centuries; before the common use of technology and other techniques utilized by field experts, masters and amateur painters and sculptors have escaped unnoticed. These forgers have managed to sell their works of art easily enough -- that is, until art detectives came into the scene. But how does one ultimately tell a piece's authenticity in all of its likeness to a genuine article?
A forged artwork -- or a forgery in general -- is…
Fleming, S. (1980). Detecting art forgeries. Physics Today, 33(4), 34. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Grann, D. (2010). THE MARK OF A MASTERPIECE. New Yorker, 86(20), 50. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Spinney, L. (2009). Interview: the art detectives. New Scientist, 202(2705), 26-27. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Wreen, M. (1983). GOODMAN ON FORGERY. Philosophical Quarterly, 33(133), 340-353. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
In Forgeries of Memory & Meaning: Blacks and the Regimes of Race in American Theater and Film Before World War II, Cedric J. Robinson posits that white individuals and industries seized the opportunity to exploit Blacks in cinema, not simply because of the social interest in these peoples, but also because of its potential financial success. While there is a history of racially influenced films being successful for high-profile investors who were not necessarily found in the entertainment industry, Spike Lee demonstrates that the elements of African-American society that were exploited in film in the past can also be exploited in the present. In Lee's Bamboozled, he explores how Blacks and their culture have been seen as a means of making money.
While Robinson contends, "With so much invested in the Black representations by anthropologists…and hawkers.at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair (and elsewhere) what was there not to like…when…
Retrieval & Storage
It has become a commonplace in public discussion over the past decade or two to assert that we are presently living through an informational revolution as great and momentous as that which took place in the wake of Gutenberg's movable type and the introduction of printed books to Europe. hether this proves to be accurate or merely a rarefied and academic strain of vacuous Silicon Valley hype has yet to be demonstrated, but it is undeniable that technological changes have altered the way in which information can be stored and retrieved. hat has not changed is the tendentious nature whereby information in general is stored and retrieved. I wish to focus on three ways in which this tendentiousness has been expressed in the past -- which I will summarize as forgery, ideology, and historiography -- in which the storage and retrieval of information has conditioned the use…
Chartier, Roger. The Order of Books: Readers, Authors, and Libraries in Europe between the Fourteenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Trans. Lydia G. Cochrane. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994. Print.
Clanchy, M.T. From Memory to Written Record: England 1066-1307. Second Edition. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993. Print.
Echard, Sian. "House Arrest: Modern Archives, Medieval Manuscripts." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, Spring 2000 (30:2): 185-210. Print.
Simpson, James. The Oxford English Literary History, Volume 2 (1350-1547): Reform and Cultural Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Inch Golden Lotus
According to the 1000-year-old Chinese tradition, "a pair of perfectly bound feet must meet seven qualifications- small, slim, pointed, arched, fragrant, soft, and straight- in order to become a piece of art, an object of erotic desire." (ang 2000, p.3) This passage describes what many consider to be a barbaric practice: foot binding, or a process by which a girl's feet were wrapped tightly so as to force the prevention of growth. This process, which can be traced back over a thousand years, was considered to be a sign of beauty and eroticism in women, and carried with it great symbolism within Chinese society. But by the beginning of the 20th century, foot binding was considered by many to be a backward and barbaric practice which forced women into a second class position; and it was outlawed. Feng Jicai, in The Three Inch Golden Lotus, explored the…
Feng, Jicai, David Wakefield, and Howard Goldblatt. The Three-Inch Golden Lotus.
Honolulu: Univ. Of Hawaii, 1994. Print.
Wang, Ping. Aching for Beauty: Footbinding in China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 200. Print.
Meade replied (p. 189) that "...neither the United States Government, myself, nor General Kilpatrick authorized, sanctioned, or approved the burning of the city of Richmond and the killing of Mr. Davis..."
Subsequent chapters in Schultz's book deal with the complications of retrieving Dahlgren's body and giving it a proper burial in the north, and with an ill-fated attempt by the Confederates to create chaos and draw blood in northern cities (Chicago among them) by sending disguised mercenaries down from Canada.
But Chapter 22 ("Desperate Measures: ho rote the Dahlgren Papers?") is loaded with Schultz's own beliefs and the views of others as regards the legitimacy of the papers. The people in the south believed the papers were real, and those in the north chose to believe the opposite. On pages 242-245 Schultz reprints what he asserts are the actual orders that Dahlgren was carrying with him. Back and forth, back…
Hall, James O. 1999. Gunning for Davis. Civil War Times Illustrated 37 (February): 66-68.
Mullen, Richard. 1999. Civil War Comes to Virginia. Contemporary Review 275 (September):
Schultz, Duane. 1998. The Dahlgren Affair: Terror and Conspiracy in the Civil War. New York:
W.W. Norton & Company.
In this case, another category should be defined where the act was intentional, and the long-term eventual outcome was to commit an act of war against the United States, but this effect was not a direct threat to national security. In this case these acts would still be classified as crimes.
In order to be classified as an act of terror, there must be an indication of purpose. The purpose must be a direct threat to national security; for example, flying planes into a building would be an act with a purpose to threat national security. Obtaining passports for those intending on flying planes into a building would also be considered to be an act of terror, because this act has a purpose, and is a direct contributor to the compromise of national security. However, committing forgery on papers to enter the United States would not be considered an act…
Linde: Come, come-
Nora: - that I have gone through nothing in this world of cares.
Mrs. Linde: But my dear Nora, you have just told me all your troubles.
Nora: Pooh! -- those were trifles (lowering her voice) I have not told you the important thing (20).
We see Torvald's side of the deception in Act Three after he learns of Nora's forgery and Krogstad's ability to expose her. The conversations Thorvald has had during the previous two Acts show us that he is really only attracted to Nora because of her beauty and the social status that will glean him in society. He notes, "From now on, forget happiness. Now it's just about saving the remains, the wreckage, the appearance," showing us that all he really cares about it he own social status and reputation, naught for Nora. Essentially, Nora's forgery is the epitome of their disenfranchised and…
Ibsen, H. A Doll's House. Clayton, DE: Prestwick House, 2005.
Unwin, S. Ibsen's A Doll's House: Page to Stage Study Guide. London: Nick Hern Books,
Furthermore, Jones will not be entitled to recover damages for mental distress in the amount of $1 Million. Damages for mental distress are generally not appropriate in the context of a contract dispute. Furthermore, damages for mental distress are generally limited to situations where the behavior of one party is extremely outrageous. Due to these limitations, absent information that would lead one to believe that Black engaged in behavior that was specifically intended to harass Jones, damages for mental distress are inappropriate in this case.
However, Jones is entitled to receive damages above and beyond his restitution interest and punitive damages. In general, a prevailing party is entitled to court costs and reasonable legal fees. Therefore, as the prevailing party, Jones is entitled to recover the amount of money he was forced to expend to pursue his remedies. However, Jones may not be entitled to recover the actual amount he…
Security Stove & Mfg. Co. v. American Ry. Express Co., 51 S.W. 2d 572 (Mo. Ct. App. 1932).
Sheridan v. Sheridan, 247 N.J. Super. 552, 589 A.2d 1067 (1990).
Sturm, Ruger & Co., Inc. v. Day, 594 P.2d 38 (Alaska 1979).
Vermont Women's Health Center v. Operation Rescue, 159 Vt. 141, 617 A.2d 411 (1989).
Feng Shui in Hong Kong
Fengshui in Hong Kong was noted in the first book on the subject ever written for a Western audience, by E.J. Eitel in 1873. Eitel was a German missionary and inspector of the Hong Kong schools and reported a number of instances in which Western construction projects had angered the Chinese and provoked riots and disturbances because they had supposedly upset the gods and the spirits of the ancestors. A new road to the Happy Valley was being built and the "Chinese community was thrown into a state of abject terror and fright, on account of the disturbance this amputation of the Dragon's limb would cause to the Feng Shui of Hong Kong" (Bruun, 2003, 56). When Western engineers and workers began to die of fever and the new houses in the Happy Valley had to be abandoned because of malaria "the Chinese triumphantly declared…
Blackman, M. (2008). Asia Future Shock: Business Crisis and Opportunity in the Coming Years. Palgrave Macmillan.
Bruun, O. (2003). Fengshui in China: Geomantic Divination between State Orthodoxy and Popular Religion. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.
Burnham, S. (2011). The Art of Intuition: Cultivating Your Inner Wisdom. Penguin.
Donavan, D. (2002). "Wang's Legacy: Sex, Lies and Litigation." Forbes.com, November 22, 2002.
The payee's endorsement is then forged and a criminal represents himself as the payee (Check fraud (http://www.ipsboston.com/pdcfpps_typesofcheckfraud.htm)."
In addition to the above methods of fraud, criminals often write checks on a close account and it takes time for the corporation receiving the check to find out that the account has been closed.
Criminals also open bank accounts using either fraudulent identification or by assuming the identity of others and commit fraud by depositing bogus checks. Criminals exploit the lag between the availability of funds provided by the depositary bank and the notification by the paying bank of the returned bogus check (Check fraud (http://www.ipsboston.com/pdcfpps_typesofcheckfraud.htm)."
WHY POSITIVE PAY IS a VALID OPTION
With the advances current technology offers the ability for outsiders to commit check fraud continues to increase.
Along with the technological advances, decreasing costs and wide spread availability of these products have made even sophisticated tools affordable to obtain.…
Overview of Positive Pay (accessed 2-1-07)
Check fraud (accessed 2-1-07)
Clare of Assisi
Saint Clare of Assisi was not a feminist in the modern sense, but then again no such ideas existed at all in the 13th Century. By all accounts, though, she was a formidable and powerful woman who was the first in history to found a religious order. In the society in which she was born, women were politically, socially and economically powerless, and quite literally the property of their fathers and husbands. This was a feudal, authoritarian and patriarchal society, and even aristocratic women like Clare and her friend St. Agnes of Prague were forced into arranged marriages by their fathers. Indeed, both Clare and Agnes defied their fathers when they insisted on entering religious life as followers of St. Francis of Assisi, and Clare's family disowned her. She was not a political rebel or revolutionary, but she did have a utopian vision of society that was…
Anderson, C. Colt. The Great Catholic Reformers: From Gregory the Great to Dorothy Day. Paulist Press, 2007.
"The Blessing of Clare" (1253?) in Armstrong, Regis J. (Ed) The Lady Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New City Press, 2006: 66-70.
"First Letter to Agnes of Prague" (1234) in Armstrong, Regis J. (Ed) The Lady Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New City Press, 2006: 43-46.
"The Form of Life of Clare of Assisi" (1253) in Armstrong (Ed): 106-28.
Scientific Objectivity and Scientific Irascibility:
Melvin Harris' rhetoric on the perpetration of the fraud of the Maybrick Ink test
According to author Melvin Harris, one of the most infamous hoaxes ever perpetrated against the community of scientists, historians, and laypersons was that of the Maybrick 'Jack the Ripper' diaries. Jack the Ripper, the serial killer who terrorized prostitutes during the late Victorian Era, remains a great unsolved crime. The supporters of the so-called Maybrick diaries claimed to solve the Jack the Ripper murders by implicating convicted 19th century murderer John Maybrick. The diaries were 'discovered' during the late 20th century and a subsequent book by Shirley Harrison was published to support this claim that Maybrick was 'Jack.' However, Melvin Harris in his essay "The Maybrick Hoax: A fact-file for the perplexed," disputes the scientific evidence presented by the supporters of the Maybrick theory. Scientific tests of the diaries proved contradictory,…
Harris, Melvin. "The Maybrick Hoax: A fact-file for the perplexed," 1997: 1-5.
Henrik Ibsen's play A Doll's Housemade him the father of modern literature. His writing showed tragedy and drama in a new and rather modern way. Prior to an analysis of the story at hand, it is only relevant that the plot and main characters are discussed in detail. This story does not revolve around a whole bunch of characters and is based on only a few days. The story starts off on A Christmas eve when Nora is in the living room and has just gotten back from a shopping trip. Nora is the protagonist of the play and is a wife and a mother. As soon as the play commences, the audience can tell about the rigid relationship between Nora and her husband, Torvald Helmer.
The conversation that the two are having shows that the couple and the family had to go through some tough times before.…
Adams, Robert Martin. "Henrik Ibsen: The Fifty-First Anniversary." The Hudson Review, 10. 3 (1957): 415 -- 423. Print.
Fjelde, Rolf. Four major plays: Volume I. New York City: Signet Classic. 1992. Print.
Forward, Stephanie. "A New World for women? Stephanie Forward considers Nora's dramatic exit from Ibsen's A Doll's House." The English Review, 19. 4 (2009): Print.
Freedman, Morris. The moral impulse. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1967. Print.
strengthen mental discipline.
letter of Gratitude
(a) Lincoln's "higher purpose"
[b] What idea or insight in the full article would you recommend to others?
[a] what seems to be driving Stephen Glass? what are his life goals and aspirations?
[b] how do you think Glass would assess his own intelligence?
[c] Identify and discuss at least two strategies for deception Glass used.
[d] Did Glass leave what Greenspan called "a trail of casualties" in his wake?
[e] What advice would you give to editors about how to avoid hiring someone like Stephen Glass?
[a] Why should judges care if attorneys submit plagiarized legal briefs or motions?
[b] Do you think these punishments (taken as a whole) were too lenient, too severe, or about right?
[c] What distinction did the court make between these two cases?
[d] Do you think this kind of public shaming is too harsh?
Christianity was in its infancy when the New Testament was created, and it would have been important to the leaders of the Christian community to inspire some level - even a lot - of fear of retribution for failing the community and their faith.
This is supported by Joseph Gaer (1952), whose book the Lore of the New Testament, provides the insight into the stories of the New Testament, and those stories are frightening to people whose change in direction from religious paganism, to a monotheistic following is relatively new. For instance, as concerns Judas Iscariot, the New Testament has Jesus casting Satan out of the demonically possessed Judas when they meet.
Satan took possession of the sick boy and, as he was accustomed to, the boy tried to bite the person nearest to him. But as soon as he touched Jesus, Satan jumped out of the possessed boy in…
Dart, John. "Long-Lost Gospel of Judas to Be Published." The Christian Century 27 Dec. 2005: 12+. Questia. 23 Feb. 2008
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
There has been an increasing knowledge and awareness of violent crime among children today; those under the age of 18. There are various crimes that these individuals tend to commit. Distinction and discussion of these types of crimes, as well as the causes and reasons for the characteristics of violent and nonviolent crimes that children commit will be discussed. The concept of charging minors as adults will be discussed, as well.
First of all, a few of the most common various crimes, violent and non-violent that children tend to commit and their descriptions are among the following:
Murder/non-negligent manslaughter -- Murder and non-negligent manslaughter is the willful killing of one human being by another. This does not include deaths caused by negligence, attempts to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, and justifiable homicides. Manslaughter by negligence is the killing of another person through gross negligence. Traffic fatalities are excluded.…
Doll House -- Henrik Ibsen
The play by Henrik Ibsen brings to the mind of the reader and the audience that many men in the past and in the present too, see themselves as superior to women, and women in fact should be happy to carry out the wishes of men. Nora Helmer becomes a kind of plaything for her husband Torvald, and in fact he admits to having fantasies about Nora to give him sensual incentive to engage in intimacy with her. But in time Nora has had enough of Torvald's condescending behaviors and she rebels. This story can be seen as a reflection of the fact that women in the late 19th century were beginning to demand fairness and equality in relationships and in society. hile Ibsen later discounted that he wrote a play about women's rights, the play can be seen as a search for freedom and…
Ibsen, H. (1902). The Doll's House: A Play. Boston, MA: Harvard University (Digitized, 2007)
Advice for the Company on the New Internal Control Requirements
Internal control requirements are the policies, mechanisms and procedures that organizations should satisfy to minimize the operational risks. The internal control is very critical to deter employees from implementing fraudulent operations; an organization is required to adhere to the internal system before going public. Section 404 of the SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley) Act states that internal control is critical for a publicly operating company and internal control system is an auditing and accounting procedure that organizations should employ to achieve an efficient, effective and reliable financial reporting.
Overview of the LJB Company operations reveals that the company does not meet the requirements of the Section 404 of the SOX Act. Part of the Section 404 of the internal control system is that the function of the internal auditor should be separated from the work of an external auditor. In other word, an…
Kimmel, Paul D. Weygandt, Jerry J. Kieso, Donald E. Financial Accounting, 6th Edition. Wiley. 2011.
Technical Security Recommendations for ABC Healthcare IT Infrastructures
ABC Healthcare has been facing a multitude of challenges ranging from the security of the IT infrastructures to the compliance of regulatory policies. In the United States, the lawmakers are increasing putting more restrictive in the regulatory environment because there have been more attacks in the healthcare environment, damaging the organizational information systems and using worms and virus to gain access to non-authorized sensitive data. The issues are making the stakeholders of ABC Healthcare demand for more flexible access to their information systems. Moreover, increasing regulatory pressures within the healthcare environment with regards to the management of the information systems has made ABC Healthcare to decide to implement more prudent information systems security. The goal of ABC Healthcare is to implement good information systems to abide by regulatory policies of HIPPA and SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley). Typically, both SOX and HIPAA mandate healthcare organizations…
Kizza, J.M. (2015). Guide to Computer Network Security. Springer.
Krogh, P. (2009). The DAM Book: Digital Asset Management for Photographers, 2nd Edition, p. 207. O'Reilly Media.
Mell, P. & Grance, T. (2011). The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (NIST SP 800-145). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
whistleblowing that occurred in publicly traded corporations in the past year.
The term "whistleblowing" refers to an attempt made by an employee or ex-employee of a firm to warn the public regarding any serious danger(s) or wrongdoing(s) masked or created by the firm. Corporate and healthcare literature cites multiple definitions of the term, all of which highlight the significance of advocacy (or protection of somebody who is prone to being harmed). The definition, for this paper, will differentiate reporting the issue within the company from external whistleblowing (Lachman, 2008). Typically, whistleblowers are perceived as courageous persons who oppose a company's practices. Whether in the healthcare or corporate field, the examples are analogous to the Glazer and Glazer's analyses of sixty-four whistleblowers, and The Insider, a movie that portrayed the tobacco industry's maneuvers to conceal tobacco's addictive property. Several examples (like the one of a registered nurse, Barry Adams) reveal…
Barnett, T. (1992). Why Your Company Should Have a Whistleblowing Policy. Sam Advanced Management Journal, Retrieved, from http://ethics.csc.ncsu.edu/old/12_00/basics/whistle/rst/wstlblo_policy
Lachman, V. (2008). Whistleblowers: Troublemakers or Virtuous Nurses? MEDSURG Nursing, 17(2). Retrieved, from http://citationproducer.com/apa-citation/cite/journal.html
(n.d.). Online News for Financial Advisors, RIAs, Investment Advisors, Financial Planners & Wealth Managers. Fired Amerprise Manager Cries Foul. Retrieved July 19, 2016, from http://www.fa-mag.com/news/fired-amerprise-manager-cries-foul-6126.html
(2016). Stock Broker Lawyer. Ameriprise Whistleblower Sues, Saying Management Breaks Law Frequently. Retrieved July 18, 2016, from http://www.stockbrokerlawyer.com/ameriprise-whistleblower-sues-saying-management-breaks-law-frequently/
UCR and NIBRS
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…
Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Maltz, M. D., & Targonski, J. (2002). A note on the use of county-level UCR data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 297-318.
Menard, S., & Covey, H. C. (1988). UCR and NCS: Comparisons over space and time. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16(5), 371-384.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. M., Lester, T. K., Kirby, J., & Jira, C. (2006). Establishing the “Statistical Accuracy” of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) in West Virginia. West Virginia Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Charleston.
Odunze, D. O. (2019). Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and 2012 Redesign. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, 1-3.
The doctrine of good faith and fair dealing is like the idea of fairness, is simple to expressive but hard to relate with accuracy. Most lawyers know the policy in the circumstance of personal property sales for the reason that the Uniform Commercial Code is clear on that issue. The principle is frequently murky though in regards to other matters. The principle is additionally clouded when courts and critics merge it with ideas such as disclosure, misrepresentation and fraud. Causes of action based on contract law join with those founded in tort. With the ensuing mess of conflicting legal principles, it is not unexpected that courts take a fact exact move toward deciding cases and, in doing so, often reach conflicting conclusions (Walsh, n.d.).
There have been two significant efforts to establish the connotation of good faith and to figure out what kind of conduct the duty commands. Most…
Weigand, Tory a. (2004). The Duty of Good Faith and Fair Dealing in Commercial
Contracts in Massachusetts. Retrieved December 15, 2010, from Web site:
Uniform Commercial Code. (2005). Retrieved December 15, 2010, from Cornell University Law
For example, Torvald often refers to his wife as a "squirrel," indicating that she spends a great deal of money. She has to hide the macaroons that she purchases and wipe the evidence from her mouth when she asks him to come see what she has bought. At first, Torvald replies, "Don't disturb me," (Ibsen 1) and closes the office door. He then returns with a pen in his hand, questioning her. "Bought, did you say? All these things? Has my little spendthrift been wasting money again?"
In addition, Torvald makes statements like, "That is like a woman," (Ibsen 2). His attitude toward women and toward his wife in general is rather traditional and formal, and Nora does not appear to be that way. Breaking free of him seemed to her to be the best thing to do under the circumstances. In the end, Nora chooses to leave her husband…
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
Specifically, individuals responsible for tenant selection, approval, and relations (particularly in newly developed areas) must be apprised of the operational patterns used by al-Qaeda operatives so that they will recognize behavior consistent with potential terrorist activities in the realm of property rental and use.
Travel Procedures and Transportation Security:
The al-Qaeda Training Manual includes considerable attention to the operational use of public transportation for travel and surveillance activities. Specifically, M-40, Item #2 requires al-Qaeda operatives to use secondary rather than primary entrance and exit stations because they are less subject to electronic monitoring and law enforcement patrols. Similarly, M-40, Item #5 instructs al-Qaeda operatives to separate themselves from their baggage by storing it in a different passenger compartment from that in which they ride. oth elements are consistent with later-published studies, such as by the New York City Police Department (NYPD) Intelligence Division (2007).
oth provisions provide valuable insight capable…
Al Qaeda Training Manual (2000). Retrieved January 24, 2009, at http://www.thetulsan.com/manual.html
NYPD. (2007). Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat. Retrieved January 24, 2009 at http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/public_information/NYPD_Report-Radicalization_in_the_West.pdf
These protocols allow client/server applications to communicate in a way designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering and message forgery. IPsec is a standard that provides security at the network layer by encrypting and/or authenticating IP packets.
Watermarking, Fingerprinting and Access control are other important DRM techniques. Watermarking is the process of embedding information into a data source in such a way its existence is hidden. It essentially serves as a copyright stamp. Another method to protect digital media is to fingerprint each copy with the purchaser's information. Thus, if the purchaser makes illegitimate copies, they will contain his or her name. Access control attempts to find ways for limiting the access to copyrighted material and/or inhibiting the copy process itself. Examples of copy protection include encrypted digital TV broadcast, access controls to copyrighted software through the use of license servers and technical copy protection mechanisms on the media.
Arsenova, E. Technical aspects of Digital Tights Management. http://wob.iai.uni-bonn.de/Wob/images/01212504.pdf
Common-law judges rely on their predecessors' decisions of actual controversies, rather than on abstract codes or texts, to guide them in applying the law" (Common law, 2008, law library). The law evolves with custom and interpretation, rather than remains fixed in stone.
Common law may be contrasted with civil law, which predominates in France and has had less influence on the law of the United States, except in Louisiana. Louisiana judges, unlike their common-law counterparts, are not bound to consider judicial precedent first, but may do so as an option. France exported the system of civil law to America when it established Louisiana as a colony in 1712. Even today, "the first article of the Louisiana Civil Code reads: 'The sources of law are legislation and custom' (LA C.C. Art. 1). This means that judges in Louisiana are obligated to look first to written laws for guidance in reaching their…
Civil law. (2008). The Law Library. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/5235/Civil-Law.html
Common law. (2008). The Law Library. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/5444/Common-Law.html
English law. (2008). The Law Library. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/6486/English-Law.html
Roman law. (2008). The Law Library. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/9916/Roman-Law.html
4. Retributive justifications for punishment- such as theories about making punishment "fit" what the crime or criminal "deserves" have been criticized on grounds that they assume we know a lot more than we do. For example, it is notorious that different jurisdictions assign different punishments for the same offense. In addition, it is notoriously difficult to assess an individual's personal blameworthiness for criminal conduct in terms of his or her personal history. However, neither of these factors is substantial enough to challenge the validity of retributive justice schemes. After all, it is to be expected that different jurisdictions would have different punishments for the same criminal behavior, because cultural values vary across the United States, with certain cultures and regional areas placing greater emphasis on different values. The federal system of government practically dictates that there will be conflict among the many criminal justice systems in the United States. Furthermore,…
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
First-tier buyers are distribution companies who have joint ventures and agreements with the Union of Tobacco Enterprises to re-purchase tobacco and cigars and then re-sell them.
There is a high level of stratification throughout the markets served at the end customer and dealer levels; the varying levels of quality has dictated in the past which cigars are sold to which customers.
Buyers choose which cigars they purchase more on perception of quality than on price. The reputation of Cuban cigars still connotes quality.
Integrating free-market-based strategies into a communist country's industry must begin with privatization of specific aspects of the value chain first so that quality control and enterprise-wide quality management techniques can be brought into this industry to save its products. As the quality of cigars has been faltering, privatization would make it economically feasible for experts in the field of tobacco quality and cigar production quality assurance…
S. would exhibit in this regard. hen it came to capturing "knowledgeable experts and technologically useful materials" that would be useful in rocket technology, the MI6 professionals were "either too gentlemanly or else totally undisciplined" (Dorril 137). And indeed, Britain came in "second" to the U.S. In securing rocket technology, and moreover, "British rocket experts simply handed over to U.S. intelligence officers nearly 90% of their target intelligence and received little in return" (Dorril 137). This was a failure of enormous import.
On page 139, Dorril goes on to discuss the MI6 mission to gather German nuclear intelligence and in April 1945, the British - this time not allowing the Americans to step in ahead of them - smartly brought ten captured German nuclear scientists back to England and placed them in a country house near Cambridge. The house was wired and so all the conversations between the "Uranium Club"…
Dorril, Stephen. MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service.
London: The Free Press, 2000.
Stephen Dorril, MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service (London: The Free Press, 2000), 10.
Statistics show that black murderers are far more likely than white murderers to get the death penalty, especially if the victim was white. Blacks make up 12% of the population but 40% of the population on death row, as noted. Georgia can serve as a case in point. Statistics show that a black man accused of killing a white person in Georgia is substantially more likely to receive the death penalty than a white person convicted of killing either a white or a black, and forty-six percent of the inmates on Georgia's death row are black, with most on death row for killing a white person. The situation is much the same in the 35 other states that have capital punishment. In Maryland, blacks make up nearly 90% of the prisoners on death row; in Illinois, 63%; and in Pennsylvania, 60%. The disparity nationwide is even greater when the race…
Aguirre, a., Jr., & Baker, D.V. (1991). Race, racism, and the death penalty in the United States. Berrien Springs, Michigan: Vande Vere Publishing.
Amnesty International (1999).. Killing with prejudice: race and the death penalty. Amnesty International, Pub. No. AMR 51/52/99. London: Amnesty International.
Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, Q., & Pulaski, C.A., Jr. (1990). Equal justice and the death penalty: A legal and empirical analysis. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, G., Zuckerman, D., Weiner, N.A., & Broffitt, B. (1998). Racial discrimination and the death penalty in the post-Furman era: An empirical and legal overview, with recent findings from Philadelphia. Cornell Law Review 83:1638-770
He is serving a twenty-five-year sentence for his conviction.
The reason Ebbers was found guilty of criminal fraud, despite being in a business, is because his actions met the above referenced elements of fraud. For example, his filing of false statement was an intentional act that contained an untrue representation of an important fact: WorldCom's accounting. Further, this untrue statement was believed by the company's investors, or in this case, the victims. Further, the investors relied upon Ebbers' statement as being true and thus acted on it in terms of their investment decisions. Finally, as a result of the investor's reliance and action upon Ebbers' false statements, they lost a significant amount of money. Thus, because Ebbers' actions satisfy the elements for criminal fraud, it does not matter whether or not he was acting within a business capacity.
Associated Press (2005): "Former WorldCom Chief Signs Agreement Over Fraud Charges."…
Associated Press (2005): "Former WorldCom Chief Signs Agreement Over Fraud Charges."
Floyd, Nell Luter. (2006): "Ebbers Receives Prison Order." The Clarion-Ledger.
Moritz, Scott. (2003): "Judgment Day Coming Sooner for Ebbers." The Street. 27 Aug. 2003.
Meanwhile, Melmotte introduces Marie into the matrimonial arena at an extravagant ball for which, in hope of favors that will come, he gains the patronage of several duchesses and other regal individuals. Marie, believed to be the heiress of millions, has many highly placed but poor young noblemen asking for her hand in marriage. She falls in love with Sir Felix Carbury, who is the most shady of them all. Felix's interest in Marie has nothing to do with love, but only with her wealth. This behavior is expected, since he is just following through on all that he has been told while growing up. He has learned his lessons well. His mother commends him often for winning Marie's heart, even if it is for the wrong reasons.. As Trollope writes:
It was now his business to marry an heiress. He was well aware that it was so, and was…
Austin, J. Pride and Prejudice. Retrieved August 25, 2007. Retrieved August 25, 2007. http://www.bookwolf.com/Free_Booknotes/Pride____Prejudice/pride____prejudice.html
Chopin, K. "Story of an Hour." Retrieved August 25, 2007. http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/webtexts/hour/
Eliot, G. Middlemarch. Retrieved August 25, 2007. http://www.princeton.edu/~batke/eliot/middle/
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "Yellow Wallpaper" Retrieved August 25, 2007 http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/wallpaper.html
As a conclusion, in terms of both responsibility and motivation, it is more that obvious that our two characters Iago and Krogstad are involved in destroying a marriage but the effects of their involvement are quite different; while Krogstad, through his blackmail, is motivated by the fact that he wants to spare his children of the miseries of a spoiled reputation and is responsible only for providing the necessary circumstances which will unravel the truth to Nora concerning her false happy marriage, in Iago's case we consider him fully responsible not only for destroying Othello's marriage but also for the death of many people around him, victims of his Machiavellian plans. Questioning his motivation, there isn't any and this exact utter lack of motivation is what makes him Shakespeare's greatness villain.
Katherine E. Monahan Huntley - Storytelling Output Report for a Doll's House " http://www.dramatica.com/story/analyses/analyses/dollshouse.html
Ian Johnston - on…
Katherine E. Monahan Huntley - Storytelling Output Report for a Doll's House " http://www.dramatica.com/story/analyses/analyses/dollshouse.html
Ian Johnston - on Ibsen's a Doll's House " http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/introser/ibsen.htm
Enotes - a Doll's House Text
David E. Sorkin, Technical and Legal Approaches to Unsolicited Electronic Mail, 35 U.S.F.L. Rev. 325 (2001).
Google and other search engines:
Encarta Encyclopedia online. 2006
Articles collected for Review so far (just a sampling of articles on SPAM laws) www.spamlaws.comSpam Laws: Articles
David E. Sorkin, www.jcil.orgSpam Legislation in the United States, 22 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 3 (2003).
David E. Sorkin, www.spamlaws.comTechnical and Legal Approaches to Unsolicited Electronic Mail, 35 U.S.F.L. Rev. 325 (2001).
David E. Sorkin, www.spamlaws.comUnsolicited Commercial E-Mail and the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, 45 Buffalo L. Rev. 1001 (1997).
David E. Sorkin, Revocation of an Internet Domain Name for Violations of "Netiquette": Contractual and Constitutional Implications, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 587 (1997).
Dominique-Chantale Alepin, Note, "Opting-Out": A Technical, Legal and Practical Look at the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, 28 Colum. J.L.…
Instead of needing his help and protection, Torvald finds out that it was only Nora's role playing and really she was capable of working and doing deceptive things. Torvald's response to the letter shows that he has very little self-awareness and really thought that the "role-plays" were reality.
5. Torvald believes that marriage and family are important, and that the man or husband is in control. Torvald thinks that men should make all of the choices and that they must protect and watch out for their families, particularly their wives. Torvald had already made up his mind to fire Krogstad since he saw Krogstad as a bad person. hen Nora tried to change his mind he probably thought she was weak or stupid or a little of both. He seemed to resent her trying to get involved with his work and his decisions, as women were not meant to have…
Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House. Trans. William Archer. 1879. 8 Dec. 2006 http://wlac.etudes.fhda.edu/etudes/courses/westla/spring2004/WLAC_THEATER100_ZURLA/downloads/DollsHouse_full01.pdf.
Power and the Use of Language, Orwell's 1984 And Beyond
George Orwell's 1949 dystopian novel 1984 has become almost iconoclastic in its meaning for contemporary society. Almost like the term Machiavellianism, 1984 evokes images in popular culture, along with the author's name as an adjective, and phrases that were used in the book. Even the term "Orwellian" denotes a certain type of society; phrases like "Big Brother," "Newspeak," "Thought-Police," etc. are now part of the vocabulary when describing totalitarian regimes. The novel's premise has become part of a modern archetype, imitated on television, popular music, movies, and even one of the most popular advertisements ever made, the 1984 launch of Apple's Macintosh.
Nineteen Eighty-Four focuses on a new type of society -- repressive, totalitarian, staunch, all-powerful, all knowing, oligarchical, and pervasive. The novel's main character, Winston Smith, is a simple civil servant assigned to the daily task of perpetuating the…
Orwell, G. (1990). 1984. New York: Penguin Books.
Rai, A. (1990). Orwell and the Politics of Despair. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wain, J. (1978). Essays on Literature and Ideas. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Press.
DOLL'S HOUSE: FILM AND TEXT
The one play that seriously endured criticism and lasted much longer than anticipated was Henrik Ibsen's Doll's house. For some strange reason, people continue to read this play and directors/producers enjoy enthralling the viewers with cinematic versions of this play. And if that is not enough, the play is regularly played on Broadway. There indeed is an enduring quality about the play that gives it a universal meaning and every woman especially married ones feel they can relate to the central character Nora. But as with all cinematic adaptations of play, Doll's house's various versions have shown inconsistencies in the depiction of the central character. The husband's character has remained more or less static primarily because it doesn't undergo a transformation in the play and basically doesn't evolve. On the other hand, Nora's character takes a 360-degree turn at the end and we see a…
Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, born February 27, 272, is commonly known as Constantine I or Constantine the Great. He was proclaimed Augustus by his troops on July 25, 306, and ruled an ever-growing portion of the Roman Empire to his death. Constantine is famous for his rebuilding of Byzantium as "Nova Roma" (New Rome), which was always popularly called "Constantine's City" (Constantinopolis, Constantinople). With the Edict of Milan in 313, Constantine and his co-Emperor Licinius removed all onus from Christianity. By taking the personal step of convoking the Council of Nicaea (325), Constantine began the Roman Empire's unofficial sponsoring of Christianity, which was a major factor in that religion's spread. His reputation as the "first Christian Emperor" was promulgated by Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, gaining ground in the succeeding generations.
He was born at Naissus, (today's Nis, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro) in Upper Moesia, to Constantius I Chlorus,…
noble savage..." etc.
The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution
When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…
Grinder, Donald & Johansen, Bruce. Exemplar of Liberty: Native America and the Evolution of Democracy, 7th draft. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1990. [nonpaginated ebook available from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/index.html#ToC ]
Johansen, Bruce. Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution. Boston: Harvard Common Press, 1982. [nonpaginated ebook format from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/FF.txt ]
As much as 91% of these crimes result in murders. There are some other criminals who are classified as insane criminals and they can be thought to include kleptomaniacs, nymphomaniacs, habitual drunkards and pederasts. These people keep committing the crimes as they are unable to distinguish right from wrong, and it is time that these people are considered to be insane and not considered responsible for their action. But the biggest group of criminals is of four types and the first among them are the non-criminals. They are persons who are forced to kill in self-defense and though they have broken the law, they had no intention of breaking the law, but the circumstances forced them to break the law.
The second group is the epileptic persons who commit crimes by circumstances and they are often known to be very hesitant in their approach to committing crimes. There are also…
Anderson, William. L; Jackson, Candice. E. (April, 2004) "Washington's Biggest Crime
Problem" Retrieved from http://www.reason.com/0404/fe.wa.washingtons.shtml Accessed on 10 July, 2005
"Biological, Physiological and Bio-Social Theories" Retrieved from http://www.cas.usf.edu/criminology/po3610c.html Accessed on 10 July, 2005
"Born criminal" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Born_criminal Accessed on 10 July, 2005
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
It is without a shred of uncertainty that Iraq has the second largest reserves of oil in the entire world. It is also extremely clear that one of the motivations for the invasion and occupation of Iraq had been to control those oil reserves. On the other hand, at the present, in the post-war stage in Iraq, it is absolutely necessary that United States of America and its coalition partners collaborate and team-up to stabilize the present disordered Iraqi situation, for the reason that a free, stable and democratic Iraq is very important not only in the interest of United States but also very important for the harmony, growth and development of the world. Even the moderate opponents of the Iraqi war wish that the elections held in Iraq are not the end but the beginning of a new period for the Iraqi people so that they can grow and…
Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001.
Andrew Buncombe. Carter Savages Blair and Bush: "Their War Was Based on Lies." Independent. March 22, 2004
Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003.
David Sirota and Christy Harvey. They Knew. In These Times. August 3, 2004
DOLL'S HOUSE AND MOAL VIEWS
"A Doll's House" is one of the classical social plays of all time. Written by Henrik Ibsen, the plays deals with deep-rooted social issues and confronts long held views about morality. It seeks to challenge the idea of morality that people held in late nineteenth and early 20th centuries and exposes the double-standards embedded in moral views of the society in those days. In Doll's house, the author explains that every person has his sense of what is moral and what is not; and what may appear moral to one might appear something restraining and restrictive to someone else.
Nora and Torvald are the two central characters in the play. They are a married couple leading a traditional married life. Nora is a timid, submissive wife who believes that it is her moral duty to take care of her husband and children. In the process,…
1) Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House, Electronic version; 2004 Retrieved online: http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext01/dlshs11h.htm
Court records also stick on, whether the charges are dropped or followed by a conviction. People of color or ethnic minorities, such as African-Americans and Hispanics, have come to accept that they cannot avoid acquiring a criminal record. The 1990 Washington DC-based sentencing project found that one in every four African-Americans aged 20 to 29 was in prison, in jail or on probation or parole. A research conducted by the National Center on Institutions and Alternatives had a comparable finding. In a decade, the figure decreased to one out of three or 76% of 18-year-old African-Americans in the urban areas who can expect arrest and imprisonment before age 36. The racial gap became evident at the approach of the millennium. In 1926, 79% of inmates in state and federal prisons were whites and only 21% were lacks. ut in 1999, African-Americans made up 55-60% of new admissions. Including Latino inmates,…
1. Bates, D. (2006). Policy Makers Working to Find a Solution for Increased Incarceration. Falls Church News Press. http://www.fcnp.com/432/parole.htm
2. Beck, A.R.. (2001). Jail Bloating: a Common but Unnecessary Cause of Jail Overcrowding. http://www.justiceconcepts.com/jail%20overcrowding.pdf
3. ISECUREtrac. (2004). Reducing Prison Overcrowding. ISECUREtrac Corporation. http://www.isecuretrac.com/sa_po.asp
4. Joel, D. (1989). Time to Deal with America's Prison Crisis. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.otg/Research/Criminalbg735.cfm
In the wake of scandals such as Enron and others, corporate fraud still appears to be prevalent across the business world. The reasons for this can be many and varied, although greed and a sense of hubris appear to be two of the common role players. In other cases, desperation could also be a factor, where a business is in danger of failing and its owners or managers see little choice but to cheat or sing with the boat. In many of the fraud cases, questions regarding regulation also abound, where regulatory authorities appear to be unable to either identify fraudulent activity or to sufficiently monitor the actions of those involved. This appears to be at least partly the case as far as ussell Wasendorf Sr. is concerned, who recently confessed to have committed fraud as the owner of his brokerage for 20 years Huffstutter and Polansek, 2012).…
Holton, C. (2009). Identifying disgruntled employee systems fraud risk through text mining: A simple solution for a multi-billion dollar problem. Decision Support Systems, Vol. 46. Retrieved from: ftp://126.96.36.199/gyliao/TODylan/Identifying%20disgruntled%20employee%20systems%20fraud%20risk%20through%20text%20mining-%20A%20simple%20solution%20for%20a%20multi-billion%20dollar%20problem.pdf
Huffstutter, P.J. And Polansek, T. (2012, Jul 13). With ego too big to fail, Iowa broker admits 20-year fraud. Reuters. Retrieved from: http://news.yahoo.com/pfgbest-ceo-arrested-iowa-brokerage-fails-181115538 -- sector.html
Johnson, S.A., Ryan, H.E., and Tian, Y.S. (2008, Feb 29). Managerial Incentives and Corporate Fraud: The Sources of Incentives Matter. Retrieved from: http://www2.wu-wien.ac.at/rof/papers/pdf/Johnson-Ryan-Tian_Managerial%20Incentives%20and%20Corporate%20Fraud.pdf
Langevoort, D.C. (2007). On Leaving Corporate Executives "Naked, Homeless and Without Wheels": Corporate Fraud, Equitable Remedies, and the Debate Over Entity vs. Individual Liability. Georgetown Law; The Scholarly Commons. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1453&context=facpub&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.co.za%2Fscholar%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3Dcontrols%2Bon%2Bcorporate%2Bfraud%26btnG%3D%26as_sdt%3D1%252C5%26as_sdtp%3D#search=%22controls%20corporate%20fraud%22
managers protect intellectual property rights in China using de facto strategies" by Keupp, Beckenbauer and Gassmann. It was published in R&D Management in 2009 and the full text is available online at http://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/EXPORT/DL/53574.pdf
The authors begin with the premise that intellectual property rights are not as well-protected in emerging markets as they are in estern countries. In China, the authors note, social norms give the country a view on intellectual property rights that is distinct from the estern view. As a result, firms face significant risk in doing business in China, because they expose their intellectual property to actors who do not have the same respect for IP rights. The Chinese legal system simply does not respect IP rights to the degree that most estern firms would prefer.
Thus, estern firms need to employ creative strategies in order to ensure that their rights are protected. The authors' use of the…
Keupp, M.; Beckenbauer, A. & Gassmann, O. (2009). How managers protect intellectual property rights in China using de facto strategies. R&D Management. Vol. 39 (2) 211-224.
court of criminal appeals of Texas, PD-0307-09 Ronald Wilson, and appellant v the State of Texas. (CCA (a), n. d.) The court of Appeals case was: 04-07-00737-CR, and was affirmed. The appeal came from the trial court: 290th District Court of the Bexar County. The case number there was 2006CR2564 and the judge was Sharon S. Macrae. (Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, 2009)
What it was basically about
The trial of the appellant was for murder and the facts of the case show that Amos Gutierrez was killed with a single gunshot. The magazine clip for a pistol was found near his body. The appellant was arrested on unrelated misdemeanor warrants. Later the appellant confessed to the shooting, and was charged with capital murder. Appellant filed motion to suppress the confession on the grounds that it was involuntary and was obtained in violation of the constitution and Texas law. The…
Rise of the Narrative
Are we returning to a narrative in history? Yes. But now it is a narrative impacted by the numbers of the technology of the information age, which is a different type of impact tha the guardians of the past saw coming.
There is little question but that narrative has again begun to find a place in documenting and shaping the substance of history. Few people believe that numbers, be they those of the math of the hard sciences or those of the democracy of the softer sciences, can provide all the answers. As Lucien Febvre is reported to have complained to some of his students, "We have no history of Love. We have no history of Death. We have no history of Pity nor of Cruelty. We have no history of Joy." These were not of the topics of scientific inquiry in the traditional sense when…
Subprime loans are said to be among the biggest reasons for the most recent financial crisis which hit the world economy at the end of year 2008. Had the lenders considered the level of income and repaying abilities of the borrowers before lending them money, the World's financial sector would not have seen such critical circumstances. The consequences of subprime loans have not ended yet; economists and researchers in the field of International Finance are of the view that they may further get worsen in the coming five to ten years period. Beside the criticism regarding the approval of subprime loans to low income borrowers, the lenders have also been strongly criticized for using unethical business practices in their customer dealings and transactions (Mandal, 2010).
This paper investigates the consequences and risks that were caused by subprime loans in the World's financial sector and their impact on the lenders, borrowers,…
Donath, L.E., & Cismas, L.M. (2009). The Current Financial Crisis Revisited -- Causes and Remedies, the Romanian Economic Journal, 31 (1): 85-92.
Goldmann, P. (2010). Financial Services Anti-Fraud Risk and Control Workbook, 1st Edition. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Jennings, M. (2012). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings, 7th Edition. South-Western Legal Studies in Business. Australia; Mason, OH: South-Western.
Magdoff, F., & Foster, J.B. (2009). The Great Financial Crisis: Causes and Consequences. N.Y: Monthly Review Press
On December 7, 1941, the nation of Japan attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This began the official participation of the United States in orld ar II. hile armed forces were overseas fighting the nation's enemies, the United States government was trying to decide whether or not any group of people within America itself could be working for the other side. Out of this fear came one of the most atrocious acts the United States have ever perpetrated against its own citizens. Fearing internal enemies, the American government signed an order wherein anyone of Japanese descent could be questioned, arrested, detained, and interred at several camps throughout the American est. It was a policy of legal racism that served no good for the government but to instill in the people the knowledge that the government can make mistakes and it is possible to lose one's civil rights…
Burton, J., Farrell, M. And R. Lord. Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II
Japanese-American Relocation Sites. 2000. Print.
Okubo, Mine. Citizen 13660. Seattle: University of Washington, 1983. Print.
Criminal law basically classifies crime into various categories that dictates the kind of criminal act, the mental condition, and the extent of punishment. The most common categories of crime are crime against persons, white-collar crimes, and crimes against property. Moreover, crime is further categorized by the selected punishment for the offense such as misdemeanor, felony, and petty misdemeanor. A felony is regarded as the most serious offense that is punishable by imprisonment exceeding one year while misdemeanors are offenses that are punishable by imprisonment of a maximum of one year. This is primarily because they are less serious crimes that do not involve incarceration in prison (Schneider, n.d.). Actually, almost all misdemeanor sentences are usually served in a local or county jail. In contrast, petty misdemeanors are crimes that do not need imprisonment such as that are always punishable by a fine.
Crimes against Persons and Crimes against…
Crossman, A. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Types-Of-Crimes.htm
"Crimes Against Property." (n.d.). Chapter 13. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/lippmanccl2e/study/supplements/Florida/FL13.pdf
Schneider, S.W. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.netplaces.com/paralegal/criminal-law/types-of-crimes.htm
"State v. Stewart." (n.d.). Justia.com -- U.S. Law. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://law.justia.com/cases/new-mexico/court-of-appeals/2005/f580-1c753-1cc91.html
What Do You Think?
Crime eporting: UC and NCVS
The Uniform Crime eport is a compilation of offensives collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from all police stations in the United States. Data collected is divided into two groups, Part I and Part II. Part I data includes violent and property crimes such as aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery, arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Part II offenses include simple assault, curfew offenses and loitering, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug offenses, fraud, gambling, liquor offenses, offenses against the family, prostitution, public drunkenness, runaways, sex offenses, stolen property, vandalism, vagrancy, and weapons offenses ("Uniform Crime eports.," 2012).
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is conducted by telephone and collects information on nonfatal crimes reported and not reported to the police against persons age twelve and older from a nationally…
"Crime rates are down." (2012, June 11). Crime in the United States 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2012/june/crimes_061112/crimes_061112
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminolology today: An integrative introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
Truman, J.L. & Planty, M. (2012, October). Criminal victimization, 2011. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv11.pdf
"Uniform crime reports." (2012, October). Crime in the United States 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-u.s.-2011/index-page
E-Strategy in E-Commerce
A textbook publisher is interested in selling individual book chapters on the Web. What types of e-payment methods would you recommend to the publisher? What sorts of problems will the publisher encounter with the recommended methods?
Some of the commonly used e-payment methods according to Doerberg and Hinnekens (1999) include "electronic cash; smart cards; electronic checks…" (p. 93). These are the e-payment methods I would recommend to the textbook publisher. It should however be noted that although each of these methods has its own unique advantages, the textbook publisher could also encounter some problems depending on the method he selects. With regard to electronic cash, it is important to note that the same is susceptible to forgery. The fact that this e-payment method provides no audit trail could make efforts to trace counterfeiters an expensive undertaking. Further, the fact that significant charges could be significant in this…
Doerberg, R.L. & Hinnekens. L. (1999). Electronic Commerce and International Taxation. Cambridge, MA: Kluwer Law International.
Keillor, B.D. (2011). International Business in the 21st Century. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.
History Of Corrections
Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…
Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.
King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at: http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf
Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Few pieces of cloth have garnered as much attention as the so-called Shroud of Turin, a piece of linen cloth allegedly containing the image of Jesus Christ. The shroud of Turin measures 4.4 meters in length and about one meter wide (about fourteen feet by three feet). Both the front and the back appear to have an image of a man "who had been scourged, crowned with thorns, crucified with nails, and stabbed by a lance in the side," (Fanti, Botella, Crosilla, Lattarulo, Svensson, Schneider and hanger 1).[footnoteRef:1] Traces of blood, fire, and water have also been identified on the shroud (Fanti, et al.; Heller & Adler). Because of the way the imagery on the shroud corresponds with the Biblical story of Jesus of Nazareth, it has been speculated that the shroud was the burial cloth of Jesus before the body was put into a tomb. [1: Fanti,…
"Controversial New Theories on the Shroud of Turin." CBS. 8 April, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-3445_162-57410982/controversial-new-theories-on-the-shroud-of-turin/
Damon, P.E., Donahue, D.J.; Gore, B.H.; Hatheway, A.L.; Jull, A.J.T.; Linick, T.W.; Sercel, P.J.; Toolin, L.J.; Bronk, C.R.; Hall, E.T.; Hedges, R.E.M.; Housley, R.; Law, I.A.; Perry, C.; Bonani, G.; Trumbore, S.; Woelfli, W.; Ambers, J.C.; Bowman, S.G.E.; Leese, M.N.; Tite, M.S. Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin. The Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System. 1989.
Fanti, G., Botella, J.A., Crosilla, F., Lattarulo, F., Svensson, N., Schneider, R. & Whanger, A.. List of evidences of the Turin shroud. 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/FantiListWeb.pdf
Heller, J.H. & Adler, A.D.. Blood on the shroud of Turin. Applied Optics 19(16): 2742-2744, 1980.
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System
Statistics regarding male and female criminality
Types of cases involving women and men
Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities
Feminists say women should get less jail time
Number of women vs. men arrested
omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time
Death penalty cases
10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women
Leniency of juries on women defendants
Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries
Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children
omen are always given less punishment than men in this area
Reaction of judges towards female defendants
a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators
Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators
In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…
Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568
Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice
Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.
Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.
Simulacrum: hat is neither real nor a copy?
The simulacrum subverts the common notion of what constitutes a copy vs. An authentic artifact (Camille 31). In the common, classical ordering of priorities, the 'real' is what comes first, followed by the copy. The copy affirms the real, and the worth of the real, rather than negates it. A good example of this can be seen in art forgery. The worth of the real is affirmed by the fact that the copy (whether illegally or legally made) is considered inferior to that of the real, and the copy attempts to slavishly imitate the real. The greatest compliment that can be paid to a copy is that it can be mistaken for the real thing. A picture post card of the Mona Lisa is not synonymous with the famous painting itself.
The simulacrum, however, is a false idea, image, or rendition that…
Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Benjamin, Walter. "Works of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." In Film Theory and Criticism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Camille, Michael. "Simulacrum." In Critical terms for art history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
Hart, Kevin. Postmodernism: A beginner's guide. Oxford, Bridgewater books, 2005.