109 results for “Founding Brothers”.
Ellis, Joseph, J. Founding Brothers: the Revolutionary Generation. New York: Knopf, 2000. Print.
The manner the American Republic was established continues to fascinate historians and the lay people alike. For a long time, historians accorded the major role in the formation of the United States to the struggles and virtues of the founding members of the republic. But in the post-Civil Rights era, historians began to pay greater attention to social and cultural history, placing women, minorities, workers, and slaves at the center of their narratives. Ellis Joseph does not see those developments in a negative light but he is nevertheless suspicious of the idea that the character of the nation and its spirit may be recounted through the lives of ordinary folks. He places the lives of the "founding brothers" -- Aaron Burr, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, John Adams, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson -- and…
From reading this chapter, one can learn that the second half of the eighteenth century was one of turmoil, when people were determined to influence changes on more than one level. While the anti-slavery supporters were determined to have justice, they were powerless in front of the institution, considering that it was responsible for much of the capital flowing into America.
Chapter four, "The Farewell," deals with George Washington, his character, and the events surrounding his career. People in the colonies all considered Washington to be their leader and the founder of the United States even before he actually took his place as president. While he was not a brilliant military leader or an extremely intelligent individual, he was very good at keeping the nation together and making it work to its full potential.
The Farewell Address produced by Washington served as inspiration for many Americans following on his footsteps,…
S. - disposed to create secession in the union in order to accomplish his personal goals, it becomes clear that this was an unprincipled man. This is certainly surprising, given that Burr was to a certain degree responsible for the creation of the United States. All things considered, Burr was a man who considered his personal gains to be more important than morality.
Hamilton's article came as a blow to Burr, especially given that he had lost the gubernatorial elections. He could not accept being publicly insulted and demanded for the article's author to come forth with an apology. Hamilton's response only caused more stress on Burr, as the former claimed that he did not even remember insulting him.
One can also consider the duel to be the physical materialization of the long history of divergences between the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists. One of the first instances to raise tensions…
1. Ellis, Joseph. "Founding Brothers." Alfred A. Knopf, 2001.
Ellis holds that America, at its outset, was plagued by an identity crisis: Americans who asserted an essentially 'Republican' identity and revolted against ritain for certain reasons were at ends with Americans who asserted an essentially 'Federal' identity and revolted against ritain for other reasons. In textbooks these are associated with the persons of Jefferson and Hamilton, two of the first cabinet members. They are also associated with Sam Adams, ale aficionado and radical leader of the Sons of Liberty and the second cousin of the second President of the United States.
However, Adams' dislike of the government had financial roots. Adams was born in 1722, over thirty years after a Royal attempt to consolidate power in New England by consolidating its authority under a dominion. The overthrow of the short-lived dominion might have resulted in an early schism with the crown, had Dutch protestant William and Mary not succeeded…
Short History of the American Nation, Vol. 1, Garraty and Barnes, 8th Ed.).
William M. Fowler, Jr. Radical Puritan. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1997.
Joseph J. Ellis. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. Knopf, 2000.
The Constitution of the United States www.house.gov/Constitution/Constitution.html
One obvious parallel between the tale of the brothers and earlier legends is that of Achilles, the great warrior who was the son of a goddess who was almost supernatural in his greatness. Another parallel is that of Oedipus, who was abandoned when he was a boy because of the fearful prophesy foretold about his future. But unlike these previous mythical characters, rather than coming to a bad end, Romulus overcomes the difficulties of his circumstances and triumphs. There are also many versions of the Roman foundation story which contain non-Greek elements, like the idea of a 'phantom phallus' impregnating the boys' mother, which could suggest a kind of immaculate conception (iseman 60). The death of Remus at the hands of his brother for disobediently jumping a wall is also a unique and somewhat perplexing aspect of the story: why did Romulus 'need' a twin?
Q3. To what extent is…
Bremmer, J.N. & Horsfall., M.N. Roman myth and mythography. Bulletin Supplement, 52,
Miles, Gary. Reconstructing early Rome. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Wiseman, T. Remus: A Roman myth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
When studying the history of the formation of the United States, one usually thinks in terms of separate events and individuals. However, the American republic was established, instead, by a series of important decisions and the joint efforts of some of the most prominent men of all time. In a matter of ten years, these critical interactions among the eight leading figures of John Adams, Aaron Burr, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington formed a nation that to this day remains one of the most successful "experiments" of democratic governments. As Joseph J. Ellis, the author of Founding Brothers: the Revolutionary Generation states:
What in retrospect has the look of a foreordained unfolding of God's will was in reality an improvisational affair ... If hindsight enhances our appreciation for the solidity and stability of the republican legacy, it also blinds us to the…
political themes of early American politics, the major players, and issues that arose in the political arena of the time; with specific reference to Samuel Adams: adical Puritan, by William Fowler, and Founding Brothers: The evolutionary Generation, by Joseph Ellis. It has 4 sources.
The first part of this essay analyzes ideological, historical, personal and administrative features of the first American government, and uses these to explain the 'contradiction' existent in American national identity ever since.
The chief contributors to the 'contradiction' or 'argument' mentioned above were the ideas about government and public life that Samuel Adams gained from his Puritan heritage and then from his experiences during the revolutionary period; the major causes of the American evolution; the "Spirit of 76" or the Whig principles; the republican ideology stated in the Declaration of Independence; the changes in the organization of government from the Articles of Confederation to the U.S.…
Garraty and Barnes, (2000). A Short History of the American Nation, Vol. 1, 8th Ed. 2000, Chapter 4. pp. 107-117.
Fowler, W.M. (1997). Samuel Adams: Radical Puritan. Knopf.
Ellis, J.J. (2000). Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. Knopf.
Boston Gazette, April 4, 1768
oyal Philips Electronics and with reference to each of the proposed five chapters in the final essay. It is important to note that the essay is basically based on a critical analysis of the accounting and finance function of Philips Company and hence the reason why POPHIX software will also be critically analysed since it is used by the company for these functions.
Overview of oyal Philips Electronic
The oyal Philips Electronics was founded by two brothers; Anton Philips and Gerard Philips in the year 1891 at Eindhoven city. Initially the main product of the company was the small carbon-filament lamp. However, the company has since transformed itself from a single office company to a multinational company with its main headquarters located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Its' branch network spreads across in every major market in world, and today after more than 100 years since it was formed the company boosts…
Brian, P. 1997, Information technology and organizations: strategies, networks, and integration. Oxford University Press p. 67-74
Higgins R., 2000, Analysis of Financial Management, Irwin / McGraw Ltd.
Porter M., 1980, How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy, The McKinsey Quarterly, pp.34-50;
Wood F., and Sangster A., (eds) 2008, Business Accounting; Pearson Education Ltd.
A try to help my Little Brother find positive voluntary associations. I encourage him to volunteer at his local church, and to seek afterschool enrichment programs and tutoring. But this is not always easy. He often says that he feels that people do not care -- his teachers, his parents, and even his friends who try to uphold a 'straight and narrow' path. He also says that he wants to feel as if he is accepted by other people, and sometimes his drive to feel accepted right now is more powerful than pursuing long-range goals and the promise getting into college, of 'making it' in a larger American social context. I try to provide a positive role model for him, but it can be difficult to describe to him that sometimes you need to get through the present to move into the future, when many of the images of the…
Mentors helped mold Eboo Patel by giving shape to Patel's dreams and shedding light on the paths that the author might take to reach his goals. Working with mentors also gave Patel insight into diversity, and revealed worldviews previously hidden from everyday sight. Patel honors his mentors for their varied contributions to his intellectual and spiritual development. In Acts of Faith, Patel spends a great deal of time discussing his mentors because he also wants to show his readers that their success depends on the cultivation of deep and meaningful relationships with other people. Mentors are guides, teachers, and confidents. They can serve in the role of coach, by inspiring and cheerleading. Mentors can also offer constructive criticism when those in their tutelage need it the most.
Although Patel honors a plethora of people that inspired and motivated him to create the Interfaith Youth Core, he focuses on a…
Patel, Eboo. Acts of Faith. Boston: Beacon, 2007.
17th century, a book inspired by Sir Walter Raleigh and written by Richard Hakluyt, entitled "Western Planting," built up great interest in American colonization. Focus of commercial explorations was possible trade with the East India Company for the West. The King of England formed and granted a royal charter to the London Company and the Plymouth Company (Interesting.com) to found a colony. In December 1606, the London Company, led by Captain Christopher Newport, reached a town and named it Jamestown, after the King of England. It was the first permanent settlement in North America, the whole of which was then Virginia. The first settlers in this new land consisted of 12 laborers, a few carpenters, a blacksmith, a mason, a barber and a tailor and 50 other men.
When Captain Newport returned England for a while and left the colony to the inefficient leadership of Governor Wingfield, trouble and misery…
1. Folk, Stephney. Virginia's Founding Fathers. (accessed 28:03:03). http://www.lineone.net/~fight/Stephney/virginia.htm
2. Garman, Gene. Founding Principles Rejected: Colonial Virginia. 1998 accessed 28:03:03). http://www.sunnetworks.com/~ggarman/princip.html
3. Interesting.com. Colonial Virginia. (accessed 28:03:03). http://www.interesting.com
4. Jeff. The Founding of Jamestown. The Montague Millennium, 2002.
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
Compare and contrast their approaches to the question of faith.
One of the features of the age of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky was the emergence of philosophical and religious thoughts that promoted spirituality without religion. The tendency to reject organized religion in favor of personal spirituality or a direct relationship with God gained prominence at this age in ussia because of widespread disillusionment with the state-supported religion, corruption and hypocrisy of the official clergy. None perhaps popularized such spirituality in ussia more than Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. Both of these figures had a complicated relationship with the official Orthodox Christianity. Tolstoy was excommunicated by the Holy Synod of the ussian Patriarch in 1901. But while Dostoevsky's criticism of organized religion remained subtle and he emphasized the importance of faith, Tolstoy was scathing in his attacks on ussian Orthodox religion and at times he directly questioned the existence of God. Tolstoy was a…
Boot, a. (2009). God and man according to Tolstoy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dostoyevsky, F., & Dostoyevsky, F. (1960). Notes from underground: And the grand inquisitor. New York: Dutton.
Jackson, R.L. (1993). Dialogues with Dostoevsky: The overwhelming questions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Rancour-Laferriere, D. (2007). Tolstoy's quest for God. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Not surprising to see concerts by Dave Matthews, Green Day, and other top groups since Live Nation recently purchased Ticket Master.
A recent article in the LA Times reports that 48% of consumers are "eating out less often now than they did six months ago" (Hallock, 2009). John Self, a professor at Cal Poly Pomona in Los Angeles County, who has published a study of why restaurants fail, estimates that about 1,100 restaurants open in L.A. County annually; and among those, 24% close the first year and within three years 50% of those 1,100 have closed. But given the sluggish economy, Self asserts that up to 50% of new restaurants may be expected close in the first year, double the number that close in good economic times.
Data are not available as to how the recession has affected HRC, or Planet Hollywood, Johnny Rocket's or other theme-centered restaurants, but it…
Brand Strategy. (2008). Hard Rock: Not only rock 'n' roll. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from http://www.brandstrategy.co.uk .
Funding Universe. (2000). Hard Rock Cafe International, Inc. Company History. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://www.fundinguniverse.com .
Hallock, Betty. (2009). Recession takes big bite out of L.A. restaurant business. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from http://www.latimes.com .
Hard Rock. (2009). Corporate / History. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from http://www.hardrock.com .
Josip Broz (Marshal) Tito
Originally named Josip Broz, Josip Broz Tito was a revolutionary and statesman who was born on May 7, 1892 in Austria-Hungary in what is currently Croatia and died almost 88 years later to the day on May 4, 1980 in Yugoslavia, or what is currently Slovenia (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). During the period from 1939 to 1980, Tito was alternately the secretary-general and then president the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. From 1941 to 1945, he was the supreme commander of Yugoslav partisans and then the Yugoslav People's Army from 1945 to 1953 (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). He assumed the title marshal during the period 1943 to 1980, then premier from 1945 to 1953 and then president of Yugoslavia from 1953 to 1980 (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). Tito was the chief architect of the "second Yugoslavia," a socialist federation that lasted from World War II until…
Granville, J. (1998, Spring). Tito and the Nagy affair in 1956. East European Quarterly, 32(1),
23-31 [journal article].
Josip Broz Tito. (2015). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/
Taking a character from The Iliad and setting him on his own journey, the Roman Virgil's epic The Aeneid necessarily contains certain parallels with the earlier Greek text. The overall story of this lengthy poem in and of itself reflects many of the same basic understandings of mankind's place in the universe, its relationship to the gods, and the relationships that exist within society and between men that are already described above, demonstrating that no real fundamental change has occurred in this schema. Aeneas, the titular hero of the tale who flees his native Troy after it is sacked by the Greeks, is as important as the individual heroes of the war itself, but more than a tale of individual heroism The Aeneid is the story of the founding of a people and the long trajectory of history and humanity. It is a tale for and in many…
When she died in Toronto, after having a stroke while playing cards, her last words were "oddamn it, why did you lead that?" (Falk 315).
Until the end, she was strong, feisty and a true role model for all humans who strongly believe in and want to promote a cause. In oldman's biography, Falk clearly recognizes that oldman is no saint or a andhi, and will never be remembered as such. However, "Emma oldman provided an example for all women in the affirmation of her sexuality and her internal struggle with gender norms; she provided an example for all human beings in her total disrespect for the evil of institutions. She advocated freedom, which is admirable. But she lived freely in a world enslaved, which is heroic."
American Civil Liberties Union. News Reports. 7 August, 2007. http://www.aclu.org/safefree/nsaspying/31194prs20070804.html
Falk, Serena. Love, Anarchy and Emma oldman New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
Goldman, Emma. Anarchism and Other Essays. New York: Mother Earth Publishing,
Jewish Women's Archive. Emma Goldman. 6 August, 2007 http://www.jwa.org/exhibits/wov/goldman/deport.html
This stream-of-consciousness writing is in a secret journal, for the writer will get into trouble if what she writes is found by Sister Theo, who "checks our letters home. e're not allowed to say anything about the school" (Sterling 12). If the journal is discovered, the girl may suffer abuse at the hands of the teachers. riting is an act of defiance that the girl sees to be worth the risk.
The time of the story was a disturbing part of Canada's history. The use of Residential Schools actually predates Canada's existence as a country (meaning before Confederation in 1867, and the system served as a means of containment and control if the Indian population. As the Europeans acted out the myth of the New orld as an undiscovered and undeveloped land, the existence of the Aboriginal peoples complicated the myth and challenged the government that was instituted. Policies were…
Ricci, Nino. The Lives of the Saints. Toronto: Cormorant Books, 2003.
Sterling, Shirley. My Name Is Seepeetza. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 1992.
Hope Leslie Strong Female Characters of the 17th Century
Strong Female Characters in Sedgwick's Hope Leslie
The United States has not always been a free space for strong female characters. In fact, in its earliest stages, most women were confined to very strict gender rules and restrictions. That is definitely true in the case of the Puritan culture that settled in the North East in the 17th century. Catharine Maria Sedgwick's Hope Leslie presents a surprisingly strong and independent female protagonist who fights for what she believes in and against the constraining gender norms of the very conservative Puritan culture in the early days of the Massachusetts colony. This represents a connection between the American idea of independence and individualism and women's role in American history. Sedgwick is also standing up against the gender norms face d in her own era with such a strong female lead.
The novel itself…
Pelegri, Teresa Requena. "Bringing Out Censored Stories and Reassessing the Past in Catharine Maria Sedgwick's Hope Leslie." Coolabah. Vol. 3. 2009.
Sedgwick, Catharine Maria. Hope Leslie: Or, Early Times in the Massachusetts. Harper Brothers.
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
Summary of the Punic Wars
The Punic Wars refer to the collective names of a series of three separate wars between Carthage and ome, which took place from 264 to 146 BC. The wars were fought between the two strongest contenders for control over the central Mediterranean Sea of the time. These wars ended with the destruction of Carthage, thus ending the city's period as an independent power and an important trade center. The city would later become an important trading center inside the oman Empire.
Bagnall, N. 2002. The Punic Wars: 264-146 BC. Botley, Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
Cottrell, L. 1992. Hannibal: Enemy of ome. Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press.
Goldsworthy, a. 2002. The Punic Wars. London: Cassell Publications.
Goldsworthy, a. 2004. The Fall of Carthage: The Punic Wars 265-146 BC. London: Cassell Publications.
Huby, P. 2003. Carthage. Stockport, England: Dewi Lewis Publishing.
Lazenby, J.F. 1998. Hannibal's War. Norman,…
Bagnall, N. 2002. The Punic Wars: 264-146 BC. Botley, Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
Cottrell, L. 1992. Hannibal: Enemy of Rome. Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press.
Goldsworthy, a. 2002. The Punic Wars. London: Cassell Publications.
Goldsworthy, a. 2004. The Fall of Carthage: The Punic Wars 265-146 BC. London: Cassell Publications.
On June 27, 1844, hundreds swarmed the jail and brutally murdered the Smith brothers, leading their followers to conclude that they were martyred (Sisk).
At Joseph's death, righam Young was president of the Twelve Apostles of their church and became the leader of the largest faction within (Sisk 1992). Some who separated from Young's group formed their own, called the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, under the leadership of one of the brothers of Joseph Smith. In 1846, Young's group declared that the "saints" would leave Nauvoo and they settled in Utah the following year and, for the next 20 or so years, many moved to Salt Lake Valley to join those "saints (Sisk)." The growth was so tremendous that many ascribe greater magnetism to Young than to Joseph himself in attracting followers. It is noted that the current-day Mormon Church has millions of such followers…
Bowman, Robert N., ed. Mormonism. Christian Research Journal, 1989. http://www.mustardseed.net/html/tomormonism.html
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Joseph Smith: a Prophet of God. Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2004. http://www.lds.org/library/display/0,4945,104-1-3-2,00.html
Griffith, Michael T. The Book of Mormon - Ancient or Modern? Could Joseph Smith Have Written the Nephrite Record? Refuting the Critics: Evidence of the Book of Mormons in Authenticity. Horizon Publishers, 1993. http://ourworld.cs.com/mikegriffith1/id108.htm
Institute for Religious Research. Translation or Divination? Mormons in Transition. Institute for Religious Research, 1999. http://www.irr.org/mit/divination.html
Revolution, Constitution and Enlightenment
The American Revolution and the ensuing U.S. Constitution put forward by the Federalists were both products of and directly informed by the European Enlightenment. The Founding Fathers were considerably influenced by thinkers like Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu (whose separation of powers served as the model of the three-branched government of the U.S.). This paper will explain how the European Enlightenment set the stage for the American Revolution and U.S. Constitution by putting out the ideas that the Americans would use as the basis of the political and social foundation.
The Enlightenment aka the Age of Reason was an Age in which natural philosophy assumed the vaulted position of guiding light over the preceding Age of Faith, which had served as the socio-political basis in Europe for centuries. The Reformation had upended the Age of Faith and introduced secularization into the political realm (Laux), particularly via…
In addition, both governments and churches began to grow suspicious of the group, probably because of the "organization's secrecy and liberal religious beliefs" (Watson, 2009). As a result, Portugal and France banned Freemasonry; in fact, it was a capital offense to be a Freemason in Portugal (Watson, 2009). Moreover, "Pope Clement XII forbade Catholics from becoming Freemasons on penalty of excommunication" (Watson, 2009). Feeling pressure in Europe, many Freemasons decided to flee the Old World and travel to the European colonies scattered throughout the world, most notably, America.
Influence on America
Anyone with even a rudimentary knowledge of the Freemasons and American history understands that, whatever resistance the Freemasons met with in Europe was not to be found in America. The Freemasons set up lodges in Boston and Philadelphia, and some of the founding fathers, including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. More importantly, the Freemasons are reported to have played…
Crowe, F. (2003). Things a Freemason should know. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
Decker, E. (Unknown). Masonic rituals for the Blue Lodge. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from Saints Alive in Jesus.
How it began. (1998). Retrieved April 13, 2009 from Grand Lodge a.F. & a.M. Of North
On the threshold of the Civil Rights movement, Baldwin would publish
Notes of a Native Son. Though 1953's Go Tell It On The Mountain would be
perhaps Baldwin's best known work, it is this explicitly referential
dialogic follow-up to right's
Native Son that would invoke some of the most compelling insights which
Baldwin would have to offer on the subject of American racism. This is,
indeed, a most effectively lucid examination from the perspective of a
deeply self-conscious writer enduring the twin marks in a nation of
virulent prejudice of being both African American and homosexual. The
result of this vantage is a set of essays that reaches accord with right's
conception of the socially devastating impact of segregation on the psyche,
conscience and real opportunity but also one that takes issue with the
brutality of Bigger, a decidedly negative image to be invoked of the black
man in America.…
Baldwin, J. (1955). Notes of a Native Son. Beacon Press.
Gilliam, F.D. (2002). Farther to Go. University of California at Los
Wikipedia. (2009). James Baldwin. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
I. Novikov. It is not clear whether Bolotov himself was a Mason, but he certainly personally belonged to the same social circles as many leading Freemasons in Russia. In his Entsiklopediia, 128, 990, Serkov mentions Bolotov as a possible member of the Konigsberg military lodge of Joanna Krestitelia (John the Baptist) working in Elagin's system around 1773. (Cross, 105)
The Freemasons continued to grow and improve Russian society until the death of Peter III, when his wife Catherine took over the throne. During the reign of Peter III, the numbers and lodges grew substantially and it became fashionable in Russia to be a member of the Freemasons. In fact, many nobles from other countries were traveling to Russia to be a part of the new and growing movement.
Catherine the Great
One of the longstanding rules and traditions of the Freemasons is that members must be men, as women were…
Wolff, Larry. Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1994. Print.
Hosking, Geoffrey a. Russia and the Russians: A History. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2001. Print.
Riasanovsky, Nicholas V.A History of Russia. New York: Oxford UP, 1984. Print.
Dmytryshyn, Basil. Modernization of Russia under Peter I and Catherine II. New York: Wiley, 1974. Print.
Anita Diamant's fiction, "The ed Tent (1997)," is her interpretation of the activities in the red tent, where the Canaanite wives of the first patriarchs dwelt and celebrated the facets of womanhood, such as menstruation and childbirth. There, they were shielded from their men's outside affairs and cares. These patriarchs were Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and the wives were Sara, ebecca, Leah, achel and their maids Zilphah and Bilhah. It assumes that these women were priestesses of goddess-worshipping tribes of the Canaan region who practiced and perpetuated rituals, traditions and habits until obliterated by their only daughter, Dinah, because of her violation by an Amorite and the murder of the Amorites by two of her 12 brothers (Diamant)
The novel is told from the first person viewpoint of Dinah, the only daughter and last child of Jacob and Leah and the last in the maternal line that should…
1. American Bible Society. Good News Bible, 1982
2. Biblical History Timeline. Jewish Patriarchy. http://www.biblicalhistorytimeline.com/a953to1400BC.htm
3. Day, Paula. The Red Tent by Anita Diamant, 2003
4. Diamant, Anita. The Red Tent. Paperback. St. Martins/Picador, 1997
estern Studies emphasizes on the following two topics namely, Inspirational artists during the Renaissance and England before becoming a Constitutional Monarchy. The first topic takes into account the Renaissance era and the artists produced during it where as the second focuses on how the British monarchy was established and what were the perils that were faced in establishing it. This paper also highlights certain quotes.
Inspirational artists during the Renaissance.
The Europeans regard the Renaissance as an era that completely transformed their feudal society of the middle ages into a society dominated by political institutions, in which education was pursued and liberty was the right of all the citizens. This charismatic era gave birth to many philosophers, artists, scientists and thinkers who worked to present to their people a completely new perspective of life. Many artists concentrated upon human philosophy, which became the central movement during the Renaissance.…
Fort C. How To Think Like Leonardo Da Vinci; Liberating Creativity And Igniting
Innovation In The Workplace. PR Newswire. 8 Feb. 2001.
Joseph E. Reading Montaigne. Commentary. 1 Mar. 1993.
Leonardo Da Vinci. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 1 Jul. 2003.
count includes cover page, abstract, table contents, list references appendices; place supporting material exceeds word limit appendices.
Ray Kroc's organizational process of 'McDonaldization' and the birth of the American franchise
One of the great ironies of McDonald's is that a company whose name is synonymous with standardization was actually quite a unique invention when it was born in the mind of the great innovator and entrepreneur Ray Kroc. Kroc was so successful at patenting his formula for creating cheap, predictable burgers, fries and milkshakes that his company's golden arches became an icon of Americana. The word McDonaldization has come to refer to the extent to which "the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world," in the words of sociologist George Ritzer (Waters 1998). Rationalization, efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control, according to Ritzer, are…
Keel, Robert. 2010. The McDonaldization of society. Sociology Home Page. Accessed:
http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/010/mcdonsoc.html [April 22, 2011]
Kuratko, D.F. (2009). Entrepreneurship: Theory, process, practice. 8th edition. Mason, OH:
South Western Cengage Learning.
The est may even become addicted to you and your PLO (Pacepa 1987, 25)
The above conversation occurred in the early Carter administration, although the Romanian dictator first began advising and consorting with Arafat in 1972 (ibid, 37). Ceau-escu was not a prophet. Rather, he was just a shrewd dictatorial leader who knew how to use image, propaganda and the repetition of the same information over and over again until his viewpoint became the accepted one.
In Pacepa's narrative, Ceau-escu and Arafat were very close. Arafat saw Ceau-escu as a model and this model set the tone for the next more than two decades of Arafat's leadership of the PLO after their secret March, 1978 meeting in Bucharest. This meeting is so very important to understanding the development and history of the PLO and the Palestinian Authority from Oslo to the leader's death in 2004.
hile agreeing with Ceau-escu on…
Cefery, H. And Brexel, B. 2004. Yasser Arafat. New York: Rosen Group.
. (1 April 2010).
Ilsemann, Siegesmund von. 2007. "The checkered history of American weapons deals."
Spiegel Online International.
Carthage and Rome
Comparing Carthage and Rome
One of the greatest wars Rome ever fought was against Carthage -- and it was actually a war that happened three times. Called the Punic Wars (Punic another name for Phoenician -- the nationality of the men who founded Carthage), the contests revealed much about both nations, and created heroes and legends for all antiquity to marvel over. This paper will compare and contrast the two civilizations of Rome and Carthage from the standpoint of "persons within the community," showing just how such persons helped both powers came to be and how they went on to fare when they both began to war with one another.
Started near Tunis at around the end of the ninth century BC, Carthage took over the rule of "leader" amongst the colonies of Phoenicia nearly three hundred years later when in the sixth century BC Tyre…
Knox, E.L. (n.d.) The Punic Wars. Boise State. Retrieved from http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/westciv/punicwar/
Lendering, J. (2004). Hannibal, son of Gesco. Livius.org. Retrieved from http://www.livius.org/ha-hd/hannibal/hannibal_2.html
Virgil. (1861). Aeneid. [trans. H. Frieze]. New York, NY: D. Appleton and Company.
Aeneas is said to possess spiritual or godlike qualities that make him fit his role as a hero and destined founder of Rome. Critics see this achievement as proceeding both from his destiny and his own actions. He is the son of the Trojan mortal, Anchises, and the goddess of beauty and love, Venus, and as such, enjoys special protection, while remaining mortal.
His most outstanding quality is his respect and fidelity to prophecy. Ever aware of his destiny and role in the founding of a nation, he always takes this into consideration in taking every action. This awareness and devotion to his noble destiny enable him to endure much suffering and difficulty, from the defeat at Troy to his final duel with Turnus in Italy.
His ability and decision to keep his focus on that destiny give his the power to ward off the weakening effects of frustration…
1) BookRags. The Aeneid. BookRags, Inc., 2002
2) SparkNotes. The Aeneid. SparkNotes.com., 2002
3) Stevenson, Daniel C. The Aeneid. Internet Classics Archive: Web Atomics, 2000
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
Jamie arner takes the position that while politicians use branding techniques they learned in the commercial marketplace -- to basically drown out viewpoints that aren't their own -- some scholars insist that diverse, rational points-of-view should be allowed to be heard. One of the key arguments in this article is that the dynamics that democracy depend on (an open dialogue on important issues and concerns) seem to be of little concern to "political elites and their consultants" (arner, 2007). Moreover, those elite politicians that arner refers to prefer to use the power of the media and their propaganda to "crowd out" other voices so their own political agenda can dominate the airwaves.
Among the pivotal points that arner makes is that in response to the political branding techniques used by "elite politicians," there is now a push-back against that rhetoric and propaganda called "culture jamming" (arner, 18). Among the tactics…
Connelly, J. (2014). Jon Stewart in parody on his latest advertiser -- the Koch brothers.
Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved November 11, 2014, from http://blog.seattlepi.com .
Warner, J. (2007). Political Culture Jamming: The Dissident Humor of The Daily
Show with Jon Stewart. Popular Communications, 5(1), 17-36.
St. Anthony is recognized as the head of the monastic family. His date of birth was in 251 and somewhere in Egypt. His parents died when he was only sixteen years old. He remained to be the guardian of his younger sibling, Dious. Six months after the demise of his parents, he went to the church to hear the word of our lord. 'If you would be perfect, go sell all you have, given to the poor and come follow me.' (Matthew 19:21)
He regarded to this advice as a personal message sent to him God himself. From the fortune his family left behind, he sold 300 acres land that was fertile and the proceeds he gave the poor remaining with a little for taking care of his sister. He left the sister to be taken care of by the community of virgins. This allowed him to be free and…
Anthony and Derwas J. Chitty. The Letters of Saint Anthony the Great.Fairacres, Oxford: SLG Press, 2010. Print.
Athanasius, .The Life of St. Anthony the Great: 17 Jan 356 Written a.d. 357. Willits, CA: Eastern Orthodox Books, 2008a. Print.
Athanasius, .The Life of St. Antony the Great. Willets, CA: Eastern Orthodox Church, 2009b. Print.
McDannell, Colleen. Religions of the United States in Practice: 1. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2006. Print.
Frederick Douglass: Abolitionist
Frederick Douglass, one among the leading personalities in civil rights history, escaped a life of slavery and went on to become a social justice advocate; he is counted among prominent personalities like President Lincoln, Harriet Tubman, Susan rownell Anthony and William Lloyd Garrison. The historic 13th Amendment was the fruit of Douglass' and others' efforts towards civil rights; but Douglass knew well that African-Americans had a long way to go in gaining complete freedom. Douglass, in 1832, was sent away from the city, to Thomas Auld's plantation. Thomas (Hugh Auld's brother) sent Frederick to Edward Covey, the infamous "slave-driver and negro-breaker" who was known for crushing the resistance of any slave. Here, Douglass was beaten severely. Once, the 16-year-old Douglass retaliated, physically besting Covey; hereafter, he was never whipped again. In 1841, Douglass got acquainted with William Lloyd Garrison (a highly outspoken abolitionist and founder of abolitionist…
Barnes, D. (n.d.). Frederick Douglass: "Fourth of July" Speech. Retrieved from Milestone Documents: https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/frederick-douglasss-fourth-of-july-speech/impact
Biographies. (n.d.). Retrieved from Civil War: http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/biographies/frederick-douglass.html?referrer=https://www.google.com.pk/
Braswell, S. (2015, July 03). Friedrick Douglass' Fiery 4th of July Speech. Retrieved from Ozy.com: http://www.ozy.com/flashback/frederick-douglass-fiery-4th-of-july-speech/61450
Engel, J. (n.d.). "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?." Retrieved from American Class: http://americainclass.org/what-to-the-slave-is-the-fourth-of-july/
PIA and the British Government's esponse
The war between the Provisional Irish epublican Army (PIA) and the British State from 1969 to 1998 was a complex situation in which various entities pursued similar and dissimilar aims through various channels (political as well as militaristic/terroristic). Even in the midst of the most violent clashes, secret talks were held between leaders of the PIA and the British State, with the political face of epublican beliefs (Sinn Fein) gaining popular support over the years and to some degree undermining the aims, objectives and capacity of the PIA to operate effectively (O'Brien, 1999; Tonge, 2002). The PIA's strategic effectiveness, however, was also complicated by its own inability to overcome specific problematic features of its own organization -- such as the factors of security and territoriality. Likewise, the British State had enacted a program of using informants and infiltrators to undermine the PIA from within.…
Beggan, D. (2009). Understanding Insurgency Violence: A Quantitative Analysis of the Political Violence in Northern Ireland 1969-1999. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32: 705-725.
Bell, J. B. (2008). The Secret Army: The IRA. London: Transaction Publishers.
Bennett, H. (2010). From Direct Rule to Motorman: Adjusting British Military Strategy
for Northern Ireland in 1972. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33: 511-532.
Niebuhr, H. Richard. Christ and Culture. New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1951.
The author of Christ and Culture Richard Niebuhr is today largely remembered as one-half a famous pair of siblings. Reinhold was the more famous of the two Niebuhr brothers, but both Niebuhrs redefined Protestant theology for the 20th century. hile his brother Reinhold described himself as a devout Lutheran, Richard Niebuhr was "more inclined toward Augustinian, Calvinistic approaches to the realm of theological and ethical discourse" like Kierkegaard and even the postmodern literary philosopher Roland Barth (Swatos 2008).
Richard Niebuhr, like his older brother, grew up in Missouri, graduated from Elmhurst College (1912) and Eden Theological Seminary (1915), ashington University (M.A., 1917), and Yale University Divinity School (B.D., 1923; Ph.D., 1924). Niebuhr was an ordained minister in the Evangelical and Reformed Church (1916) and worked as a pastor. Also called the more philosophical of the…
Swatos, William. "Niebuhr, Helmut Richard." Encyclopedia of Religion and Society.
Hartford Institute for Religion Research. 2008. http://hirr.hartsem.edu/ency/NiebuhrRH.htm
The Yanomami are an indigenous tribe also called Yanomamo, Yanomam, and Sanuma who live in the tropical rain forest of Southern Venezuela and Northern razil. The society is composed of four subdivisions of Indians. (Yanomami Indians) Each subdivision has its own language. "They include the Sanema which live in the Northern Sector, the Ninam which live in the southeastern sector, the Yanomam which live in the southeastern part and the Yanomamo which live in the southwestern part of Yanomami area."
The Yanomamo are one of the largest unacculturated aboriginal groups left in South America, with a total population of around 12,000. Their subsistence is based on hunting and slash-and-burn agriculture. The predominant crops are plantains and bananas. Their diet includes yams, sweet potatoes and the fruit of the peach palm. (eierle, J.M.)
The social construction of the culture is composed of small groups numbering approximately 75 people in…
Barnes, M.H. (2000). Stages of Thought: The Co-Evolution of Religious Thought and Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beierle, J.M. Society-YANOAMA. Retrieved February 22, 2005 from CSAC's Ethnographics Gallery. Web site: http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/EthnoAtlas/Hmar/Cult_dir/Culture.7884
Boehm, C. (1999). Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Buss, D.M. (1994). The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. New York: Basic Books.
Clare of Assisi
Saint Clare of Assisi was not a feminist in the modern sense, but then again no such ideas existed at all in the 13th Century. By all accounts, though, she was a formidable and powerful woman who was the first in history to found a religious order. In the society in which she was born, women were politically, socially and economically powerless, and quite literally the property of their fathers and husbands. This was a feudal, authoritarian and patriarchal society, and even aristocratic women like Clare and her friend St. Agnes of Prague were forced into arranged marriages by their fathers. Indeed, both Clare and Agnes defied their fathers when they insisted on entering religious life as followers of St. Francis of Assisi, and Clare's family disowned her. She was not a political rebel or revolutionary, but she did have a utopian vision of society that was…
Anderson, C. Colt. The Great Catholic Reformers: From Gregory the Great to Dorothy Day. Paulist Press, 2007.
"The Blessing of Clare" (1253?) in Armstrong, Regis J. (Ed) The Lady Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New City Press, 2006: 66-70.
"First Letter to Agnes of Prague" (1234) in Armstrong, Regis J. (Ed) The Lady Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New City Press, 2006: 43-46.
"The Form of Life of Clare of Assisi" (1253) in Armstrong (Ed): 106-28.
(Deuteronomy 22:28-29). hile these Biblical endorsements of unequal treatment may seem historical and antiquated to a modern, estern audience, the fact is that many parts of the world still treat women in a similar fashion, so that the Bible would be useless in helping to determine a standard of human rights for women.
In addition, many human rights activists believe that the death penalty is a de facto violation of human rights, regardless of the guilt or innocence of the person to be executed and the nature of the crime committed by that person. However, the Bible clearly endorses the application of the death penalty. Moreover, the Bible endorses the use of the death penalty in areas where most of the modern world has determined its use to be inappropriate. Amaziah executed his father's assassins, and the Bible described him as doing "what was right in the eyes of the…
Adherents.com. "Major Religions Ranked by Size." Adherents.com. 2007. Adherents.com 28
Sept. 2007 http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html .
Carlson, Doug. "ENDA: Ending an Important Employer Right." The Ethics and Religious
Liberty Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention. 2007. The Southern Baptist Commission. 28 Sept. 2007 http://erlc.com/article/enda-ending-an-important-employer-right .
There were problems with the plane however, and utan made modifications to create the Long Eze (the plane singer John Denver was flying when he was killed in 1997).
utan's construction techniques gained the attention of NASA, and he partnered with them and other aircraft corporations to design high-speed, low cost, delta-wing aircraft, like the AD-1 in 1980. utan formed Scaled Composites about this time, and spent much of this time working on very creative and innovative aircraft designs. His brother, ichard utan also joined the company during this time. utan's next challenge was to design an aircraft that could circle the globe without refueling. utan succeeded in this goal when he designed the Voyager, a masterpiece of engineering that indeed circled the globe with his brother Dick utan and Jeana Yeager on board in December 1986. They covered the entire globe in just about nine days, with eighteen gallons…
Editors. "About Rutan Aircraft Factory, Inc." RutanAircraft.com. 2003. 18 Sept. 2007. http://www.rutanaircraft.com/htmlpages/rutancompany.html
Editors. "Scaled Composites." Scaled.com. 2007. 18 Sept. 2007. http://www.scaled.com/
Heppenheimer, T.A. A Brief History of Flight: From Balloons to Mach 3 and Beyond. New York: Wiley, 2001.
However, the ability to criticize and gain depth into a subject was the key factors involved in qualitative research. In order for qualitative research methods to be applied to qualitative research, these methods had to undergo some form of transformation to make them acceptable to the empirical mindset. ainwright argues that in order to achieve this, qualitative methods had to sacrifice some of their critical elements in favor of validity and reliability. He argues that one cannot have criticism and validity at the same time.
However, this is a difficult viewpoint to accept and if one examines the method to be employed in this research, the presence of validity and controls does not limit the ability to criticize the results. Increasing validity and reliability in the qualitative research means the development of criteria on the data collection. This may be a hindrance in the traditional sociological setting, such as field…
Beattie, G. 2002. Head Counts. Guardian Unlimited. May 28, 2002. Retrieved January 15, 2007 at http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/universityguide/story/0,721013,00.html .
Dehnart, a. 2001. Celebrating Classic Sociology: Pioneers of British Qualitative Research. A symposium organized by Qualidata and held on 5-6 July 2001 at the University of Essex. Aug. 6, 2004. Retrieved January 15, 2007 at http://www.esds.ac.uk/qualidata/news/symposium.asp
Fielding, N. 1993. Ethnography. In N. Gilbert (Ed.), Researching social life. London: Sage.
Hammersley, M. 1992. What's wrong with ethnography? London: Routledge.
America was finding its footing, Americans were finding their identity. The spark of revolution trickled down the vine where three men decided to take arms. One took arms by defending the country against the British and securing the role of president of a new country. A second took pen and wrote to inspire the reluctant to declare independence from an unfair Britain. A third took brush and art to establish a painted history of the American revolution along with the first museums to showcase them in.Three notable figures, George Washington, Charles Willson Peale, and Thomas Paine became some of the most influential men of their time.
George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 or February 11, 1731 and died December 14, 1799. He was alive during the time of the American evolution and played a pivotal role in America's victory over Great Britain.He became the first President of the…
Burns, J.M., & Dunn, S. (2004). George Washington. New York: Times Books.
This source discusses the life anf career of George Washington.
Greene, J.P., & Bailyn, B. (1967). The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. American Historical Review, 11(3), 588-90. doi:10.2307/1849163
This is a journal source that discusses the reasons behind the American Revolution.
Bonnie and Clyde
hat accounts for the persistence of the legend of Bonnie and Clyde? For two not particularly distinguished criminals from a bygone era in American history, the staying power in the collective consciousness of Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker is nothing short of remarkable. In part, the media has played a substantial role, with the epochal 1967 Arthur Penn film having been succeeded in 2013 by a television miniseries about the duo and their gang. I hope to demonstrate through an examination of the historical source material that the reason for Bonnie and Clyde's persistence is explainable in one single word: economics. hat Bonnie and Clyde signify for later generations of interested readers is a response (howsoever criminal) on the part of ordinary people to the Great Depression that defined America during the Presidency of Herbert Hoover. Although certain other aspects of their short career -- particularly their…
Barrow, Blanche Caldwell. My Life with Bonnie and Clyde. Ed. John Neal Phillips. Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press, 2005. Print.
Guinn, Jeff. Go Down Together: The True Untold Story of Bonnie and Clyde. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2010. Print.
Phillips, John Neal. Running with Bonnie and Clyde: The Ten Fast Years of Ralph Fults. Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002. Print.
Schneider, Paul. Bonnie and Clyde: The Lives Behind The Legend. New York: Henry Holt, 2009. Print.
She is the daughter of Alice Walker, who wrote the Color Purple. She took her mother's maiden name at the age of 18. Rebecca graduated cum laude from Yale University in 1993, and moved on to co-found the Third Wave Foundation. She is considered to be one of the founding leaders of third-wave feminism. In addition to her contributing editorship for Ms. Magazine, Walker's work has also been published by Harper's, Essence, Glamour, Interview, Buddhadharma, Vibe, Child, and Mademoiselle magazines. Her relationship with her mother has been strained because of various public indictments the younger Walker made against her. Nevertheless, some believe that Rebecca might not have been as famous or powerful today without her ties to the illustrious Alice Walker.
Jennifer Baumgardner is a prominent voice for women and girls. She works as a writer, speaker and activist. During 1993-1997, she worked as the youngest editor at Ms. Magazine,…
Even "Porter Alexander, Lee's ordnance chief and one of the most perceptive contemporary observers of Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia, called his decision to stand at Antietam 'the greatest military blunder that Gen. Lee ever made'" (Owens 2004). Historians are divided as to the real purpose behind the Maryland campaign, which seems like an "isolated maneuver, another manifestation of Lee's innate aggressiveness as a commander. Some have gone so far as to suggest that Lee's forays into Union territory were undertaken primarily to maintain his claim on scarce Confederate resources that might have been used to greater strategic purpose in the est" (Owens 2004).
hether a demoralization strategy or an effort merely to show Confederate aggression, the focus on Lee in most historians' analysis shows how Lee dominated this conflict, and defined the terms of the battle. Thus, even if Lee acted unwisely, he was clearly 'in control,'…
The beginning of the American Civil War. (2009). BBC. Retrieved February 22, 2009. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3245140
Bleeding Kansas 1853-1861. (2009). Africans in America. PBS. Retrieved February 22, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html
Faust, Patricia. (2005, March 26). The Anaconda Plan. Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War. Retrieved from Strategy and Tactics: Civil War Home on February 22, 2005 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/anacondaplan.htm
Owens, Mackubin T. (2004, September). September 17, 1862: High tide of the Confederacy?
Timmons (1994) in his study presents a three-dimensional model of practical application of a good idea:
Comprehensive evaluation of the opportunity;
Comprehensive evaluation of one's own expertise and inclination; and Comprehensive evaluation of the resources gathering process to maintain the launch of business venture.
Long and McMullan (1984) propose that application of a good idea depends on two processes; namely, elaboration and evaluation. Singh (1998) found that those entrepreneurs who spend more time studying the pros and cons of an idea before embarking on its application tend to set up fewer businesses than those who spend less time in the elaboration and evaluation phase. However, Singh (1998) points out that higher majority of successful entrepreneurs are those who spend more time in elaboration and evaluation.
1.4 Traits of entrepreneurs
Wright et al. (1997a) studied motivational drivers of entrepreneurs and found that entrepreneurs are primarily driven by either one or both…
Adler, P. & Kwon, S. (2000). Social capital: The good, the bad and the ugly. In E. Lesser (Ed.), Knowledge and social capital: Foundations and applications (pp. 80-115). Boston: Butterworth-Heineman.
Aldrich, H. & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In D. Sexton and R. Smilor (Eds), the art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 3-23). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
Aldrich, H., Rosen, B., and Woodward, W. (1987) "The impact of social networks on business foundings and profit: a longitudinal study," in Churchill, N.C., Hornaday, J.A., Kirchoff, B.A. et al. (eds) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Welles-ley, MA: Babson College.
Amabile, T.M. (1988) "A model of creativity and innovation in organizations," in Staw, B. And Cummings, L.L. (eds) Research in Organizational Behavior, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
It also makes note of the fact that the census of 2000 marked the first time that it was possible for a respondent to choose more than one race. This article is particularly interesting as it speculates on a future when it is no longer possible to separate people into minorities on the basis of race, simply because of cross culturalism.
an Juan, E. "Asian-American melting pot" Asia Times. June 14, 2005. This short article states there is an automatic prejudice against Asians within the United tates, laughing at the idea of any kind of homogeneity of the Asian-Americans and referring to both near and far history in which Asians have been discriminated against in the United tates. The author deals with the stereotype of Asians as the "model minority" and decries the change of something once considered to be exotic into a "plain American pie" the author is strong…
Shinjo, Iwao. "Learning multiculturalism from yesterday, today and tomorrow." Multicultural Education Summer 2003. This teacher's journal gives an interesting look into how multiculturalism may be taught in our schools, specifically to a group of fourth graders. Some of the insights gained on essentially a report on the implementation of a project give a bird's eye view into how multiculturalism is being deployed, and is it effective in its goal.
Okin, Susan Moller. "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?" Princeton New Jersey, University Press. 1999. A controversial paper on the feminist view of multiculturalism, somewhat extreme in its ideas. Okin compares the place of women in the multicultural society to that of puppets subjected to the whims of men. She has particularly strong feelings about the place of religion in multiculturalism, stating it is all in essence patriarchal and as such demeaning to women.
Zayd, Nasr Hamid. "Modernity, democracy are only for the privileged." Qantara Feb. 21, 2003. This Egyptian scholar reviews the idea of multiculturalism from a worldwide perspective, describing the pros and cons, as well as its impact on business and Third World Countries alike. He makes the interesting observation that it would seem the dominant world culture is one based on capitalism, wondering if this is inevitable or inherent. It describes the cultural reversion of Muslim nationalists as a response to the fear of losing ethnic identity, but then admits that much of the reversion in Islamic republics has not been based on a reasonable form of government but rather reactivity. It poses the idea that human rights and democracy are not rights, but only available for the privileged.
Patrick Henry the Man Who Started the American evolution
On December 1, 1763 a young relatively unknown lawyer stood in public for the first time and openly defended in court the rights of the American colonies to be free. He started his speech by stuttering and stammering, but that did not last long. And when he was done speaking, cries of treason went up from the crowd, however, his argument was so persuasive, that the jury sided with him on the legal case. The young lawyer's name was Patrick Henry, and while he may have started his speech roughly, by the time he had finished speaking, he had become one of the founding fathers of the United States of America. Patrick Henry is not known as a great warrior, but while he did fight a few battles with muskets and cannons, words were his most effective weapons. And his words,…
"Biography of Patrick Henry." Redhill- Patrick Henry National Memorial. Retrieved from http://www.redhill.org/biography.html .
Henry, Patrick. (1765). "Patrick Henry's 'Treason' Speech." Retrieved from http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1266.html .
Henry, Patrick. (1775) "Liberty or Death." The History Place: Great Speeches Collection. Retrieved from http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/henry.htm .
Maury, James. (1763) "The Parson's Opinion of 'The Parsons' Cause." Wikisource. Retrieved from http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Maury,_Reverend_James_vs_Henry,_Patrick
In his analysis of the American Revolution, Nash refers to the "enshrined, mythic form" the event has taken on in human consciousness (59). Like the creation myths of religion, the story of the founding of the United States of America has become what Nash calls a "sacralized story" that nearly deifies the founding fathers (59). Taught to children in schools and propagated beyond the borders of the Untied States, this version of the American Revolution in which a unified group of colonists rose up together against the mean British tyrants is little more than a "fable," (Nash 59). The real story behind the American Revolution is far more complex and nuanced, testimony to the already diverse and heterogeneous population dwelling throughout the colonies. Even when the emphasis remains squarely on the events taking place in Massachusetts that precipitated the Revolution, it is clear that there was no one…
"A Dialogue Between Orator Puff and Peter Easy," (1776).
Adams, Abigail. [Correspondence between Abigail and John Adams] 1776.
"Antislavery Petition of Massachusetts Free Blacks" (1777)
"Blacks Protest Taxation." 1780
When Kennedy first arrived at the U.S. Senate as a "Cold War liberal," he almost immediately took sides with northern Democrats which helped him to ride "the liberal high tide of the Kennedy-Johnson years" between 1963 and 1968 (Selfa, 2009, Internet). During these years, a time when America was facing some very serious political and social problems, Senator Kennedy stood firmly behind President John F. Kennedy (his eldest living brother in 1963) and then supported the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, the Civil ights Act of 1964-1965, the Voting ights Act and President Johnson's so-called "war on poverty" in the mid to late 1960's. Clearly, there appears to be some form of bias in Kennedy's outright support and defense of these and other governmental programs and acts, due to the fact that most epublicans, especially those from the Deep South, were firmly against what is now referred to as socialized…
Aschburner, S. (2000). Ted kennedy: the politician and the man. New York: Heinemann
"Committed Senate Liberals." (2009). National Journal Magazine. Internet. Accessed September 19, 2009 from http://www.nationaljournal.com/njmagazine / cs_20090228_5247.php.
Milligan, S. (2009). "A Towering Record, Painstakingly Built." Boston Globe. Internet.
Slave, Not Born a Slave
The Making of Slavery
The sense of proprietorship of slave traders, owners, and other propagators of chattel slavery that was prevalent in the United States until the middle of the 19th century would be absurdly laughable -- were it not steeped in a legacy of perversion, of anguish, of tragedy and of perniciousness. The notion that one had the right to actually own another, the latter of whose sole existence would be to serve the former in any way, shape or method which the "owner" deemed appropriate, has been disproved as largely imaginary, and not something based on any sense of right or morality (no matter how such a historically ambiguous term was defined) numerous times, both during the tenure of slavery in the United States and well afterwards. A casual examination of the wording of the Declaration of Independence confirms this fact (McAulifee, 2010,…
Bland, Sterling. (2001). African-American Salve Narratives: An Anthology, Volume 1. Westport: Greenwood.
Chesnutt, C. (1889). "The Sherriff's Children." The Independent. 41: 30-32.
Davis, A.Y. (1981). "Reflections on the Black Woman's Role in the Community of Slaves." Black Scholar. 12 (6) 2-15.
Douglass, F. (1845). Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. Retrieved from http://www.ibiblio.org/ebooks/Douglass/Narrative/Douglass_Narrative.pdf
successful the business has been at recognizing and satisfying stakeholder interests.
Paul Terminal Warehouse was originally a start-up business founded in 1916 by Harry McNeely Jr. To him, the nascent business was doing well, providing above-average income for him and his family, and making their lives in the twin cities area opulent by turn-of-the-century standards. Concepts of governance, stakeholder management, and development of plans for managing take-over attempts by his family never most likely entered his mind. He was too busy working to create a business that would outlast his own life, creating a legacy and stable source of income for future generations of the McNeely family. CEOs who are founding members of companies rarely have the ability to step away from the vision of the business and the many demands on their time to create stakeholder models, frameworks and criterion for success, which is why the majority of them…
Arora, P., & Dharwadkar, R.. (2011). Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): The Moderating Roles of Attainment Discrepancy and Organization Slack. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 19(2), 136-152.
Epstein, M., & Widener, S.. (2011). Facilitating sustainable development decisions: measuring stakeholder reactions. Business Strategy and the Environment, 20(2), 107.
Ho, V. (2010). "Enlightened Shareholder Value": Corporate Governance Beyond the Shareholder-Stakeholder Divide. Journal of Corporation Law, 36(1), 59-112.
Wilson Ng, & Richard Thorpe. (2010). Not another study of great leaders: Entrepreneurial leadership in a mid-sized family firm for its further growth and development. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 16(5), 457-476.
With St. Paul, Luke traveled to several different destinations including Samothrace and Philippi -- where he appears to have lingered to guide the Church. The duo then reunite in Troas and Luke is with St. Paul during the latter's stay in a oman jail. As Paul says: "Only Luke is with me" (2 Timothy 4:11).
Exactly what Luke did with Paul during this time is debated: "St. Jerome thinks it is most likely that St. Luke is 'the brother, whose praise is in the gospel through all the churches' (2 Corinthians 8:18), and that he was one of the bearers of the letter to Corinth" (Knight, 2011).
Luke also brings special awareness to the importance of mercy and forgiveness, with the parable of the Prodigal Son and the tale of the woman whose sins were forgiven because she bathed Christ's feet in her tears.
But this special awareness is also…
Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical Interpretation for Preaching. MI: Judson
Barla J.B. (1999). Christian Theological Understanding of Other Religions. Rome:
Editrice Pontificia Universita Gregoriana.
I was born and raised in Taipei, Taiwan, which is very different than the United States in many ways. Although the country is becoming more advanced, some forms of its culture are still very traditional. Also, the standard of living is much lower than most of America. There are many people who do not have jobs or are paid low wages. Because of our past history, the country has many political problems. The people are divided on becoming part of China. (My family?) moved to the U.S. four years ago when I was 19 years old because (?). I am glad that we did. Life is much better here, but I do miss some of the special things about Taiwan like the festivals
In the past, the family was very close in Taiwan. In most cases, children stayed home when they were not in school and the elderly were…
Hector Perez Garcia has been described as "a man who in the space of one week delivers 20 babies, 20 speeches, and 20 thousand votes. He understands delivery systems in this country," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). Trained as a physician, Hector P. Garcia became the "medical doctor to the barrios," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). He also served in the United States Army, stationed in North Africa and Italy during the Second World War. For his service as infantry officer, combat engineer officer, Medical Corps officer, and Medical Corps surgeon, Garcia received six battle stars and a Bronze Star. As a highly decorated veteran of a war that should have united the country against its common enemies, Garcia might have expected that Hispanic-Americans like him would enjoy equal rights and social justice. He was wrong. Fed up with discrimination…
Del Valle, Aracelis. "Garcia, Dr. Hector Perez." Learning to Give. Retrieved online: http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper99.html
Holley, Joe. "Hector Perez Garcia, 82, Dies; Led Hispanic Rights Group." The New York Times. 29 July 1996. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/1996/07/29/us/hector-perez-garcia-82-dies-led-hispanic-rights-group.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
"Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/justiceformypeople/
Kells, Michelle Hall. Hector P. Garcia: Everyday Rhetoric and Mexican-American Civil Rights. SIU Press, 2006.
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:
Gordon Willard Allport, one of the most influential of American psychologists in the 1900s, was the youngest of four brothers. He was born in Montezuma, Indiana in 1897. One of his elder brothers, Floyd Henry Allport, was also an influential psychologist, and it is said inspired him (Hall & Lindzey). Allport, who graduated from Harvard with a Ph.D. In 1922, was a long time member of the faculty at Harvard University from 1930 until his death in 1967. He produced a number of influential books and professional works over his career such as the influential book The Nature of Prejudice. Allport was initially exposed to Freudian notions of behavior as a graduate student, but he rejected the notions of Freudian psychology and later notions of behaviorism (in fact there is the famous story of his meeting with Freud that often used to explain the development of his own theories). Allport…
Allport, G.W. (1937a). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Holt and Company.
Allport, G.W. (1937b). The functional autonomy of motives. American Journal of Psychology, 50, 141-156.
Allport, G.W. (1955). Becoming: Basic considerations for a psychology of personality. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Allport, G.W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
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Slave, Not Born a Slave The Making of Slavery The sense of proprietorship of slave traders, owners, and other propagators of chattel slavery that was prevalent in the United…Read Full Paper ❯
successful the business has been at recognizing and satisfying stakeholder interests. Paul Terminal Warehouse was originally a start-up business founded in 1916 by Harry McNeely Jr. To him, the…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
With St. Paul, Luke traveled to several different destinations including Samothrace and Philippi -- where he appears to have lingered to guide the Church. The duo then reunite in…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Taiwan I was born and raised in Taipei, Taiwan, which is very different than the United States in many ways. Although the country is becoming more advanced, some forms…Read Full Paper ❯
Hector Perez Garcia has been described as "a man who in the space of one week delivers 20 babies, 20 speeches, and 20 thousand votes. He understands delivery systems…Read Full Paper ❯
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus) Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy The "Chinese Model" of Investment The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework Operational Views The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus)…Read Full Paper ❯
Gordon Willard Allport, one of the most influential of American psychologists in the 1900s, was the youngest of four brothers. He was born in Montezuma, Indiana in 1897. One…Read Full Paper ❯