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Founding Fathers: How the Founding Fathers of America would respond to the success or the shortcomings of America's progress in keeping with their principles
America was a nation founded upon the principles of freedom but also upon compromises. One of the most notable compromises was the negotiation between free and slave states in the framing of the U.S. Constitution. The three-fifths compromise was an attempt by the Founding Fathers to determine how to count slaves in terms of population for the purpose of representation totals in the House of epresentatives: "The issue of how to count slaves split the delegates into two groups. The northerners regarded slaves as property who should receive no representation. Southerners demanded that Blacks be counted with whites" ("Three-fifths compromise," 2013). Eventually, the external slave trade was abolished in 1807; this, of course, did not end the practice of slavery within the United States ("1807," 2015).…
1807: Congress abolishes the slave trade (2015). This day in history. History.com. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/congress-abolishes-the-african-slave-trade
Establishing a national bank. (1997). PBS. Retrieved from:
Three-fifths compromise. (2013). African-American registry. Retrieved from:
founding fathers and their fear of "dangerous leveling" in the society. It will furthermore explain the problem of equalization of the society and would thus lead to the reduced inequalities of wealth, income, talents and virtues. The paper will highlight the issues as discussed in the book
The Irony of Democracy" by Thomas . Dye and Harmon Zeigler.
United States of America got its independence on 4 July 1777. The first task for the governing committee was to set up principles on which to govern the country. Thus a committee was set up which was to write down the first constitutional plan of the country. The committee consisted of some of the most prominent men of America, these men were related to every walk of life and were thus aware of the problems being faced by the people of the country i.e. The general population and citizens of the state.…
Benjamin Schwarz, What Jefferson helps to explain, last viewed: 7th may ' 04
Natural law, the constitution and Judicial Review, last viewed: 7th May' 04
However, when the issue of taxation without representation became a general rule in the ritish Parliament, the Americans viewed it as a breach in their freedoms and power of decision. Therefore, this dilution of liberal rights also led to the desire for independence and separation from the ritish Empire. From this point-of-view, the three politicians are seen as the promoters of these freedoms. Washington, as the first acting U.S. president, ensured that the Constitution and its provisions are respected in order to lead the establishment of a democratic tradition. (Morgan, 3-31) Adams was the promoter of diplomatic means of ending quarrels, seen especially in the situation of the French War.
The pursuit for the inextricable human freedoms and liberties has been considered by historians and revolutionaries alike to be a "glorious" goal which drove the independence movement. Therefore, there are certain controversies that surround the apparently lofty ideals of the…
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: the American Revolution, 1763-1789. New York: Oxford Press, 2005.
Morgan, Edmund S. The Meaning of Independence. Charlottesville: University of Virgina Press, 1976.
Plato and Aristotle on Individual Liberty and the Declaration of Independence
Plato and Aristotle would respond to the statement of "rights" in the Declaration of the Independence with less enthusiasm or support for the notion than one might think considering they are the classical philosophers of the city known for its democratic politics. However, these philosophers looked at the role of citizens in government not so much as "rights" that were to be given as duties that were to be fulfilled. The notion of "rights," for example, puts the individual at the forefront of the question of the State, whereas what Plato and Aristotle understood is that when discussing the State, the heart of the matter is the common good -- not the individual -- and thus it is an issue of what each person owes to the State in order to effect the common good. This is evident in…
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, transl. Robert C. Bartlett & Susan D. Collins. Chicago:
University of Chicago, 2011.
Plato, The Republic, ed. G.R. F. Ferrari, transl. Tom Griffith. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought Series. UK: Cambridge, 2000.
One can assume from his writing that he wants his readers to be persuaded with his point-of-view and appreciate the accomplishments of George Washington (Kuegler). It is also believed that his secondary aim of writing the book is to give rebirth to politics of morals and ethics.
Monty Rainey. ook Review. Junto Society.
Thomas Kuegler. Review www.skyline.net.com
All in all, one can say that his book represents dynamism, intellectualism and exceeding pleasure. As mentioned above, his book does not fully cover his life and works, however, it aims to bring alive the politics of those times so as to transform the hearts and minds of all those who read his book (Kuegler).
The most unexpected result of his book is the warmth it provokes amongst those who read it. It is clear that rookhiser does not make an effort to create an acceptable image of Washington to the…
A.J. Bacevich. Book Review: "Founding Father: Rediscovering George Washington." National
Review, March 11, 1996. www.findarticles.com
Monty Rainey. Review: "Founding Father: Rediscovering George Washington." Junto Society.
All of the founding fathers of the United States were great because they acted on their values and beliefs, helping to sow the seeds of a new nation. The work of the founding fathers became instrumental for independence from the British Crown. Being willing to stand up to Britain was no small feat, making the deeds of the founding fathers even more admirable. The founding fathers will be celebrated throughout history for their contribution not just to America but to the world. Although many men and women can be considered instrumental to founding the nation, there are seven key players that most historians identify as being the founding fathers. Those seven include George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, James Monroe, and Ben Franklin. All seven of the founding fathers and their contributions are important. Therefore, it can be helpful to compare and contrast three of them—such…
Native American Influence on the Constitution
The event or issue discussed in this document is the influence of Native Americans on the U.S. Constitution. There is a fairly lengthy history of research that contends that Native Americans actually played a considerable role in the founding of the U.S. Constitution. Moreover, there is also evidence that supports that certain members of the founding fathers were directly impacted by Native Americans. In fact, there are specific Native American tribes and political representations of these tribes that are alleged to have contributed to the U.S. Constitution. A good amount of this evidence is considered in "Our Founding Mothers and Fathers, The Iroquois."
There is certainly evidence that supports the idea that there was a Native American influence on the formation of the U.S. Constitution. That evidence is predicated on the effect of the Iroquois tribe on the founding fathers. Specifically, the Iroquois had…
The way it worked is the Executive branch had the ability to enforce various laws and control of the military. However, in order to receive any kind of funding for its activities it had to work with the Legislative branch. This is when Congress had the power to review these actions and determine if they wanted to continue providing the President with funding for a host of different activities. If there was a conflict one had the power to check the other through different actions they could take (i.e. Congress refusing to fund a particular program that is favored by the President). At the same time, Congress had the authority to pass various laws that would determine how the country was governed. While, the President has the power to check that of Congress by vetoing it and sending it back to them for further review. The courts have the authority…
The Declaration of Independence. (1776).
Williams, J. (2004). The U.S. Constitution. Minneapolis, MN: Campus Print Books.
open for interpretation: it always has been and it always will be. Throughout time, history has been revised and revised again; some perspectives or "takes" on history stick with particular generations only to be revised by the next. The reasons this happen can range from a new theoretical approach to the past that is used to new information uncovered that puts matters in a different light. The changing values of culture can cause historical persons and details to emerge out of the past with a new representative character, with more or less luster, for instance. As societies and civilizations change, so too changes the way in which history is viewed. One may take WW2, for instance. The victors of WW2, the Allies, set about writing a history of the war that favored the side of the victors, that painted them as the "good guys." Yet more recent revisionists have come…
Fathers of Sociology
As a discipline, sociology is relatively young. Therefore, many of the great thinkers of the last two centuries have had a tremendous impact on the face of modern sociology. Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, and .E.B. Du Bois all contributed to the historical development of the discipline of sociology. One can see the lasting impact of those contributions in how sociologists approach human behavior in modern American society.
Emile Durkheim may be the man most responsible for transforming sociology from unscientific observations of human behavior into a disciplined science of human behavior. He drew upon Comte's work in sociology, but felt that his foundations were too vague. Instead of vague assertions about human behavior, Durkheim felt that in order for sociology to be a science, it "must study social facts, i.e. aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals" (Agarwal, N.p.). hile Durkheim's work…
Agarwal, Priya. "What are the major contributions of Emile Durkheim to sociology?" Preserve
Articles. N.p. N.d Web. 30 Sep. 2013.
Crossman, Ashley. "Herbert Spencer." About.com Sociology. N.p. 2013. Web. 30 Sep. 2013.
Crossman, Ashley. "Karl Marx." About.com Sociology. N.p. 2013. Web. 30 Sep. 2013.
One obvious parallel between the tale of the brothers and earlier legends is that of Achilles, the great warrior who was the son of a goddess who was almost supernatural in his greatness. Another parallel is that of Oedipus, who was abandoned when he was a boy because of the fearful prophesy foretold about his future. But unlike these previous mythical characters, rather than coming to a bad end, Romulus overcomes the difficulties of his circumstances and triumphs. There are also many versions of the Roman foundation story which contain non-Greek elements, like the idea of a 'phantom phallus' impregnating the boys' mother, which could suggest a kind of immaculate conception (iseman 60). The death of Remus at the hands of his brother for disobediently jumping a wall is also a unique and somewhat perplexing aspect of the story: why did Romulus 'need' a twin?
Q3. To what extent is…
Bremmer, J.N. & Horsfall., M.N. Roman myth and mythography. Bulletin Supplement, 52,
Miles, Gary. Reconstructing early Rome. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Wiseman, T. Remus: A Roman myth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Freedom and Liberty to the Founding Fathers
The founding fathers of the United States of America were a product of the Enlightenment. The "Enlightenment" was the 18th century's attempt to break out of the self-imposed restrictions of society and create something better. (osner 2000, 251-253) Beginning with the writings of John Locke in the mid-1600's, a new idea had begun to take root: that man could, through his reason, create better social structures. In other words, man had the ability to create a more perfect form of government, one more in line with the rights of the people. This idea, by its very nature, is an attempt to transfer authority over society from a select few, to the masses of people. The idea of taking power away from Kings, and other rulers, and creating governmental system that would be created and responsible to the people is what the…
Locke, John, and Peter Laslett (ed.). Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. Print
Rosner, Lisa, and Theibault, John. 2000. A Short History of Europe, 1600-1815. New York: M.E. Sharpe
"Africans in America Narrative: Part 2, The Revolutionary War." PBS.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2narr4.html
Mary Beth Norton, Founding Mothers and Fathers. New York: First Vintage, 1996. 512 pp., bibliography, index.
Mary Beth Norton is the Mary Donlon Alger Professor of American History at Cornell University. In addition to Founding Mothers and Fathers, Norton has also published In the Devil's Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692. These two books are part of Norton's ongoing scholarly examination of the intersection between gender and politics in pre-Revolutionary America. In the 1996 publication Founding Mothers and Fathers, Norton argues that power manifested in gendered ways, in multiple spheres of colonial American life including the family, the community, and the government. The author's goal is to show how gendered power impacted the social, economic, and political development of the colonies and the early United States. With an in-depth examination of the private, public, and family spheres, Norton explains how founding females were as influential as males in shaping…
formation of America as a nation produced dozens of historical examinations with the intent to attempt to capture the spirit of America's founding fathers. Joanne Freeman produced a work within this vein taking a unique interpretation of an oversaturated subject. Affairs of Honor: ational Politics in the ew Republic offers a surprising fresh viewpoint on the interactions of America's founding fathers. In addition, Freeman also explores how these interactions aided in shaping the political setting. The book examines the role of honor within the early republic. How that idea fueled the choices made by the men that shaped that era. "This link between honor and politics, the personal and the political, gave early national political combat its passion and its sting, for it bound together a politician's personal character with his political principles and actions." (Freeman, p.261) By endeavoring to grasp the real intentions behind numerous founding fathers actions Joanne…
No more was this made clear than in Freeman's portrayal of George Washington. Aware that everyone within the new republic watched him for reassurance and guidance, Washington was very conscious of the image he projected onto the people. "It was a difficult role: somehow he had to embody the new government's dignity and authority without rising to monarchical excess." (p.43) Therefore, Washington went to excessive lengths in terms of self-presentation to harness control of his public image, not different from modern politicians. Freeman provides a great example in the suit, which Washington put on for his inauguration. The suit had to be created from plain American broadcloth that he improved with some ostentatious buttons and extras. This provides a great lesson for the reader in regards to U.S. History and its culture.
Joanne Freeman is a historian so this was written long after the events of the book took place. After Freeman examined the social customs the founding fathers had, she researched the "art of the paper war" that happened among individuals during this era for an assortment of insults and the result such clashes had in terms of the political body at the time. Elected officials used a variety of various kinds of print media to refute abuses thrown at their person. A good instance of this and a memorable quote was on page 112. That page covered 1809 and how John Adams spoke to the public to address the need to maintain America's neutrality.
The War Hawks scattered throughout Congress slammed the former president's unwillingness to defend the republic's honor pugnaciously attacking his status in local newspapers. With his honor tested, Adams rose to recover his reputation by writing a succession of letters defending his pacifist position in the Boston Patriot. This desire to destroy reputation reminds me of the time when Hatshepsut was pharaoh of Egypt and after her death, her name was erased from monuments throughout Egypt to destroy what she built. As this book features events from American history, it stands to provide future audiences with a unique perspective on something that is deeply embedded into America, and that is the life and times of the founding fathers.
Government & Politics
The arguments contrast two observations. Which of them is the best and why? Give a detailed and substantial response.
Charles eard and John Roche had differing views regarding the American constitution as they hailed from different background. Due to their diverse backgrounds, they have their own views regarding American constitution. A deep study of both authors shows that, John Roche is an optimist and a reformer, while Charles eard attempts to expose the inner intentions of the founding fathers (Thesis Statement, 2014). oth authors give interesting insight into the minds of the founding fathers with rock solid evidence. eard (1913) proposes that founding fathers had huge properties to protect while Roche (1961) argues that constitution united the nation quite effectively.
Those penning the constitution had sold commercial and financial interest of their own (p. 36)
The authors of the constitution were bent on penning a…
Berg, S. (2012). The Founding Fathers and the Constitutional Struggle over Centralized Power. Baltimore County: University of Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.umbc.edu/che/tahlessons/pdf/The_Founding_Fathers_and_the_Constitutional_Struggle_PF.pdf
Dalleva, N. (2010, August 30). An Analysis Of John Roche's Essay "A Reform Caucus in Action." Retrieved from Essencearticles.com: http://www.essencearticles.com/book-reviews-politics/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay-a-reform-caucus-in-action
Dalleva, N. (2010, September 15). Education. Retrieved from articlesfactory.com: http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/education/an-analysis-of-john-roches-essay.html
Folsom, B. (2009, June 11). The Freeman. Retrieved from Fee.com: http://www.fee.org/the_freeman/detail/the-founders-the-constitution-and-the-historians
They "debate" Listwell's occupation and purpose, even though it is none of their business, and then they settle down to gossip and drink, not really doing anything to help solve problems or find answers to questions like slavery. They are like the people of the nation, but they are like the Congress as well, because the Congress often debates issues to death, but never really does anything to solve them. In particular, they represent the issue of slavery, because Congress and those who created Congress debated the issue too, but never managed to come up with a workable or viable solution to ending slavery. Thus, the tavern represents the nation and the people inside represent the lawmakers, who are not doing their jobs.
Finally, the tavern, and its non-descript and decrepit outbuildings represent the nation in another way. The outbuildings, like the tavern, are falling apart, and many of them…
Douglass, Frederick. "The Heroic Slave." University of Virginia. 2008. 14 April 2008. http://etext.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=DouHero.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=1&division=div1
17th century, a book inspired by Sir Walter Raleigh and written by Richard Hakluyt, entitled "Western Planting," built up great interest in American colonization. Focus of commercial explorations was possible trade with the East India Company for the West. The King of England formed and granted a royal charter to the London Company and the Plymouth Company (Interesting.com) to found a colony. In December 1606, the London Company, led by Captain Christopher Newport, reached a town and named it Jamestown, after the King of England. It was the first permanent settlement in North America, the whole of which was then Virginia. The first settlers in this new land consisted of 12 laborers, a few carpenters, a blacksmith, a mason, a barber and a tailor and 50 other men.
When Captain Newport returned England for a while and left the colony to the inefficient leadership of Governor Wingfield, trouble and misery…
1. Folk, Stephney. Virginia's Founding Fathers. (accessed 28:03:03). http://www.lineone.net/~fight/Stephney/virginia.htm
2. Garman, Gene. Founding Principles Rejected: Colonial Virginia. 1998 accessed 28:03:03). http://www.sunnetworks.com/~ggarman/princip.html
3. Interesting.com. Colonial Virginia. (accessed 28:03:03). http://www.interesting.com
4. Jeff. The Founding of Jamestown. The Montague Millennium, 2002.
In oody Holton's Unruly Americans, the author endeavors to bring to light many of the as-yet unwritten aspects of the founding of the United States of America. Many men and women have written on the subject. There are films and documentaries and historical records from a plethora of perspectives. For many people, they only meet with the topic of the Founding Fathers in history class. Holton takes up the task of taking these myths of the founding of the American Revolution and make it palatable, understandable, and relatable to the average person. In this, he is wholly successful as I have never been so intrigued and felt such a personal stake in the founding of the United States.
The book's language is easy to understand and thus easy to comprehend. All too often, historical volumes become so consumed by facts and figures, names and dates that the narrative…
Woody Holton, Unruly Americans (United States: Hill and Wang, 2007)
What is America's role in the world? Considering that America was in many ways founded experimentally, it is only natural to imagine that outside observers are constantly looking to America as an example or a source of guidance. In particular, America's early status as an experiment in religious tolerance has led to the popularity of the phrase and image of "the city on a hill." Derived from Jesus Christ's Sermon on the Mount -- where Christ tells his followers "You are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hidden" (Matt. 5:14) -- the notion of America as both a model and a source of immense scrutiny is popular even to this day. In this paper I would like to examine three ways in which the notion of America as a "city on a hill" was persuasive in the period of…
American Colonial experience and the Articles of the Confederation influence the content of our Constitution?
he American colonies existed as separate political entities. he only attempt to consolidate any of the colonies under one united government was that of the ill-fated "Dominion of New England," an attempt to reign in the independent colonies by a monarchy (that of James II) that was thought by many to want to 'catholicize' the Anglican church in the late 1680's. Administration had to be done at a local level because of the inferior condition of the roads. he advent of newspapers and printing presses in the mid-1700's was really the first non-commercial link between colonies; often colonies had been openly hostile to one another. For instance, dissenters that disapproved of the government of Massachusetts founded Conneticut, New Haven, and Rhode Island. he consolidation or division of colonies, when it occurred, happened by skillful diplomacy…
THE SUPREMACY DOCTRINE basically states that national laws have supremacy to state laws. This is why the Bush administration can tell California to 'reign in' their medical marijuana laws. Because national law is predicated on the dogmatic belief that marijuana has no medical uses, it is what is considered a 'schedule one' drug such as heroin or LSD.
c. In this context, JUDICIAL REVIEW is the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a State for the violation of basic principles of justice. If DEA agents or federal marshals were to arrest a pharmacist for selling marijuana, the case would ultimately represent the interests of California vs. those of the federal government and be taken to the Supreme Court, the highest court in the land. (no pun intended)
D. FEDERALISM is the idea that the national government should have jurisdiction over state or local governments. Whereas originally the central government derived its power from the States (people after the revolution would say 'the United States are,') currently administrative law is the law of the land; for instance, executive orders take precedence over even Constitutional law. In the context of the medical marijuana debate, California would not be able to maintain policies that violated federal law. In extreme examples such as that of school integration in the 1950's, the federal government has even sent federal marshals to uphold federal laws.
evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.
Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.
At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…
Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.
Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.
McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
Patronage jobs allowed local and regional businesses to flourish, offered political viability for minority groups, and ensured welfare services that state or federal funding would not have provided.
However, urban machines also colluded with organized crime, created impenetrable legacies of city boss cabals, and fomented corruption. Voters cast ballots based on the spoils system, diminishing the relevance of democratic freedoms. The patronage system also boosted special interests and prevented businesses from thriving independently of the machine. Around the 1920s, muckrakers began exposing the inner workings of the urban machine. Progressive politicians championed legitimate social welfare reform at the local level, speaking out against government corruption and collusion with big business (Caswell 2001).
The Progressive movement helped to eliminate or at least to diminish the scope of urban machine governments, even though Chicago's would persist well into the 1970s. In other cities like New York and Boston, the strong mayor system…
Biles, R. "Machine Politics." (2004). The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/774.html
Caswell, T. (2001). "Progressive Era Reform." Regents Prep: U.S. History. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at http://regentsprep.org/Regents/ushisgov/themes/reform/progressive.htm
Stave, B.M. (nd). "Urban Bosses and Machine Politics." Answers.com. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at http://www.answers.com/topic/urban-bosses-and-machine-politics
Urban Political Machines." (2007). Digital History. Retrieved Feb 7, 2007 at http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/us28.cfm
At first, the passage in Romans seems unequivocal -- a rebellion against established authority seems to be the same as a rebellion against God. But a closer and more considered examination of the situation suggests that this is not the case. First, Romans was written with a very specific government in mind -- the Roman government, as a matter of fact. It considers authority as the earthly servant of God. At the same time, this passage suggests that free will exists, in that men have the ability to rebel against God and authority. Therefore, individual authorities could rebel against God and use their authority in ways that were not in his service. This would make the authority no longer the arbiter of sin, and rebellion would be almost morally necessitated.
For many who rebelled during this nation's revolution, and even those who came to the continent in the preceding century…
Augustine of Hippo, Saint. City of God. Accessed 26 April 2009. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/120104.htm
Romans. New International Bible. Accessed 27 April 2009. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=romans%2013
Book Review: Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia
Holton’s (1999) book Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia makes the case that the Founding Fathers of the U.S.A. were not really motivated by the laundry list of grievances identified in the Declaration of Independence. Rather, their individual experiences in the country taught them that, on a practical level, it would be easier for them to obtain what they wanted by operating independently of the England than through England. The main argument that Holton (1999) makes is this—the tyranny of the Crown was not the real issue or driver of the push for independence; the real drivers were contentions over land, in-fighting among the colonists, a dislike of paying taxes, and the desire of the separate colonies to arrange affairs with foreign countries on…
21st Century American 'Democracy': The Best Government that Money Can Buy
ithin polarized, interest group-dominated 21st century United States life, most Americans still cling to the idea, despite abundant evidence to the contrary, that we live in a democracy. In today's America, however, that idea is more quaint than accurate. Instead, as the article suggests, America is more a pseudo-democracy than a real one, in which special interest groups (and, as their representatives, high-priced lobbyists they can afford to hire) shape national political, social, economic, health, environmental, and most, if not all, other national agendas for us (although definitely not on our behalf). Meanwhile, a destructive combination of voter apathy (especially among, but not limited to, working-class individuals and minority group members, who feel especially detached) gives us, instead of democracy, the best government money can buy.
ebster's New American Dictionary defines "democracy" as: "1: government by the people; esp:…
"Democracy." Webster's New American Dictionary. New York: Merriam-
Webster, 1995, p. 138.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. New York: Signet, September
American Studies - Anthology
American Studies -- Anthology: Freedom vs. Tyranny
America's history includes a number of competing forces. One of the chief struggles has been the clash between Freedom and Tyranny. As Why Freedom Matters shows, our national consciousness is dominated with the idea that our forefathers risked everything so that all people in America can have freedom. However, Public Speaking shows that the dominant or "luckiest" group in America consists of white, gentile, straight males, who form a very powerful and wealthy special interest group. An example of the favoritism enjoyed by a powerful, wealthy special interest group is the Texan oilman group mentioned in Dominion from Sea to Sea. The favorable treatment given to powerful, wealthy special interests groups results in oppression of "others" such as farmers who fought for America's freedom but seemed to trade the tyranny of Great Britain for the tyranny of the wealthy,…
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
Reception, Perception and Deception: The Genesis of Slavery
Progress has a way of making itself known to the world, even in a situation where there exists resistance. Considering Olaudah Equiano's "The Interesting Narrative, the issue of slavery throughout the colonial world was as much about assimilation as it was oppression. The conflict between cultures is shown in the nature of the cultural assumptions each makes concerning the other. The British are caught in a tunnel vision that doesn't allow for any considerations outside the belief that their way of life is superior and assume that the tribal culture will logically want to adapt to fit into the more modern way of life. They cannot accept the natives as equals, even as they verbalize their intention as one of attempting to create a hybrid culture. The Ibo, for their part, assume that the British will recognize and honor the way of…
Equiano, Olaudah. "The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano." In The Classic Slave Narratives, ed. Henry Louis Gates. New York, NY: 1987.
Freehling, William W. "Founding Fathers and Slavery." American Historical Review, (1972): at http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/uhs/APUSH/1st%20Sem/Articles%20Semester%201/Artiles%20Semester%201/Freehling.htm
Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Cambridge, MS: Harvard University Press, 2001.
The founding fathers of the United States were initially opposed to the formation of political parties considering them as "quarreling factions" that would hinder the public from freely judging issues on merit. The complex structure of the U.S. government with its elaborate system of checks and balances and division of power among the state and federal governments, however, makes the formation of permanent political organizations necessary for effective functioning of the system. Over the years, a two-party system has evolved with two major political parties fielding their respective candidates in most state and federal elections. Third parties take part in the elections occasionally albeit with limited impact. It is a common observation that third parties in the U.S. go only as far as their candidate; if a candidate fades out of the spotlight so does the party. In this paper, we will discuss why third parties have traditionally…
Abramson, Paul R., John H. Aldrich et al. "Third-Party and Independent Candidates in American Politics: Wallace, Anderson, and Perot." Political Science Quarterly. 1995: 349+.
Goodman, Carey. "Three Is Definitely a Crowd: Part I. The System Evolves." Suite101.com. July 23, 2001. April 9, 2004. http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/9425/75312
Grenier, Richard. "Why We Don't Need Third Parties." The Washington Times. July 19, 1996: 23
Perot, H (enry) Ross." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003
In addition, they were often enslaved by fellow blacks, capitalizing on the white man's desires, and so, another misconception about slavery is demolished, races did not band together; they worked against each other when enslaving their neighbors.
Slavery ended due to several instances, such as nations becoming larger and larger, taking over more territory, and thus reducing the areas available for slave capture. These areas tended to be small and weak, and when they were taken over, they were no longer acceptable for slave capture (Sowell 115). Serfdom, a popular agricultural solution in Europe, tended to supplant slavery, ending it there, as well. A true philosophy of ending enslavement began in Britain in the 18th century, before that, most civilizations did not view slavery as a problem at all. In fact, the people who first objected were extremely conservation religious members of society, but this is often overlooked or ignored.…
Sowell, Thomas. Black Rednecks and White Liberals. San Francisco, Encounter Books, 2005.
This intervention by U.S. In a foreign country, in literal words, changed the course of history for the whole world and still its outcomes are yet, to be decided.
The attack on U.S. By Al-Qaeda, on 11th September, 1998, changed the course of American paradigm of Muslims and gave a strong cause for George Bush's "ar against Terrorism." here thousands of American citizens died in Twin Towers, so did the global efforts of maintaining peace between estern and Muslim countries.
Right after, this attack, U.S. invaded Afghanistan initially through Missile attacks and then landed its troops into this land of rocks, physically. Thousands of American soldiers were deputed there and made to fight the mujahids of Al-Qaeda who were rather well-versed with the seasonal feasibility of their land.
Therefore, initially, U.S. army did faced a lot of difficulties, mainly because of weather and foreignness of the war field. However with…
Bean, Lowell John. "Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California." Berkeley, California: University of California Press.1972
Bean, Lowell John. "Cahuilla," in California" pp. 575 -- 587. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 1978
Bean, Lowell John, Sylvia Brakke Vane, and Jackson Young. " the Cahuilla Landscape:
Brown, Glenn . "Chapter XX Sculpture." History of the United States Capitol. Government Printing Office. 2007
Josip Broz (Marshal) Tito
Originally named Josip Broz, Josip Broz Tito was a revolutionary and statesman who was born on May 7, 1892 in Austria-Hungary in what is currently Croatia and died almost 88 years later to the day on May 4, 1980 in Yugoslavia, or what is currently Slovenia (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). During the period from 1939 to 1980, Tito was alternately the secretary-general and then president the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. From 1941 to 1945, he was the supreme commander of Yugoslav partisans and then the Yugoslav People's Army from 1945 to 1953 (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). He assumed the title marshal during the period 1943 to 1980, then premier from 1945 to 1953 and then president of Yugoslavia from 1953 to 1980 (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). Tito was the chief architect of the "second Yugoslavia," a socialist federation that lasted from World War II until…
Granville, J. (1998, Spring). Tito and the Nagy affair in 1956. East European Quarterly, 32(1),
23-31 [journal article].
Josip Broz Tito. (2015). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/
Thomas Jefferson believed that universal education would have to precede universal suffrage. The ignorant, he argued, were incapable of self-government. But he had profound faith in the reasonableness and ability of the masses and in their collective wisdom when educated. As one of the founding fathers, Jefferson in fact set the precedent for American education: reading, writing, mathematics, the Classics, and European and American History. That his beliefs were focused on all male citizens receiving a free education, and a sign of his times for, in 1789, the first law was passed in Massachusetts to reaffirm the colonial laws by which town were obligated to support a school. Jefferson would not have recognized the drastic changes that the 21st century has brought -- but clearly, his ideas of valuing the educational process are even more valid in this global world as they were during the 18th century.
One might ask,…
Monopolies and Trusts:
Appropriate Areas for Government Intervention?
Capitalism is the economic system that has dominated the United States virtually since the day of its independence. A social and economic system based on the recognition of individual rights; capitalism demands that owners' rights to control, enjoy, and dispose of their own property must be respected. In a capitalist system, the purpose of government is to protect individual economic rights, and to make sure that no one individual, or group may employ physical or coercive force upon any other group or individual. The success of capitalism is well evident. The surpluses that this system produces have enabled individuals to experiment; to create new products, and market new ideas. These private surpluses are traded in a free market in direct competition with other buyers and sellers. Such competition is best represented by the efforts of two or more parties acting independently to…
Political Party Machines and Immigration in 19th Century America
After a bitterly contested evolution ended in the liberation of England's former colonies, the fledgling American nation embarked on the precarious path towards a style of democratic governance that had never been enacted on so large a scale. While the latter part of the 18th century was defined by political idealism, as exemplified by contributions made by our nation's Founding Fathers, the 19th century soon gave rise to an insidious process of power consolidation and voter exploitation. The egalitarian political parties envisioned during the heady days of American Independence devolved into institutional party machines, typified by widespread corruption, fraudulent activities, autocratic rule, and a blatant disregard for the foundational importance of democracy. The most effective political party machines during the 19th century were ran ruthlessly by so-called "bosses," or political titans who maintained control over their jurisdiction through a combination of…
Judd, D., & Swanstrom, T. (2008). City politics. (8th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education.
Old South and Secession
What Led Southerners to Choose Disunion?
The South had several grievances against the North and the federal government. First they resented and feared the intent of some Northerners to limit the spread of slavery or to abolish it. Slavery was becoming more and more an issue of contention as time passed. Second, Southerners hated the high tariffs imposed by the Northern dominated Congress. Since the South had little manufacturing capacity, it had to import finished goods, and thus was interested in low tariffs. The North wanted to protect its industry from foreign competition and favored high tariffs. Some have argued that this issue more than slavery led to succession. Third, Southerners felt that the federal government was making more investments in the North with regard to transportation systems and infrastructure. The government favored a strong central banking system as well. Many Southerners felt that the investments…
Catton, Bruce. The Coming Fury. London: Phoenix Press, 1961.
Crofts, Daniel W. Reluctant Confederates: Upper South Unionists in the Secession Crisis.
Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
Davis, William C. The Deep Waters of the Proud: Volume I of the Imperiled Union: 1861-
Third World America: How Our Politicians are Abandoning the Middle Class and Betraying the American Dream
The Third World America book, written by Arianna Huffington, is designed to show the current state of the United States, and how politicians are not actually taking care of the American people they are elected to protect and serve. The main thesis is that the original political system that was created when the country was founded has been so radically changed now as to be nearly unrecognizable. Everything that has been done to the system, especially in more recent years, has resulted in a move away from what the country was allegedly supposed to provide to what benefits only politicians, those who are "somebody," and the very rich. Often this group is comprised of the same people, but there are discrepancies, as well. Not everyone who is considered "important" in the United States…
Roger Wilkins presents perhaps the most complete picture of the Founding Fathers in his book Jefferson's Pillow: The Founding Fathers and the Dilemma of Black Patriotism. It is Wilkins' argument that Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, James Madison and George Mason were not the idyllic seekers-of-justice and equality that we have been taught, but rather they were wealthy slaveholders with political powers that were not always exercised is an "American" way. In light of this newly presented information, our former ideals need to be reevaluated against the ideas of black patriotism, as well as against our thoughts on patriotism in general. How could all men have been created equal, when African-Americans were not considered to be men at all? Indeed, Americans cannot fully come to understand themselves until they are able to understand who the aforementioned individuals were - no matter what the results.
Slaveholders were great politicians in our nation's…
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens' "Cornerstone Speech"
The Civil War was by far the most costly war in terms of human life ever fought by the United States, and the events that precipitated this conflict on U.S. soil included the succession of seven Southern states by March 1861 to form the Confederate States of America. With President Jefferson Davis leading the way, his vice president, Alexander Stephens, delivered a speech in support of the Southern cause including assurances that the new constitution was an improvement on the old, and that commercial enterprises were free to engage in interstate and international commerce at their discretion. Citing concerns over Northern superiority in infrastructure that would make prosecuting the war challenging, the vice president also assured his audience that enormous investments had already been made throughout the South and that more would be made in the future. In sum, this speech was a…
We have come full circle to the days of local businesses, but geography has been eliminated as a barrier to communication. Companies are now expected to contribute to their local economy and culture. Whatever a company does at home will be broadcast to the world, positive or negative. Wal-Mart is highly criticized for its low wages, even though the company admits it does not expect to retain entry level employees. However, the company's support in its local communities wherever the stores are found counter the bad publicity about wages. In fact, Wal-Mart is a good example of several of the tenets listed here, especially that of agility. It has changed its management architecture, so that local managers have the local power to make the individual outlets good citizens of their communities.
So Jack Welch's simple rules for management need to be modified. Even the CEO who followed him has done…
Burkhardt, John C. And Overton, Betty J. 1999.; Applied Developmental Science, Vol. 3,
Business Mexico; 7/1/2005.Want to win? Some practical advice from Jack Welch.(Biography)
Flaherty, John E.. 1999. Peter Drucker: Shaping the Managerial Mind Jossey-Bass © 1999
e would not accept such an assertion about any other historical notion. ho would say that the revolution was inevitable, without the fight of the patriots and the leadership of the Founding Fathers? Yes, the question of slavery was a contentious issue -- but it was just as contentious a hundred years later, a hundred more years of bondage for blacks, and a hundred more years of making the unacceptable institution acceptable and entrenched in the American fabric.
The book is organized particularly effectively in that it allows the author to advance his clearly articulated thesis, structure the different historical experiences of African-Americans before, during, and after the actual warfare of the Revolution and then include an appendix of primary source documents. The book has a chronological structure in this sense, which makes it easy for non-experts in the Revolutionary ar period to follow, but still advances a compelling argument…
Nash, Gary. (1990). Race and the Revolution. New York: Madison House Publishers, Inc.
This happened because blacks had learnt that they no longer had to obey the people that illegitimately enslaved them.
Slaves had been determined to fight for their freedom through any means possible, and, they took advantage of any opportunity that they had to become free. According to Nash, tens of thousands of slaves have left the American continent as the British forces advanced inland. Apparently, a great number of black people wanted the British to win the war, as they believed that such an event would set them free.
As Nash describes it, the people that wrote the Constitution hadn't considered the fact that they still had slavery present within the borders of their so-called free country. By the time of the Constitution, however, people had already begun to relate to other issues, believing that slavery had been too insignificant for them to give credit to. Consequent to the period,…
1. Nash, Gary B. (1990). Race and Revolution. Rowman & Littlefield.
One of his more dramatic example was the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960's. To oth those who elieved in the Civil Rights movement and those who opposed the movement, God was frequently invoked. The Civil Rights movement had strong roots in religion, with its leaders and followers often meeting in churches. The movement's most prominent leader, Martin Luther King, was an ordained minister. Meacham descries the famous confrontation at the ridge leading into Selma, Alaama, where Civil Rights marchers were faced with a small army of Alaama State Troopers, who insisted that the marchers had two minutes to "return to their church" (p. 193). The marchers could not move forward, and they could not retreat, so they knelt and egan to pray. The police moved in and viciously eat the praying demonstrators. It was a visual image flashed around the world, and eight days later, President Lyndon Johnson took…
bibliography. Because of this, any reader of the book can check his sources to see if any kind of personal bias has distorted his views. This makes American Gospel a significantly honest look at religion and politics in the United States.
Meacham, Jon. American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the Making of an American Nation. 2006: Random House, New York.
Franklin's constantly being out of sync with his colleagues is seen once again in Franklin's inability to understand that the next logical progress of his republicanism was liberal democracy. Thus, as the oldest member of the Constitutional Convention, Franklin was unable to anticipate and comprehend the factionalism that was beginning to dominate the American political climate. On the contrary, Franklin even made the wrong political call by viewing liberalism as dangerous and unruly, a political system that would never work in the newly-formed republic.
Other biographers minimized the said failing by emphasizing how Franklin made decisions based on principles. oods, however, presents evidence that Franklin could also be motivated by emotional motives, such as revenge. For example, according to oods, Franklin's opposition to the two-house legislature in Massachusetts was motivated in part to his personal distaste for John Adams, who was a key supporter of the measure. Also, while Franklin…
Wood, Gordon S. The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin. New York: Penguin, 2004
Revolution, Constitution and Enlightenment
The American Revolution and the ensuing U.S. Constitution put forward by the Federalists were both products of and directly informed by the European Enlightenment. The Founding Fathers were considerably influenced by thinkers like Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu (whose separation of powers served as the model of the three-branched government of the U.S.). This paper will explain how the European Enlightenment set the stage for the American Revolution and U.S. Constitution by putting out the ideas that the Americans would use as the basis of the political and social foundation.
The Enlightenment aka the Age of Reason was an Age in which natural philosophy assumed the vaulted position of guiding light over the preceding Age of Faith, which had served as the socio-political basis in Europe for centuries. The Reformation had upended the Age of Faith and introduced secularization into the political realm (Laux), particularly via…
histories of the United States address the matter from a secular point-of-view. The government, the society, the economy and other such matters have been examined and discussed thoroughly but religion and its history has been largely ignored. Religion played an important role in the formation of the American government and played an even more important role in the development of American society, yet, studies related to how these roles developed are minimal (Eidsmoe). The purpose of this research is to examine how religious philosophy impacted on the formation of the American society and how religious philosophy developed as the young nation evolved and how religious philosophy has continued to impact American society .It is my belief that religion played a far more significant role in the formation of the United States than current history books presently represent and that, through proper and thorough research the importance of religious philosophy in…
Butler, Jon. Religion in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
This book described the development of the various organized religions that existed in America from the period of 1500 to the present. The book attempts to dispel the idea that the Puritans were the only religion that influenced the development of early American political thought and that other religious philosophies played a significant role as well. The book explores the role that other religions such as Roman Catholics, Judaism, and other Protestant denominations played. The failure of the Puritans to achieve their goal of instituting their religious philosophy throughout the Colonies is examined as is their influence on how the doctrine of the separation of Church and state was ultimately adopted.
Clarke, P.H. "Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th Century." History of the Human Services (2000): 49-72.
This article examines how Adam Smith was affected by the influence of Stoicism and religion but through an examination of their effect on Smith their influences, by extension, are measured on other political philosophers of the time. Religious philosophy of the time was in a period of transition. The Enlightenment had emerged and reason had become the guiding principle and religious philosophers were rushing to combine the orthodox ideology of traditional religion with the ideas of the Enlightenment. In this book, this process is explained and how it affected philosophers in the 18th century.
Balancing the Powers, Balancing the Need for Gridlock
The American system of government is the most fairly designed system of governance in the world today, designed to balance the three branches that make up the triangular structure of its government. The American system of government is designed not to work and remains in a state of hopeless and continual structural gridlock in a kind of 'rock, paper, scissors' style of governance that is amicable to a child's game but not to modern governance. How can both of these statements be simultaneously true?
The answer lies in the notion of the separation of executive, legislative, and judicial powers in the designed system of governance by the Founding Fathers of the American nation. The Father's system was designed to create, through division, a balance of powers between the branches of government most and least responsive to the popular will. "The system of…
Checks and Balances." Fact Monster. 2003 Family Education Network.
07 Jul. 2004. http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0777009.html
Three Branches of Government." Fact Monster. 2003 Family Education Network.
07 Jul. 2004 http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0774837.html
In addition, both governments and churches began to grow suspicious of the group, probably because of the "organization's secrecy and liberal religious beliefs" (Watson, 2009). As a result, Portugal and France banned Freemasonry; in fact, it was a capital offense to be a Freemason in Portugal (Watson, 2009). Moreover, "Pope Clement XII forbade Catholics from becoming Freemasons on penalty of excommunication" (Watson, 2009). Feeling pressure in Europe, many Freemasons decided to flee the Old World and travel to the European colonies scattered throughout the world, most notably, America.
Influence on America
Anyone with even a rudimentary knowledge of the Freemasons and American history understands that, whatever resistance the Freemasons met with in Europe was not to be found in America. The Freemasons set up lodges in Boston and Philadelphia, and some of the founding fathers, including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. More importantly, the Freemasons are reported to have played…
Crowe, F. (2003). Things a Freemason should know. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
Decker, E. (Unknown). Masonic rituals for the Blue Lodge. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from Saints Alive in Jesus.
Web site: http://www.saintsalive.com/freemasonry/blue_lodge/blue_lodge_index.htm
How it began. (1998). Retrieved April 13, 2009 from Grand Lodge a.F. & a.M. Of North
In fact, the American evolution may have served to assert the natural rights of some people, but those people were limited to a class of white males.
It is important to keep in mind that one of the ideological underpinnings of the evolution was a challenge to imperialist ideals, and race-based oppression and slavery had long been major parts of the imperial system. Despite that, it is unfair to characterize Britain as pro-slavery, as the British began to embrace abolitionist sentiments prior to the evolution. In fact, British Imperialists struggled with the concept of slavery, because of the fact that denying the right to own slaves was viewed as economic oppression by many white colonists, because, without slavery, the cash crops that made colonies profitable were difficult, if not impossible, to harvest (Brown, 1999). They began by attempting to limit the import of slaves into the colonies, something that they…
Appleby, J. (1976). Liberalism and the American Revolution, New England Quarterly, 49(1), 3-
Brown, C.L. (1999). Empire without slaves: British concepts of Emancipation in the age of the American Revolution, the William and Mary Quarterly, 56(2), 273-306.
Freehling, W.W. (1972). The founding fathers and slavery, the American Historical Review,
God" in Pledge Allegiance in Schools
The Alternative Would e "One Nation Under a Flag."
(Keeping our Alleigances in Order)
The Pledge of Allegiance is one of the greatest symbols of our most wonderful and blessed nation. Just the mention of it stirs to mind images of young children developing an understanding of devotion as they together face the classroom flag and chant in unison, of diverse people of all colors and walks of life finding a common goal as they recite the pledge, and of wartime veterans and the families of fallen heroes together saluting the America worth dying for. The Pledge of Allegiance is an important unifying and morale boosting element of our nation's history. However, recently it has come under attack by those who do not understand the importance of the Pledge as it is written today and the importance of it remaining intact for future generations…
Bellamy, Francis. "The Pledge of Allegiance." The Youth's Companion. September, 1892.
The First Amendment of the United States Constitution.
Jefferson, Thomas et al. The Declaration of Independence. 1776.
Today's President has many important duties, and while some have delegated some tasks to their vice presidents, they are ultimately still in charge of these tasks. As the country has evolved, so has the importance of the vice president, therefore making it comprehensible that the vice president may eventually officially assume some of the President's current duties.
Felzenbery, Alvin S. The Vice Presidency Grows Up. Policy Review. (2001): 01 February.
Outline of U.S. Government. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/outusgov/ch3.htm).
The Presidency. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=1003810-h&templatename=/article/article.html).
The President of the United States. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://bensguide.gpo.gov/3-5/government/national/president.html).
Vice President of the United States. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0403250-00&templatename=/article/article.html).
Felzenbery, Alvin S. The Vice Presidency Grows Up. Policy Review. (2001): 01 February.
Outline of U.S. Government. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/outusgov/ch3.htm).
The Presidency. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=1003810-h&templatename=/article/article.html).
The President of the United States. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://bensguide.gpo.gov/3-5/government/national/president.html ).
Americanization of Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin played a major role in the American evolution and its history and his contributions changed the history of America as we know it.
One of the most interesting and influential characters in American history is Benjamin Franklin. Franklin was a brilliant man that contributed deeply to both the scientific and political community. Much of what there is to know about his life can be found in Gordon S. Wood's book titled "The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin." The purpose of this paper is to examine the life of Benjamin Franklin through the provided text in order to answer these significant questions:
How come Benjamin Franklin was an unlikely revolutionary?
What caused Franklin to join the revolution?
How can we compare and contrast Franklin's mythology with his reality?
Franklin Preferred London to Philadelphia and royal governments to democracy, why?
How come American colonists were suspicious of…
1) Wood, G. (2004). The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin. Penguin Books.
Leadership Oforganizational Change
One of the most well documented efforts towards change in the United States is the transition from the original 13 colonies to the current inception of the United States of America. What is highly significant about this effort towards transformation is the fact that it adhered to a number of principles delineated in Hickman obinson's text, Leading Changes in Multiple Contexts. In fact, this particular example is preeminent among others for the simple fact that it is simultaneously demonstrative of the five contextual influences on leading change: organizational, community, political, social and global. Although formal leadership of this effort would not fully emerge until the transformation was complete and George Washington was appointed President, his involvement with the other Founding Fathers in the First and Second Continental Congresses and the efforts of other revolutionary groups such as the Sons of Liberty provided the essential leadership…
Hickman, G.R. (2010). Leading Change in Multiple Contexts. Boulder: Sage Publishing.
Origins and Characteristics of the Law and Legal Systems in the U.S.
The Origins and Characteristics of the Law
and Legal Systems in the United States
The origins and characteristics of the law and legal systems of the United States
It is a commonplace observation to state that the Declaration of Independence and The Constitution of the U.S. are the origin of and provide the characteristics of the legal systems of the U.S. But in order to truly understand the ideas behind these landmark legal documents one must delve deeper into history. What of the texts that influenced America's Founding Fathers? Most may know that the Magna Charta, the English charter from the year 1215, was an influence. But the English weren't the only influential opinion-makers for revolutionary Americans. The Scottish and the French were too. The Scottish Declaration of Arbroath, for example, has been linked by scholars as an…
1. The Inheritance of Rome, Chris Wickham, (Penguin Books Ltd. 2009)
2. John Adams, by David McCullough, (Simon & Schuster, 2001).
3. Inventing America, by Gary Wills, (1978)
4. The Scottish Invention of America, Democracy and Human Rights, by Robert Munro, et al. (2004, University Press of America.)
Isaacson, Walter. Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. Simon & Schuster, 2000.
It is George Washington who is usually referred to as the father of our American Nation. Benjamin Franklin, in contrast, more often than not takes on the status of the friendly and eccentric uncle, given his greater age, his propensity towards scientific experimentation and innovation as well as political action, and even his renowned fondness for making the turkey the American national bird, rather than the bald eagle. Although ranking the relative importance of the Founding Fathers of the nation may seem quixotic one at best, with perhaps Jefferson and Madison's role in framing our national view of constitutional rights and the federal responsibilities of the states ranking even higher than Washington, Isaacson makes a strong case for Benjamin Franklin's status as the spiritual and moral founding father of the American nation, and perhaps just as important, the American…
He uses numerous quotes from source docs, and he does not imply his conclusions, he spells them out. He also writes in a relatively easy to read style that is academic but not too pedantic, and so it is easy for the student to follow and understand.
In the context of the course, this book ties in quite well. It explains a part of American history that has often been questioned, but not answered so effectively. The author uses his research to debunk some of the well-known myths of this time, such as the fact that South Carolina and Georgia were the main foes of abolition, and they had enough power to create animosity towards abolition. In fact, the author writes, "In fact, Georgia and less so South Carolina, were precariously situation in 1787 and had far greater need of a strong federal government than the rest of the states…
Nash, G.B. (1990). Race and revolution. Madison, WI: Madison House Publishers.
In the period between the evolution and the drafting of the Constitution, Jefferson noted that the eventual existence of a dictator in place of a king in Ancient ome clearly indicated the existence of real failings within the oman system:
dictator is entirely antithetical to republicanism's "fundamental principle...that the state shall be governed as a commonwealth," that there be majority rule, and no prerogative, no "exercise of [any] powers undefined by the laws." "Powers of governing...in a plurality of hands." (Zuckert, 1996, p. 214)
As a result, Jefferson, like the philosophes before him (and the Iroquois) would turn to ideas that would balance the necessary evils of government power with the rights of the people. James Madison agreed wholeheartedly, and urged in "Government of the United States" that a constitutional government based on separation of powers was the only sure way of preventing the country from taking the "high road…
Black, E. (1988). Our Constitution: The Myth That Binds Us. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Brooks, C.K. (1996). Controlling the Metaphor: Language and Self-Definition in Revolutionary America. CLIO, 25(3), 233+.
philosophy of education through a historical and then through an explicitly Christian lens, with a focus on the political role of education, and the Christian philosophy of John Milton. Milton's 1644 works Areopagitica and Of Education are invoked to justify the true Christian purpose of education as being exposure to the sort of free expression and free exchange of ideas that are guaranteed in America under the First Amendment.
What would a true Christian philosophy of education look like? The answer might actually be surprising to the majority of Americans who identify themselves as Christian and seek a Christian education. In 2014, frequently Christian education can seem retrograde, a form of ressentiment and indoctrination that derides Darwinism and has a greater interest in upholding a political consensus than in embodying the ideals set forth by Christ Himself. I propose to examine a Christian philosophy of education through a somewhat unique…
Fish, S. (1971) Surprised by sin: The reader in Paradise Lost. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gaustad, E.S. (2005). Roger Williams. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gutek, G.L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A Biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Jefferson, T. (1778) A bill for the more general diffusion of knowledge. Retrieved from http://candst.tripod.com/jefflaw1.htm
Benjamin Banneker, a free, educated African-American, was a man of letters, a man of science, and a man of convictions. It is therefore not surprising -- at least in contemporary thought and practice -- that such a man would write a letter to Thomas Jefferson who was, at the time, Secretary of State.
The date of the letter was August 19, 1791, and coincided with the completion of Banneker's annual almanac, at that time on its way to the printer for pre-1792 release. hat is was specifically, however, that impelled Banneker to write at that moment can only be guessed at: that there was an external impetus, as well as Banneker's status as a free African-American cognizant of the suffering of his people, can be inferred from the early part of his letter. Banneker writes:
I hope I may safely admit, in consequence of that report which hath reached me,…
Banneker, Benjamin. (1791) Letter to Thomas Jefferson dated August 19, 1791. Jefferson, Thomas. (1791) Letter to Benjamin Banneker dated August 30, 1791.
Thomas Jefferson. Wikipedia Web site. http://www.wikipedia.com .
Jefferson had also been accused of being an atheist. However, he was actually a believer in the "Nature's God" referred to in the Declaration of Independence, a God that endowed humanity with certain inalienable rights; he preferred, however, that worship should not be a matter of religion, but of reason and science. Although raised an Episcopalian, then the state religion of Virginia, he opposed the Trinitarian theology of that church, preferring Unitarianism (Wikipedia).