Fracking and Tar Sands
The objective of this study is to examine the issues of fracking or hydraulic fracturing and tar sands or oil sands.
Fracking is described as "the process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks to release natural gas inside." (Dangers of Fracking, 2015, p. 1)
There is a great debate that is ongoing concerning the process of fracking and specifically reported on one side of the debate in Bloomberg View is that "Fracking Water is Shaking Oklahoma" (2015, p. 1) The report states that Oklahoma "had 585 earthquakes with a magnitude 3.0 or greater (big enough for people to easily feel) -- almost three times as many as California had and up from an average of just two a year before 2009. Not coincidentally, that's when oil and gas drillers began injecting wastewater…… [Read More]
Fracking and Water Quality Ethics Literature eview
What is Fracking?
Fracking is used to extract natural gas from shale layers located deep in the ground. The impermeability of the shale layers leads to the gas being trapped. The rocks are blasted with pressurized water that contain sand and chemicals capable of increasing friction between the rocks and water. However, the percentage of the fluid consisting of the chemicals is very small. Some of the chemicals, for instance ethylene glycol, are poisonous, while other components are 'trade secrets'. The sand contained in the pressurized solution helps in cracking the rocks so that they release the gas (Schrope, 2012).
A lot of controversy has been generated by the increase in the sources of natural gas and oil obtained through the use of hydraulic fracturing. Those in support make the argument that fracking has the capacity to speed up growth in the economy,…… [Read More]
Hydraulic fracking of gas and oil wells in the northeast region of the United States is controversial, and it has the potential to create devastating and long lasting environmental damage and human health problems.
How this part of the country been affected by fracking
Industrial gas exploration including horizontal exploration using high-volume fracking, results in significant adverse effects. These effects are an outcome of activities like;
changes in usage of land road building water distributions inappropriate cementing covering of water wells over-pressurized water wells gas migration from new and unfinished water wells waste water treatment plants that have lost the ability to treat flow back and produce water;
subterranean injection of brine wastewater inappropriate sediment and erosion controls;
air compressor stations, and accidents and leaks
Recently, state authorities have discovered that gas exploration using high-volume gas fracturing has polluted drinking water, contaminated surface waters, contaminated air, and polluted…… [Read More]
hile "fracking" (hydraulic fracturing) certainly poses some major economic and industrial benefits for America (described by Seamus as the Saudi Arabia of natural gas), the practice still poses a number of questions as well as potential threats to both the environment and the health of humanity. The question that advocates of fracking would prefer persons to ask is whether or not this is a viable alternative to oil consumption -- a fair question. Yet, reasonably concerned individuals should not be afraid to ask at what cost fracking will come to Americans -- as well as others around the world should the practice become more popular in coming years. The cost-benefit ratio is complicated in the case of fracking by the lack of scientific studies performed that could address some of the more pressing questions regarding the practice -- such as, what happens to the chemicals shot into the earth…… [Read More]
What is hydrofracking?
To those who support the idea, hydrofracking is the next (and possibly only) real alternative to the U.S.'s continued dependence on the world's oil supply (Energy Vision, n.d:1). To those who doubt the viability of this claim -- or to those who worry about the accuracy about what is being claimed -- hydrofracking is really more the setting up of the next great asbestos industry -- or the establishment of an endless serious of public health and benefit legal fights over what is likely a dangerous or even deadly misstatement of opportunities (Pericorn, et al., 2012).
Hydrofracking is the pressurized use of liquid (mostly water) within the horizontal drilling sites of natural gas fields to help separate and force out the captured reserves of the gases for refinement. A contemporary White Paper produced by Energy Vision defines it as: "High-volume hydraulic fracturing, or "Hydrofracking," is…… [Read More]
Fracking and Ethics
While “fracking”—the term applied to the practice of hydraulic fracturing of rock to gain access to the oil or gas underground—has been hailed as a revolutionary way for the oil industry to draw oil from previously hard to reach places, there are a variety of ethical issues surrounding the practice (Evensen & Stedman, 2018). Stakeholders in the issue of fracking go beyond those in the oil/gas industry, however. They include people in communities, whose water supply has been contaminated as a result of fracking. They include people whose lives have been changed by fracking due to the opportunity to invest in companies engaged in this practice. They include the workers and employees who are given jobs because of the new opportunities that fracking provides. Thus any position for or against fracking will impact all these stakeholders in different ways. Some believe fracking is the way of…… [Read More]
1. Executive summary
While the extraction of natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing is a decade- long practice, of late, it has witnessed immense development owing to advancements in the area of horizontal drilling which enables gas and oil operators to now harness earlier- unprofitable natural gas reserves within rock formations. Extant extraction- related policies combine state-federal alliances and voluntary endeavors by private organizations. More unprejudiced, scientific studies providing details on how fracturing and extraction potentially affect environmental media like water and air are essential, in addition to those focusing on natural gas surges’ long- term effects on local societies. Primary models and hypotheses may offer a basis to reasonably discuss possible effects.
Maintenance of the current state of affairs with regard to free market rules and governmental policies will potentially continually check short- run public expenses; however, it will not contribute sufficiently to furthering response to concerns regarding…… [Read More]
Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling and Transport
The American economy runs on energy produced from oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and renewable sources like solar and wind energies. In fact according to a report in the Congressional Research Service, oil provides the United States with 40% of its total energy needs. It is used in myriad ways, providing "…fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors" (Ramseur, 2012). Because of the great need for energy to fuel the American economy, oil in "vast quantities" enters the country and moves through the country by ships and by pipelines, Ramseur explains in the Congressional Research Service. Hence, it is inevitable that some spills will occur, and they certainly do occur, notwithstanding the attempts by the industry to conduct its business safely.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that the U.S. consumed 6.87 billion barrels (about 18.83 million barrels…… [Read More]
"Water is starting to become an issue" in Harper County, Kansas, where groundwater reserves are running dry (Vaidyanathan and Gilmer, 2012). Low rates of precipitation, coupled with diversion of groundwater to the oil industry, are threatening to diminish available water used for farming and domestic use. Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of groundwater in Harper County, Kansas and the flow rate of pumps in order to prepare for the future.
Harper County is in south-central Kansas, and abuts Oklahoma. The county "lies partly in the Wellington Lowland minor division of the Arkansas iver Lowland section of the Central Lowland province and partly in the ed Hills minor division of the Dissected High Plains section of the Great Plains province," (Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960). More recent geological surveys divide Harper County into six main areas: the Upland area, the Bluff Creek area (with Pleistocene deposits), the…… [Read More]
Hydraulic fracturing can be compared and contrasted in sharply different manners; rhetoric on both sides can go over the edge, and oftentimes such extreme rhetoric ensures that any type of sane or rational discussion is rendered virtually impossible. Opponents have gone so far as to call hydraulic fracturing an "abnormally dangerous activity" (inaldi, 2015, p. 388) while proponents often argue that additional "EPA controls would cause energy prices to skyrocket, slow the development of natural-gas fields, and block enormous economic benefits" (Hobson, 2009, p. 19).
Both sides of the issue seem to make strong points in order to support their positions. Few and far between are the calls for objective and trustworthy research such as the one in America (the magazine) that asks for opponents and proponents to at least agree on the fact that the science behind fracking should take into effect the complexity of the situation as well…… [Read More]
Business hetoric: Drilling in the Marcellus Shale
and Environmental Politics
Inexpensive energy sources are a requirement if the country is going to continue to thrive the way it has for more than 200 years. The United States is trying to decrease the amount of fossil fuels that it uses in everyday applications. However, the worry is not the fuels themselves, but the costs associated with the fuels. Fossil fuels are a viable resource if they are clean and extracted from the earth in ways that can be shown to be environmentally friendly. Because of these requirements, natural gas has become one of the new class of fuels that is thought of as superior to producing products from crude oil.
Natural gas is a clean energy source that can be extracted more safely than other sources of gas. Another bonus is that the product is very plentiful in the United States.…… [Read More]
Letter to the Newspaper
Our community faces a public health crisis of unprecedented proportions. My research leads me to believe that the cluster of unexplained illnesses that the people of this town have experienced over the years are the direct result of gas company drilling practices.
It started out with what we all assumed were just unrelated illnesses: irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. These may sound like allergies, but no. For the really unfortunate folks in our community, more severe symptoms showed up, like hypotension, metabolic acidosis, hemolysis, pulmonary edema and even coma, even rare and deadly diseases. But here is the zinger: we have too many cases of these illnesses for a community our size, far too many.
I became concerned after a chance remark by the school nurse about the number of children who apparently suffered from allergies, but whose symptoms did not respond to the…… [Read More]
Psychology: Environmental Problems
Facing its worst drought in 40 years, the State of California took a number of measures to conserve water. It first used positive consequences to compel a 20% reduction in water usage by homes and businesses. The disappointing results led to the addition of negative consequences to compel conservation. In addition, California is now taking emergency measures against the oil and gas industry, which was previously exempt from some of the State's environmental laws. California has shown that an environmental policy must use positive and negative consequences, along with carefully given exemptions, in order to be most effective.
ater Control During Drought
Evaluate 2 Strategies for Promoting Positive Environmental Behavior
The State of California is currently enduring a 3-year drought that is its worst in 40 years and is expected to continue for the foreseeable future (Associated Press, 2014). Californians continued to use water with too little…… [Read More]
Waste and Energy Presentation
The first waste product is organic food waste. This ends up in landfills, and there are a number of negative outcomes. Food waste releases methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. Landfills are 20% of all methane emissions in the United States. Further, organic food waste is material that could be composted, but usually is not, representing a lost opportunity to create valuable compost for growing food. In addition, prior to making its way to the landfill, food waste is often stored in back alleys and in garbage cans, where it attracts rodents and other vermin (EPA, 2015).
Nuclear waste is a by-product of nuclear energy production. Nuclear waste comes in a number of categories, but it generally must be treated before it is deposited, and usually it must be turned to glass, stored in ceramics and then buried deep in the earth. Nuclear wastes have a long…… [Read More]
Fact or Fiction
Global arming is a controversial topic largely because of its sprawling prediction of worldwide catastrophe, an image which is far exaggerated from the reality of global climate change. If it were to be a more subtle phenomenon, say an increase in cloud cover, or more sunny days in February, then people would not pay any attention to the matter and would go on living their carefree lives. This is not the reality however, as science predicts massive changes to the way all of humanity will have to live due to climate change. Some may scoff at this allegation, and some may seriously change their habits in fear of the future. For the sake of comparison, I will present global warming believers, and global warming deniers and will analyze the motivations for each side to stretch its influence, whether in the political realm or…… [Read More]
Judicial eview for Private Property
The role that has been played by the judicial review when it comes to protecting the rights of private property was discussed by Daniel Cole in "Political Institutions, Judicial eview, and Private Property: A Comparative Institutional Analysis." The tension which exists between property rights and democracy was examined by Cole in his article. Cole starts by focusing on the concerns shown by Madison regarding the protection of individual property rights within a democratic society and how this democracy proves to be a challenge for many of the property rights' notions (Cole, 2007).
A tension has always been there between democracy and the ownership of private property however, in Cole's point-of-view this tension has increased with the rise of the welfare state which basically involved making use of the private property for the public use. The notion of regulatory taking was introduced by Holmes according to…… [Read More]
Describe the role of business in the economy, including the factors of production and the key dimensions of the business environment.
Business is the engine that drives the economy, providing jobs, purchasing raw materials from producers, and providing the products and services that all consumers use, improving the value of life for everyone in the environment. The income of the economy is distributed through the factors of production. The three main factors of production are labor, land, and capital (Mankiw, 2012, p.393). Companies employ many people, providing jobs and money for the economy through labor. Companies will continue to demand more labor until the cost begins to outweigh the value of this production factor. This is an important factor because these employees are also consumers who pump most of the money they receive right back into the economy in one way or another. Companies need available land, both…… [Read More]
architects in the 21st century is the issue of sustainability. Not only is there no consensus opinion on how to approach the issue of sustainability in academic circles but there is also no formula of integrating sustainability into architectural curriculum (Wright, 2003). This deficiency underscores an even more stressing problem, however: as Edwards and Hyett (2010) note, "the techniques and technologies of green design are now generally understood -- what is still lacking is an architecture profession which gives priority to ecological issues" (p. 5). In other words, there is no connection between the myriad academic approaches and the professional architectural life. Wheeler (2015) asserts that this issue is due to an inadequate definition of sustainable architecture. In the capitalistic, consumerist global environment of the 20th century, the concept of preservation and connectivity to nature was largely overshadowed by corporate demand and higher margins.
Yet the end of the 20th…… [Read More]
United States Congress, and the lens used in this case study analysis includes political theories. Viewed through this lens, the organization will be analyzed in terms of who has what power in the organization, who has access to agendas and control over information, what power coalitions or alliances exist, and how the unit attempts to influence other units and create upward influence in the organization. As Morgan (2006) points out, all organizations can be perceived as political systems concerned with and dependent on political activity. The United States Congress happens to take that concept of political systems a step further because the precise and overt purpose of the organization is political activity. To achieve its goals, Congress does exhibit the universal political traits of organizations that hinge on the relations among "interests, conflict, and power," (Morgan, 2006, p. 152). It is how the stakeholders in the organization pursue their interests,…… [Read More]
U.S. domestic oil production peaked 1970. Also global production, argued oil fell a high point 2005 74 million barrels/day, rebounded, 2011 figures show slightly higher levels production 2005 (EIA 2011).
'Peak oil:' When will we reach it? Does it matter?
The decline of total global supplies of available crude oil is an extremely controversial topic amongst environmental policy makers (Monbiot 2012). While U.S. domestic oil production peaked in 1970, there were various inaccurate predictions that world oil would peak at different points in the 1990s and early 2000s. However, in recent years "a new oil boom has begun. The constraints on oil supply over the past 10 years appear to have had more to do with money than geology. The low prices before 2003 had discouraged investors from developing difficult fields. The high prices of the past few years have changed that" and world oil production is soaring (Monbiot 2012).…… [Read More]
The oil industry in the U.S. serves as the foundation for virtually the whole economy. The U.S. has largely exhausted its own domestic oil supply so it must rely primarily on foreign sources. New technologies have allowed the extraction of the oil that still remains in the U.S. Offshore drilling and oil reserves that are only accessible by hydraulic fracking represent the two best examples of controversial extraction methods. The oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico represents very clearly the risks associated with off-shore extraction. Furthermore, hydraulic fracking and the use of shale reserves have also been meet with a lot of resistance for their environmental risks.
The global environment for oil and gas has changed significantly in just the last few years. The conditions have been created by an increase supply in oil. These supply increases have largely come from technological developments that…… [Read More]
Setting the right price is important for any product. There are many different approaches, based on the different variables that can be considered. For a new product in the marketplace, getting the price right is all the more difficult, because there is no prior data to help gauge the strength of the current brand, the price elasticity of demand or other factors that might come into play when pricing an established product. However, there is always an opportunity to adjust prices if the price of a good is not delivering the optimal financial results for the company. Thus, it requires management to have an understanding of pricing strategy in order to determine the most suitable price in the marketplace.
The most important thing to keep in mind is that price is one of the five Ps of marketing. Thus, the pricing strategy must be aligned with the other…… [Read More]
Eilperin, J. & Dennis, B. (2017). rump administration to approve final permit for Dakota Access pipeline. Washington Post. Feb 7, 2017. Retrieved online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/02/07/trump-administration-to-approve-final-permit-for-dakota-access-pipeline/
Although not a scholarly source or a primary source, this article in the Washington Post directly addresses the core political concerns related to the proposed Dakota Access pipeline. he article includes a map showing what lands the pipeline would traverse, and the author addresses the land use and land access concerns by Native American stakeholders. Because it talks about the core political, social, and economic issues, this article will be used as a current events resource when developing my argument related to energy pipelines and globalization.
Ericson, R.E. (2013). Eurasian Natural Gas Pipelines: he Political Economy of Network Interdependence. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 50:1, 28-57
his is a scholarly article that places energy pipelines into a global economic context. My research will show how energy pipelines…… [Read More]
Global Warming and Climate Change
Natural versus anthropogenic forces in climate change are a common topic for discussion. Some people believe that the global warming experienced now is part of a natural cycle while other others believe it is accelerated thanks to human evolution on earth. Although there is a natural cycle on the planet concerning global warming, this is not the case regarding the information provided from scientific data on the effects of human-generated global warming. Natural global warming takes long periods of time to develop.
People that have analyzed previous global warming trends have noted the rise in temperatures occurred over a prolonged period, like thousands of years. However, human-caused global warming has produced a warming trend at a faster rate. Instead of thousands of years, it is decades. Secondly, humans were not around for the previous global warming trends and if they were, they were much smaller…… [Read More]
Energy use is expanding and includes several different ways to harness power. From hydropower, to solar energy, to wind energy, the world is using the elements to create electricity for homes and businesses. While some favor solar power for use as the new kind of energy; businesses and those aiming to power many homes, opt for wind energy. Regardless of what is used, there is still a long way to go before people move away from traditional forms of energy like hydropower to more cost-effective ways like solar. I myself use hydropower or batteries to get through my days and understand the need to save energy and increase my power source options.
Most of the sources of energy I use are non-renewable except my re-chargeable solar batteries. These can be charged with sunlight and thus recharged from a renewable source. A second way I use energy each day is cooking.…… [Read More]
TransCanada is fighting people that are worried more about aesthetics and ideals rather than benefits to the consumer (TransCanada, 2013).
3.2 The significance of organization to issue and vice versa (330 words)
In the end, the issue that faces TransCanada is selling the pipeline to the public effectively enough, as well as to the populations that can green-light the project, so that the project goes forward and thus allowing TransCanada to deliver oil more efficiently and quickly than is currently possible given the current oil transportation infrastructure that exists. This is especially true given the advent of oil sands and fracking in the United States as well as parts of Canada (Koring, 2013). The gist of the issue is that many people support the pipeline but some are concerned and many of the people that are averse to the project are politicians that are trying to push green energy and/or…… [Read More]
Political & Economic Differences
The author of this paper is asked to answer to five major questions. The first is why there is a difference in terms of political systems from country to country. The second question is how the legal systems of different countries differ. The third question asks the author to explain the economic differences of different countries. The fourth question asks the author to discuss and explain different macro-political and economic changes that occur around the world. Finally, the author is asked to explain how transitioning economies are moving towards market-based systems.
As for why there are different political systems in different countries, the reasons depend on the actual situation at hand. The system in place in the United States fairly closely matches the way things were set up at its inception and a lot of that was based on escape from brutal government rule…… [Read More]
The primary sources of energy in the UK comes in the form of oil and gas reserves from the North Sea and coal. These sources are expected to continue to be dominant until at least 2020, although it should be noted that the annual output from the North Sea is now on the decline (UK Parliament, 2010). As a result, the government has embarked on a strategy to reshape the energy dynamic of the nation. The objective of the program is to establish renewables as the largest source of energy in the UK by 2020.
Nuclear power has been downplayed in the UK energy landscape. A lull in new capacity existed until 2007, so no new capacity is expected to replace decommissioned nuclear power plants until at least 2017, meaning that renewables development is critical to reshaping the UK energy landscape (Ibid). Wind is the crucial form of…… [Read More]
Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation
hat are the most challenging environmental issues that will face humanity over the next 50 years? And what are the best ideas for options in the face of these challenges? hat are some companies doing to mitigate (reduce, reuse, and recycle resources) the problems on a local level? These and other issues and questions will be approached in this paper.
The Main Environmental Challenges
hile there is no one single most serious environmental challenge that all scholars, scientists, researchers, policy makers, journalists and others agree on, any cursory research into future environmental challenges and issues for Planet Earth will turn up the alarming and well-documented consequences of climate change. Of course climate change is not just a future issue but very much a current worry for citizens, scientists and policy makers. Many other critical issues are related to global climate change, including the population…… [Read More]
Forces Affecting Industry Conditions
There are several forces that are affecting the industry conditions. With respect to external forces, technology is the major force. Technology has long been the driver of the alternative fuels business. The objective of the business is to produce fuels that are cheaper, more plentiful and more sustainable than fossil fuels. Without these characteristics, there is no viable business. However, the fuels need to have these traits in relation to each other, because alternative energy, and biofuels in particular, are substitutable. As a consequence, competitive advantage goes to the company with the technological advantage. It appeared for a time that GEVO might be that company, but 2012 sales were far below expectations, indicating that perhaps the company's product is not as compelling as it sounds. Most of GEVO's competitors are large multinationals that can dedicate tens of millions, if not hundreds of millions, to the…… [Read More]
American History 1600-1877
In the period from 1600 to 1877, it could be argued that the United States was only basically establishing itself as an independent nation in its own right -- the period in question builds up to the climax of the Civil War, in which the contradictions inherent in the national identity would finally reach armed conflict. Who, then, could be nominated as the best of the American enterprise in that time period? For different reasons, I would nominate Benjamin Franklin, Walt Whitman, and Frederick Douglass.
Franklin is an easy choice: he established America's credibility in the eyes of Europe. Regardless of the military issues involved in the American Revolution, it was Franklin alone who showed Europe that there was a viable independent nation across the Atlantic. This is in recognition of his various accomplishments, which were scientific, technical, literary, and philanthropical (in his endowment of universities and…… [Read More]
Strip Mining Project
Strip mining has long attracted the attention that "fracking" is now due to the proven or at least theoretical environmental impacts and issues that can or definitely arise when the practice is engaged in. Not unlike similar industries like timber, anything that destroys or alters wetlands/marshes, anything that leads to increase erosion and so forth is hotly contested and debated. Even basic things like irrigation of crops can raise a proverbial stink if the water is denied to people or states that happen to be downstream and they feel they need/deserve it so as to provide drinking water, their own crop irrigation or other environmental concerns. While strip mining, especially that which relates to energy like lignite and lithium, is here to stay and largely cannot be stopped, the real and tangible impacts it can and does have need to be taken seriously before the lignite-harvesting project…… [Read More]
Shale Gas Analysis
What is shale gas?
According to Alexander et al., (2011), shale gas refers to a natural gas that stored in organic-rich, fine-grained rocks, including shale, laminated siltstone, or mudstone. It contains a mixture of hydrocarbon gases, majorly ethane, and methane. The gases are tightly locked within the pore spaces of the sedimentary rocks. The reservoirs of the shale gas have features such as low impermeability to clay content and, small grain sized contents. The term shale does not focus on a specific rock, but rather the rocks that have fine-grained particles that are smaller than the coarse-grained particles such as siltstone and carbonate rocks among other rocks. The generation of the shale occurs through various processes that include primary and secondary thermogenic degradation alongside biogenic degradation of the organic matter. The occurrence may also occur in a combination of all of the above mechanisms. The formation of…… [Read More]
U.S. Constitution is the highest law of the land. As such, is has a significant effect on public policy not only in what is possible and what is not but also through the processes it establishes for addressing issues of public interest. For this assignment, you will participate in a discussion about the U.S. And Texas constitutions and their effects on public policy. When responding to the discussion questions, be sure to reference course materials to support your conclusions and opinions. You should do the same whenever you respond to another person's discussion post. By doing so, you not only make a stronger case, but better support your own learning.
Answer the following questions:
• Both the U.S. And Texas constitutions were written when American society was mainly agrarian, rural, and governed by values relevant to the19th century. American society has changed significantly since then. This modernization has led…… [Read More]
Oil replays 1980s bust discusses the collapse in oil prices in the mid-80s versus the collapse in oil prices in the second half of 2014. He notes that while the pace of decline was similar, than the reasons behind the decline are different. The author notes that time is an important variable. Prior to hydraulic fracking, oil projects were massive in scope and scale, and took many years and billions to bring to fruition. As a consequence of this, the supply of oil on world markets was fairly easy to predict. New oil would not suddenly materialize from just anywhere. Today, the time lapse between when oil is discovered and when it hits the market is much shorter, and the cost is lower. The wells in the shale fields are smaller, so the entire exploration and extraction cycle (i.e. The cash conversion cycle) is shortened considerably. This also encourages new…… [Read More]
One of the current economic issues in America is the trade deficit, which is persistent and in most years growing. The U.S. had a slight trade surplus in the early 1980s, but since then has had a trade deficit. The deficit was growing through the mid-2000s and while it is still quite large, the straight downward trend in the trade deficit has flatlined (Trading Economics, 2014). The U.S. still has the world's largest current account deficit -- by a factor of nearly four (CIA World Factbook, 2014). Petroleum products account for a substantial portion of this, as much as 10%, but the development of fracking has reduced the percentage that oil contributes to the trade deficit, and has helped the trade deficit to flatline (U.S. Census Bureau, 2014). The major import partners are China (19%), Canada (14.1%), Mexico (12%) and Japan (6.4%). Of these, Canada and Mexico are not…… [Read More]
Public International Law
Memorandum for preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
President XI Jinping of China
Preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
Climate Change - Carbon Emissions
Climate change poses one of the most difficult questions to the world today. Cities continue to be the main contributors of this challenge. Most of the greenhouse gases are produced by industries, motorized conveyance, domestic fuel, and disposal of waste and are centered in and around cities. The IEA (International Energy Agency) foresees almost three fourths of the carbon emissions coming from urban centers by 2030. It then becomes imperative for the cities to take cognizance of the fact and react to lessen the effect. Creating an inventory of the carbon footprint would then be the logical first step in the process of addressing the issue of climate change effectively. In…… [Read More]
Exxon Mobile Analysis
Exxon Mobile operates in the oil and gas industry which is one of the most valuable industries in the world. Oil fuels much of our modern lives and allows us the mobility granted by the automobile and the infrastructure that allows for easy transportation. Within the industry, ExxonMobil is the world's largest publicly traded international oil and gas company (ExxonMobil, N.d.). The industry is multifaceted and is composed of many different segments -- everything from the exploration of oil, the refinement process, and the transportation via ship, tanker, or pipeline. The industry as a whole can be thought of as containing three primary components: upstream, midstream, and downstream. The oil and gas is of critical importance to the world's economy because there are many other industries are directly dependent upon these fuels. For example, oil can be used as a raw material to produce many…… [Read More]
Waste minimization and reuse is an important component of operations in hydraulic fracking given the economic liability and safety issues associated with creating waste. Process streams, which entail the use of chemicals and detergents to clean water and gas streams before returning them to the process is an example of a technique for minimizing and reusing waste. Generally, the process of distilling crude oil entails treating ammonia bearing water before it is discharged into open sources of water like rivers and bays. Given the significance of this treatment to the health and safety of workers and the environment, identifying a suitable means for waste minimization and reuse is crucial though complex and expensive. In this case process streams would be the most suitable option since it would help clean waste water and gas streams before they are taken back to the process.
The reduction of wastes in process streams…… [Read More]
As Exxon engages in the discovery, extraction, refining and retailing of petroleum, a wide range of technologies are used to help it perform its business and compete. Some of these functions are outsourced to other companies that serve the oil industry, but the base technology for exploration involves a variety of equipment for evaluating whether there is oil in the ground at specific locations -- drills, sonar and other sensory equipment. Extraction requires highly complex hard technology, driven by software, that can drill into the earth and bring oil to the surface, no matter what the prevailing conditions at the surface are. At the fore of modern technology is software that enables real time monitoring of all data on wellhead conditions, flow through pipelines and the status of mechanical systems. This software seeks to minimize loss, maximize efficiency and to reduce downtime (Elatab, 2012).
Oil reservoirs tend to be…… [Read More]
Oil & Gas Management
An Analysis of OPEC's Pricing Strategy: Has Saudi Arabia underestimated the resilience of U.S. shale oil?
The global environment for oil and gas has changed significantly in just the last few years as a new set of market conditions have been created that can be defined by an increase supply in oil. These supply increases have largely come from technological developments that have allowed for new forms of oil to extract such as shale oil which has in turn reduced the dependence on the cartels and Middle Eastern oil (Doshi & Corrigan, 2015). There have also been changes in the demand due to technology development as well. Engines and efficiencies have reduced the total demand for oil per user despite the fact that the number of total oil and gas users have increased rapidly in the developing world.
The oil industry serves as the foundation for…… [Read More]
Stop Global Warming
What can be done to combat global warming?
Global warming is a very serious threat that should be taken seriously by people everywhere. It is happening all around the world: ice caps are melting, environments are changing, and regions are suffering because of this atmosphere change, as Al Gore (2006) says. What is happening to the world because of carbon monoxide and because of air pollutions from factories is bad for the health of the planet and it is also bad for the health of people. This has been proven by research and the World Health Organization (WHO). WHO states that outdoor air pollution is not safe to breathe because it is "carcinogenic to humans" (p. 1). So if it is bad for people and bad for the planet, why does it continue to happen? That answer has received some attention on a global scale at the…… [Read More]
Anti-science is nothing new and in fact has been seamlessly woven into the story of human progress. Locating historical incidents linked to the repercussions of anti-intellectualism or anti-science is easy. One of the first European examples of the repercussions of anti-intellectualism is the story of Socrates's death sentence due to his philosophy of reason contradicting the established religious authorities in ancient Athens. Anti-intellectualism permeates European history, culminating with the excommunication of prominent scientists like Galileo and Kepler. Science, truth, and intellectual inquiry can present clear threats to an established authority like the Catholic Church or any other religious body, as well as threatening powerful political authorities or social systems like patriarchy. Any social system that relies on propaganda and myth-making to preserve its integrity is naturally going to be threatened by science and intellectual or critical inquiry. On the surface, there is a sort of quaintness about anti-intellectualism that appeals…… [Read More]
Energy: A Bright Future Through Diversification
The energy industry has been a lucrative and growing one for generations, and will continue to be so in the future. Multiple sectors depend on the robustness of the energy industry for their long-term success, ensuring the relevance of and reliance on the energy business for the foreseeable future. From space exploration and military technology to utilities and essential services, quality energy sourcing, processing, generation, and distribution are all crucial to life on earth. Furthermore, the world's population is growing at an alarming rate, necessitating new products, services, and innovations to fit growing energy needs. The industry's ability to adapt to change, mitigate risks, and manage market forces makes it certain that my future in the energy field is a bright one.
Granted, a "massive transformation" is predicted for the future of the energy industry due to the boom in solar projects around the…… [Read More]
An Analysis of Relations between United Arab Emirates and Japan
In an era when American influence in the world is waning, the bipolarity of the Cold War years is being replaced by regional partnerships that are mutually beneficial for all stakeholders. Indeed, one important international partnership that has emerged over the past half century has been between the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Japan, with both countries expanding their diplomatic presence in each other’s capitals and investing heavily in exports, most especially oil and gas to Japan with the UAE importing electronics, vehicles and various types of machinery from Japan. Moreover, international analysts predict that this strategic partnership will continue to expand for the foreseeable future. The purpose of this research proposal was to provide an overview of the history of the relations between Japan and the UAE. A discussion concerning the origins of this modern relationship is followed by…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the defiant and different poses of each model allows for uniqueness of each model, showing their individual personalities and dispositions. In "Cyborg Hybrids" the montage structure is different than that in "Useless Beauty." hile "Useless Beauty" combined a series of photos of both material images and models in an upside down "L" shape, Cyborg Hybrids" is a single horizontal line of models wearing the same necklace and white T-shirt. In this photo, models look directly at viewers, daring them to make assumptions. The uniformity of uniform makes a sarcastic statement about the belief that persons of one ethnicity and race are all the same. Despite their similarity in pose and dress, the models are each very noticeably different.
Though his photographs are certainly unique and socially important, K.C. Adams's photographs can be characterized by both positive and negative traits. Positive traits of K.C. Adams's work include the socially responsible…… [Read More]
journal Public Health Advocacy asserts that "e need unchained voices to challenge the powers that rule our world" (Avery, et al., 2003). The article goes on to insist that "Advocates have the freedom to agitate for the advancement of agendas," and for the American Public Health Association (APHA), that organization unchained the voices of their members to put pressure on members of Congress to: a) protect public health funding; b) protect the Affordable Care Act; and c) pass comprehensive legislation to reduce gun violence (APHA, 2013). This paper reviews the goals, the objectives, the message, the purpose and the media strategies that APHA used (and will use) as they advocate for public health issues.
The Public Health Action Campaign
The strategy that this campaign used in 2013 was timed to coincide with Congressional recess windows of time. Instead of APHA members going to ashington, D.C., members will buttonhole their senators…… [Read More]
Health Care Trends
With the passage of the Affordable Care Act the personal health of every American has become an important issue. While most health care funds are spent treating diseases and other health problems, there has recently been a push toward focusing on prevention of health problems. For example, "chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes are now responsible for more than 75% of health care costs." (Berman, 201, p.328) But as these health problems are almost entirely preventable a focus on prevention could save a great deal of money that would be better spent elsewhere. Therefore many Americans are beginning to endorse policies that prevent health problems before they start. Some of these ideas involve incentives to reward people for healthy behavior while others involve penalties to punish those who do not. However, research indicates that punishments are not as effective as incentives when it…… [Read More]
Mining on the Denniston Plateau
Towards the northwestern side of South Island of New Zealand is situated a small settlement that is known by the name of Denniston. The area formed by this settlement is the West Coast region of the country. This small town is situated on the small Mount ochfort Plateau in the mountain ranges of Papahaua, which measure around 600 meters above sea level, meanwhile the distance from Westport is 18 kilometers towards northeast.
At the start of the 20th century, the population of this small settlement was recorded to be about 2000, because of the huge coal mine that is situated quite close to where the people had settled. Speaking of now, the area has become more of a ghost town and hardly 50 people live here. It will not be wrong to say that the fate, location and history of Denniston are not very different…… [Read More]