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Frank Lloyd right
Frank Lloyd right is considered by many knowledgeable critics and scholars as the not only the most famous architect in the world, but the most creative -- and even revolutionary -- architect in the world. right's Fallingwater building, which "…perches so dramatically on the cliff overhanging the eponymous waterfall near Pittsburgh" (Steffensen, 2009), is thought of today as one of the most remarkable private homes ever built by anyone.
The Fallingwater building, designed in 1936, juts out over a thundering waterfall on the 5,000 acre property formerly owned by department store magnate Edgar J. Kaufmann. Albrecht Powell writes that Fallingwater "…epitomizes man living in harmony with nature" and it was constructed "…of local sandstone, reinforced concrete, steel and glass" (Kaufmann, 2009). The interior features cantilevered desks, "earth-toned built-in sofas, polished stone floors," and with the thought of allowing the outside light to shine in, right designed…
Civil Engineering. (1999). Restoration to Strengthen Cantilevers at Fallingwater. 69(5),
Hedding, Judy. (2009). Frank Lloyd Wright and Taliesin West in Scottsdale, Arizona.
About.com. Retrieved December 25, 2012, from http://phoenix.about.com .
Frank Lloyd Wright Design Theory
Frank Lloyd Wright is one of the most well-known architects in United States history. The buildings he created have a distinctive flow, both inside and out, which either draws or distracts the viewer. His most famous project is probably Fallingwater, a house he built for Edgar Kaufman and his wife just outside of Pittsburgh. This home is built with an incorporated waterfall that was supposed to bring the occupants closer to nature, and showed off an element of design that was a hallmark of Wright's work. This essay looks at two Frank Lloyd Wright houses, and the design concept that made him the country's most famous architect.
It is important to understand, briefly, who Frank Lloyd Wright was and how he developed his distinctive style. He was born in Wisconsin in a small town to unassuming parents. At 15, he went to the University of…
Aikens, J. (2009). Fallingwater: The story of a country house. AIArchitect, 16.
Hurder, S. (2001). Brief biography of Frank Lloyd Wright. Retrieved from http://www.oprf.com/flw/bio/
Kroll, A. (2011). AD classics: Taliesin West/Frank Lloyd Wright. Arch Daily. Retrieved from http://www.archdaily.com/123117/ad-classics-taliesin-west-frank-lloyd - wright/
Peponis, J., & Bellal T. (2010). In Fallingwater: Spatial structure at the scale of quasi- synchronic perception. Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://www.spacesyntax.tudelft.nl/media/Long%20papers%20I/peponis.pdf
Apparently right only visited the site where Fallingwater would be built once, and that was on December 18, 1934. At that time right saw that the stream called Bear Run was nestled in "…a beautiful forest…a solid, high rock-ledge rising beside a waterfall and the natural think seemed to be to cantilever the house from that rock-bank over the falling water," right explained to a television reporter in 1953 (eisberg, 2011).
It was right's genius that he could sit down on September 22, 1956, nine months after seeing the Fallingwater site, and draw out the design in two hours (eisberg, 300). On the morning of September 22, 1956 Kaufmann happened to be in Milwaukee, close to the Taliesin, the right home in isconsin; Kaufmann called right (September 22 was a Sunday morning) and said he wanted to see the proposed design for the Fallingwater site. right said fine, come over…
Carpenter, Mackenzie. "Wright's Fallingwater still breathtaking at 75." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
Retrieved August 2, 2013, from http://www.post-gazette.com 2011
Fallingwater.org. "Fallingwater Facts / Home Facts." Retrieved August 1, 2013, from http://www.fallingwater.org . 2006.
Weisberg, Robert W. "Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater: A Case Study in Inside-the-Box
He did not form any close friendships, even though Sullivan himself took a liking to him. Sullivan engaged him in a five-year contract. The contract would later become a subject of contention, for it stated that Wright could not participate in outside work. When Sullivan discovered that Wright was taking on extra commissions, he ordered him to stop. The relationship came to an end. Wright left Sullivan and began to work on his own. He founded his own practice at just 25 years of age and with design after design he never looked back. His Unitarian faith -- and the philosophy he had learned from Sullivan -- helped inform each of his designs.
With some new associates, Wright formed the Prairie School -- a distinctly American style of architecture. Wright himself worked on the Winslow House, which emphasized line and horizontal elements and all of Wright's designs emphasized the use…
One of Wright's most famous works is "Robie House." Wright designed this house at age 42. In Robie House (1909) -- Wright's best example of the American architectural style -- the Prairie Style -- Wright laid bare the essence of American Unitarianism. What the Prairie Style lacked in ornament, it made up for in horizontality. This type of architecture was an expression of his spirituality and philosophy: form was following function. It attempts to resemble the Midwestern landscape surrounding it.
By his 40s, Wright had fallen in love with another woman, the wife of a client. With this woman, Mamah Borthwick Cheney, Wright, however, fled to Europe leaving both his and her children behind. The two spent nearly two years in Europe, living in Italy, where Wright continued to do his work.
The two returned to America
Frank Lloyd right was an American architect who is widely-regarded as one of the most influential figures on 20th century design. His 70-year career ushered in several important social and cultural dimensions to the field of architecture. This paper examines the design philosophy, influences and major achievements of one of the towering and most controversial figures of American architecture.
right was born in isconsin in 1867. His father was a musician who abandoned the family in 1885. right was raised on a farm by his mother Anna and by a group of aunts and uncles (Constantino 6).
right studied engineering at the University of isconsin. It was here that he first displayed a talent in drawing and design. In 1887, right moved to Chicago, Illinois. For the next six years, right worked as an apprentice at the firm of Adler and Sullivan. In 1893, right left Adler and Sullivan…
Constantino, Maria. The Life and Works of Frank Lloyd Wright. New York: Courage Books, 1998.
Frank Lloyd Wright: The Man." Biographical Sketch. February 2003.. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. 8 April 2003 .
Hart, Spencer. The Wright Space. San Diego: Thunder Bay Press, 2001.
Hanks, David A. The Decorative Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright. Toronto: Dover Press, 1999.
The open space invites you to dwell on the mysterious and contemplate the interior life -- away from the crowded, stacked-up world just beyond the walls: "deliberately placed…beyond the limits of control" (itcombe).
The Guggenheim, therefore, takes you out of your element: it transports you into another time, another place -- a time and place that never existed and has yet to come into existence: a sanctuary where modern art and naturalism merge into an architectural act of creation. Are these false impressions? Or is the Guggenheim nothing more than a Kandinskian cross between "fashion" and "fine art" (Johnson 666)?
There is nothing absurdist about right's architecture. It is sincere and always quiet. Yet something about the Guggenheim is so unlike Robie House -- so bursting -- so NYC and modern -- that it amazes, calls attention to itself and yet does not play the fool. It is as if…
"Frank Lloyd Wright Biography." Web. 24 July 2011.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2003.
Pfeiffer, Bruce; Nordland, Gerald, eds. Frank Lloyed Wright: In the Realm of Ideas.
Frank Lloyd Wright remarked that he had seen a building that was of monumental dignity and beautiful. He cited in the letter addressed to Solomon R. Guggenheim that the building was appropriate for their purpose of constructing a museum. Wright went on to design the museum which he named after Guggenheim. The structure is now widely seen as a masterpiece (Guggenheim.org, n.d.).
The interior space of the Guggenheim Museum sports a spiral ramp ascending to the sky. It is a unique platform for the exhibition of contemporary art. The design is a clear deviation from the common design for museums. The inverted ziggurat of the rotunda is a unique creation of the creation of the architect. It is not a series of interconnected rooms. Rather, this one features a visitor's entry that takes them along a gentle slope through the rotunda on uninterrupted ramp. The open design by…
Gibson, E. (2017, June 05). Frank Lloyd Wright's Robie House was his most "consummate expression" of Prairie style. Retrieved from Dezeen: https://www.dezeen.com/2017/06/05/robie-house-frank-lloyd-wright-150-anniversary-prairie-style-20th-century-architecture-usa/
Guggenheim.org. (n.d.). THE FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT BUILDING. Retrieved from Guggenheim: https://www.guggenheim.org/the-frank-lloyd-wright-building
Perez, A. (2010). AD Classics: Unity Temple / Frank Lloyd Wright. Retrieved from Arch Daily: http://www.archdaily.com/64721/ad-classics-unity-temple-frank-lloyd-wright
Sveiven, M. (2010). AD Classics: Ennis House / Frank Lloyd Wright. Retrieved from Arch Daily: http://www.archdaily.com/83583/ad-classics-frank-lloyd-wright-ennis-house
Le Corbusier, rank Lloyd Wright, And Louis Khan
In the field of Architecture, it takes not only talent, but creative vision to create works that stand the test of time in the collective imagination of the world. Three architects that accomplished just that were Le Corbusier, rank Lloyd Wright, and Louis Khan.
If any architect is credited with pioneering modern design, it is undoubtedly rank Lloyd Wright. Indeed, his sense of intricacy combined with an innovative style places him among the ranks of the most accomplished architects of the twentieth century. Interestingly, Wright began his architectural career in industrial work, but found his true calling in residential buildings. It was in contemplation of these residential buildings that he conceived of the idea of "organic architecture," or the idea that a building should develop out of its natural surroundings.
To be sure, if Wright despised anything, it was the common "neoclassic/Victorian"…
Finally, the work of Louis Isadore Khan is perhaps the most revolutionary of the three (perhaps indicated by the fact that most of what he designed during his lifetime was never built). Although his design style is characterized as "classically romantic," featuring sometimes towering stairwells and air ducts planted in the midst of main areas, many consider his designs and buildings to be "impractical," and "unorthodox."
To be sure, Wright's "organic style," and Le Corbusier "modernism" were revolutionary as well -- however, buildings such as the Yale Art Gallery (1953), as well as the National Assembly Buildings in Dhaka, Pakistan, are particularly striking in their unusual use of concrete and brick -- especially in their ability to answer Khan's belief that "structure is the giver of light." Indeed, one can see that in both buildings, the geometric, almost chunky style seems to give way to showers of soft light transmitted through precise positioning of windows, openings, and special partitions.
In closing, all three architects revolutionized aspects of the concept of design -- developing the organic, modern, as well as, well, unorthodox, in heretofore, rigid design environments. Indeed, it could even be said that each architect not only paved the way for the possibility of the creation of new design innovations, but also opened the door for further design exploration today. In this way, the three are inexorably linked -- with each other, and with the modern architecture of the near future.
Frank Lloyd's Prairie And Usonian Style
Few architects in the 1900s compare to Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 -- April 9, 1959) who was also an interior designer and writer. Throughout his lifetime, Wright was credited with over a thousand designs and over half of these constructed. Wright who was a famous lover of organic architecture was in the forefront of the Prairie School architectural movement and invented the Usonian home model. Many office buildings, schools and even museums were designed with the unique style of Prairie School Architecture by him (Prairie School Architecture).
Wright was born in 1867 into the family of William Carey Wright (1825 -- 1904) and Anna Lloyd Jones (1838 -- 1923) who resided in the agricultural settlement of ichland Centre, Wisconsin. Both of his parents were teachers although his father was politically and legally inclined. When Wright came of age, he travelled to Chicago…
Prairie School Architecture. Frank Lloyd Wright. january 2017. .
Mitchell, Nancy. Frank Lloyd Wright's Usonian Houses. 4 July 2013. .
Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater at HOUSE FOU: The House on a Waterfall (1935-37) is an architectural work that is harmonious with its natural surroundings. Wright uses space, materials, context and structure to effect this harmony. For instance, its cantilever balconies jut out over the rocks within the waterfall in a way that makes it look as though the house were a part of the natural structure in the wild. Yet it also possesses that Frank Lloyd Wright style -- the emphasis of lines and flats in a kind of minimalist fashion that exudes simplicity of soul as well as modern sophistication, allowing the house to hold its own and have its own identity even in these woods where it is also a part of the discourse between wild and civilization.
The house is literally situated over a waterfall in the woods. The beauty of the landscape is preserved…
Pfeiffer, B. (1988). Frank Lloyd Wright: In the Realm of Ideas. IL: Southern Illinois
Sullivan, L. (1896). The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered. Lippincott's
Frank Gehry has become a leading architect noted for his innovative structures using industrial materials in new ways and with a certain deconstructivist approach to architecture. Philip Johnson, the dean of American architecture and a power since the 1930s, more recently joined with other architects who have been shattering all the rules, leaving behind symmetry and classic geometry in favor of distorted designs, twisted beams, and skewed angles. Johnson in 1988 showcased this style in a program at the Museum of Modern Art, and he called the show "Deconstructivist Architecture." Among the designers following this approach are Frank Gehry of California or ernard Tschumi from France and Switzerland. Johnson says of this new architecture that it evokes "the pleasures of unease." These ideas have been utilized directly by Johnson in his design for the Canadian roadcasting Corporation building in Toronto. Today, Gehry is probably the foremost proponent if this approach.…
Arnold, Dana. Art History: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Ballantyne, Andrew. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Bletter, Rosemarie Haag. "Frank Gehry's Spatial Reconstructions." In The Architecture of Frank Gehry. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.
Celant, Germano. Frank Gehry: Buildings and Projects. New York: Rizzoli, 1985.
Cantilever construction is known by projecting a form that is attached at one end to the building, while the other end juts out.
Second I will discuss the symbolism of the two buildings. The symbolism of both shows that the key images of both buildings depends on the perspective from which the building is viewed. The author talks of a 'colossal artichoke...a blooming flower' when referring to the Gehry museum while Wright's Guggenheim is in the shape of a seashell. These are all key images as related to the two architects.
The third discussion will focus on the iconography of the buildings which can be described as the viewer's participation in identifying and explaining what is going on in the building.
As mentioned above neither building has a form that follows function and the Gehry creation especially is difficult to tell what is going on in the building. Each perspective…
The Building. Guggenheim Museum. http://www.guggenheim.org/the_building.html , Accessed March 12, 2008
Martin, David F., and Lee a. Jacobus. The Humanities Through the Arts. 7th ed.
New York: 2008.
Mies van der ohe was one of the most well-known architects of 20th century. His birth took place in Germany and it was in 1938 that he came to United States. Mies van der ohe is commonly known as "Mies" or "Ludwig Mies van der ohe." He had an approach of constructing and designing buildings as a part of international style movement, and this had a grand impact on country's architecture. Farnsworth house is an example of contemporary architecture world. "Less is more" is a statement of Mies, which was adopted as a motto for all the modern artists all over the world (The Chicago Architecture Foundation, 2007).
It was in 1945 when a doctor of Chicago hired Mies to design a home for her in the country side, which should be around 60 miles away from southwest of Chicago, i.e. near Plano, Illinois. The doctor's name…
Farnsworth House. (1995). Probing Architecture's Anatomy. Progressive Architecture, pp 58, 59.
Feldman, G.C. (2002). Fallingwater is no longer Falling. The Structure Group Companies.
MetLife. (2012). Rogerson Communities' Farnsworth House in Boston is Recognized by MetLife Foundation and Enterprise Community Partners for Exemplary Work in Senior Housing and Successfully Incorporating Green Components in its Housing: Wins 2012 MetLife Foundation Award for Excellence in Affordable Housing, $50,000. Press Release.
The Chicago Architecture Foundation. (2007). Farnsworth House: Meet The Buildings. The Architecture Handbook: A Student Guide to Understanding Buildings.
The Turbine Factory and its use of industrial material on a very grand scale is able to evoke feelings of machinery and production and how it changed society, or rather, how it controlled society at that time. Behrens was able to transform architecture by creating designs that reflected the changing culture.
Frank Lloyd Wright and Peter Behrens were pioneers in the innovation of functionalism. While Wright used more organic elements into his design to give the feeling that architecture and nature should go hand-in-hand, Behrens was creating designs out of more industrial materials that reflect the era and the culture of an era. However, both of these architects considered function as the dominating principal of building structures even though they essentially came to their way of designing via different ways of thinking (nature and organics vs. industry and function).
Both Wright and Behrens were innovative designers and architects and their…
McCarter, R. ( 2010) "Wright, Frank Lloyd." Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. Ed. Michael
Oxford Art Online. Retrieved Sep. 20, 2010, from .
His belief, of course, was that the Unity was of primary importance -- which was a departure from Sullivan's sense that beauty and transcendent forms (reflections of the human spirit) were central to the idea of all forms. Wright's anti-verticality was no more in tune to Sullivan's sense of the soul than the reuer's "functional" brutalism. Sullivan alone had the sense to achieve some sort of aesthetic standard while achieving the function so desired by his contractors.
In conclusion, Sullivan announced at the end of the 19th century that "form ever follows function" -- but that did not imply that form had to be as mechanical as function. In fact, it meant for Sullivan quite the opposite. The Guaranty uilding is a perfect example of how he saw architecture as an art: its purpose was to provide the space necessary for offices and retailers but also to make…
Kaufman, Mervyn. Father of Skyscrapers: A Biography of Louis Sullivan. Boston:
Little, Brown, 1969.
Korom, Joseph. The American Skyscraper, 1850-1940: a celebration of height. Boston:
Branden Books, 2008.
Humanities Related Library Internet Resources
Pierce, James Smith and H Janson. From Abacus to Zeus: A Handbook of Art History, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
There are several factors that make arts to be valuable or not. Art value is assessed via several ways including comparison to existing market standards of similar arts before they are taken for auctions. According to this article, hypothetical methods based on market values are used to find the value of arts taken for auctions. The most important factor used during the valuation is the artist who designed the art. Artists who are well-known and highly regarded have high value associated with their works. Paintings like Matisse's call for higher price than those of little known artists. The other factor vital during the valuation is the uniqueness, type and copies of the work. Art pieces produced in…
Erich, Duetsch Otto. Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1965.
Pierce, James Smith and HW Janson. From Abacus to Zeus: A Handbook of Art History, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
Saint, Andrew. "Frank Lloyd Wright and Paul Mueller: The Architect and his Builder of Choice." Architectural Research Quarterly (2004): 157-167.
Vlastos, Gregory. Socrates: Ironist and Moral Philosopher. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.
In keeping with the functionality and mechanization of the time, Wright used simple materials such as brick, wood and plaster to create a sense of the natural in his work. M
This form is exemplified in the architect's Zimmerman house, which is a long, low house, with an interior space that is not immediately apparent from the outside. While performing the functional purpose of shelter and protection, the interior of the house also focuses on open, shared space; an idea inspired by the prairie fields of the United States. Hence, mechanization and functionality are integrated into the architect's design.
Like Wright, Mies van de ohe is also concerned with maintaining simplicity in the interest of material honesty and structural integrity (Matthews, 2011). The drive towards this simplicity is also inspired by mechanization, where industrialization has created a faster pace in life, work and art. Using simple materials provides for the…
Kahn, L.I. Monumentality.
Le Courbusier. Towards a New Architecture. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.
Matthews, K. (2011). Zimmerman House. Retrieved from: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Zimmerman_House.html
Matthews, K. (2011). Tugendhat House. Retrieved from: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Tugendhat_House.html
Socrates, "The unexamined life is not worth living (rdg.uk)." It is for this reason that a critical examination of our most fundamental beliefs about truth and reality whether right or wrong becomes an important undertaking (rdg.uk). The examination of major life perspectives challenges as well as helps us to better establish many of our own assumptions about life (rdg.uk). We should all be concerned with how different views of the world clash or fit together, and with how the different perspectives (moral, scientific, religious, metaphysical, and personal) may be reconciled (rdg.uk). It is with these ideas in mind that this paper undertakes an examination of three major life perspectives, those of: naturalism, humanism, and theism (rdg.uk).
According to naturalism, heredity and environment influence and determine human motivation and behavior (naturalism.html). Thus, if an artist wishes to depict life as it really is, he or she must be rigorously deterministic in…
Humanism is an approach to life emphasizing ethics, rationality, and intelligent compassion (etla.net). Humanism asserts that reason and science are the soundest means for investigating claims of truth (etla.net). This philosophy asserts that ideas, values, myths, and social systems are based on human experience (etla.net). Free thought thrive best in free, democratic societies (etla.net). This is a doctrine centered on human interests or values (asmilan.org). Albert Camus was an example of a humanist thinker. According to Camus, accepting the absurdity (life as a hopeless, meaningless, eternal up-hill struggle) is the first necessary step; it arouses a revolt, the analysis of, which can help us discover ideas capable of restoring relative meaning to existence (asmilan.org). After 1945, he was concerned with the study of the problems of action and of the service of humanity (asmilan.org). He believed that natural suffering increases not because men are wicked but because they are not sufficiently enlightened (asmilan.org). He believed man alone and without the help of God, could create his own values (asmilan.org).
Theism is a philosophy that affirms that the source and basis of all things is in God (exist1.html). Its primary focus is belief in gods, however, belief in gods is distinct from religion (atheism.com).
Belief in God does not logically require a religion and religions do not logically require a belief in god(s) to be religions (atheism.com). Thus, we see people who do believe in
nd with respect to the eschewing of modesty, the new World Trade Center which is currently under construction in New York City proposes soon to be the tallest building in the United States. This is a demonstration of a form which follows a complex set of functions, both philosophically and practically. To the latter, there is an interest in housing a significant population of businesses, agencies, organizations and priorities. s it replaces the Twin Towers felled by a terrorist attack in 2001, 1 World Trade Center must serve functions of usage that are quite diverse and implicating many people. Philosophically, the enormity of form may be regarded as following the function of patriotism, with the structure also designed to make a statement of determination and resilience for an merica previously humbled by attack. Its function is to reassert the persistence of modernity.
No further a divergence from this could be…
And with respect to the eschewing of modesty, the new World Trade Center which is currently under construction in New York City proposes soon to be the tallest building in the United States. This is a demonstration of a form which follows a complex set of functions, both philosophically and practically. To the latter, there is an interest in housing a significant population of businesses, agencies, organizations and priorities. As it replaces the Twin Towers felled by a terrorist attack in 2001, 1 World Trade Center must serve functions of usage that are quite diverse and implicating many people. Philosophically, the enormity of form may be regarded as following the function of patriotism, with the structure also designed to make a statement of determination and resilience for an America previously humbled by attack. Its function is to reassert the persistence of modernity.
No further a divergence from this could be made than Fallingwater in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. A mere few hours from the rising 1 World Trade Center by turnpike drive, the stately forest residence conceived by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1934 stands as one of the finest achievements in integrative architecture. Here, the function of residential living within the context of an utterly natural and non-disruptive form is met with stunning precision. A reaction to the industrialization of previously rural settings, Wright's work serves the dual purposes of natural preservation and human compatibility, suggesting perhaps one of the finest examples available to us of environmental form and function interceding.
Likewise, it serves as a compelling place to close this discussion, revealing the height of possibilities where function does not alone shape form but where function is seen as a target which can be met by innovative and previously unimagined mutations of form.
Another possibility is to allow companies to convert traditional defined-benefit pensions, which encourage retirement as early as age 55, to cash-balance plans, which have no built-in incentives to retire. Perhaps the most controversial idea is to break the typical link between pay and seniority. As more people work into their late 60s and 70s, pay should be adjusted to match how much people work and what they accomplish on the job.
Basing pay on performance is a controversial idea because what the criterions of performance for most hi-level professional jobs that older workers are performing are ambiguous at best. How does one determine success at a professional job? Unlike a manual job, where productivity can be measured in, for example, widgets per hour, professional job performance involve intangible factors such as interpersonal relations and communication skills. In many cases, performance may be defined solely in terms of what your boss…
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…
Coburn, F.W. "Mr. Benson's Birds," The Boston Herald, November 16, 1913, 28.
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Gardiner, Debbi. Japan, Inc., January 2003. Anime in America. http://www.japaninc.net/article.php?articleID=972.Visited 8/03/03.
Japan Economic Society, November/December 2002. Impact of the Kimono on Modern Fashion. http://www.jef.or.jp/en/jti/200211_016.html . Visited 8/04/03.
Romantic and Modern Design Styles
Comparing the Ornate and the Natural: A Study of Two Theories of Design
History often dictates societal mentality more so than current climate, yet in times of peace, it seems that the beautiful and the artful flourish. This very concept is debatable, especially in interior design, where the fashions of the time very often have a much-felt impact upon design theories and the way in which they are carried out. Yet it is in history that one finds inspiration, or the contradiction thereof. For instance, during the mid to late 19th century, it was against history that romanticism was born. Yet in the early 20th century, immediately following this period of romanticism, it was out of a societal need for simplicity prior to the two Great ars that a more natural aesthetic was born, expressed so perfectly by the architect Frank Lloyd right. The following…
1. Customer Notes -- Provided by Customer from Academic Notes and Books
2. Britannica Encyclopedia, (2012). Interior Design: The Romantic Movement and the Battle of the Styles. Retrieved from, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/290278/interior-design/74226/The-Romantic-movement-and-the-battle-of-the-styles-1835-1925
3. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, (2012). Wright's Life and Work. Retrieved from, http://www.franklloydwright.org/ web/Home.html
4. Pile, J. (1997). Color in Interior Design. McGraw-Hill: New York.
One typically does not consider the floral designs required by Barnsdall to be a good match for the harsh lines and square angles used in house.
In order to accommodate the needs of the design and those of the owner, right used hollyhocks and floral designs to help soften the harsh lines created by the concrete. This allowed the work to flow, rather than to bring out the contrast created by these two opposing elements. Contrast is the key to right's work. However, this is difficult ground from a design perspective, as one must be careful not to make the building seem out of place in the natural landscape. Consider the following photo and the contrast between the concrete walls set against the rolling green hills in the background.
Photo Credit: Christy Rogers, 1998
This is an excellent example of how lines were used to contrast and draw attention to…
Friends of Hollyhock House. Hollyhock House (1921). http://www.hollyhockhouse.net/hhhistory.html . Accessed December 11, 2007.
Galinsky. Hollyhock House: Los Angeles. www.galinsky.com/buildings/hollyhock/index.htm. Accessed December 11.
Lockley, W. California Romanza. Hollyhock House, Hollywood, California. Historic Buildings Survey. 2004. http://www.waltlockley.com/hollyhock/hollyhock.htm. Accessed December 11, 2007
National Historic Landmarks Program. Barnsdall Complex, Aline. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=853494857&ResourceType=Building. Accessed December 11, 2007.
architects in the 21st century is the issue of sustainability. Not only is there no consensus opinion on how to approach the issue of sustainability in academic circles but there is also no formula of integrating sustainability into architectural curriculum (Wright, 2003). This deficiency underscores an even more stressing problem, however: as Edwards and Hyett (2010) note, "the techniques and technologies of green design are now generally understood -- what is still lacking is an architecture profession which gives priority to ecological issues" (p. 5). In other words, there is no connection between the myriad academic approaches and the professional architectural life. Wheeler (2015) asserts that this issue is due to an inadequate definition of sustainable architecture. In the capitalistic, consumerist global environment of the 20th century, the concept of preservation and connectivity to nature was largely overshadowed by corporate demand and higher margins.
Yet the end of the 20th…
About SsD. (2016). SsDArchitecture. Retrieved from http://www.ssdarchitecture.com/about/
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Tower-One of His Most Bizarre Buildings Ever-ises High above the Oklahoma Plains.'
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Jacko, J.A. & Sears, a. 2003. The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals,
Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Kim, Y-M. 2011, September. 'Factors Affecting University Library Website Design.' Information
Technology & Libraries; vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 99-100.
Lee, B.C. & Wicks, B. 2010. 'Tourism Technology Training for Destination Marketing
Organisations (Dmos): Need-based Content Development.' Journal of Hospitality,
Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 39-40.
Mccabe, P.T. 2004. Contemporary Ergonomics 2004. Boca aton,…
Bingley, S., Burgess, S., Sellitto, C., Cox, C. & Buultjens, J. 2010. 'A Classification Scheme for Analysing Web 2.0 Tourism Websites.' Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, vol.
11, no. 4, pp. 281-282.
Cuddihy, E. & Spyridakis, J.H. 2012, July. 'The effect of visual design and placement of intra-
article navigation schemes on reading comprehension and website user perceptions.'
The men had returned from the war, Americans were buying homes and putting all their energies in to building a nest for the family filled with all sorts of creature comforts. The female form reflected these comforts: it was round and healthy. On the other hand, the 1960s and 1970s signaled the rampant winds of change; while some people attribute it primarily to the debut of Twiggy, the skinny supermodel of the era other reasons are relevant to examine as well: "popular during the 1960's because of the increasingly popularity of self-expression and women's rights movements during this time that allowed women to shed clothes and bare more body. Being thin allowed them to comfortably wear clothes like the mini-skirt, which maybe at that time stood for some sort of freedom and self-expression. Being thin and shedding weight may have given some women the ability to feel better about themselves.…
Bennett, B. (2011). it's All About Art Deco. Retrieved from galleryatlantic.com: http://www.galleryatlantic.com/Its-All-About-Art-Deco.html
Boyars, M. Gothic Fantasy: The Films of Tim Burton.
Marcel Duchamp took a urinal, called it "Fountain," put it in an art show and then defended his action on the grounds that as he was an artist and he said the urinal was art, then it was.
This is just the sort of thing that has given modern art a bad name. But why should it have? Why should that urinal not be art?
Understanding the answer to that question - whether one believes that that urinal was art or not - allows one to understand both the Dadaist movement and much of what has happened in the four generations of modern art since.
In an interview conducted for this paper, Karen Finley, a conceptual artist who was one of the infamous NEA Four, talked about the importance of that urinal.
On the one hand, me, personally, I don't like the piece because it's got all the hallmarks of…
Finley, K. (2002). Personal interview. http://www.dadaboom.com/dada.html http://www.finesite.webart.ru/shocking/dada-2.htm http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/dada-def.html
Nash, E. (1998). Frank Lloyd Wright: Force of nature. London: Todtri Productions.
Wright, F.L. And Meehan, P. (ed.). (1992). Truth against the world: Frank Lloyd Wright speaks for an organic architecture. New York: Preservation Press.
Finley, personal interview, 2002
GUGGENHEIM need a fighter, a lover of space, an agitator, a tester and a wise man.... I want a temple of spirit, a monument!
Hilla Rebay to Frank Lloyd Wright, 1943
Just say "The Guggenheim" and most people immediately get a quick mental picture of the marvelous building in New York - that immense spring spreading its coils toward the sky while resting on a broad and steady base. It is the most astonishing building from the outside and what's inside is even more amazing. Commissioned by Guggenheim's personal art advisor, Hilla Rebay, and designed by the innovative architect Frank Lloyd Wright in the 1940s, it is indeed a monument and a testament to the innovators and artists whose work lies within its coiled walls.
Solomon R. Guggenheim commissioned the building to hold his ever-growing Museum of Non-Objective Painting. Today, the Guggenheim houses one of the most impressive collections of…
(ibid) His ideas and design were extremely influential after the Second World War.
The rational logic of Le Corbusier's designs also led many critics to accuse his architecture of being too 'cold' and having little 'humanity' about them.
His rationalism is the aspect through which Le Corbusier has most often been introduced to the public. For a large number of his critics, 9 sympathetic or otherwise, he remains the theoretician who perfected a rigorous system and whose works are subjected to a cold, standardizing logic and an uncompromising functionalism.
However, for Corbusier there was a sense in which a revolution in the arts and architecture had began in the early years of the twentieth century. "A great age has begun, guided by a new spirit, a spirit of construction and synthesis, guided by a clear concept. So began Le Corbusier's first article. In rapid order, this new spirit…
Britain-Catlin, Timothy. "Le Corbusier and the Concept of Self: Corbusian Societies." The Architectural Review Feb. 2004: 96. Questia. 3 Jan. 2005. http://www.questia.com/ .
Brownlee, David B., and David G. De Long. Louis I. Kahn: In the Realm of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1991.
Chilvers, Ian. A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Choay, Francoise. Le Corbusier. New York: G. Braziller, 1960.
humanities modes human inquiry expression. Be address items paper: Define term humanities. Distinguish humanities modes human inquiry expression.
What are the 'humanities?' Why do they matter?
The word 'humanities' contains the word 'human' and thus interlinked with the definition of the humanities is the definition of what it means to be 'human' as conceived within academia. According to Stanford University, "the humanities can be described as the study of the myriad ways in which people, from every period of history and from every corner of the globe, process and document the human experience. Since humans have been able, we have used philosophy, literature, religion, art, music, history and language to understand and record our world" (The humanities experience, 2013, Stanford University). These disciplines are very diverse but there is a general 'lumping' of non-quantitative fields under the broad 'tent' of humanities disciplines, even though mathematics is occasionally classified as a…
The humanities experience. (2013). Stanford University. Retrieved from:
Deresiewicz, W. (2013). How does it feel? The American Scholar. Retrieved from:
The Keller/PSI approach to academic and professional training has been documented to improve student performance as measured by course completion rates and subject matter retention among students. On the other hand, there are considerable practical and technical problems implementing the Keller/PSI approach within traditional educational institutions. Meanwhile, there is little if any empirical evidence suggesting precisely how the Keller/PSI model benefits learning outside of the focus on the reduced deadline orientation that is the hallmark of that teaching methodology.
Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the success of the Keller/PSI approach is actually attributable to other changes typically attributable to Keller/PSI, such as the broadening of the range of media of instruction, despite the fact that those changes are natural consequences of the Keller/PSI design rather than deliberately conceived components of the approach. The empirical evidence of the increased success of CAPSI programs further bolsters that argument.
Abdulwahed, M. And Nagy, Z.K. "Applying Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle for Laboratory Education." Journal of Engineering Education. American Society for Engineering Education. 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010 from HighBeam
Burton, J.K., Moore, D.M., and Magliaro, S.G. (2004). Behaviorism and instructional technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
Dunne, J.D. (1997). Behavior Analysis: No Defense Required. Wright University.
The advent of modernity has wrought massive changes in human society. New forms of transportation and communication, for example, have changed the way people work, learn, conduct business and organize into communities. Technological advances in medicine have resulted in new forms of treatment for disease and longer life spans. Upheavals such as the women's movement and the civil rights movement have challenged prevailing norms and transformed social relations.
The field of architecture is no exception. The modern architecture movement is also largely a response to the availability of new technologies and the changing social needs. The first part of this paper looks at the various definitions of what constitutes "modern" architecture. The next part then looks at how the various styles sought to take advantage of new material and to address changing social needs.
In the last part, the paper examines how modern architecture is responding to new concerns,…
Cannon-Brookes, Peter. "Modern architecture, modern materials and modern technology." European Business Review. 14(3). Proquest Database.
Kuipers, Marieke. "The modern movement." The Unesco Courier. September 1997. Proquest Database.
Lacayo, Richard. "Buildings that breathe." Time Magazine. August 26, 2002. Proquest Database.
Larkin, David. Frank Lloyd Wright: The Masterworks. New York: Rizzoli, 1993.
Consciousness in Purpose
The twentieth century was a period of major change for humanity, not only because of the increasing rapidity of technological advancements that the period was witness to but also because of the growing understanding humanity acquired of itself. Through psychological, sociological, and even philosophical inquiry man came to know and understand man in a more empirical fashion, including some concrete demonstrations of how certain choices are made. Increasing knowledge in other areas, such as environmental science, also enabled mankind to make better and more responsible choices, however this did not always meet with the right psychological mechanisms to be actually carried out. Still, design is more and more coming to focus on conscious and purposeful ends in many different ways.
Frank Lloyd Wright is perhaps the epitome of the practical designer of the twentieth century, though his architectural masterpieces are by no means without their aesthetic charm.…
economy is in a state of recovery from the great recession. One of the key implications of this economic recovery for urban planning encompasses the decline in unemployment rate. Between 2010 and 2016, the unemployment rate has significantly declined from about 10% to the prevailing rate of 4.9% (Bureau of Labor Statistics). However, it is imperative to note that a great deal of employment opportunities are in major cities such as California, ashington, Florida, Texas and Pennsylvania. Fifty percent of new business establishments across the nation evolved in only 20 major urban counties (Florida). This implies that such urban places are bound to experience an increase in population from skilled workers. In turn, this will cripple the other areas. Considering this, there are also implications for economic policy, governmental budgets and local and state governments. In particular, the local and state governments should apportion and channel government budgets to the…
American Society of Landscape Architects. "Sustainable Urban Development." Retrieved from: https://www.asla.org/sustainableurbandevelopment.aspx
Badger, Emily. "Why Trump's Use of the Words 'Urban Renewal' Is Scary for Cities." The New York Times, 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/07/upshot/why-trumps-use-of-the-words-urban-renewal-is-scary-for-cities.html?_r=0
Birch, Eugenie Ladner. "Radburn and the American Planning Movement the Persistence of an Idea." (1980): 424-439.
Blumenfeld, Hans. Criteria for Judging the Quality of the Urban Environment. The Canadian Architect (November, 1972).
Architect Frank Lloyd right went beyond even Ives's achievements. Sharing affection for the organic ideas of the American Renaissance before the Civil ar and asserting that form and function were one, right developed the Prairie school of architecture. This tried to integrate the design of housing and the land it used and forced Americans to think more carefully about rapid urbanization. In terms of the impact that he had abroad right's work still influences architects and city planners today (Progressive Movement, 2010).
A lot happened during the reform movement all which had some effect on the way that we live today. It changed things in this country on a political, social and economic level that helped this country to progress forward and become what it is today. History provides a wonderful building block upon which we can grow and expand. It gives us the insight into what worked and what…
"Progressing into the 20th Century the Progressive Movement." (n.d.). 14 February 2010,
"Progressive Movement." (2010). 14 February 2010,
"Any brief definition of art would oversimplify the matter, but we can say that all the definitions offered over the centuries include some notion of human agency, whether through manual skills (as in the art of sailing or painting or photography), intellectual manipulation (as in the art of politics), or public or personal expression (as in the art of conversation). Recall that the word is etymologically related to artificial -- i.e., produced by human beings. Since this embraces many types of production that are not conventionally deemed to be art, perhaps a better term for them would be visual culture. This would explain why certain preindustrial cultures produce objects which Eurocentric interests characterize as art, even though the producing culture has no linguistic term to differentiate these objects from utilitarian artifacts. Having said that, we are still left with a class of objects, ideas and activities that are held…
Photography: Leibovitz, A. (n.d.). John Lennon and Yoko Ono. [Photograph, color]. Photo
Gallery, AmericanMasters, PBS. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/episodes/annie-leibovitz/photo-gallery/19/
Annie Leibovitz is famous for her celebrity portraits because of the unusual poses and backdrops she uses with her subjects. The portrait of John and Yoko is powerful. It is startling because John is nude astride a fully-clothed Yoko. John is kissing her tenderly, with his body curled around hers and his arms cradling her head. Yoko is completely passive. It seems Leibovitz captured the dynamics of the couple's relationship with this
If humans are not the architects of good and evil, then, it is easy to see how a human cannot be wholly good or wholly evil. An architect may be trying to emulate the style of Frank Lloyd right, but his or her work will, ultimately, be different from right's in some ways. The emulating architect will create some aspects of his or her building that are entirely his or her own. In the same way, a person may be emulating the metaphysical creator of good or evil, but he or she will be flawed in some ways, meaning that he or she is not wholly evil or wholly good. Edgar Allen Poe gives a good example of this in his story "The Black Cat." hile the main character commits atrocities to his cat, Pluto, readers are able to find a glimmer of good through his actions before he commits…
Brians, Paul et al. "St. Augustine on the Problem of Evil." Washington State University.
18 December 1998. Resources for the Study of World Civilizations. 18 May 2009.
"Evil and Otherness."
Govier, Trudy. "Forgiveness and the Unforgivable." American Philosophical Quarterly.
However, his work was not always well accepted and the there was a public outcry at the minimalist and bare design of this building.
Another aspect of his designs that should be mentioned was his fondness for the use of natural materials in his buildings. He "...skillfully manipulated classical materials including marble, onyx, wood, and mirror, into a careful composition of visual patterns" (ArtandCulture Artist: Adolf Loos). Other important constructions by this architect were, the Tzara House in Paris (1926-1927), Villa Moller in Vienna (1928), Villa Muller (1930), Villa Winternitz in Prague (1931-1932) as well as the Khuner Country House at Payerbach in lower Austria. (ArtandCulture Artist: Adolf Loos)
Conclusion: criticism, deconstruction and evaluation
There is little doubt that Adolf Loos had a profound impact on many modernist architects and artists. For example, many European architects were particularly influenced by his style and theory. This can be seen in that…
Adolf Loos. http://eng.archinform.net/arch/122.htm (Accessed April 22, 2008).
Adolf Loos -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9048917/Adolf-Loos (Accessed April 21, 2008).
Adolf Loos [Modernista]. http://www.modernista.cz/english/ma_loos.html (Accessed April 21, 2008).
Adolf Loos: architect biography. http://architect.architecture.sk/adolf-loos-architect/adolf-loos-architect.php (Accessed April 21, 2008).
Mazzucchelli on behalf of Asterios (or Ignazio in abstentia) asks in words and graphics whether dividing lives into dualities and opposites is simply easier for than accepting "a sphere of possibilities." As Asterios states as he bends his head over his cigarettes, which are an unusual addiction for such a structured person, "It's just a convenient organizing principle." "As long as one doesn't mistake the system for reality," answers Ignazio. Although Asterios believes that he can handle the human tendency to simplify and sever, it is this division that breaks his emotional attachment with Hana, causing their relationship to dry up with neglect and boredom.
The scenes of disharmony between Hana and Asterios are text- and graphic-filled and colorful and morphing. In exaggerated graphics that portray how each person is thinking, Mazzuchelli shows how individuals build walls around themselves and become introverted as they are placed on the defensive and…
Goldmund and Narcissus respect each other, but they are two very different people, and the former is a student and the latter a teacher. They also feel that one is dangerous to the other. Narcissus takes care of Goldmund, and the polarity between the two becomes clearer over time. It is Narcissus who is the ascetic, the thinker; he does not accept that love is going to come into his life, regardless that he truly loves Goldmund. On the other hand, Goldmund, a man of outwardly love, sees his love unreturned. How can a man of the mind and a man of emotion and spirit find equality and friendship? Narcissus says to disappoint Goldmund: "It is not our aim to merge into one another, but to understand one another, to see and appreciate the other as he is: the other's contradiction and complement." Nor does Narcissus take Goldmund seriously, since he is not a deep thinker.
Goldmund travels for a number of years and gets his fill of life and women. When he returns, Narcissus once again relates the distinction between the two men. Goldmund always had "a dislike of the abstract," thinking in images, but "thinking has nothing to do with images, but with concepts and formulas. Exactly there, where the images end, philosophy begins." If Goldmund had instead become a thinker, he would have become a mystic, and mystics "are all unhappy people." Rather, Goldmund becomes an artist, which pleases Narcissus: "Be yourself, try to fulfill yourself," Narcissus says, to reach perfection. Goldmund leaves one more time and returns a broken man. Narcissus now says: "Let me now tell you, how deeply I love you, how much you always have been to me, how rich you made my life," and kisses him. Goldmund responds: "I have always loved you, Narcissus, half my life has been an attempt to attract you." Narcissus cares for his friend, until he dies. "Goldmund's last words burned in his heart like fire." Similarly, Asterios returns to Hana, and the two sit quietly together, at one and at peace.
Mazzucchelli, David. Asterios Polyp. New York: Pantheon, 2009
ith respect to these principles, Unitarians have historically supported social justice movements within the United States, such as the Civil Rights movement, and anti-war causes. They also support interfaith dialogue, and believe there is value in all religious faiths, not just Christianity. The merged organization does not hold solely to Universalist or Unitarian beliefs, but honors both in the shaping of the tradition. Many women have served prominently in the movement since its inception, as have African-Americans. Unitarian Universalists also support full social equality for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered people (GLBT).
Unitarian Universalists have occasionally been accused of being irreligious, because of their tolerance of so many conceptions of faith, and the fact that they do not insist that adherents subscribe to a particular conception of God, or even to believe in a traditional, anthropomorphic form of the divine at all. Unitarian Universalists view the religion as part of…
Hughes, Peter. "Michael Sevetus." Unitarian Universalist Historical Society (UUHS).
March 24, 2011. http://www25.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/michaelservetus.html
Rasor, Paul. "Unitarian Universalist views of God." Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA).
March 24, 2011. http://www.uua.org/publications/pamphlets/spiritualtopics/151278.shtml
Florence train station and its qualities. The Florence train station might be expected to be designed in the classic or even art deco style, but instead, it is a classic and well-known example of Italian modernism.
The Firenze Santa Maria Novella or the Stazione di Santa Maria Novella is the main train station in Florence. A group of Italian architects called the Gruppo Toscano (Tuscan Group) completed it in 1934. Architects Giovanni Michelucci and Italo Gamberini were two of the members of this group. Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini approved of the final design of the station after a controversial competition, and many architects believe the Tuscan Group modeled their design after Viennese modern architecture and America's Frank Lloyd Wright, known for his modern and novel architecture. The Tuscan Group only designed the front of the building, the platforms, waiting areas, and such were designed by an Italian Ministry of Communications…
Although Root was already a well-established Chicago architect, the north side of the Monadnock "emerges as a definite departure from the mainstream of Root's practice and the rest of the contemporary Chicago school at the time, with only its "carefully conceived proportions" and sculptural form harkening back to earlier Root works ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.5). Root created the illusion that the structure 'grew' organically from massive granite blocks of the ground floor, while the "inward curve of the wall at the second story" suggests a pylon without making explicit pastiche or parodic references to the Egyptian era ("Monadnock Building," Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks, 2008, p.2). Likewise, "the outward flare of the parapet, the gentle chamfering of the building's corners, and the rhythm of uniform oriel windows...seem to grow from the wall surface" as do the contours of brick beside them…
History." Monadnock Building. 11 May 2008. http://www.monadnockbuilding.com/history.htm
Roth, Leland M. A Concise History of American Architecture. Excerpted at Great
Buildings Online. 11 May 2008. http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Monadnock_Building.html
Monadnock Building." Based on "The Monadnock Block" by the Commission on Chicago Historical and Architectural Landmarks. 11 May 2008. http://www.aallnet.org/press/Monadnock_History.pdf
Although standards may be infinitely more flexible than they may appear to be, this does not mean that all standards are equally life-sustaining. A cannibalistic society would literally consume itself, even though Montaigne grapples with the innate disgust of cannibalism in the essay where he muses about the possibilities of relativism as an ideology. A society founded upon genocide or warlike violence must be contained, lest it threaten the existences and equally valid perspectives of neighboring cultures.
And there is the paradox that although cultural tolerance of diverse practices may be a new ideal, and itself a cultural product, such tolerance as a universal value is necessary to create a world of multicultural lands living side-by-side in a state of peace. There may be no unchanging world values, but values that enable the world to function and remain in a state of peace and homeostasis must be judged superior to…
The second structural element used by Gaudi as a source of inspiration was the skeleton, the structure on which the entire construction relied. It is a fact that Gaudi studied both shells and animals' skeletons before proceeding to build his own structure for the construction. The Casa Milla, for example, shows previous studies of shells and a significant resemblance with them.
Perhaps one of the best examples of how Gaudi used biological elements around him as sources of inspiration comes from one his own stories, the way he created the donkey, from the "Flight into Egypt" ensemble, "carved in stone at the entrance of the big portal." Everything, including Joseph and Mary, had been inspired from people that Gaudi had met in the streets of arcelona. The donkey itself was a problem, so that the architect made an announcement seeking a donkey from which a plaster cast could be made…
1. Ragon, Michel. Histoire de l'architecture et de l'urbanisme modernes. Volume I - Ideologies et pionniers 1800-1910. Casterman. 1986
2. Bonells, Jordi. Catalogne. Barcelone. Points Planete Seuil. 1992
3. Halker Maria Anna and Fischer Thomas. Spagna. Gremese Editore. 1994
4. Permanyer, Luis. Gaudi of Barcelona. Rizzoli International Publications Inc. 1996
Born in Hamburg, Germany in 1869, Peter Behrens studied painting from 1886 to 1889 at the Karlsruhe School of Art, and in 1889 in Dusseldorf under Ferdinand Brutt (Peter pp). He visited the Netherlands in 1890 before finally settling down in Munich (Peter pp). Behrens was a member of the Munich Secession and associated with the contemporary artistic radicals of the day, and in 1897, after visiting Italy the year before, he became one of the founders of the Munich Vereinigte erkstatten, United orkshops (Peter pp). He formed a close friendship with Otto Eckmann and designed for Pan, and designed cover for Otto Julius Bierbaum's literary magazine, Die Insel, 1899, his Der Brunte Vogel, 1899, and for his Pan im Busch, 1901 (Peter pp). Behrens was invited in 1899 to Darmstadt to join the artists' colony set up by Prince Albert's grandson, Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig II von…
AE.G. High Tension Factory Commentary
Seagram uilding by Mies Van Der Rohe
Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe was born in the year 1886 in Aachen, Germany. His father was a stonemason, and the young Mies underwent training under him, after which, at the age of nineteen, he moved on to erlin. erlin being a land of numerous opportunities at the time, Mies was able to train under the 'art nouveau' architect and Interior Designer, runo Paul. At the age of twenty, Mies van der Rohe was good enough to receive his own first independent commission to build a house for the famous philosopher, Alois Riehl. y the year 1908, Mies started to work for the architect, Peter ehrens, and although he was technically working for this architect, Mies was also studying the architectural styles and ways of the two famous architects of the time, the Prussian Karl Friedrich Schinkel, and Frank Lloyd Wright, and by…
Barcelona, Spain, the Barcelona Pavilion. Available From
http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/spain/barcelona/mies/pavilion.html ; Internet;
Accessed 18 July, 2005
Bauhaus School. Available From
Greening of the Health Care System
The objective of this work in writing is to examine problems and solutions to increase greening of the health care system. Towards this end, this work examines and reports literature in this area of study.
It is reported that Pittsburg, PA was, in the 1940s a place coping with extreme pollution and was known as 'the Smoky City'. However in the 1940s leaders in the city met with architect Frank Lloyd Wright inquiring as to what might be done to improve the city. The leaders chose to change the environment "and stimulate new ways of thinking." (oard on Population Health, 2007, p.45) The businesses in Pittsburg were required to change from coal to gas and other fuels that were smokeless for heating and that begin "a significant green renaissance for Pittsburg and created was "a livable, diverse economic region, with one of the most…
Green Healthcare Institutions: Health, Environment, and Economics, Workshop Summary (2007)
Board on Population Health (BPH)
VA Sierra Nevada is Greening Our Healthcare System (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.reno.va.gov/docs/GREENING_OUR_HEALTH_CARE_SYSTEM.pdf
A Practical Approach to 'Green' for Health Care Providers (2009) Deloitte. Retrieved from: http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-UnitedStates/Local%20Assets/Documents/us_lshc_PracticalApproachtoGreeningforProviders_082609.pdf
Addictive Virus" -- later to become the thirteenth chapter of their bestselling book Affluenza -- John De Graaf, David ann, and Thomas H. Naylor engage in a highly rhetorical comparison of addictive shopping to physical addictions such as alcoholism and drug addiction and behavioral addictions like compulsive gambling. It becomes clear shortly into their paper that their purpose is largely alarmist and moralistic, rather than medically or therapeutically intended: none of the authors has any medical or psychiatric credentials. I hope by addressing three aspects of their paper -- their rhetorical strategy, their shifts in focus, and in particular their examples presented as evidence, particularly their closing example -- that I may show the ways in which their thoughts actually confuse rather than clarify issues of behavioral addiction.
The title alone of the essay gives, in miniature, a fair taste of De Graaf et al.'s rhetorical strategy: the phrase "the…
Boyer, Peter J. "The Deliverer: A Pizza Mogul Funds a Moral Crusade." The New Yorker Feb 19, 2007. Accessed 10 Feb 2011 at: http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/02/19/070219fa_fact_boyer#ixzz1DejZemmm
De Graaf John, Wann, David, and Naylor, Thomas H. "The Addictive Virus." In Maasik, Sonia and Solomon, Jack, Signs of Life in the U.S.A.: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. Sixth Edition. New York: Beford St. Martin's, 2008. 71-5.
Anthony Quinn was often thought of as being larger than life. He was a talented actor who played many diverse roles and is now a Hollywood legend.
Anthony Quinn was born Anthony Rudloph Oaxaca Quinn on April 12, 1915 in Chihuahua, Mexico of a Mexican-Indian mother and an Irish father. When he was four years old, his family moved to California, where he was raised in poverty in East Los Angeles and shined shoes and sold newspapers.
Before he launched his acting career, Quinn worked at a variety of odd jobs including a boxer, butcher, street corner preacher and a worker in a slaughterhouse. At one point, he had even been a painter before trying his hand at acting. He launched his film career playing small character roles in several movies in 1936, including his debut in a movie called Parole. He also had small parts in worn Enemy and…
http://www.news.bbc.co.uk.Zorba Star Anthony Quinn Dies. June, 2001. http://www.news.bbc.co.uk.Anthony Quinn: A Life in Pictures. June, 2001. http://www.filmsondisc.com.Anthony Quinn (1915-2001). http://www.aptonline.org.Anthony Quinn: Reflections in the Eye. March, 2002. http://www.imdb.com.Biography for Anthony Quinn. http://www.allmovie.com.Anthony Quinn, Actor. http://www/ffolio.com.Zorba the Greek.
Industrial Revolution and Beyond
It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…
Atkins, Robert. Artspeak. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.
Atkins, Robert. Artspoke. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993.
Banham, P. Reyner. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Cambridge: MIT, 1980.
Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. New York: Schocken, 1969.
According to a famous architectural scholar, the architectural industry's slow growth results from wanting political goodwill (Jencks 1973). A good relationship between the two realms is critical to architectural designs' progress, and the stakeholders in both disciplines should understand the underlying relationship (Milne 1981). Goodman first explained the possibility of politics affecting architecture in 1947, but up to now, many have not realized the existing connection between the two domains (Goodman and Goodman 1947.
In this study, the relationship between politics and architecture will explain how architecture is used to play political games and how architecture designs are based on the political environment. The study will also highlight the contribution of politics to modern architectural designs.
The best way to understand how architecture and politics have been relating over the years is to observe different past occurrences concerning the two domains. It is worth noting that the point of…
Architecture Foundation, 2020, November 22. Caruso St John: Yesterday and Today - In conversation with Nana Biamah-Ofosu and Ellis Woodman. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpCpl-L7iNg&feature=emb_logo
Beyonce, 2018, June 16. APES**T - THE CARTERS. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kbMqWXnpXcA
Cornea, N., 2019. Urban Political Ecology. Oxford Bibliographies Online. DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199874002-0203.
Goodman, P., and Goodman, P., 1947. Communitas: Means of livelihood and ways of life. New York: Vintage.
Jencks, C., 1973. Modern movements in architecture (Vol. 5). Editions Mardaga.
Kwinter, S., 2010. Notes on the third ecology. Ecological Urbanism, pp.94-105.
Lnag, C., 2018 June 19. Art History Experts Explain the Meaning of the Art in Beyoncé and Jay-Z's 'Apesh-t' Video. Time. Retrieved from https://time.com/5315275/art-references-meaning-beyonce-jay-z-apeshit-louvre-music-video/
Milne, D., 1981. Architecture, politics, and the public realm. Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, 5(1-2), pp.131-146.
Production: Gaumont-British; Producer: Michael Balcon; Screenplay and Adaptation: Charles Bennett and Alma Reville from the novel by John Buchan; Principal Actors: Madeleine Carroll, Robert Donat, Lucie Mannheim and Godfrey Tearle
The 39 Steps was based on the John Buchan novel, written in 1915. Hitchcock freely adapted and changed the premise of the novel that very little of the original plot remained. Buchan, who was also the British Governor General in Canada at that time, was initially upset; but, after he saw the final product, he admitted that the film was much better than his novel.
This was the first time that Hitchcock used the now often-repeated theme of sympathy for the man unjustly framed and on the run, all the while attempting to clear his besmirched name and find the real culprit. Hitchcock also used the techniques of combining two scenes unrelated visually but by sound. The director relied more…
" On its in inception, Canby reviewed it. He said that the story lines were undeveloped and gags having no payoff. He described it to be unreal. Kael at the opposing end commented that she never got to understood Canby's comedy sense. Kael suggested that the comedy was perfectly normal and had charms. She rated it to be far more entertaining than most of the films. The film's director remarked later on that the film only required a degree of word expression that only a review like that of Kael could generate. His famous contributions and famous woks included fiction writing, like Living Quarters of 1975 and Unnatural Scenery of 1979.
Canby wrote, produced and directed plays like "End of the ar" in New York City 1984 at Ensemble Studio Theatre. Canby is remembered for his famous reviews at New York Times. After reviewing the movie "Monsters in the Morrow,"…
Buttsworth, Sara, and Maartje M. Abbenhuis. Monsters in the Mirror: Representations of Nazism in Post-War Popular Culture. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2010. Print.
Haberski, Raymond J. Freedom to Offend: How New York Remade Movie Culture. Lexington, Ky: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 2007. Print.
Melnick, Ross, and Andreas Fuchs. Cinema Treasures: A New Look at Classic Movie Theaters. St. Paul, MN: MBI, 2004. Print.
Newman, Michael Z. Indie: An American Film Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. Print.
My letters to my brother Theo often touch upon this theme."
Q: hat was your relationship like in Arles?
Gaugin: "I would say that Vincent definitely needed me more than I needed him. Vincent was always looking for a friend, you know -- a kindred spirit. His brother Theo was sympathetic but separate from him. In me he found someone who shared his passion for art and who understood what he was trying to accomplish. But Vincent was unstable and our relationship was often frustrated by his inability to reconcile himself to the artist's lonely lot. I, certainly, was more comfortable being a loner."
Van Gogh: "My sojourn in Arles in a rented yellow house, which I depicted on canvas in my typically thickly-applied, brightly colored 1888 painting, would end in a kind of portentous delirium. Gauguin's stay and my increasing reliance upon the Frenchman proved a misstep. Gauguin's insufferable…
Gayford, M. The Yellow House. NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2008. Print.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.
Kyziridis, T. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." 2005. Web.
Effective Approaches Leadership Management
Different personalities practice different management styles, while different management styles are suited to different personalities. It is very important for a manager to make sure that their employees are motivated and their work rates are up to the mark. The employees of any organization need to be motivated in order to maintain a fair attendance at the office along with enough motivation that employees would want to continue to carry on working. This motivation can be maintained by different managerial techniques for example keeping the employees involved in the decision making of the organization-having an autocratic leadership style of management is not likely to make employees feel part of the business; in fact, giving them more responsibility and a greater role in the activities of the organization should make them feel more involved and also they will feel more encouraged and motivated if the…
Principles of Management: Situational Approaches to Leadership . (n.d.). Get Homework Help with CliffsNotes Study Guides . Retrieved July 26, 2012, from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Situational-Approaches-to-Leadership.topicArticleId-8944,articleId-8914.html
Shih, W.C., Kauffman, S.P., & Christensen, C.M. (2008). Innovation Killers. Harvard Business Review, 1, 104.
Shih, W.C., Kauffman, S.P., & Christensen, C.M. (2008). Innovation Killers. Harvard Business Review, 1, 100.
Verbal Communication Model. (n.d.). Virtual Teacher Aide. Retrieved July 26, 2012, from http://www.vtaide.com/lifeskills/verbalC.htm
corpse strangled with the rope still around his neck, the first thing I wanted to do was to remove the rope. Because the look on the dead body's face was horrible, and obviously the rope was what was responsible for the death, and also for the horrible look on the corpse's face, with bulging bloodshot eyes and the tongue sticking out. But Harry went and looked at the body to make sure that he was dead, and then basically Harry told me that this was a crime scene, so we shouldn't disturb any possible evidence. So we didn't take the rope off, and instead we went to talk to the victim's wife. She hadn't moved from the last time we saw her; she was just motionless in her chair. I asked her if she had told anybody about her husband's death, and in a weirdly non-emotional way she said that…
Gnostics believed that they belonged to the "true church" of an elect few who were worthy; the orthodox Christians would not be saved because they were blind to the truth.
Part E -- Content - if we then combine the historical outline of the "reason" for John's writings with the overall message, we can conclude that there are at least five major paradigms present that are important in a contextual analysis of John.
John 5:13 - I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life. This seems to point that John saw a clear difference between those who believed in Jesus as the Son of God, but were unsure about eternal life. However, if we look back at other parts of his Gospel, we do find repetition of this theme. In John 1:5-7,…
Raymond Brown, "Does the New Testament Call Jesus God?" Theological Studies.26: 1,
Clark, N. Interpreting the Resurrection. (London: SCM Press, 1967).
Hamilton, James. God's Indwelling Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Old and New Testaments.