Free Trade Essays (Examples)

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Trade Between Nations

Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73642523

Free trade and the North-South divide

Globalization has been bringing along several concepts and ideologies and the concept of free trade has been growing in tandem with globalization though with several obstacles along the way. Basically, the meaning and context of free trade is a condition where international trade is facilitated making possible the exchange of capital, goods as well as services across international territories or borders without undue restrictions, conditions or controls. Free trade is significant for most nations since it significantly contributes to a good share of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of those nations. It is the type of trade that has been in existence for many decades and to date it is held as one of the most important kind of trade in facilitating the economic, political as well as social ties and interactions of nations of the world. Some of the aspect that facilitate the…… [Read More]

References

Brown Consultancy Services. (2012).Theory of International Trade. Retrieved February 25, 2015 from  http://www.brownconsultancy.com/ds-theory-international-trade.aspx 

Costinot, A & Donaldson D., (2004) Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage: Old idea, new evidence. Retrieved February 25, 2015 from http://www.nber.org/papers/w17969.pdf-new_window=1

Direct Selling Education Foundation, (1998). The North American Free Trade Agreement. Retrieved February 25, 2015 from  http://www.library.unt.edu/gpo/oca/nafta.htm
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Trade Barriers Visible and Invisible

Words: 1575 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42068495



Of course, consumers knowing the country of origin of Toyota vehicles have done little to harm the dominance of that car over traditional American manufacturers like GM and Ford. But in some instances, if a particular nation has received bad press regarding its labor practices, mandatory labeling as an imported good might act as an additional invisible trade barrier. Also, if a nation is being subject to a particularly damaging round of international publicity regarding other aspects of its international policy, this may lead to a boycott of the nation's goods, and thus invisible tariffs can be constructed through simply the apparently innocuous policy of labeling nation's country of origin, in the supposed interest of consumer information.

orks Cited

Fliess, Barbara Carlos Busquets "The Role of Trade Barriers." OECD Trade Policy

orking Paper No. 45. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. 7 Mar 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/25/37872326.pdf

Jennings, Horace. "Brazilian trade…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fliess, Barbara Carlos Busquets "The Role of Trade Barriers." OECD Trade Policy

Working Paper No. 45. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. 7 Mar 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/25/37872326.pdf

Jennings, Horace. "Brazilian trade sets new highs as import barriers are lowered."

Business America.
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Trade Balance the Concept of

Words: 2225 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24131803

Earlier studies based on Bretton oods data were only refuted because the data sets of the later studies were insufficiently long. It may be, therefore, that Himarios is one of many that will now be able to demonstrate that long-term equilibrium is possible. It may that it requires nearly at least three decades' worth of data and a multi-country study in order to see the equilibrium emerge, meaning that previous theories were simply not taking into consideration the time frames that would be required for production, wage and policy shifts to be implemented and have their impact on a nation's balance of trade.

Himarios' findings do suggest that externalities cannot be maintained. hile a single government can maintain consistent economic policy for decades seemingly regardless of the consequences (Cuba or North Korea, for example) a free economy cannot. Eventually a trade deficit will result in a workforce demanding jobs, for…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ahmad, J. & Yang, J. (2004). Estimation of the J-curve in China. East-West Center Working Paper. No. 67, 2004. Retrieved March 31, 2010 from  https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/3706/1/ECONwp067.pdf 

Akbostanci, E. (2002). Dynamics of trade balance: The Turkish J-Curve. Economic Research Center. Retrieved March 31, 2010 from  http://www.erc.metu.edu.tr/menu/series02/0205.pdf 

Backus, D., Kehoe, P., Kydland, F. (1994). Dynamics of trade balance and the terms of trade: The J-curve? The American Economic Review. Vol. 84 (1) 84-103.

Bahmani-Oskooee, M. & Niroomand, F. (1998). Long-run price elasticities and the Marshall-Lerner condition revisited. Economics Letters. Vol. 61 (1) 101-109
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Trade Show Industry in Germany

Words: 31155 Length: 80 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38292092

Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.

The study is important for a second reason that international trade is becoming a cause for concern after the global recession. The economies of various countries have been affected after a decline in their purchasing power. It is said that economic recovery is possible through an increase in trade and opening up of markets (OECD, 2009). As a result, governments are trying to find new ways of stimulating trade in order to increase demand in the national economy and create more jobs to reduce unemployment. Trade shows can be an effective means of stimulating trade activity by bringing together buyers and sellers in a single location. This study will be useful for governments because it will help them to identify the economic, regulatory, legal, and logistical issues that need to…… [Read More]

UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].

Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House

Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
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Trade Partners

Words: 968 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13513043

trade in Mexico. The writer explores the nation's dependency on the U.S. And presents plans to reduce that dependency and increase other options. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

As the world continues to globalize many of the previous boundaries that were experienced have been removed. This means advancements in technology, communication, manufacturing and other areas. Mexico is frequently accused of being too dependent on the United States. With the globalizing moves forward there have been many new horizons for the country of Mexico to explore regarding trade. educing its dependence on the United States and expanding its interdependence with other nations will provide Mexico with bargaining power when it comes to its dealings with the states in the future.

Within the last decade the trade abilities and clout in Mexico has improved significantly. Whereas Mexico used to be almost exclusively dependent on the U.S., the more…… [Read More]

References

____ (1999). Attacking free trade growing pains., La Prensa de San Antonio, 02-28-1999, pp 2A.

____(2001). EU DIPLOMAT SEES MEXICAN DEMOCRACY OPENING INTERNATIONAL TRADE DOORS., Infolatina, 01-03-2001.

____able (1995). Fact sheets: Canada.(includes a country profile). Vol. 6, U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 03-06-1995, pp 165(7).

____(2000). MEXICO BECOMES TRADE GIANT, SAYS WTO., Infolatina, 04-16-2000
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Trade Act of 1974 on Euro Exchange

Words: 5980 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94103994

Trade Act of 1974 on Euro exchange rates?

Free Trade has been a key agenda for the past three presidents. In an expanding global market, tariffs and trade policies are more important today than they have been in the past. More and more countries are forming alliances such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asian Alliance, and the European Union (EU). These trade agreements are meant to level the playing for all countries, both industrialized and emerging countries.

President Bush's trade policy is aimed at helping to generate American jobs, open markets to American products, and provide economic growth. Sometimes massive increases in imports can have a devastating effect on U.S. industries. [This has been the case for the U.S. steel Industry and is the issue addressed in Section 203 (B) (1) of the Trade Act of 1974. Foreign steel makers have had the luxury of government…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arnold, James. Steel sector stares into the abyss. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1857000/1857914.stm. Accessed April,

2002

Arnold, James. Steel spat could mean wider worries. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
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Trade Between the United States and Japan

Words: 1252 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76924167

Trade between the United States and Japan [...] trade between the United States and Japan, such as exports and imports of goods, exports and imports of services, tourism, and investments. Japan and the United States are two of the premier forces in trade around the world. The two countries depend heavily on each other in a variety of trade areas, from electronics to tourism and banking. Together, they form a formidable bond of trade that dominates the world market and the world economy.

In 2002, Japan's total foreign trade was 52,109 billion yen. The portion they traded with the United States was 14,873 billion yen, or 28% of the country's total foreign trade ("Yearbook," 2003). Conversely, the United States only trades about 9% of their foreign trade with Japan, so there has been a deficit between the two countries for many years. This seems odd since Japan is a smaller…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2004). Third report to the leaders on the U.S.-Japan regulatory reform and competition policy initiative. Retrieved from the United States Trade Representative Web site: http://www.ustr.gov/regions/japan/2004-06-08-japan-factsheet.pdf18 June 2004.

Editors. (2003). Japan statistical yearbook. Retrieved from the Japan Statistics Bureau Web site: http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/nenkan/index.htm18 June 2004.
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Trade Agreements and Negotiations on International Trade

Words: 3470 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90386211

Trade Agreements and Negotiations on International Trade

International Trade

Trade is important to countries all around the world. International trade opens up job opportunities and also leads to development of economic activity in every region of the trading country. The trading countries must also ensure that traders, whether self-employed entrepreneur, corporate executive or pensioner must bear the responsibility of making sure that goods and services are transported efficiently to global markets. The best way to advance in international trade is to work on two aspects namely, the Trade Commissioner Service, and also foster productive ways of negotiating and administering trade agreements and rules.

International Trade is defined as follows:

The law relating to the exchange of goods and services between nations. Legal issues can relate to tariffs and government restrictions on export and import, as well as the contracts between the trading partners." [LawyerLocator - Glossary of Terms]

The "old"…… [Read More]

References

International Economic Data Bank - UN Trade Data, available at http://iedb.anu.edu.au/iedb/datainfo/UNtradedata.htm, accessed on: October 31, 2003

International Trade, available at http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/trade/menu-en.asp, accessed on: October 31, 2003

International Trade Research, available at http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/majoract.htm, accessed on: October 31, 2003

ITC - Products - Market Development Section - Artisanal Products Home Page, available at http://www.intracen.org/mds/sectors/artisanal/welcome.htm, accessed on: October 31, 2003
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Trade Restrictions and Tariffs

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38781552

International Tariffs

Quintessentially, a tariff is a tax on goods that are transferred overseas. Those goods are either imports or exports; tariffs provide a degree of stabilization for the competition of imports and exports (Helpman and azin, 1978, p. 1131). Specifically, tariffs apply to merchandise that is imported or exported between different nations, regardless of their location. There are a number of different types of tariffs and variations on this concept as a whole. Tariffs are similar to customs duties, which are the indirect taxes which must be accounted for when goods are traded between countries. These duties can pertain to both imports and exports. Many people use the terms tariff and customs duty interchangeably. Tariffs function as a collection or listing of goods and typically contain the rate of the customs duty. That rate is generally the amount of the tariff, whether it applies to imports or exports.

In…… [Read More]

References

Helpmann, E., Razin, A. (1978). The protective effect of a tariff under certainty. Journal of Political Economy. 86(6), 1131-1141.

Lantheman, M. (2014). NAFTA and the Future of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. www.forbes.com Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/stratfor/2014/01/07/nafta-and-the-future-of-canada-mexico-and-the-united-states/
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Intra-Industry International Trade

Words: 2169 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84900433

Trade Theory

Intra-Industry International Trade

Standard trade theory and its deviations

The classical theory of international trade can be traced back to the founding father of capitalism Adam Smith: Smith's 1776 Wealth of Nations theorized that free trade would be beneficial to all nations. Smith stated that much like merchants, nations should specialize in the particular goods and services which they could produce most efficiently and trade with other nations who could produce alternate goods and services equally efficiently. Thus free trade resulted in advantages for both trading parties. Smith's theory was later fleshed out by David icardo in his Principles of Economics. iccardo stated that free trade could optimize efficiency for every country on a global level by reducing the inefficiencies generated by the excess resources involved in producing the goods and services the nation was not suited to produce (Sen 2010: 2).

This common wisdom remained relatively consistent…… [Read More]

References

Agglomeration economies. (2013). Economics Help. Retrieved from:

 http://www.economicshelp.org/blog/glossary/agglomeration-economies/ 

Carlton & Perloff. (2010). Strategic trade. Modern Industrial Organization (4th ed). Pearson.

Retrieved from:  http://wps.aw.com/aw_carltonper_modernio_4/21/5566/1425036.cw/content/index.html
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World Trade

Words: 441 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4025022

Trade Agreements

There are significantly more trade agreements in the world than I would have predicted. A list of final agreements between the United States and individual countries indicates that the United States alone has trade agreements with nations ranging from Argentina to Zimbabwe, and an impressive number of other countries, including Canada, Brazil, Taiwan, ussia, Mongolia, Korea, Jordan, and Ghana (Foreign Agricultural Service). Other countries have similarly large numbers of agreements (Government of Alberta). Trade agreements in the future are likely to become more prominent, given the increasing pressures of globalization. As such, countries with reciprocal trade agreements are likely to be more economically viable than those that tend to isolate themselves from trade in an increasingly interdependent world.

International politics are linked closely to international trade. Often, it is difficult to distinguish whether politics or trade takes the lead in global affairs. As an example, many Western countries…… [Read More]

References

Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Trade Agreements. FAS Online. Last modified: Wednesday, May 12, 2004. 04 June 2004. http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/agreements.html

Government of Alberta. Free Trade Agreements: Free Trade Agreements and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development. 04 June 2004. http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/psc8323?opendocument

U.S. Canada Partnership for Growth. The Lumber Tariff Dispute - Let's Work it Out. 04 June 2004. http://www.partnershipforgrowth.org
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Trade Blocs in the Global

Words: 1489 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77534724

Despite the fact that it is considered to be responsible for the immense inequalities in the economic sector, it also provides the progress for least developed countries and the environment for the maintenance of the developed countries. The existence of trade blocks such as NAFTA or ASEAN are even more reasons to consider globalization as a means of improvement in terms of politics, economic, and social aspects of life.

eferences

ASEAN. N.d. About. 28 September 2011 http://www.asean.org/about_ASEAN.html

Ian Goldin, Kenneth einert. 2006. Globalization for development: trade, finance, aid, igration and policy . World Bank: Palgrave Macmillan, Washington, DC .

D Henwood, 2003. "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 28 September 2011 http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/define/2003/1113globophobia.htm

D. Held,. 2005. Debating Globalization . Polity Press, Cambridge.

Economic Policy, 20 (1) Spring, 72-84

Woods N. 2000a 'The Challenge to International Institutions'. Primary eading.

D Henwood, "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 13, 2003. 28 September 2011

< http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/define/2003/1113globophobia.htm??…… [Read More]

References

ASEAN. N.d. About. 28 September 2011 http://www.asean.org/about_ASEAN.html

Ian Goldin, Kenneth Reinert. 2006. Globalization for development: trade, finance, aid, igration and policy . World Bank: Palgrave Macmillan, Washington, DC .

D Henwood, 2003. "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 28 September 2011 http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/define/2003/1113globophobia.htm

D. Held,. 2005. Debating Globalization . Polity Press, Cambridge.
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Free to Choose the Ideas

Words: 1396 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51116567

This means that those providing the bulk of the revenue to the State are not the same as those receiving it. Those receiving (without paying) would naturally prefer more government hand-outs; if they are in the majority, the danger is that government can continue to grow, and command a "rent" which reduces overall productivity.

Is the argument of the Friedmans viable and workable? The program "Free to Choose" was aired in 1980. Since that time, nearly one-half of the world's population has moved from socialistic and communist government control to greater personal and economic freedom. These people include those in China, India, Southeast Asia, much of Latin America and Eastern Europe. The result of this freeing of government controls has been an unprecedented growth rate in the world. In the past decade, for example, global GDP grew at 3.1%, with growth rates in China and India at 9% and 6.3%…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bade, R. a. (2007). Foundations of Microeconomics. London (HQ): Addison Wesley.

Economist. (2007). 2008 World Almanac. London: Economist.

Friedman, R. (1980). FREE to CHOOSE: The Power of the Market. (McKenzie, Interviewer) New York.

Li, H. (2005). Family Life Cycle and Peasant Income in Socialist China: Evidence from Qin Village. Journal of Family History, 121-138.
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Intra-Industry International Trade

Words: 2124 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46738616

Intra-Industry International Trade: Benefits and Costs

Trade is brought about by specialization. People specialize in those goods and services that they can produce effectively, and since they cannot survive on only these, exchange their surplus production for other items that they need, but do not produce. There are mainly two types of trade in this regard; international and domestic. The domestic form of trade refers to the exchange of trade items (services and goods) within a country's borders. International trade, on the other hand, can be defined as "the exchange of goods and services among residents of different countries" (Chacholiades, 2006). International trade can take either of two forms; intra-industry or inter-industry forms of trade. Inter-industry trade is trade between industries, whereas intra-industry trade takes place within industries. Intra-industry trade, therefore, refers to the importation and exportation of same-industry items of trade (Gandolfo, 1998).

Background

International trade has been on…… [Read More]

References

Boyes, W.J. & Melvin, M. (2007). Microeconomics (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Chacholiades, M. (2006). The Pure Theory of International Trade. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

FAO. (2000). International Trade: Some Basic Theories and Concepts (Module 2). The Food and Agricultural Organization. Retrieved from  http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x7352e/x7352e02.htm 

Gandolfo, G. (1998). International Trade Theory and Policy. Rome: Springer.
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Nature of U S -mexican Trade Relations it Is

Words: 4198 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37626195

nature of U.S.-Mexican trade relations, it is difficult indeed not to think of the statement of Mexican President Porfirio Diaz at the turn of the last century, "Poor Mexico, so far from God, and so close to the United States." For Mexico does continue to seem to occupy a benighted position vis-a-vis its richer and more powerful neighbor to the north, a position that is in no small measure defined and continually recreated by the nature and mechanisms of international trade between the two nations. This paper examines the nature of the trade relations between the United States and Mexico in the light of several classical economics theories and models as well as in respect to recent developments in the wake of the 1992 signing of the NAFTA accord and the last decade's worth of increasing globalization.

Economic Theories and Models

We begin by discussing and summarizing some of the…… [Read More]

References

Danaher, K. & Burbach, R. (eds.) (2000). Globalize this!: The battle against The World Trade Organization. Los Angeles: Community Archives Publications.

Esty, D. (1994). Greening the GATT: Trade, environment, and the future. Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.

http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ355/choi/ho.

http://internationalecon.com/v1.0/ch60/60c110.html
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Understanding New Governance and Its Application to International Trade as a Public Administration

Words: 2416 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55464826

New Governance

Application to International Trade

Evaluation of New Governance

Application of New Governance to International Trade for Free Market

In today's robust world, scholars as well as the think tanks and tools of democracy and beaurcracy have been using a term "governance" or good governance rather frequently. Where governance in needed in every aspect of corporate management and public administration, it is important to understand how the very concept of governance has evolved over time. Old theory of governance has been replaced by its contemporary version which can be seen as a pre-requisite for the free trade regime especially for exporters. Where the new governance theory has a considerable impact on international trade; its effectiveness in public and private sector cannot be ignored.

Background of New Governance

Over past two decades, public and private organizations have followed a path of evolution. 'ayner's aiders' and the '3Es' of economy, efficiency…… [Read More]

References

Brown, A.G. & Stern, R.M. 2011. 'Free trade agreements and governance of the global trading'. University of Michigan.

Cleveland, Harland. 1972. The future executive: a guide for tomorrow's managers. New York: Harper & Row.

Heinrich, Carolyn J. And Laurence E. Lynn Jr., eds. 2000. Governance and performance: new perspectives. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Lynn, Laurence E. Jr., Carolyn Henrich, and Carolyn J. Hill. 2001. Improving governance: a new logic for empirical research. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
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international trade and NAFTA

Words: 778 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85212396

Reflection Paper – International Trade

There has been a lot of talk lately about NAFTA being put at risk – either the US wanting to pull out of the deal or to significantly re-negotiate its terms. Industries that either benefit from NAFTA or feel that they do not benefit are lining up to express their positions – the latest being the auto industry, which has generally benefited significantly from NAFTA's country of origin rules
(Shepardson, 2018).

This discussion makes one reflect on the objectives of trade policy in general. The entire point of trade policy is to expand the economy by leveraging comparative advantages. While there are high profile instances where Mexico has comparative advantage, and has therefore won some trade away from the United States, the US has the most number of products in which it has a comparative advantage, with Mexico the least (Mzumara, Chingarande & Karambakuwa, 2012).…… [Read More]

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Economic Analysis The International Trade Market International

Words: 1291 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55999124

Economic Analysis: The International Trade Market

International trade plays an historically large role in the growth and prosperity of countries around the globe. Similar to the benefits that open trade within a country brings to that country's respective economy, trade on the international front improves the global market economy significantly. Trade generates competition, promotes the transfer and utilization of new technology and allows countries, customers, and businesses alike to access to the world's best products. Trade in the international market brings about the capacity for innovation, high productivity and rising incomes and economic standings for each country that chooses to engage in it. However, certain strategies, regulations and methods must be employed within the international market to ensure success and smooth operations in each respective country that becomes involved in world trade.

Governmental ole in International Trade

The government plays a very specific role in the field of international trade…… [Read More]

References

Dutta, N. (2010). Foreign investment, financial development and political risks. The Journal of Developing Areas, 44.2: pp: 303-327. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Lowenfield, A. (2001). The role of government in international trade: essays over three decades. The American Journal of International Law, 95.2: pp: 400-502. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Rauch, J. And Trindade, V. (2009). Neckties in the tropics: a model of international trade and cultural diversity. Canadian Journal of Economics, 42.3: pp. 809-843. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Winter-Nelson, A. (2007). Roles for government in international trade. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 37.1: pp. 60-61. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
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International Trade Mercantilism Is the

Words: 368 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51814525

The primary advantage of trade, he argued, was that it opened up new markets for surplus goods and also provided some commodities at less cost from abroad than at home.

Mass perception of free trade in the United States is rarely positive. Immediately, people think of lost jobs and our growing trade deficit instead of the free trade promises of a higher standard of living brought about by the theory of comparative advantage and economies of scale. Therefore, many feel that free trade makes this country worse off.

ibliography

Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available:

http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Smith.html (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).

David Hume (1711-76)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Hume.html (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).

Mercantalism." Available:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercantilist (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005)

David Hume (1711-76)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Hume.html (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).

Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available:

http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Smith.html (Accessed 19…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adam Smith (1723-90)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available:

 http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Smith.html  (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).

David Hume (1711-76)." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Available:  http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Hume.html  (Accessed 19 Feb. 2005).

Mercantalism." Available:
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Marshall Executive Brief 3 Trade Policy Greece

Words: 1315 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93076358

Marshall Executive Brief #3 Trade Policy Greece and France

This brief will discuss critical issues of trade policy, including global trade, global currency exchange, business strategy and operations, R&D, human resources, accounting and finance.

Global Trade and Currency Exchange

Global Trade

Free trade is a system where the governments of two countries do not discriminate between the imports and exports of the other country. In particular, free trade in the modern sense applies to tariffs and other trade barriers, or the non-existence thereof. Ricardo described free trade in terms of absolute and comparative advantage. Usually, this concept is described using a simplistic, fictional world in which there are two countries and maybe only two goods. In this example, countries should produce the good in which they have comparative advantage, and in doing so the two countries combined with have a higher aggregate output than if only the country with absolute…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

2012 General Mills Annual Report. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MTQ5MTc4fENoaWxkSUQ9LTF8VHlwZT0z&t=1

EC. (2013). What is the common customs tariff? European Commission. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from  http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/customs_duties/tariff_aspects/ 

Formiani, R. (2004). David Ricardo: Theory of free international trade. Economic Insights. Retrieve April 18, 2013 from  http://www.dallasfed.org/assets/documents/research/ei/ei0402.pdf
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Intra-Industry International Trade Case Study

Words: 2269 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89372418

intra-industry international trade within the standard international trade classification SITC6, which represents manufactured foods classified chiefly by material. The scope of this paper is limited to processed foods, and includes analytical frameworks from the gravity model, and classic approaches to product differentiation, product commoditization, pricing, and market structure.

eferences to market structures in the literature typically oversimplify the dynamics influencing the development of market types -- perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly -- and this tendency is exacerbated when the focus is on intra-industry trade. Further, the distinctions become considerably more obfuscated when companies that are in the same trade do business in both domestic and international markets. A global manufacturing strategy is the goal of most multinational companies, and rationalizing manufacturing strategies is an objective for nations, as well (Lee, 1984). For instance, assume that a country has the industrial infrastructure to produce canned beverages, but there are…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, J.E. (2011). The gravity model. Annual Review of Economics, 3. Boston College.

Arribas, I., Perez, F., and Tortosa-Ausina, E. (2009). Measuring globalization of international trade: Theory and evidence. World Development, 37(1), 127-145. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.03.009

Baier, S.I., and Bergstrand, J.H., (2009). Bonus vetus OLS: A simple method for approximating international trade-cost effects using the gravity equation. Journal of International Economics. Retrieved http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022199608001062

Berstrand, J.H. (1985). The gravity equation in international trade: Some micro-economics foundations and empirical evidence. Review of Economics and Statistics, 67(3), 474-481. Doi: 10.2307.1925976
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H&M Trade Comparative Advantages

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19072905

Comparative Advantages

1. The question of whether agreements like OPT should be restricted and apparel retailers be allowed to import from the most cost-effective countries is a false dichotomy. The two are not mutually exclusive. If there is an OPT agreement within the EU, that does not force H&M to buy from EU nations; it simply gives them an incentive to do so. H&M can still trade with other nations, under whatever trade agreements exist between the EU and those nations. If India and China have competitive advantage in textiles, then they will win the trade. But by no means is H&M forced to trade within the EU.

The reality that even with an OPT agreement, EU producers still do not have competitive advantage – that India and China exist as lower-cost producers – certainly calls into question the value of having the OPT agreements at all. The agreements probably…… [Read More]

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International Trade Advantages and Disadvantages

Words: 368 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94509659

The same effect can occur for import industry. The prices of imported goods and commodities depend on how much the export market sells the commodities.

Applying the Situations in International Trade

As an administrative assistant, it is important to watch the international trading and market to gather enough information as to when it is ideal to invest or buy office goods and commodities for the company. An administrative assistant who has the responsibility to maintain proper conditions in an office environment always involves himself in buying of products for his company's use. Thus, applying knowledge in the current situations in international trade can benefit the company in terms of financial resources.

eferences

Trade Advantages and Disadvantages

etrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://floti.bell.ac.uk/intee/Comparative%20advantage/tsld010.htm

The World Trade Organization (WTO). Advantages and Disadvantages.

etrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://www.yementimes.com/article.shtml?i=875&p=opinion&a=2… [Read More]

References

Trade Advantages and Disadvantages

Retrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://floti.bell.ac.uk/intee/Comparative%20advantage/tsld010.htm

The World Trade Organization (WTO). Advantages and Disadvantages.

Retrieved on September 13, 2005, from Online. http://www.yementimes.com/article.shtml?i=875&p=opinion&a=2
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Fair Trade for All The

Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45767390



Overall, fair trade is a great way to make sure that countries work together and help one another focus on developing and moving forward. Not all fair trade is fair, but most of the options given to people who want to see fair trade are better than what they would receive if they were not part of any particular fair trade agreements. People who are interested in fair trade and the Czech epublic's role in that trade have to consider that individuals and countries both have to play a role in whether trade is fair or whether there are problems with it that go deeper than WTO regulations. While the WTO is not the only organization that has anything to do with trade on an international level, it is certainly the most recognized. Because of the current strength of the Czech epublic and its ties to numerous other countries, the…… [Read More]

References

Czech Republic to join Schengen. (2006). The Prague Post.

Garrett, S.A. (1996). Conscience and power: an examination of dirty hands and political leadership. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hochman, Ji-i. (1998). Historical dictionary of the Czech State. NY: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Rich, E.E., Wilson, C.H., & Postan, M.M. (1977). The Cambridge economic history of Europe: The economic organization of early modern Europe. NY: Cambridge University Press.
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Financing Foreign Trade

Words: 831 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16660484

India Trade

The Risk of Trade ith India

Primary Concerns:

Over the course of the last decade, the once stagnant Indian economy had become among the fastest growing in the global community. The opening doors of free trade have made India a top destination for high-tech companies, a major service industry provider and host to countless foreign trade and production endeavors. However, just as its fortunes have improved with the proliferation of globalization, so too have its recent fortunes felt the decline of the global recession. As reported in an article from Businessline, Chennai, "due to the difficult financing conditions prevailing in the international credit markets and increased risk aversion by the lending counterparties, gross inflows of short-term trade credit to India declined in 2008-09 and this trend continued in 2009-10." (Anonymous, p. 1)

Still, India remains an economy rife with growth potential for foreign investors. An important factor in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Anonymous (2010). NEWS: Export credit shows declining trend. Businessline, Chennai, pg. 1. Retrieved from library portal via coursenet.

Gill, A., Biger, N., & Tibrewala, R. (2010). Understanding and Mitigating Direct Investment Risk in the Indian Real Estate Market. Business and Economics Journal, 2010, 1-10. Retrieved from  http://astonjournals.com/manuscripts/Vol2010/BEJ-2_Vol2010.pdf
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Canada Globalization and Canadian Free

Words: 2902 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27964127

The cost to its economy is greater than just lost opportunity as it extends to further damage the credibility of a relationship which the public views as suspect, in accordance with Campbell's estimation.

The oversight of international regulation is undertaken by the orld Trade Organization, which brings the globe's free trade partners together to broker affairs of economic cooperation or contract. However, this has proved to be an agency with too diluted a focus to effectively maintain balance between such partners as Canada and the U.S. Campbell addresses most of the regulatory differences between the two nations as being historical and incidental in some ways, indicating that perhaps the inconsistencies are simply in need of concentrated attention. This notion accounts for the 2005 launch of a Trilateral Regulatory Commission, partnering Canada, the U.S. And Mexico in an agreement to acknowledge a central forum for regulation of trade discrepancies. Though its…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

AFX. (2006). WTO Rules Against Canada in Lumber Dispute with U.S.

Forbes. Online at http://www.forbes.com/markets/feeds/afx/2006/04/03/afx2644053.html

Anderson, a.D.M. (1995). Seeking Common Ground Canada-U.S. Trade Dispute Settlement Policies in the Nineties. San Francisco: Westview Press.

Campbell, B. (2006). Canada-U.S. Relations: Paul Martin's Dilemma. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
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Effects of NAFTA on Mexican Foreign Trade

Words: 1456 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11331001

NAFTA and its affects on the Mexican foreign trade. The writer explores what NAFTA is and how it operates then outlines the way it impacts the Mexican foreign trade. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

NAFTA's Impact on Foreign Trade with Mexico

The North American Free Trade Agreement was put together in 1993 and provides agreed upon resolutions for its members when it comes to free trade boundaries and rules. The NAFTA allows its members to regulate things such as tariffs, import and export regulations and other issues that come up in the course of trade business between the nations. NAFTA had a positive impact on Mexico's free trade industry because it strengthened an already strong relationship between the United States and Mexico.

Several years before the NAFTA agreement went into place Mexico began working on its economic reforms to improve its trade business both locally and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bulmer, Victor; Craske, Nikki, Serrano, Monica. Mexico and the North American Free Trade Agreement: who will benefit?

ISBN:

0312121768

Glick, Leslie, Alan. Understanding the North American Free Trade Agreement: legal and business consequences of NAFTA
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New Zealand Council of Trade

Words: 3308 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98889980

The regulatory settings in (say) 2000 would not have contemplated the government becoming the major shareholder in Air New Zealand or buying back the railway tracks; so if they had been bound into the GATT, the government would not have been able to step back in" (Conway, 2005, p. 15).

The CTU's official position on these issues is as follows:

1. The CTU does not oppose international trade;

2. The CTU does not oppose all negotiations on preferential trade arrangements;

3. The CTU prefers a multilateral approach;

4. The CTU recognises that free trade agreements are a reality;

5. The CTU therefore focuses on specific issues in free trade agreements;

6. The CTU does not want the 1984-1999 deregulation of the New Zealand economy to be the baseline for trade rules on access;

7. The CTU wants to see more focus on alternative trade models;

8. The CTU wants to…… [Read More]

References

About us. (2009). The New Zealand Council of Trade Unions. [Online]. Available: http://union.

org.nz/about.

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Conway, P. (2005). Putting fairness into free trade: Peter Conway provides a union perspective on international trade. New Zealand International Review, 30(6), 14-15.
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International Trade the Basis of

Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2119325



Knowing that international trade is by definition a national-level issue does not stop people from pointing out its flaws. Protectionism arises from individual or national interest, or to protect infant industries. Each of these must be recognized, however, as a distortion in the trade system, a negative action undertaken to achieve a non-economic goal (Friedman & Friedman, 1997).

In the case of many countries, the benefits of international trade are negligible not because the money does not come into the country, but because the money is siphoned out of the economy before it can do any good. Corruption and other inefficiencies in a market can negate some of the benefits of international trade, before the citizens of the country see the benefit. In order that citizens see benefit, they must have low taxation rates, receive public goods from their governments, or receive jobs from their companies. In short, trade will…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Landsburg, L. (2007). Comparative advantage. Economics Library. Retrieved December 2, 2009 from  http://www.econlib.org/library/Topics/Details/comparativeadvantage.html 

Krugman, P. (1996). Ricardo's Difficult Idea. Slate. Retrieved December 2, 2009 from http://hei.unige.ch/~baldwin/ComparativeAdvantageMyths/RicardoDifficultIdea.htm

Krugman, P. (1999). Enemies of the WTO. Slate. Retrieved December 2, 2009 from http://hei.unige.ch/~baldwin/ComparativeAdvantageMyths/BogusArgumentsAgainstWTO.htm

Friedman, M. & Friedman, R. (1997). The case for free trade. Hoover's. Retrieved December 2, 2009 from http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3550727.html
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Economics International Trade

Words: 3214 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92125911

Intenational Tade Between Bahain and Saudi Aabia

This is a pape on Tade between Bahain and Saudi Aabia, focusing on how it affects thei intenational tade elations with special attention to OPEC, GCC and the Qata dispute. It uses 22 souces in MLA fomat.

Both Saudi Aabia and Bahain ae membes of the Gulf Coopeation Council along with Qata, UAE, Kuwait and Oman. Unde the GCC Ageement, pefeential taiffs apply among the membe states. Since independence in 1971, Bahain has essentially pusued a libeal tade and investment policy, and has integated its economy closely with those of othe counties in the egion, though the Unified Economic Ageement of the Gulf Coopeation Council (GCC).

Tade and economic gowth in Bahain is stongly affected by vaiations in intenational enegy pices. Real GDP gowth, as a esult, was slowe duing the 1990s compaed with the pevious decade, aveaging aound 3.6% annually since 1994.…… [Read More]

references

1. http://cf.heritage.org/index/country.cfm?ID=10

2. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE: BAHRAIN ECONOMIC POLICY AND TRADE PRACTICES. FEBRUARY 1994.

3.  http://www.worldbank.org/search.htm 

4. http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp139_e.htm
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International Trade for Developing Countries

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34187298



The orld Hunger organization (www.worldhunger.org) assertsthat there is a bias in international trade rules that favor developed nations. hy? Developed nations control the orld Trade Organization, according to the orld Hunger organization; and as to export items like pharmaceuticals, developed countries have shown "reluctance" to allow developing countries "to produce or import low cost generic drugs for major illnesses, such as AIDS" (www.worldhunger.org).

Another example of this alleged unfairness can be viewed in light of the U.S. Sugar Tariffs and Brazil. In the ashington Post (Jeter, 2003) it is explained that though the U.S. extols the greatness of free trade, it does not always live up to that rhetoric. The U.S. imposes a tariff of 244% on sugar imports "...above a small quote of duty free sugar imports" (Jeter, 2003). "hile Brazil has both plentiful and fertile land and available workers, the 244% tariff that the U.S. Government levies on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jeter, John. "Brazilians Soured by U.S. Sugar Tariffs." Washington Post 10 September 2003. Retrieved March 3, 2009, at http://www.washingtonpost.com.

Nogues, Julio J. "Unequal Exchange: Developing Countries in the International Trade

Negotiations." Murphy Institute Conference (2002). Retrieved March 4, 2009, at http://www.ctrc.sice.oas.org/geograph/south/nogues.pdf.

Office of the United States Trade Representative. "The Benefits of Trade for Developing
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International Trade & Finance China

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37404028

S. inflation in check, even during economic boom times.

Cultural Values

The debate about increasing protectionism in the U.S. boils down to a clash of cultural values. In the natural course of international trade, there will be those who suffer and those who benefit. International markets are amoral. Trade is conducted between nations with the intent of raising the standard of living for both, but this is on aggregate, not universally. As a result, jobs losses in some sectors, particularly those where the U.S. does not have comparative advantage, are inevitable. To enact protectionist measures to stem those job losses will have three negative impacts.

The first is retaliatory trade measures. Tariffs and other protectionist measures tend to go hand in hand. If a country protects its industries, nations that trade with that country will do the same. This is the classic Smoot-Hawley scenario. To protect American jobs during the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

No author. (2009). Top ten countries with which the U.S. trades. Census.gov. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/top/dst/current/balance.html

No author. (2007). David Ricardo and comparative advantage. NetMBA.com. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from  http://www.netmba.com/econ/micro/comparative-advantage/ 

US Department of State. (no date). Protectionism in the interwar period. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/id/17606.htm

Evenett, S. (2009). The G20's assault on world trade. VOX. Retrieved December 6, 2009 from http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4008
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China's Trade Policy on Agriculture and Manufactured Products

Words: 2040 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86730866

China Trade Policy

China's agricultural trade policies are driven by its need to feed its massive population. The country has quotas that average 15.8%, with 5.8% of products being duty free and 1087 total tariff lines. These duties sit in line with EU levels, above U.S. levels and below developing world levels. China aims to reduce its agricultural tariff below 15% in the coming years. China supported India's stance on special safeguard mechanisms at the Doha Round, effectively scuttling the deal.

China's manufacturing tariffs are also above developed world levels but below developing world levels. China's tariffs vary significantly on a country-by-country basis; for example 45.4% of non-agricultural trade with the U.S. is duty free. China has become more aggressive with respect to its trade policies in recent years, but generally works within the confines of the TO dispute resolution mechanism..

Agricultural Policies

China has long worked to lower agricultural…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ackerman, K. (1998). State trading enterprises in world agricultural trade. USDA. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/wrs984/wrs984h.pdf

Wang, J. & Lim, C. (2009). China and the Doha Round. North-South Institute. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.nsi-ins.ca/english/pdf/China.pdf

Hudson, J. (2010). Dispute raises concerns over China's rare-earth dominance. Atlantic Wire. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from http://www.theatlanticwire.com/opinions/view/opinion/Dispute-Raises-Concerns-Over-Chinas-Rare-Earth-Dominance-5151

Lynn, J. (2010). U.S. accuses China of blocking Doha trade talks. Reuters. Retrieved November 15, 2010 from  http://in.reuters.com/article/idINIndia-49607220100624