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Human beings understand that their free will is not threatened by the future of the stars. Faith is a choice that need not be influenced by the fact that the sun will one day burn away. Nor is faith influenced by the ineffability of divine foreknowledge. Human beings have but a partial understanding of the divine and indeed of the universe. It is therefore not a matter of whether God has "chosen" a particular individual to be saved, but whether that individual chooses for him- or herself to be saved. This is done on the basis of the influencing factors mentioned above.
In conclusion, when the scale of divine foreknowledge is reduced to human scale, this creates a paradox that cannot be solved. Instead, divine foreknowledge should be seen for what it is - a force on a universal scale that can only be understood partially by the human mind.…
Murray, Christine. St. Augustine and Free Will. Catholic Online, 27 Aug, 2004. http://www.catholic.org/featured/headline.php?ID=1282
Rogers, Katherin a. Anselm on Grace and Free Will. The Saint Anselm Journal 2.2, Spring 2005. http://www.anselm.edu/library/SAJ/pdf/22Rogers.pdf
Swartz, Norman. Notes on Free Will and Determinism. Oct 7, 2004. http://www.sfu.ca/philosophy/swartz/freewill1.htm
Evaluating how a free market economy views human agency and free will, it is then seen that human beings in this kind of set-up are interpreted as rational human beings with the same capacities, abilities, and resources for competition in an invisible hand economy. ather than the government, the majority of decisions on economic activities and transactions are then assumed by individual key players in the market (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_market).
Comparison of Marxism and Free Market Capitalism and their views on Free Will or Human Agency
The Marxist conception of free will and human agency initially looks at human beings as alienated people because of capitalism. Their existence, identities, and consequent opportunities are then dependent on the social classes they are in. From this point, it can be said that Marx does not ascribe too much on the role of human beings to act out of their own accord. Yet in the…
Alienation" 2006. [online] http://www2.pfeiffer.edu/~lridener/DSS/Marx/MARXW3.htmL
Free Market" 2006. [online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_market
Human Agency." 2006. [online] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_agency
Marx's Theory of Social Class and Class Structure." 1999. [online] http://uregina.ca/~gingrich/s28f99.htm
Free Will vs. Fate
In Oedipus the King by Sophocles, the main characters Laios and Oedipus do all that they can to avoid a prophecy that was told to them by an Oracle. King Laios was told that his own son would end up murdering him, and so upon the birth of the King Laios and Lady Iscostes' son, they bound his two feet together and gave him to a servant who was meant to then kill the baby so that the prophecy would not become reality. Instead of killing the baby, the servant gives him to a Shepard man who takes him from Thebes where he was born, to Corinth, where he was given to the King and Queen of that city. When Oedipus gets older, he hears from a drunk man that he is not the son of the King and Queen of Corinth, and upon seeking that…
3) Freud thinks that there are important mental events which effect how a person acts. His theory shows pieces of both free will and Determinism. He thinks actions are caused by subliminal elements in the psyche. Those events, because we don't realize they are affecting behavior, predetermine our reactions to events. But on the other hand, he thinks that a person can combat these latent-determining factors through therapy, he gives control back to the person.
Skinner's Contingency Management theory seems to rely completely in the realm of free will. His idea of positive reinforcement relies on environment to change behavior. A person enjoys or dislikes the reaction that comes from their actions. They repeat the action that causes them to get the enjoyable effect. The person makes a choice to act in a way that gives them a desired result.
Carol Rogers' belief in a drive toward self-actualization is mostly…
Free will vs. Determinism
To define his evolving notions of Original Sin in Christian theology, Augustine solidified in the doctrine Christianity a notion of the radical freedom of the human will -- what made human beings wonderfully distinct from animals, he argued, was the human ability to freely choose good or evil in action. Augustine's approach to the "free choice of the will" assumed that "humans had a will" and a good will was "a will by which we seek to live a good and upright life and to attain unto perfect wisdom" which, of course, assumes that humans have the ability to choose the opposite. Jean Paul Sartre also argued for a radical freedom of the will, but argued that this freedom was often awful, rather than awe inspiring, good or bad. Sartre's notion of the will's freedom was derived from atheism, of human being's aloneness in the world.…
Freud, Sigmund. "Freud: The Wish Fulfillment of Oedipus." From the Interpretation of Dreams. Elpenor Greek World. 10 Dec 2004. http://www.ellopos.net/elpenor/greeks-us/freud-oedipus.asp
Marx, Karl. "Estranged Labor." From "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844." 10 Dec 2004 athttp://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1844/manuscripts/labour.htm
Murray, Christine. "Augustine and Free Will." Catholic online. August 27, 2004. 10 Dec 2004
On the other hand, those who subscribe to the theory of free will believe that life's events are a direct result of the person's own self-generated actions. It is the philosophical idea that a person is able to choose from a variety of real alternatives, and depending on which alternative is chosen, it is this choice that ultimately determines the outcome ("Free Will"). In Christian theology, free will involves the belief that it is through God's gift to humankind that they have the ability and desire to make choices, commitments, etc., and are not forced to take predetermined actions due to external causes.
The self-determination of a rational being is free will (Passantino & Passantino).
Free will, or autonomy, theorists believe that every event in existence is exclusive of all others, and therefore allows for unlimited possibilities of choice. Free will is found throughout all cultures and is also a…
Compatibilism." Wikipedia.org. 19 July 2004. Wikipedia.org. September 13, 2004 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatibilism .
Davies, Paul. "Undermining Free Will." Foreign Policy (144) Sept 2004: 36-38. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. October 30, 2004 http://www.epnet.com .
Fatalism." Wikipedia.org. 28 July 2004. Wikipedia.org. September 13, 2004 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatalism .
Passantino, B. & Passantino, G. Answers.org. 1998. Answers.org. September 13, 2004 http://www.answers.org/theology/freeglossary.html.
Q3: Define free will and determinism. Discuss how free will and determinism are relevant to the following theories:
Free will may be defined as the ability to make decisions independent of social, biological, and cognitive shaping mechanisms; determinism is the idea one is subject to such forces at cannot fundamentally alter one's future trajectory in a meaningful manner.
Freud's psychoanalytic theory
Freud took a highly deterministic view of how the human psyche was constructed. He viewed such complexes as the Oedipus Complex and the Electra Complex as part of universal human development patterns. A girl would inevitably suffer penis envy, even if she was raised by a feminist mother and father in a socially empowering environment. She could not choose to ignore negative internal forces that were hard-wired into her psyche. Similarly, boys all over the world were determined to wish to murder their father and marry their mother. The…
This makes people superstitious, but, in the same time, it makes them combine fate with free will as they act out of their own free will with the intention to alter fate.
Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery" describes how superstitious people can contribute to altering fate. Superstitious people are disadvantaged because of their beliefs and because of their absurd theories. Also, the fact that they are superstitious prevents them from acting logically and morally.
Jackson's characters willingly chose to sacrifice a member of their community in order for their crops to grow. All of the village's members present at the reunion agree that fate is the only one that decides who is going to die. Tessie also agrees and she accepts the ritual as being vital for the well-being of the village.
However, after her family is chosen to have one of its members murdered with stones, she has a sudden…
Jackson, Shirley. The Lottery. 1948
Jensen, Henning. Morality and Luck. Cambridge University Pres: 1984.
Smith, Jennifer. Superstition is Ormerod's way. Lexington Herald-Leader (02 Dec. 2006)
How does this shed light on the question, "Are we free to do what we want with our lives?" It doesn't shed light on it, so much as reveal that the question was asked from the darkness. Our "free will" is an illusion, but we do act, and our actions are our own. They have manifold causes, but not one of them could possibly be "outside of nature" or outside "the whole," and none of them could be attributable solely to my freedom. ather, the constraints I mentioned at the outset, and even the wants I mentioned there, are pieces of the whole, and "there is nothing which could judge, measure, compare, condemn our Being, for that would mean judging, measuring, comparing, condemning the whole...But there is nothing apart from the whole!" The best I can do to do what I want with my life is to want my life…
1. Clark, Maudemarie. "Nietzsche, Friedrich," in E. Craig (Ed.) Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1998.
2. Nietzsche, Friedrich. Twilight of the Idols and the Anti-Christ, translated by R.J. Hollingdale. New York: Penguin Books, 1990.
3. Nietzsche, Friedrich. Twilight of the Idols, translated by Duncan Large. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
4. Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the Genealogy of Morality, translated by Carol Diethe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
(Freedom and Determinism: A Framework) Let us figure out what as said by Kant the problem of freedom and determinism contains, as it seems to hypothetical cause. Kant pointed out that we fetch a representative in her act to start a wholly fresh string of outcomes, and that for philosophers to state that it would have been adequate for ethical accountability if she had simply acted willingly is only being fussy, in fact a miserable ploy. (Free Will and Determinism: Compatibilism, Incompatabilism and the Smart Aleck)
Actually, Kant likes to obtain a total knowledge of observed experiences. This total knowledge needs on the one hand causality according to laws of nature. but, this causality results in an endless number of causes and effects, which is something that is in opposition with a total knowledge of observed experiences. Therefore, freedoms as reason that are not happened on account of them come…
Campbell, Joseph Keim; O'Rourke, Michael; Shier, David. "Freedom and Determinism: A Framework." Retrieved from www.class.uidaho.edu/morourke/research/intro.pdf. Accessed on 5 December, 2004
Freedom and Determinism" April 27-29, 2001. University of Idaho: Inland Northwest Philosophy Conference. Retrieved at http://www.class.uidaho.edu/inpc/4th-2001/General-Info.htm . Accessed on 5 December, 2004
Honderich, Ted. "Free Will and Determinism: Compatibilism, Incompatabilism and the Smart Aleck." Retrieved at http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~uctytho/ted6.htm . Accessed on 5 December, 2004
Honderich, Ted. "The Determinism and Freedom Philosophy Website." Retrieved at http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~uctytho/dfwIntroIndex.htm . Accessed on 5 December, 2004
However, a determinist theorist could argue that given the wage inequity between the genders, women who turn to prostitution may do so due to the lack of professions that pay good wages for female employees.
Drug use is another issue that generates much debate. Rational choice theorists often follow the "Just say no" route, and that drug addicts should be penalized for violating the law. Determinists, on the other hand, point out that laws vary by society, and that the laws prohibiting marijuana use only reflect the values of a select elite.
Rational choice theorists may also condemn people who commit euthanasia, whether or not the act was committed with a patient's consent. However, determinists would look more into the situation. Was the patient terminally ill and in pain? Was there consent? These questions will help a determinist in evaluating whether or not a crime has occurred.
The novel vividly illustrates this event, stated as follows:
The scorching blade slashed at my eyelashes and stabbed at my stinging eyes. That's when everything began to reel. The sea carried up a thick, fiery breath. It seemed to me as if the sky split open from one end to the other to rain down fire. My whole being tensed and I squeezed my hand around the revolver. The trigger gave; I felt the smooth underside of the butt; and there, in that noise, sharp and deafening at the same time, is where I tall started. I shook off the sweat and sun. I knew that I had shattered the harmony of the day, the exceptional silence of a beach where I'd been happy. Then I fired four more times at the motionless body where the bullets lodged without leaving a trace. And it was like knocking four quick times…
Bree, B. (Ed.). (1972). Camus. NJ: Rutgers UP.
Booker, (1993). Literature and domination: sex, knowledge, and power in modern fiction. Gainsville: Florida UP.
Camus, a. (1988). The Stranger. NY: Alfred a. Knopf, Inc.
Dupee, F.W. (1957). In Nabokov: a critical heritage. N. Page (Ed.). NY: Routledge.
Goblins in this case can be viewed as devil's agents who force people to commit sins. Food items are presented as sins that man can get involved in if he doesn't have a strong will power. They are described in attractive terms (Bloom-down-cheek'd peaches,
Swart-headed mulberries,/Wild free-born cranberries (5-14)), just like sins and vices that initially appear very tempting but are eventually harmful to one's soul. In the very same way, these fruits look attractive and are tasty but gradually rob the body of its vigor and beauty.
Laura is a risk-taker and hence fell victim to a clever and tempting ploy. Lizzie is timid and conforms to the norms and thus could save herself and later her sister. This is a rather puritanical argument but that's how the author presents it. But there is another thing which is far more important than their risk-taking capabilities. It is the ability…
Rossetti, Christina. Goblin Market. New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 1969.
Campbell, Elizabeth. "Of Mothers and Merchants: Female Economics in Christina Rossetti's 'Goblin Market.'" Victorian Studies: A Journal of the Humanities, Arts and Sciences 33 (1990): 393-410.
The greatest strength of the concept of free will is that it allows evil deeds to be explained as poor conceptions of a weak human mind. The individual abilty to learn and become a greater agent of responsibility seeks a concept of free will to explain how this can be done and with good reason. The individual has no reason to express learning and to grow from human ideas and actions if he or she is resolved to live with a predetermined set of consequences and actions. As man's ability to reason is what is said to seprate us from animals then "free will" becomes and essential aspect of the equation.
hy exactly is it important to so many of us whether or not we can be self-directed, not just politically but also metaphysically? In certain philosophical contexts, such as some discussions of the problem of evil, the…
Ekstrom, Laura Waddell. Free Will: A Philosophical Study. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
Free Will" New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia Online. April 15, 2008, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06259a.htm .
Kapitan, Tomis. "Chapter 6 a Master Argument for Incompatibilism?." The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. Ed. Robert Kane. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. 127-154.
Kane, Robert, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Free Will. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Free ill" Exist and if so, to hat Extent does it Exist?
The concept of "Free ill" has been debated by many philosophers over a period of centuries, not only regarding its very existence but also regarding its elements, the extent to which it may or may not exist and its moral implications. Our assigned readings have merely touched on debates that have raged and will probably continue to rage as long as human beings contemplate the "truths" about being. Though an exhaustive review of differing philosophical treatments of "Free ill" would probably take hundreds of pages, this work will briefly examine several major philosophies of "Free ill" and some of their most notable proponents. In reviewing these sources and differing approaches to "Free ill," we can see that philosophers approach the concept of "Free ill" with differing definitions, examining disparate aspects and resulting in somewhat different implications for Morality.…
Chisholm, Roderick M. "Human Freedom and the Self." Eds. Perry, John, Michael Bratman and John Martin Fischer. Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings, 5th ed. New York, NY: Oxford, 2010. 392-99. Print.
Descartes, Rene, et al. Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Print.
Kant, Immanuel. "Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals." Eds. Perry, John, Michael Bratman and John Martin Fischer. Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings, 5th ed. New York, NY: Oxford, 2010. 504-20. Print.
Libet, Benjamin. "Do We Have Free Will?" Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6 (8-9) (1999): 47-57. Print.
The issue (not necessarily a "problem") of free will and to what extent people are influenced by subliminal / subtle advertising cues has been a subject of interest for many years, so this is an interesting but not an original problem. For me, I have always felt like I had the free will to make choices based on my desires and interests at the moment, but I am willing to challenge that assertion.
Am I another person that behaves differently when subtle or subliminal suggestions in my immediate environment set my wheels in motion? Or do I even need subliminal cues to take action in certain situations? I'm not in denial, but I wonder if I am more moved by physical stimuli (obvious stimuli) than by subtle, subliminal messages. In this journal entry I'm not insisting that I don't become influenced -- or that I'm not manipulated --…
Harrell, E. (2012). Think You're Operating on Free Will? Think Again. Retrieved June 11,
2014, from http://truththeory.com .
Hence, "transcendence" a denial of the self at the core of Sartre's philosophy. Human beings are condemend to be free in that no religious or political doctrine is inherently or intrinisically correct in every situation. No schema can accord for every possible situation fo being or existance. All schemas that attempt to make a claim for their totality of their state of correctness at all times are thus acts of "bad faith," as they attempt to put artificial constraints on human freedom. Rather, for Sartre, life is simply what we make of it, diferent human existences bump up against one another in a random fashion. However, it should also be remembered that for Sartre, a state of human freedom also corresponded to responsibility to the world. Even free existances, not essences (i.e., human beings) are still responsible for the world, the horizon of meaning in which all free beings operate.…
Flynn, Thomas. "Jean-Paul Sartre." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2004 Edition). Edward N. Zalta, Editor. URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2004/entries/sartre/ .
Free Will: Comparing Aquinas & the Holy Scriptures
Thomas of Aquinas is recognized by the Orthodox as one of the foundational theologians, particularly in that he provided an important step in towards the Renaissance by helping to reacquaint Christianity with Aristotle, who he refers to throughout his as "the Philosopher." As one who draws inspiration from Aristotle, he is particularly interested in rational philosophy as applied to the realm of religion and theology. This makes his defense of free will particularly strong, though at points one feels he lacks the necessary sense of ambiguity to completely address the iblical texts. What is important to glean from his work, however, is a message that is also prominent in the Scriptures: that man is "made to God's image, in so far as the image implies an intelligent being endowed with free-will and self-movement..."
Summa Theologica, II:1:1)
Some thinkers believe that humans do…
Aquinas, St. Thomas. On Law, Morality, and Politics. New York: Hackett Pub Co, 1988.
Aquinas, St. Thomas. The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, 2nd ed.. Trans. Fathers of the English Dominican Province. Archived at http://www.newadvent.org/summa/
Holy Bible (KJV). Archived at http://www.bible.com
Baruch Spinoza believed that humans' actions and activities are not based on free will, but rather humans are moved to action and thought because he believed that nothing happens by mere chance. His rationale for believing as he does is the basis for this essay.
Free Will vs. Determinism
A review of what Spinoza believed is not the easiest thing to accomplish since some of what Spinoza puts forward is seemingly esoteric to the lay person or student engaged in research. But in researching Spinoza's philosophy, looking carefully at his positions, one can come to understand basically why he did not believe in free will. He believed that God, and God alone, is free to make decisions and to act according to His free will. Since God is Nature, and Nature is God, and therefore everything that exists on Earth are there because God decided, of His own free…
The following incident is being used as a metaphor for Spinoza's ideas. He believed that everything in nature takes place by necessity (and mankind is part of Nature). When the enormous section of a hill in Washington State became too saturated (after numerous heavy rains earlier in 2014), and collapsed into a village, killing / burying many people and their homes, that can be used as a metaphor for what Spinoza was saying. Thousands of tons of wet earth roared down into the village with no warning, but that disaster was determined by Nature. The land didn't decide it would suddenly give way and hurtle down upon the village.
In fact, the logging around that piece of land took away the roots of trees that otherwise would have kept the hill in place. And the river below was known to be cutting into the hill, eroding important features of the land -- a definite determination that led to the horrific event. Moreover, the heavy rains in Washington State leading up to the collapse also determined that the land would give way. So, if one can see the hill as a human entity, as part of Nature that has intelligence (which may seem to be a stretch, but it does have value as an example), that entity did not have free will to decide when it would slide down into the village. The existing Natural World realities determined if and when it would roar down into the village.
In conclusion, humans governed by determination, and not by free will. One's will is not put into motion by a decision one makes, but rather one's will acts out of necessity which has been predetermined by God, or Nature, which is also God, according to Spinoza. In other words, there are no should have arguments or could have arguments, or ought to have done arguments in terms of why an action or activity or decision was performed. That is because the behavior in question was externally or internally caused by the person who could not possibly have acted other than the way he or she did.
Therefore, they are compelled to choose what they do in order to instantiate God's foreordainment of history. It wouldn't seem to make sense, therefore, for the person to attempt to change their circumstances or to fight against fate. Affliction, tragedy and evil would be just what God wishes to throw at an individual, who could scarcely escape its occurrence. This seems to suggest a response of futility toward life in which all is merely endured and passes almost robotically. At the same time, one might interpret it as comforting, for it eliminates the human's striving and desire to achieve something before the eyes of God. Or if God allows good to enter a life, this good is not deserved or merited, but is purely random. God's character would appear fickle, if not even unjust, for subjecting people to a predestined fate they cannot hope to change. Perhaps the main problem…
Ali, Afroz. Understanding Predestination and Free Will. Mt. Lewis, NSW: Al-Ghazzali Centre for Islamic Sciences and Human Development, 1426/2005.
Cohen-Mor, Dalya. A Matter of Fate: The Concept of Fate in the Arab World as Reflected in Modern Arabic Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Mahmood, Iftekhar. Islam Beyond Terrorists and Terrorism: Biography of the Most Influential Muslims in History. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2002.
Mahmoud, Mohamed a. Quest for Divinity: A Critical Examination of the Thought of Mahmud Muhammed Taha. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2007.
Classically, the dog's fear was a conditioned reflex to the sound -- in operant terms, the dog's climbing behavior was a conditioned by the "reward" of avoiding the shock.
Some critics of theories regarding conditioning suggest that it is distasteful to talk about conditioning humans, because this removes the idea that we have free will. It is possible to condition humans, of course. The purpose of spanking children, for example, is to try to condition them not to behave in certain way because it will result in pain. However, it is a misnomer to suggest that conditioning removes free will. It would be more accurate to suggest that conditioning is the outcome of free will combined with intelligence. Free will enables the animal or human to choose responses that are most rewarding, and conditioning teaches them what responses are likely to be most rewarding. It is always theoretically possible for…
ugustine assumes the will is free and wants to determine how we choose good or evil (Murray, 2004). His approach to the "free choice of the will" assumes that "there can be no denying that we have a will." Rather, he defines "good will" as "a will by which we seek to live a good and upright life and to attain unto perfect wisdom" which assumes that it is free.
In fact, a free will that does not seek God is obsessed with material things, which can be easily lost or ruined (Murray, 2004). Those who choose evil are ruled by their passion and desire for material things. This is pointless because they only have, according to ugustone, "the love of things which each one can lose against his will." He believed that those who choose to do good gain everything because there is no fear of losing "things"…
Augustine assumes the will is free and wants to determine how we choose good or evil (Murray, 2004). His approach to the "free choice of the will" assumes that "there can be no denying that we have a will." Rather, he defines "good will" as "a will by which we seek to live a good and upright life and to attain unto perfect wisdom" which assumes that it is free.
In fact, a free will that does not seek God is obsessed with material things, which can be easily lost or ruined (Murray, 2004). Those who choose evil are ruled by their passion and desire for material things. This is pointless because they only have, according to Augustone, "the love of things which each one can lose against his will." He believed that those who choose to do good gain everything because there is no fear of losing "things" due to lack of attachment to material possessions. Those who seek to be perfect could lose every thing and still gain all precisely because they are trying to attain the perfect, which is wisdom. Wisdom cannot be lost as long as the beholder has good will.
Augustine's teachings show the importance of understanding the use of one's free will (Murray, 2004). If an individual has a free will, then he also has the duty to make decisions based on a well-formed conscience and what is good and evil.
The free will defense suggests that God permits, but does not cause evil. Therefore, it is possible to live in a universe in which good and evil continually coexist. Human beings are blessed with the ability to make a choice that can further the objectives of God and good, or to promote the interests of evil. Although this view is logically coherent, there are clear objections to it.
One objection is that God has nothing at all to do with evil, and human beings, made in God's image, likewise have nothing to do with evil. Free will is therefore irrelevant and in fact negated. There is no such thing as free will, according to this point-of-view. All human beings have is a fate that has been pre-determined by God. Using this objection, it is easy to see how the human being is portrayed as a passive recipient of life…
"Introduction to Philosophical Inquiry." Retrieved online: http://philosophy.lander.edu/intro/hick.html
Speaks, Jeff. "Swinburne's Response to the Problem of Evil." Retrieved online: http://www3.nd.edu/~jspeaks/courses/mcgill/201/swinburne.pdf
Arthur Schopenhauer and Free Will - Philosophy
Arthur Schopenhauer's concept of free will is built on Georg Hegel's concept of the "thing in itself." For Schopenhauer, the will is noumena, the part of the world that exists regardless of whether or not it is perceived by humans. In fact, Schopenhauer believes that the will is not "at all affected by life and death." An individual person's life is phenomenal, perceived by the senses. All life exists as the mirror of the will, the way a shadow exists for a body.
Everything an individual does or thinks, all a person's experiences, are but a corporeal manifestation of this Will. Schopenhauer posits that the will is the human form assumed by an inner nature universal to all beings in space and time. More than an individual representation, Schopenhauer thus believes that the Will is an inner reality common to all individuals. The…
Yet, when you go beyond the generalities, it is obvious that this a taking a one size fits all approach when it comes to society. Where, you are assuming that everyone will react the same to the various rules / laws that have been established. However, the pessimists argue that such thinking does not take into account how various experiences and personal relationships will determine someone's morals and values. This is troubling because when you apply such thinking to the person who committed the act. They can be able to claim that they are excused from the different forms of punishment, because they qualify for a special consideration. This, the critics argue is the biggest flaw of determinism, where you are assuming that ample amounts of punishment / penalties would serve as a deterrent. Then, once someone breaks various laws you are allowing the special considerations to give them the…
Determinism. (2010). Retrieved April 27, 2010 from Free Dictionary website: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/determinism
Linder, D. (2002). The Trial of John Hinckley. Retrieved April 27, 2010 from Famous American Trials website: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/hinckley/hinckleytrial.html
Linder, D. (2008). The Trial of John Hinckley Jr. Retrieved April 27, 2010 from Famous American Trails website: http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hinckley/hinckleyaccount.html
Strawson, P. (n.d.). Freedom and Resentment.
However, some cases exist in which another variable overrides a person's free will. For example, if a person has a mental disorder or a psychological problem, this can certainly keep a person from acting freely.
Other variables are more controversial. For instance, if a man murders his wife in a fit of rage, was he acting freely, or did another variable -- passion -- mitigate that freedom? Sartre would say that the man acted freely, and should be held responsible for his actions, while a good lawyer would argue that the variable of passion makes the man less free -- less responsible. He still had a choice, but it was harder for him to make it because of the passionate feelings he was experiencing. Thus, while Sartre's view is true in most cases, I do believe variables exist that mitigate the degree with which others can make free choices.
Ultimately, it is inconceivable why any God, much less a loving God, would ever conceive of a universe in which His creatures had no will of their own or were not free to accept His offer of love or to reject it. Salvation, therefore, cannot be predestined and must be a function of human choice or election, precisely because love without choice is not "love" at all.
Armstrong, Karen. 1993. A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Bennet, David. 2004. Predestined for Free ill. Online. Available from the Internet, www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. http://www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009.
Capoccia, Tony. 2009. Bible Questions and Answers Part 19. Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.biblebb.com/files/macqa/1301-Q-11.htm. accessed18 March 2009.
Deem, Richard. 2008. Predestination vs. Free ill - Is it One or the Other? Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.godandscience.org/doctrine/predestination.html,accessed18 March 2009.
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Bennet, David. 2004. Predestined for Free Will. Online. Available from the Internet, www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. http://www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009.
Capoccia, Tony. 2009. Bible Questions and Answers Part 19. Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.biblebb.com/files/macqa/1301-Q-11.htm . accessed18 March 2009.
Deem, Richard. 2008. Predestination vs. Free Will - Is it One or the Other? Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.godandscience.org/doctrine/predestination.html,accessed18 March 2009.
Role of Free ill and Fate in Oedipus Rex and Othello, the Moor of Venice
Free will and fate play a major role in determining the outcome the hero experiences in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex and illiam Shakespeare's Othello, the Moor of Venice. In Oedipus Rex, Oedipus's destiny has been predetermined and despite his many efforts, he cannot escape the future the gods have planned for him. Oedipus Rex's form relies on a chorus to serve as an emissary between the gods and the audience and ultimately aims at allowing the audience to achieve catharsis. On the contrary, in Othello, the Moor of Venice, Othello's future is determined through a series of actions that were not influenced by the gods, but rather through free will. Othello, the Moor of Venice's form breaks up the action into separate "vignettes" that ultimately highlight the depravity of man and aims to serve as a…
Brown, Larry."Aristotle on Greek Tragedy." Web. 26 September 2012.
Shakespeare, William. Othello, the Moor of Venice. Web. 26 September 2012.
Sophocles. Oedipus Rex. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Web. 26 September 2012.
Nature vs. Nurture
The nature vs. nurture argument is one that has been around for many years—especially since the behavioral sciences emerged in the 20th century with the experiments of Skinner and Bandura. It was Bandura’s (1977) theory of social learning that viewed all behavior as learned from one’s environment. Skinner (1957) likewise postulated that it was the “nurturing” side of one’s experience that shaped human activity, thought and expression. Galton (1883) on the other hand felt differently. He predated both Skinner and Bandura and was himself a student of Darwin. He thus postulated that “nature” was responsible for the development of human behavior—that some people were simply born with greater gifts, such as intellectual ability, than others. Galton was a 19th century philosopher and scientist and his views aligned with ideas like the Great Man Theory, which articulated the position that great leaders are born, not made. This paper…
Free and Forced Actions Analyzing an Argument
In the article, Is Determinism inconsistent with free will? Walter Stace argues that every action or event is caused; however, whereas free actions are caused by the doer's internal psychological state, forced ones are caused by forces external to the user. This text evaluates the validity of the author's argument in the short story, 'Shooting an Elephant' based on Stace's definition of free and forced actions.
Free and Forced Actions
Stace's Definition of Free and Forced Actions
In the article, Is Determinism inconsistent with free will?', Walter Terrence Stace puts forth an argument for determinism, arguing that it is consistent/compatible with free will. He is of the view that free will exists and every event in the world is caused (Colorado University, n.d.). He illustrates the compatibility of these two views by giving his own definition of what exactly constitutes free will. Stace…
Baxter, T. (2004). Frederick Douglass' Curious Audiences: Ethos in the Age of the Consumable Subject. New York, NY: Routledge.
Bulman, C. (2007). Creative Writing: A Guide and Glossary to Fiction Writing. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Colorado University. (n.d.). Precis: W. T. Stace's Compatibilism. Colorado University. Retrieved September 17, 2015 from http://www.colorado.edu/philosophy/robertsm/student_precis3.htm
Lockhart, J. (2010). How to Market your School: A Guide to Marketing, Communication and Public Relations. Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
Realist Moral Theories Unit IV: Bioethics
The moral of the film "ottaca" is quite obvious and the development of events also quite predictable. The film starts from the idea that parents want their children to have the best start in life. The majority of parents would agree with it. This idea is put into the context of genetic engineering, a palpable reality today. The moral is that letting doctors apply genetics to do every magic possible in order to get the "best version of you" by eliminating all the "less perfect possibilities" is wrong.
Most religions teach one to mind the body as well as the soul in order to be in harmony with od and the rest of the universe. They also teach about free will. Causal determinism, on the other side, superposes the end over the beginning and leaves no chance for the "chance." According to this philosophical…
Gottaca's predictable end warns us of the danger of deifying science and placing all our hopes into it.
"Gottaca," 1997.Directed by Andrew Niccol, produced by Columbia Pictures Corporation, Jersey Films, United States
Shapshay, Sandra.2009. Bioethics and the Movies. JHU Press
Also, the importation of technology from abroad exposes consumers and producers alike to the innovative use of vehicles, such as hybrid technology, that domestic producers can implement even better than the original manufacturer. Innovation is the ultimate driver of new sales and the creator of new markets and new markets means more jobs for workers.
Beginning a trade war by setting tariffs or limiting imports through quotas ultimately creates waste and more expensive cars for consumers. Giving domestic producers the ability to price their products artificially low through subsides encourages them not to innovate, a critical part of remaining competitive in a high-tech industry. It has been argued that American car manufactures are out of touch with the needs of car buyers and the needs of the environment alike, but isolating them through protectionism will only preserve company profits and jobs in the short run.
This, in combination with his slick use of language, and ability to use up-to-date sland and invented words to fit his needs, linked him not only with the cowboy tradition, but speech and mannerism of the American South. Because of this easy going style -- and ability to cut through the extraneous and find the base truth in the matter at hand, allowed him to move through social classes in all countries, standing for the virtues of a self-made-man, with the obvious respect for capitalism, utilitarianism, and faith in the progression of humans (Brown, 1979)
The standard definition of an intellectual is a person who uses intelligence (thought and reason) in a critical way to analyze issues and give not just a summation of rote memorization of facts, but of analysis and synthesis. Was Will ogers an intellectual? How could he not be -- he meets every standard, and then…
Give a Trougth to Will. (1922, November 13). Retrieved December 2010, from the New York Times: http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D00E5D61F39EF3ABC4B52DFB7678389639EDE
Will Rogers. (2009, April). Retrieved December 2010, from Will Rogers Website: http://www.cmgww.com/historic/rogers/index.html
Brown, W. (1979). Will Rogers and His Magic Mirror. Chronicles of Oklahoma, 57(3), 300-25.
Roach, F. (1980). Will Rogers' Youthful Relationship With His Father. Chronicles of Oklahoma, 58(3), 325-42.
Free exercise clause
1. Why does this clause raise equal protection issues instead of substantive due process concerns?
Equal protection requires that no person may be denied equal protection or be discriminated by any governmental body through its laws. To this effect, all individuals must be treated in the same manner as in the same circumstances and conditions (Blair, 1997). On the other hand, substantive due process seeks to guard a right that might not be expressed elsewhere in the constitution (Fenster, 2014). With this background, it is obvious that the state statute bears more weight as a matter of equal protection and not as a substantive due process right. Motorcycle users, in this case, are required to wear protective helmets when on the state’s highways, despite the fact they are not the only users of the state’s highways. This, therefore, raises equal protection issues. This would have been a…
The appeal of the Nike Free is precipitated by the growth of interest in the 'barefoot running' trend, the growing proclivity of individuals to wear sneakers for reasons of fashion, and the growing footwear market in Turkey.
Goals and Measurements:
The goal is to penetrate the Turkish market and will be measured according to the achievement of incrementally spaced sales goals. Projected sales expectations will be measured against real sales at the end of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years.
Strategic Marketing Goals:
Strategic marketing goals include the targeting of young users, the establishment of an affiliation between the shoe and desirable health goals and a pairing of the shoe with an image of hip, dynamic fitness orientation.
Tactical Marketing Goals:
Tactical marketing goals will revolve on the promotion of medical evidence of the health benefits of 'barefoot running.'
ith a $20 million budget, Nike Free's…
Adams, B. (2012). Running Shoes get the High Fashion Treatment. Style File Blog.
Fibre 2 Fashion. (2008). Footwear in Turkey. Fibre2fashion.com.
Murphy, T.J. (2012). Least Is Best: A Guide To Minimalist Running Shoes. Competitor.
Nike. (2012). Nike Free. Nike.com.
Conflict between Civil Obedience and Moral Freedom (Free ill and Personal Conscience) in the Discourses of Henry Thoreau, Martin Luther King, and Plato
People in societies, upon establishing institutions that provides and maintains order, unity, and peace within the society, are bound together through an agreement. This agreement, termed the "social contract," binds people together to commit subject themselves to the power of the government, where part of an individual's free will is given to it. The government acts as an agent, the representative of the people, in order to ensure that all members of the society comply with the laws of Nature, wherein humans are under obligation to follow.
In effect, the government plays a vital role in ensuring the society that peace, unity, and order are established. Any deviation or disobedience from the laws imposed by the society can result to punishment of the individual. Indeed, social institutions…
King, M.L. (1963). Letter from Birmingham Jail. Available at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html.
Plato. Crito. Translated by Sanderson Beck. Available at http://www.san.beck.org/Crito.html .
Thoreau, H. (1849). On the Duty of Civil Disobedience. Available at http://www.constitution.org/civ/civildis.htm .
Shooting an Elephant," deconstructs many different notions about the concept of free will. Actually, free will concept is at the crux of this essay, which is about a young police officer (Orwell) in British occupied India who is called to stop an elephant which has gotten loose. The author expressly states in a number of different places that he does not want to have to shoot the elephant; moreover, when he comes upon the elephant the animal is acting peacefully. However, a large crowd of people has gathered about him, which largely compels him to murder the elephant. A thorough analysis of this essay indicates that the primary conflict is between that of the will of the officer and that of the will of the crowd. A prolonged examination into the factors that lead the officer to shoot the elephant unequivocally indicate that he did not have free will in…
Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant." www.online-literature.org . 1939. Web. http://www.online-literature.com/orwell/887/
Stale, Walter T. "Is Determinism Inconsistent with Free Will?" Current Issues and Enduring Questions. Ed. Sylvan Barnet and Hugo Bedau. New York: St. Martin's. 1999. Print.
It was not simply that his body did not obey his will and that he possessed a stronger spiritual and a physical will after his conversion, but that before his conversion his will was not fully sincere internally. He had not yet accepted God's grace, and submitted to God. Before he was converted he said: "the power of willing is the power of doing; and as yet I could not do it. Thus my body more readily obeyed the slightest wish of the soul in moving its limbs at the order of my mind than my soul obeyed itself to accomplish in the will alone its great resolve" (10.VI.20). hen his spiritual will truly accepted Christ, his body followed and God freed him from unwanted desire. He accepted his lack of ability to master his body, and accepted that he needed grace to be good.
Thus although he speaks of…
Augustine. "Confessions." Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 11 Nov 2008. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/augustine/confessions.xi.html
Today's working or business environment is increasingly changing and generating several issues that employers have to contend with. These numerous issues have considerable impacts on organizational operations since they affect the relationships between employees and their employer as well as interactions between employees. The most common issues that can threaten an organization's effective operations include insubordination, privacy issues, personal problems, and use of the Internet in the working environment. Employers are increasingly faced with the need to establish suitable mechanisms and measures for addressing these issues in order to enhance organizational productivity. The Employment-at-Will doctrine is one of the major ways through which employers can address some of these issues. As a recently hired Chief Operating Officer, I'll use the Employment-at-Will doctrine to address some issues that have been identified in mid-sized firm preparing for an IPO.
Overview of Employment-at-Will Doctrine
The National Conference of State Legislatures (n.d.) states…
Hendricks, D. (n.d.). How to Manage an Employee Who Doesn't Respect You. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://www.inc.com/drew-hendricks/how-to-manage-an-employee-who-doesn-t-respect-you.html
National Conference of State Legislatures. (n.d.). The At-Will Presumption and Exceptions to the Rule. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://www.ncsl.org/research/labor-and-employment/at-will-employment-overview.aspx
Pasternak, S. (n.d.). The Role of Ethical Theories in Ethical Reasoning and Behavior within Organizations. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://www.ti-israel.org/_Uploads/dbsAttachedFiles/sigalitpasternak.pdf
WKRG Staff. (2015, July 22). Alabama Man Fired Over Confederate Flag. News 5. Retrieved April 30, 2016, from http://wkrg.com/2015/07/22/alabama-man-fired-over-confederate-flag/
Buddhists, who similarly believe in the concept of Karma, also have a strong commitment to the belief that their actions have consequences. hile Buddhists have a much different value system than Hindus or especially estern religions that tend to see good and bad as black and white, while Buddhists see it as wholesome or unwholesome (Sach 80), they still have a code of morality, such as valuing peace over harm. Karma represents this moral dichotomy. Thus, both the Eastern religions of Hinduism and Buddhism support the theory that one creates one's own destiny. If they did not, they could not have their system of moral rights and wrongs. ithout the chance to make positive or negative decisions, a belief system cannot coherently state that one cannot make one's own decisions, creating one's own destiny. How could a belief system maintain that one would be punished for his or her actions…
Mannion, James. Essential Philosophy. Avon: F+W, 2006.
Rice, Hugh. "Fatalism." 2006, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8 October 2008.
Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/fatalism/
Sach, Jacky. Essential Buddhism. Avon: F+W, 2006.
How the Criminal Justice System is Dysfunctional according to Paul Butler's Let's Get Free
The American criminal justice system has had a long history of prejudice. From the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision that institutionalized the false concept of "separate but equal" to the Jim Crow laws that followed to the methods of "control" enacted by police in urban communities, criminal justice in the U.S. has seen lots of crime but little justice. Part of the reason for the inherent dysfunction in the way minorities have always been treated in America is that the country was founded on prejudiced WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) principles: the principle of "manifest destiny" was based on the supposedly "divine right" that WASPs had to "control" the New World and eradicate the "lesser" races (such as the Native Americans and the African-Americans). These prejudiced principles were absorbed into the criminal justice system through lawmakers…
Butler, P. (2010). Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. UK:
These newspapers continuously wrote that there is no essential conflict between labor class (referring to wage earners) and the capitalists and that each should not suspect the other in the development of America.
outhern slave society: An essential conflict with free labor social order
There were many distinctions in the Northern and outhern economic and social outlook of America. There were conflicting ideologies being pursued in these regions and the economic progress of Northern region was associated to the free enterprising class known as the middle class. The class thrived in the Northern region by investing in their own businesses, small and large. On the contrary, outhern society was based on slavery system. The Northerners demanded that the slavery of fugitives' slaves shall be abolished and free soil in the west was to be enforced. The essential elements that divided the Northerners and outherners were the matter of slavery. The…
Such deep was the issue of slavery that it broke down the part of Whigs during 1850s and led Republicans to replace them as a symbol of hope, prosperity, and economic progress. The main reason of elimination of Whigs from national scene was their persistence to support the slave system in south whereas its own leaders were not willing to support such oppressive practice while rest of Americas strived for economic progress. Such diverse and conflicting was the issue of slavery and the difference in Southern and Northern concepts of economic progress that 'The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854' nearly destroyed two political parties, Whigs were totally eliminated from political scene and Democrats saw their party divided on sensational lines. W.C. Pennington quoted that the slavery impacted each and every aspect of economic and thus the social life of African-Americans. He said "the being of slavery, its, and its body, lives and moves in the chattel principle, the property principle, and the bill of sale principle" (Henretta, Edwards & Self, 358). The domestic slave trade was considered to be absolutely what Republicans essentially wanted to abolish in figurative sense as well. The Republicans held the view that "Free labor meant independence from wage earning with fixed salaries, if northern person is wage earning and dependent for whole life, he is no different from southern slave" (Foner, 15). Thus, the Republican viewed dependence of a northern on the wages for whole of his life as being equal to the status of a southern slave. This figurative explanation indicates that the southern way of life and economic conduct was fundamentally conflicting with that of Republican's notion of free labor and enterprise, let alone being inconsistent with Republican ideology.
The Republican concept of free labor, as described by Zachariah Chandler, meant "that a young man goes out for service, for labor by wages and earns enough money to start his own farm and becomes employer of labor." Thus, it was contradictory to the oppressive and conservative notions of labor held by the southern slave owners. The progress of American society, according the Republican perspective, lay in the enterprising and middle class men who strived for better economic prospects. The practices of slavery and such oppressive social and economic systems were opposed to the very concept of economic justice that was held by Northerners.
There are many arguments both for and against both free trade and protectionism. There are some that say that free trade should rule the day and that the market can regulate itself. There are others that suggest that the market is an immoral mess and/or that countries should be allowed to protect their national and economic interests if and when it becomes necessary. This report will talk about the pros and cons of each thought process and offer an overall opinion at the end. While free trade is generally the better course of action to follow, there are times and situations where at least some elements of protectionism are not beyond the pale.
Generally speaking, free trade is when trade is allowed to happen in an unfettered way. Rather than goods being blocked from crossing borders in the form of exports or imports, free trade is all about letting people…
He writes, "In Louisiana, South Carolina, and Virginia - the home of large free black populations - men who had never known slavery dominated among econstruction officeholders. For the South as a whole, however, the black political leadership arose out of local slave communities" (Foner 136). He shows the struggles, victories, and defeats the blacks faced, and helps the reader see why econstruction was so important to our history. He also believes that there is still a type of econstruction going on today, in other ways, which is another reason he feels it is so important.
Foner's book belongs on the shelves of any reader interested in Civil War history, because he explains his ideas effectively and writes so anyone can understand his ideas and conclusions. It effectively uses illustrations to help make some of the key points, (such as how blacks were viewed historically during econstruction and beyond), and…
Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. New York: Knopf, 2005.
Free Are American Media
Events occur and become news, news circulate all around the globe. In early times it was almost impossible to convey these happening with in short period of time but with the advent of time technology grew exponentially and gave a fast source of communication called "media."
Media has played a very important role throughout. Any event occurring in one side of the globe gets to the other side within a span of minutes. They cover events such as politics, sports, entertainment etc. And telecast it to the other regions. Every event that had occurred in the past has been covered by the regions local and international media. The point lies in the contradicting news telecasted by the media i.e. one event coverage contradicting to the same event covered by another channel.
The process of broadcasting consist of many events such as coverage, filtration, etc. A channel…
Czitrom, Daniel J. Media and the American Mind: From Morse to McLuhan. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1982. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Davis, Richard, and Diana Owen. New Media and American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Entman, Robert M., and Kimberly A. Gross. "Race to Judgment: Stereotyping Media and Criminal Defendants." Law and Contemporary Problems 71.4 (2008): 93+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
Fox, Julia R., and Byungho Park. "The "I" of Embedded Reporting: An Analysis of CNN Coverage of the "Shock and Awe" Campaign." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50.1 (2006): 36+. Questia. Web. 28 July 2012.
There is the mindset that recruiting and retaining younger, talented yet less expensive workers is a practice that is better suited for managers from comparable generations who understand what motivates workers by generation (Young, 008). There is also the theories of how contingency-based leadership as defined by Fielder and others (Fielder, Mahar, 1979) have also shown how metrics can define the goodness of fit between a given manager's leadership style and the needs of the organizations they serve. Finally the use of balanced scorecard (BSC) methodologies has a significant impact on how companies measure the retention and growth in skills of employees over time. The metrics in each of these cases is managed to a series of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and measured for variance over time to ensure managers stay on track towards their goals.
. How do we learn? Identify and discuss the theories to explain the process…
2. How do we learn? Identify and discuss the theories to explain the process by which we acquire patterns of behavior. Be sure to specifically identify the key elements of each of these theories by name.
There are dozens of theories that explain how people learn with the majority of peer-reviewed research concentrating on the areas of learning by observation and self-efficacy, behaviorism, cognitivism, and social learning. Theorists have also worked to create frameworks that encompass learned behavior in the context of strategic planning as well (Hunt, Sorenson, 2001). This is highly relevant in industries marked by rapid and abrupt changes in their structure and their competitiveness, as is evidenced by Freestyle Semiconductor for example. Each of these theories of how patterns of behavior are learned also must concentrate on the extent to which collaboratively-based information sharing and intelligence can provide competitive advantages over time as well (Ray, 2007). Learning by observation assumes the level of innate motivation is present in an employee and that the guidance being receives is accurate given the task at hand. Learning by observation is most successful in self-efficacy scenarios where employees have internalized the objectives of their positions and can readily see the value of the learned behavior. Behaviorism however relies more on observation and the quantifying of it without regard to the attitudes, beliefs and values of the employee. How this affects learned behaviors in organizations is therefore limited it is value as it does not accurately gauge motivation that is innate, only observed. As a result it is often seen as one of several strategies for defining learning programs in organizations, and is also one that is often seen as only part of a potential solution set. Additional insight is needed to define a more complete strategy for enabling organizational development for the long-term.
Cognitivism is in direct contrast to behaviorism in that its key components are entirely internalized within the learner. The information processing is entirely internal and therefore not measurable through observation, only through attitudinal questionnaires and other forms of interviews over time. There is the need for managing retention strategies based on this aspect, measured through a series of questionnaires and internal assessments to ensure that retention programs are resonating and seen as relevant with key contributors. There is also the aspect of cognitivism being more of a continual development cycle that is recursive in nature; there is a continual focus on how to create the greatest learning experience from the standpoint of relevancy to key contributors based on their perceptions alone. This is inherently more challenging and
Do you think metrics can be applied to other areas of management, such as employee attitudes, employee performance, or skill development? How might those metrics be measured and managed?
There are an abundance of opportunities to provide metrics of performance in other areas of management as well. The uses of metrics for example for measuring employee attitudes and attributes that lead to performance analysis are also pervasive in defining human resource management strategies aimed at increasing both morale and performance (Bukowitz, Williams, Mactas, 2004). Often these metrics and more like they are integrated into a common benchmark report often called a balanced scorecard and are used for assessing strategies and their performance over time.
2. How have the fields of psychology and sociology contributed to our understanding of organizational behavior? Explain with suitable illustrations
There is direct relevance to organizational behavior of psychology and sociology across several different dimensions. irst,…
From a sociological standpoint, organizational behavior has also shifted the balance of power in many working environments as knowledge now trumps seniority from a job security standpoint (Marques, 2008). Sociologically this forces managers to focus more on how they can serve their subordinates and be developmental as opposed to being focused on their own agendas over time. Sociologically, organizational behavior is turning more into a level paying field as a result. The reliance on knowledge as a critical catalyst in the development of entirely new approaches to competing on product development, shown in the Freestyle example, is becoming more pervasive. The Internet and with it the speed up in development cycles is forcing more companies to rely on psychologically and sociologically based approaches in managing their businesses than ever before. Psychology also is contributing to a rapid reduction in resistance to change once employees find they can internalize and excel at the objectives they are given.
3. Explain Fiedler's contingency model. In your discussion, describe the role of the LPC (least preferred coworker) questionnaire and identify the key situational factors that determine leadership effectiveness, according to this model.
The essence of Fielder's contingency model is the empirically-based observations of how any given managers' organizational effectiveness is more determined by their situation leadership vs. their absolute set of leadership characteristics. There are several key assumptions with regard to the Fielder Contingency Model, the first being that there are no empirically proven best practices of management, instead there is the need for a leader to assimilate and determine the unique role they have in a given organizational culture before they can become truly effective over time
Revival of revoked wills. In most cases, a revoked will is not revivable unless it is reexecuted or revived by codicil; however, if a revoked will was destroyed, it cannot be revived in this fashion.
Dependent relative revocation. These are mistakes of law made by the testator concerning the disposition of property that can be disregarded in the administration of a will.
Components of a Will
Integration. This term refers to the collation of various sheets of paper into a cohesive whole which constitutes a single, entire will which is executed via a single act.
Incorporation by reference. A majority of states allow documents that were not integrated into the single, entire will to receive the same force and effect by referencing them in the will.
Facts of independent significance. This term refers to the description of intended beneficiaries or bequests in a will that…
free range parenting." Child Protective Services in Maryland, acting on a report from law enforcement, investigated a couple for neglect, based on the fact that they allowed their children to walk home from a park without parental supervision. For the Maryland couple, the charge was "unsubstantiated child neglect." This is not a criminal charge, but it is typically a precursor to a criminal charge (Nye, 2015). The couple was charged by Maryland Child Protective Services, rather than the police. The charge means that, operating within the confines of their mandate, Maryland CPS has the right to monitor the parents for the next five years. The CPS may, if it chooses, recommend criminal neglect charges that would go through the standard criminal justice processes. The CPS responded to an alert that the children were walking alone, and brought about their own investigation of the parents in this case. Thus, the effort…
Parents need to be given back the right to raise their children as they see fit. There are two main premises in this argument. The first is that parents have in recent years seen such rights eroded, replaced by increasing government involvement in what used to be parental decisions. It is known and agreed that in the 1980s and earlier, children were able to walk freely in their own neighborhoods, play in parks unsupervised, and to walk to and from school. Today, parents can be charged with neglect and face other legal actions if they allow their children unsupervised in public, even at a playground or walking to/from school. As Pimentel (2012) notes, there has been a shift in the way that both government agencies and courts have interpreted the standard of care that parents need to provide their children. External intervention in parenting is typically only exercised when neglect is suspected; it is the interpretation of the concept of neglect that has shifted over time that results in cases like that in Maryland.
There have been considerable study of this issue, by ethicists, legal scholars, sociologists, public administrators and, of course, by parents. The first support to the thesis is that the erosion of parental rights is a recent phenomenon. Pimentel (2012) examines the issue from a legal perspective, and notes that laws regarding child neglect have increasing been interpreted, especially since the turn of the millennium, to include strict provisions for constant supervision. The Supreme Court affirmed that the Due Process clause of the 14th Amendment protects the right of parents to make decisions regarding the care of their children in 2000, and it is only in the interim that the statutes and legal interpretation of those statues has begun to change (Pimentel, 2012). He notes that the degree to which these changes have occurred varies between states. Thus, the issue is not the advent of "free range parenting," but that the statutes and interpretations in law of the concepts of neglect and the standard of care expected of parents have changed. The vagueness of existing laws -- which also
The authors use everyday examples, such as "investment in a newly formed small business" to make their economic processes more understandable to anyone who understands modern business, and this is one of the things that makes this book so readable, and so fascinating, even for someone who might not be that interested in economic theory and practice.
The Friedman's support many ideas that would reduce the authority of government in many economic areas, including the "negative income tax, the volunteer army, an improved method of auctioning Treasury securities, the monetary rule for achieving price stability; the voucher system for education, the flat tax, and flexible exchange rates" (Jordan et al. 199). It is quite amazing to see just how many of these Friedman ideas have made their way into our business and political world, including the volunteer army, the educational voucher system, and flexible exchange rates, to name a few.…
Economist of the Century." The Washington Times 3 Aug. 2002: A11.
Friedman, Milton and Rose. Free to Choose: A Personal Statement. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 1990.
Jordan, Jerry L., et al. "Milton, Money, and Mischief: Symposium and Articles in Honor of Milton Friedman's 80th Birthday." Economic Inquiry XXXI.2 (1993): 197-212.
Oi, Walter Y. "Milton Friedman, Starting His Ninth Decade." Economic Inquiry XXXI.2 (1993): 194-196.
orking in the field of research analysis, a person must literally wade through thousands of pieces of information in order to determine the proper courses of action that should be undertaken under various circumstances. All research analysts work in either the government or in the private sector, most often in fields such as marketing wherein they acquire data based on consumers and consumption. From that data, they must determine what trends influence consumerism and how to best provide for their clients way that would induce consumers to purchase or utilize various goods and/or services (Roberts 2010). The governments of the world have always been responsible for accumulating and exposing information to the populations under their control. In the United States, there are laws which ensure that information is made available to any persons who demand it. Although, there is still information which is under the strict control of…
Baker, Seth M. (2011). "Information is Overrated." HappenChance. Word Press.
"Freedom of Information FAQS." (2011).
McKellar, Ian (2011). "We Already Have Information, Why do We Need More Data?" Word
internet is its near-instant access to literally thousands of tutorials, lessons, and how-to guides. Ranging from the mundane to the extremely esoteric, these lessons grant the user amazing amounts of information for free. echnology tutorials are perfect for this medium, as they are usually step-by-step and provide a thorough method of learning.
Windows Networking, a website devoted to learning networking offers a tutorial through the Windows operating system. It's called 10 Ways to roubleshoot DNS Resolution Issues, and as its name implies it provides a step-by-step guide to solve DNS resolution issues. he author helpfully includes a series of pictures, diagrams and an enumerated list of each issue to guide the reader through the article. echnically this is not a tutorial so much as a how-to guide, but seeing as it focuses on an issue that many network administrators have to deal with on a regular basis, it is an…
The tutorial is a mixed bag when compared to an effective learning tool. On one hand it does give a thorough list of issues that one could encounter while fixing DNS issues. It does go to great lengths to explain said issues, and even describes how to fix a few of them. Unfortunately, if the user is not accustomed to reading online tutorials or is a novice network administrator, then they will be lost in a world of jargon.
There is one problem with this entire tutorial. While there are plenty of methods to troubleshoot the issues, there are few ways to resolve said issues. Of course one can argue that the article itself is not designed to go over things like that, but it would be nice nonetheless.
Davis, D. (2009, June 17). 10 ways to troubleshoot dns resolution issues . Retrieved from http://www.windowsnetworking.com/articles_tutorials/10-Ways-Troubleshoot-DNS-Resolution-Issues.html
I know the teaching profession doesn't pay much, and there are a lot of serious problems in schools today, but I'm up for the challenge. They say if you can make a big difference in the lives of three or four students in each class, you can consider that you have done your job.
"I'll try to make a difference in the lives of every student in every class. What's wrong with trying to go for it all? The Phillies tried to go for it all and win a World Series, but they got stopped just short of their goal. Still, how many other teams didn't even get that far? In the National League there are 16 teams, so the Phillies beat out 15 teams to get to the world series. If I can change the lives of even 2 or 3 students in each of my 4 or 5…
(Rothschild.) Numerous other instances have been reported by people who have been interrogated by agents simply because they have criticized the government, President Bush, or his "war" on terrorism.
All of this speaks to the new McCarthyism, where political dissent is being equaled to treason," stated Barry Steinhardt, associate director of the American Civil Liberties Union in ashington. He finds the anecdotal evidence deeply troubling. "It's a very frightening trend: that people are doing nothing more than expressing the very freedoms that we are fighting to preserve - and find themselves with the FBI at their door." (Steinhardt.)
Other reports of the new "un-American" activity of voicing an opinion that does not support the Bush Administration's activities have resulted in professional writers, including Pulitzer prizewinning cartoonist, Steve Benson, losing their jobs. This, in effect, takes away the individual's right to a free press because the presses, owned and controlled by…
ABFFE alerts booksellers to concerns re new antiterrorism law. American Booksellers
Association. Nov. 1, 2001. 2/21/02 http://www.bookweb.org/news/btw/5175.html
Douglas, William O. Amendments to the United States Constitution. The World Book Encyclopedia. 1969. Vol. 19 (141-145.)
Johnson, Gerald. "The American Presidency." Grolier's Encyclopedia. 2000. 2/21/02. http://gi.grolier.com/presidents/nbk/side/pofus.html
advances in technology, be they in biology, agriculture, education, or nearly any other discipline or aspect of life. It appears technology is directly or indirectly linked to all recent progress. Certainly, many of the daily activities in which humans engage (reading a newspaper, making coffee, commuting to work, etc.) require technological devices. With the apparently increased reliance on and development of technology, it seems prudent to consider the consequences inherent in the use and evolution of it. More specifically, one must examine the extent to which humans -- the creators of technology, will become redundant in a society in which machines and the tasks they perform are incapable of being extracted from daily routines.
As with nearly all issues, the development of technology is advocated by many while it is strongly opposed by others. egarding the former, one must not search far for arguments favoring technological progress. Proponents, particularly those…
Ihde, Don. Image Technologies and Traditional Cutlure.
Rifin, Jeremy. The End of Work.
Joy, Bill. Why the Future Doesn't Need Us.
For most of the time since the subject of economics was first studied, the idea of resource constraints has been irrelevant. The world was simply not viewed as a finite place. The concept of resource constraints was limited, more or less, to the consideration of constraints on an individual economy. Adam Smith recognized that all economies would face resource constraints of one type or another. As Snowdon (2003) points out, "to Smith, it was obvious that all economies were faced with resource constraints and that free trade was a policy that would allow any nation to achieve the most efficient allocation of its scarce resources." This notion was built into the Ricardian trade theory and classical economics. It has not been until recent times, however, that the concept of worldwide scarcity has become relevant. The idea of peak oil and a world with seven billion people (or more) has…
Alexandratos, N. (2005). Countries with rapid population growth and resource constraints: Issues of food, agriculture and development. Population and Development Review. Vol. 31 (2) 237-258.
Asheim, G., Buchholz, W., Hartwick, J., Mitra, T. & Withagen, C. (2005). Constant savings rates and quasi-arithmetic population growth under exhaustible resource constraints. CESInfo Working Paper No. 1573
Ellis, K., Cantore, N., Keane, J., Peskett, L., Brown, D. & te Velde, D. (2010). Growth in a carbon constrained global economy. Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=4984&title=growth-carbon-constrained-global-economy
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Contemporary Political Issue: The War on Terror
On September 20th, 2001, President George W. Bush proposed the new Office of Homeland Security to help confront a new threat to national security in the first step of what became the War on Terrorism (Select Committee on Homeland Security, 2004). One week earlier, Congress had signed off on the Authorization for Use of Military Force (AUMF), allowing the president broad scope for using military force against countries or organizations who “planned, authorized, committed, or aided” terrorism (Ackerman & Hathaway, 2011). 17 years and more than $2 trillion later, the War on Terrorism continues with no sign of easing up (Amadeo, 2018). Though President Trump ran a campaign on getting American soldiers out of the Middle East and letting other countries handle the ISIS threat, the war on terror rhetoric out of the White House has continued unabated, with sights now set…
A friend of mine has just offered to give me a well-written paper that he wrote for a philosophy class. It just so happens that the paper topic is just like the one I have been assigned in my philosophy class. His paper got an "A," and I know that he has not sold this paper or posted it on his blog. The chances of my being caught, therefore, are nil. Moreover, I am very busy and because I am distracted, it is unlikely I will do a very good job on my philosophy paper. If I turn my friend's paper in as my own, I will get a good grade without doing much work. I still took the class; I am still learning. This would just alleviate my stress.
However, after some deliberation I decide that I will write my own paper. I was tempted, but I…
Government Mandated Gun-Free Zones
THEE SHOULD BE NO GOVENMENT MANDATED GUN-FEE ZONES IN PUBLIC SPACE.
Banning guns for masses and establishing gun-free zones are one of the most controversial topics in American politics. There are clearly two schools of thoughts on this subject. The right to keep a gun and displaying it publically is directly related to individual's rights under the second amendment of the prevailing constitution. However, despite the recognition of the citizens' rights, one cannot ignore the dangers of gun-free zones. Every year, there are cases reported, resulting from arms used in the gun-free zones. Maximum cases were reported in educational institutions where ammunition was used by children and teenagers. Publically mandated gun-free zones have resulted in loss of many precious lives.
There have been many cases reported where emotionally unstable individuals killed number of individuals in the public place. Majority of these massacres took place in educational…
First Reports Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Violence: Firearms Laws. 2003. Web. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwR/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5214a2.htm
Horner, William T. Showdown in the Show-Me State: The Fight over Conceal-and-Carry Gun Laws in Missouri. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2005.Questia. Web. 26 Apr. 2012.
Patrick, Ryan. Ron Paul Introduces Bill to Abolish 'Gun-Free Zones'. August 2011. Web.
Mrs. Mallard's husband could have thought he was doing her a great kind kindness by "bending" her will to his. This quotation demonstrates the fact that even if Brent Mallard was on his best behavior, he still had a negative, oppressive effect upon his wife. With little legal recourse, Chopin is alluding to the fact that for many women, death -- of either the husband or the repressed woman -- is the only way out of such a situation.
Unfortunately for Mrs. Mallard, her weak heart was unable to sustain the shock of seeing her husband alive, after she had finally acclimated herself to the notion that she had finally been freed from his oppressive presence and will. She was strong enough to live with her husband's death, yet was not strong enough to live through the surprise of his continued life at the resumption of her former, oppressed state.…
Chopin, K. (1896). The Story of an Hour. Retrieved from http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/webtexts/hour/
Goldberg, S.B. (2007). "Women's Employment Rights." American Bar Association. Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/publishing/perspectives_magazine/women_perspectives_WomensEmploymentRtsSummer07.authcheckdam.pdf
Stanton, E.C. (1848). "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions." Report of the Woman's Rights Convention. Retrieved from http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/docs/seneca.html
Stanton, E.C., Anthony, S.B. (1992). The Elizabeth Cady Stanton -- Susan B. Anthony reader: correspondence, writings, speeches. Lebanon: Northeastern University Press.