French Revolution Essays (Examples)

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Revolutions Compare and Contrast the

Words: 480 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41314624

He believed that if people join together and make a social contract they can both preserve their nation and remain free (Rousseau 93).

The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a ten-year period of upheaval in France as it was throughout Europe during the period which followed the American Revolution. In France, the political climate changed from a monarchy with aristocrats and much influence by the Catholic Church to a democracy. Citizens formulated their desires for rights and privileges equal to the aristocracy and, fighting for this ideal, won it.

The preamble to the French Constitution is a "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." The Declaration of Rights says that "No one shall be disturbed for his opinions, even religious, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law" (Knight 2).

The Constitution of the United States also has a preamble that declares that the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent. (1854-78), vol 7-10. Boston: Little, Brown, and company.

Knight, Kevin. French Revolution. Catholic Encyclopedia. 2006. .

Robinson, Dave & Groves, Judy. Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books. 2003.

Rousseau, George S. Nervous Acts: Essays on Literature, Culture and Sensibility. Palgrave Macmillan. 2004.
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Revolutions Compare Similarities Differences Revolutions America France

Words: 865 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84238100


Compare similarities differences revolutions America, France, Latin America. Identify common themes present revolution. What fighting ? Who influenced revolutions? What outcome revolution? What effect revolutions world?.

evolutions in America, France, and Latin America:

Causes, ideology, and consequences

Perhaps the most notable difference between the 18th century revolution in America vs. The 18th century revolution in France was one of class: America was not, primarily, a class-driven revolution. The Founding Fathers and supporters of the American evolution came from the elites of American society. George Washington was an important British general during the French-Indian Wars and Benjamin Franklin was a prominent figure in American colonial politics before talk of revolution became common currency. The colonists' frustration at what they perceived as the British Crown's unreasonable taxation policy and their growing economic power that was not honored with political power within the Empire was at the heart of the American evolution.…… [Read More]


Kelly, Martin. (2012). Causes of the American Revolution. Retrieved:

Minster, Christopher. (2012). Causes of Latin American revolutions. Retrieved:
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Revolutions of 1848 What Factors

Words: 367 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85597389

Unlike the French Revolution, Italian revolt was not successful, and Louis Napoleon restored papal authority to appease French Catholics and the Hapsburgs regained their influence by 1850 (Henry, 2007).

ithin Austria itself, there was a revolt more in the French class-based mode protesting the reactionary policies of the Hapsburgs that was crushed, although a new Hapsburg was placed on the throne -- just in time to put down a revolt in Hungary similar to that of the Italian nationalist revolt. The demands for German confederation likewise failed, as nationalism combined with a strong sense of republicanism did not galvanize the angry disenfranchised masses under a single banner. The middle classes and the radical socialists failed to overcome their differences, and the King of Prussia's refusal to govern a unified Germany struck a death-blow to the fractured movement (Henry, 2007)

orks Cited

Henry, Prof. "The Revolutions of 1848." estern Civilization Study…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Henry, Prof. "The Revolutions of 1848." Western Civilization Study Guide. 17 Mar 2007.
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French Amer Rev Extra

Words: 2391 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65254923

There were several battles therefore that took place between France, Great ritain and American war ships. These battles occurred in European waters as well as in waters in the western hemisphere.

The most challenging ritish action was an order permitting seizure of neutral ships either sending food and supplies to France or trading goods produced in French colonies, above all the West Indies. When ritain obstructed French ships in the French harbors early in the French Revolution, American merchants moved swiftly to take over commerce in the West Indies. These American merchant ships were subject to seizure. The ritish Navy took approximately 300 American ships and forced thousands of captured American sailors to serve on ritish ships. When American tried to negotiate with ritain, France became outraged, which prompted France to start seizing American ships and the attempts to negotiate with France were utterly ineffective. France then started to imagine…… [Read More]


Bukovansky, Mlada. Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French

Revolutions in International Political Culture (Princeton Studies in International

History and Politics). NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.

Mintz, Steven. "The Critical Period: American in the 1780s: Economic and Foreign
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Revolution in Rousseau and Burke

Words: 2166 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28038800


Here, urke argued that revolution in general, and the French Revolution in particular, must be matched with reason and a reluctance to completely give up to radical thinking.

Rousseau gave in directly to the revolution, arguing that it is a direct result of man's socialization, but urke was much more cautious: Revolution is not automatically good for urke, nor is it intrinsic to man.

Given urke's record as a strong supporter of American independence and as a fighter against royalism in England, many readers and thinkers were taken aback when urke published his Reflections on the Revolution in France in 1790. With this work, urke suddenly went on to became one of the earliest and most passionate English critics of the French Revolution, which he interpreted not as movement towards a representative, constitutional democracy but instead as a violent rebellion against tradition and justified authority and as an experiment…… [Read More]



Discourse On The Arts and Sciences, 1750

The Social Contract, 1762

Discourse On The Origin And Basis Of The Inequality Of Men, 1754
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Revolutions the History of Modern Human Civilization

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88844686


The history of modern human civilization reflects the gradual evolution of thoughts, ideas, political reform, and technological progress. At various times, specific periods of change were important enough to have been recorded as revolutions. Some of the most significant of these revolutions contributed to human history and societal development individually as well as in conjunction with other simultaneous or nearly simultaneous changes.

The Scientific evolution was responsible for fundamental changes in the understanding of the physical world, chemistry, biology, and of human anatomy and physiology. The French evolution represented the recognition of the fundamental rights of citizens to fairness and humane consideration on the part of their respective monarchical governments. The Industrial evolution increased the availability of information and provided new modes of transportation and mechanical processes that radically changed the lives of large numbers of people throughout Europe and the North American continent.

The Scientific evolution

The Scientific…… [Read More]


Bentley, Jerry H. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past (4th

Edition). McGraw-Hill: New York. 2005.

Kishlansky, Mark; Geary, Patrick; and O' Brien, Patricia. Civilization in the West.

Penguin Academic Edition (Combined Volume) Penguin: New York. 2009.
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Revolution by Edmund Burke and

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54808100

He uses no evidence, his essay is based only on his own opinion, and he does not view the opposition's opinion or their motivation. He writes well, and the points he makes are clear, but his methods and evidence are simply lacking. He is certainly welcome to his opinion, but it does not seem based in reality. Condorcet does not write about the revolution directly, but it is clear he supports the values that the revolutionaries were fighting for, and he mentions several of them, including education, and less distinction between the rich and poor. He does not cite any evidence or analysis either; he is simply expressing his opinion, just as Burke did. He is a good writer too, and gets his points across well, but somehow, his arguments seem more balanced than Burke's, perhaps because they seem more reasonable.

After understanding what the French evolutionaries were trying to…… [Read More]


Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. p. 107-112.

Condorcet, Marquis de. The Future Progress of the Human Mind. p. 127-131.
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French Associate Their Country With a Geometrical

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11459333

French associate their country with a geometrical shape.





Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:

Hot summers and cold sometimes snowy winters

North and Western Coastal Regions

Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees

Central and Eastern France

The South (also known as the Midi)

Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:

Hot summers and mild winters often made colder by the cold Mistral wind

North and Western Coastal Regions


Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees


Central and eastern France


The south (the Midi)

Question 4

Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type…… [Read More]

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French Colonialism in Western Africa

Words: 4744 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88899622

By the second night, a group of men had mutinied and attempted to kill the officers and destroy the raft, and by the third day, "those whom death had spared in the disastrous night […] fell upon the dead bodies with which the raft was covered, and cut off pieces, which some instantly devoured" (Savigny & Correard 192). Ultimately, the survivors were reduced to throwing the wounded overboard, and only after they had been reduced to fifteen men, "almost naked; their bodies and faces disfigured by the scorching beams of the sun," were they finally rescued by the Argus, which had set sail six days earlier to search for the raft and the wreck of the Medusa (Savigny & Correard 203).

Theodore Gericault's the Raft of the Medusa captures the moment on the 17th of July when the Argus first became visible to the survivors, and his choice to reflect…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alhadeff, Albert. The raft of the Medusa: Gericault, art, and race. New York: Prestel, 2002.

Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "LEtat Et Les Artistes: De La Restauration a La Monarchie De

Juillet (1815-1833) / Salons." The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 811-3.

Blair, J.A. "The Possibility and Actuality of Visual Arguments." Argumentation and Advocacy
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Revolutions in Romantic Literature

Words: 1565 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86376203

Thompson "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," The Romantics.

In the article "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," author E.P. Thompson explores the restoration of literary works by Wordsworth and Coleridge. Specifically, Thompson is interested in the moment when the poet became politically aware and disenchanted with the environs around him, turning his distaste into pieces of literature. While making his argument, Thompson delves heavily into the possible psychological profile of the author and his break with Godwinism. By doing this however, Thompson makes a critical mistake which all literary scholars and critics are meant to watch out for: that is confusing the narrator of the literature with the author himself.

Remarkably, Thompson determines that the change in Wordsworth's writings came at a time when he stopped writing towards an ideal and instead directed his writings at a real person. He writes, "It signaled also -- a central theme of…… [Read More]

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Revolution Education and Modernization Revolution Education and

Words: 897 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12429769

evolution, Education, And Modernization

evolution, Education and Modernization

Is revolution an acceptable way to change government? Why or why not?

In 1776 the founding fathers of the United States faced a situation where this question was paramount among the interests of their fellow countrymen:

"When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation" ("The Declaration of Independence," 1776).

History shows that when the needs of a society are not being met revolution is generated from outside the existing system since it is that system that is perceived as…… [Read More]


"Egypt news -- Revolution and aftermath." (2011, June 2). The New York times. World. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from

Kanalley, C. (2011, January 30). Egypt revolution 2011: A complete guide to unrest. The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from 

McElroy, W. (2005). Henery Thoreau and 'civil disobedience'. Future of the freedom foundation. In The Thoreau Reader. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from 

Rathbone, E. (2011, March 15). Can social networking spur a revolution? The university of Virgina magazine. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from
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French Influence Upon Catalan Modernists

Words: 3751 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83082708

Symbolism first developed in poetry, where it spawned free verse. Forefathers included the poets Baudelaire, Verlaine, and Rimbaud; practitioners included Laforgue, Moreas, and Regnier. The Swiss artist Arnold Becklin is perhaps the most well-known Symbolist painter; his pictures are like allegories without keys, drenched in melancholy and mystery. Other artists working in this vein include Odilon Redon and Gustave Moreau. The Surrealists drew heavily on the Symbolists later on.

Catalan Artists

Catalan masters played a major role in the development of 20th Century modern art in many fields. For example, modernism expressed by Gaudi, Rusinol, Gimeno, Camarasa, Picasso, Nonell or Miro epitomized the efforts of the Catalan people. Still, most of them expressed their talents outside Spain in Paris where many of them lived and worked before going home to continue their expression. Like anyone honing a craft, they needed a foundation of knowledge for their art and Paris offered…… [Read More]

Works Cited

2000. Catalan Masters. Available at" Accessed on 9 January 2005.

2002. Notes on Picasso: Important Terms, People, and Events. Available at Accessed January 2005.

Art Nouveau in Catalonia. Available at;. Accessed 9 January 2005.

Catalan Painting. Available at Accessed January 2005.
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French Pastries Have Made a

Words: 1087 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6106249

The Japanese have learned how to combine the best of both worlds.

Decorum is another important aspect of pastry making. The aesthetics of French pastries sometimes is more important than the actual taste. Japanese pastry chefs have come to understand this and have produced some modern marvels and master pastry chefs. Chief among them is Sadaharu Aoki who is well-known in both Japan and France. His pastries tend to be much sweeter than traditional Japanese pastries, but it is mainly his artistic flavor in creating beautiful looking pastry that has won him so much acclaim within the pastry world. The key to "fusion" pastry is that they are economical. French pastries made by famous pastry chefs are aesthetically pleasing but are not only expensive, but often glazed to provide shape and texture that makes it extremely hard to eat. Japanese pastries made with the French techniques are much more economical…… [Read More]

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Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88148161

Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of the Atlantic World Created the Environment for These Revolutionary Movements to Form

The objective of this study is to examine the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions, known as the Atlantic Revolutions and to answer as to how the structure of the Atlantic World created the environment for these revolutionary movements to form. The North American Revolution took place between 1775 and 1878. The French Revolution took place between 1789 and 1815, and the Haitian Revolution between 1971 and 1804 and finally the Spanish American Revolutions between 1810 and 1825. These revolutions were found because of the issues of slavery, nations and nationalism, and the beginnings of feminism. In fact, the entire century from 1750 to 1850 was a century of revolutions. Political revolutions occurred in North America, France, Haiti, and Spanish South America. All of the revolutions were derived from ideas concerning Enlightenment.…… [Read More]


13h. The Age of Atlantic Revolutions (2012) U.S. History: Pre-Colombian to the New Millennium. Retrieved from: 

Klooster, W. (2009) Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A comparative history. Retrieved from:
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Lynn Hunt's Book The French

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4090890

This document highlighted that human rights need to be universal in order for society to be healthy. The document influenced French people in general to get involved in the revolution and to express interest in reform.

5. Calvinists and Jews were persecuted groups up until the revolution and they thus played an active role in devising the human rights agenda. "On December 21, 1789, a deputy raised the question of the status of non-Catholics under the new regime; his intervention started a long debate that quickly expanded to cover Jews, actors, and executioners, all of them excluded from various rights before 1789" (Hunt 84).

6. The idea of slavery was questioned even before the French Revolution started, as there were numerous influential individuals who denounced the institution of slavery. The French National Assembly actually held individuals who believed that black people should have rights and that slavery needed to be…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Avery Hunt, Lynn, "The french revolution and human rights: a brief documentary history," (Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1996)
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Middle Ages to the French

Words: 1489 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52273969

Philosophers such as John Locke and the Founding Fathers of the American Revolution demanded that the rights of the individual be acknowledged by the leading social governing body. But even today, the balance between the rights of the individual and the state is an imperfect one: to what degree do individuals have a right to critique the government, to set their own moral terms of the private behavior, and what ethical as well as legal obligations does the individual have to the community? America's intense individualism tends to deemphasize the obligations of citizens to others.

A third controversial development during this period was the development of capitalism. Before capitalism, the self-sustaining farm or fiefdom was the predominant economic mode. However, mechanized and specialized labor that took the form of wage labor where "humans work for wages rather than for product" became more common (Hooker, 1996, capitalism). Arguably, in a Marxist…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hooker, Richard. (1996). Capitalism. European Enlightenment Glossary.

Retrieved August 3, 2009 at

Hooker, Richard. (1996). The divine right of kings. European Enlightenment Glossary.

Retrieved August 3, 2009 at
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Dis-Missal of the Great French Fairy Tale

Words: 4930 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60077988

Dis-missal of the great French fairy tale writers from the palace of King Louis XIV help revolutionize the literary French fairy tales?

French fairytales and literature are indeed a topic that is worth discussing. This is because the work compiled by the French writers, back in the 17th and 18th century is still part of the English as well as French literature. Nowadays, the term fairy tale is used by many people to refer to the magical stories that are told to small children. This word has actually been derived from the French term "Conte de Fees," which was a label given to a couple of tales written for adults in the 17th century (Windling).

Many people are not aware of the fact that even the magical stories that are told to children today, Sleeping eauty, The White Deer, Donkeyskin and Cinderella (to name a few), are in fact adaptations…… [Read More]


Adam, Antoine. Histoire de la litterature francaise au XVIIe siecle. First published 1954-56. 3 vols. Paris: Albin Michel, 1997. Print.

Ashley, Maurice P. Louis XIV And The Greatness Of France. 1965.

Backer, Dorothy. Precious Women: A Feminist Phenomenon in the Age of Louis XIV. New York:

Basic Books, 1974.
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American Revolution Contribute to the

Words: 6922 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51309202

Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.

Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…… [Read More]


Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.

Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.

Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.

Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2
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American Revolution in 1776 Inspired the French

Words: 332 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52873801

American Revolution in 1776 inspired the French Revolution in 1789 by showing that the common people could overthrow the powerful political establishment. Both countries were ruled by absolute monarchies. The United States were then colonies of Great Britain, and were ruled unfairly. The early Americans became tired of "taxation without representation." In France, the common people and peasants were also not represented by their government. In both cases, only landowners could vote and there was little equality or justice. By taking up arms against Britain, the early American settlers took a stand against tyranny and this act then led to the French Revolution.

The American Revolution set an example to the people of France that it was possible to have democracy. By taking the first step in this process of change, the American settlers showed that democracy was possible, even if it meant going to war. After succeeding in the…… [Read More]

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Libertine in French Literature

Words: 1121 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90268916

history libertinism, 18th century France. In concluding paragraphs, relate research formation, conflicts characters Dangerous Liaisons (Les Liaisons dangereuses), epistolary Choderlos de Laclos.

The notion of the libertine:

The radical and reactionary implications of libertinism in Les Liaisons Dangereuses

The novel Dangerous Liaisons (Les Liaisons Dangereuses) has a daring storyline, even by contemporary standards. Over the course of a series of letters between the Marquise de Merteuil and the Vicomte de Valmont, a plot is orchestrated to bring shame and scandal upon the conventional and pure Madame de Tourvel and Cecile Volanges. Valmont in particular embodies the notion of the 19th century libertine, or a man who lives without regard to conventional morality: in effect, he is 'liberated' from the conventions of society and religious dogma.

The notion of a 'libertine' was first articulated in the writings of the 17th century theologian John Calvin, who defined libertines as all that good…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cavaille, J. "Libertine and libertinism: Polemic uses of the terms in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English and Scottish literature." Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, 12.2 (2012), 12-36,157.

Hollinger, K. "Losing the feminist drift: Adaptations of Les Liaisons Dangereuses."

Literature/Film Quarterly, 24.3 (1996), 293-300.

O'Connell, Lisa & Cryle, Peter. Libertine Enlightenment. Palgrave Macmillan 2003.
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Century of Revolution

Words: 856 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60013701


Christopher Hill's The Century of Revolution 1603-1714 details the transformations in English economic, political, ideological, and religious life. The author states in his introductory chapter, "The years between 1603 and 1714 were perhaps the most decisive in English history" because those years signified the dawn of the modern age and the rise of the English empire (13). Hill divides the various changes in English society, which would come to transform American society as well, into issues related to economic theory, political philosophy, and the realm of religion and ideas. The Century of Revolution is broken up into three chronological sections: 1603-40; 1640-60; 1660-88; and 1688-1714. The realm of religion and ideas encapsulates the realms of economics and politics because of the widespread influence of religion on culture. Therefore, the theme of transformation can best be illustrated through Hill's depiction of the changes occurring in religion and ideology in seventeenth…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hill, Christopher. The Century of Revolution 1603-1714. London: Cardinal, 1974.
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Revolutionary French Peasants Thinking

Words: 2251 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73111961

French Revolution

The final crisis of the French Monarchy occurred in 1789, with the official beginning of the French Revolution. Although this was the year in which the first official battle of this martial encounter was fought, it is vital to realize that the monarchy had been floundering for some time prior. There were numerous factors that contributed to the disfavor the monarchy found itself in at the end of the 18th century. Some of the more eminent of these political, financial, and environmental causes helped to weaken the French Monarchy's hold over its subjects, as judged by the standards of the present 1. Concurrently, there were military woes that accompanied these factors and which contributed to the mounting unpopularity of this government. However, an analysis of these factors reveals that the most prominent cause of the French Revolution pertained to the zeitgeist of the time in with Enlightenment ideals…… [Read More]


Acemoglu, Daaron, Cantoni, Davide, Johnson, Simon, Robinson, James. "The Consequences of Radical Reform: The French Revolution." NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved 4/3/2016.

Davies, Norman. The History of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1990.

Langer, William. The Encyclopedia of World History. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972.
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Enlightenment on the French and

Words: 1114 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32699302

.. reason is being heard throughout the whole universe; discover your rights," led to her being charged with treason, resulting in her arrest, trial and execution in 1793 by the dreaded guillotine (1997, Halsall, "Olympe de Gouge," Internet).

The Haitian evolution:

While all of this revolt was happening in France, the small Caribbean colony of Haiti was experiencing similar turmoil. The Haitian evolution of 1789 to 1804 began as a political struggle among the free peoples of Saint Domingue, a French colony on the island of Hispaniola. The French evolution of the same period provided the impetus for class and racial hatreds to come about on the island. Each of the colony's social classes, being the wealthy planters and merchants, and the lower white classes, seized the chance to address their grievances and bring about social chaos and revolt. While many colonial members sought support from the political groups in…… [Read More]


Carpentier, Alejo. (2004). "The Kingdom of the World." Internet. November 12, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005.

Declaration of the Rights of Man -- 1789." Internet. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Accessed June 10, 2005.  .

Halsall, Paul (1997). "Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791." Internet. Modern History Sourcebook. Accessed June 10, 2005.

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How Revolutionary Was the American Revolution

Words: 3820 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79397572

revolutionary the American evolution was in reality. This is one issue that has been debated on by many experts in the past and in the present too. The contents of this paper serve to justify this though-provoking issue.

American evolution-how revolutionary was it?

When we try to comprehend why the American evolution was fought, we come to know that the residents of the American colonies did so to retain their hard-earned economic, political and social order when the British had stated to neglect them. However, before we began to understand what The American evolution was all about, it is necessary for us to look at conditions of the colonies preceding the war. The economy of Colonial America were divided into three separate parts: New England, where the economy was commerce; the South, where cash crops were the major source of earning; and the middle colonies, a combination of both. [Account…… [Read More]


Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1967).

Kurtz and Hutson (eds), Essays on the American Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 1973).

Account of a Declaration 1, available at: , accessed on: February 11, 2004

American Journey, available at:
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History of Human Civilization the Scientific Revolution

Words: 2161 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52464720

history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.

Studies and…… [Read More]


Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003

History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003
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Social Revolutions Over the 20th

Words: 2190 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17759428

For example, Krishan Kumar of the University of Kent at Canterbury11 states,... "in sum, a fine piece of properly political sociology, of which there are in truth very few examples. Society gets its due share of attention; but as is fitting and absolutely essential in any discussion of revolution, it is the peculiar nature of and crisis of the state that occupies the centre of the stage."

Similarly, Michael Kimmel of the University of California -- Santa Cruz,12 states that "Theda Skocpol is perhaps the most ambitious and exciting of a new generation of historical-comparative sociologists who have focused their attention squarely on the big issues of social change that once preoccupied the classic sociologists."

The difficulty that some reviewers had about this book is because of some of the misinformation. For example, George Yaney 12 of the University of Maryland states it is based almost entirely on secondary sources…… [Read More]


Kimmel, Michael. "States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. By Theda Skocpol."" the American Journal of Sociology. 86 No.5 (1981): 1145-1154

Kumar, Krishan. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France,

Russia and China by Theda Skocpol" the British Journal of Sociology. 31, no. 2

1980): 310-311.
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Categories the Chinese Revolution the

Words: 2679 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63582793

This became a reality with the killing of the tsar in 1918. The death of the tsar was the visible reaction to a series of underlining causes that would eventually encourage the raise to power of a political ideology that addressed these issues and offered political and propagandistic solutions.

The social situation of the populations was rather grim during the tsar's regime. ussia had been engaged in the First World War effort and the condition of the soldiers was disastrous. Similarly, the peasants often were subjected to oppressive taxes in order for the regime to be able to financially support the war effort.

Aside from the social causes of the revolution, there were also political aspects that determined the fall of the tsar and the subsequent establishment of the communist regime. Thus, the authoritarian imperial rule opposed the visions of politicians such as the Bolshevik leader Trotsky. He was seen…… [Read More]


Carroll, J., and George Herring. (1986) Modern American Diplomacy. Scholarly Resources Inc. Wilmington, Delaware.

Fairbank, J.K. (1986). The great Chinese Revolution: 1800- 1985. London: Pan Books.

Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.

Rauch, Basil. (1963). The history of the New Deal. New York: Capricorn Books.
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Reasoning Behind the Birth of the First French Republic

Words: 1906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81587245

irth of the First French Republic

The first French Republic was established in 1792 in the aftermath of the 1789 Revolution and abolishment of the monarchy. The National Convention held a meeting in September 1792 that culminated with a vote to put an end to the monarchy and establish the first French Republic. The 1789 Revolution that acted as a catalyst for the abolishment of the monarchy and eventual establishment of the first French Republic gave the people the unprecedented opportunity to confront King Louis XIV who had dominated their lives. As the National Convention voted for the establishment of the first French Republic through abolishing the monarchy, it also tried Louis XVI for treason. The king was found guilty of treason and executed at the beginning of 1793. Given its role in the establishment of the first French Republic, the 1789 Revolution was a complex event with significant impacts…… [Read More]


McPhee, Peter. Living the French Revolution, 1789-99. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan,


Neely, Sylvia. A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

Publishers, Inc., 2008.
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American Revolution Was Modeled After Revolutions in

Words: 1999 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69367832

American evolution Was Modeled After evolutions in France and England

The American quest for freedom, modeled after reform movements in England and France, has resulted in the most revered democratic society in the world. We are free of the religious and political tyranny that plagued Europe in the 18th Century and early colonialists would approve of our government in 2002.

While the American evolution and the quest for freedom was modeled after revolutions in France and England, the United States has done something that its European relatives admire - it achieved a stable democracy free of aristocratic and religious tyranny - and this was accomplished in a relatively bloodless fashion.

Our success would meet with accolades from European philosophers and historians including Jean-Jacques ousseau, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Thomas Paine and Francois Furet. However, our success has also many developing nations and Middle East nations to regard us as arrogant…… [Read More]


1. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18

2. F. Furet, paraphrased from Interpreting The French Revolution, 1970

3. F. Bastiat "What is Seen and What is Not Seen," in Selected Essays, pp. 1-50.

4. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
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Noble Savage in Age of Atlantic Revolutions

Words: 4909 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93388118

noble savage..." etc.

The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution

When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…… [Read More]


Grinder, Donald & Johansen, Bruce. Exemplar of Liberty: Native America and the Evolution of Democracy, 7th draft. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1990. [nonpaginated ebook available from: ]

Johansen, Bruce. Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution. Boston: Harvard Common Press, 1982. [nonpaginated ebook format from:]
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America Revolution

Words: 1417 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98186320

stand on the same level as the French Revolution or the Russian Revolution of 1917, because the changes that it implied were not achieved by the thorough bloodshed that these two encountered, there were many keen to develop the subject of radicalism in the American Revolution, mainly through the changes it implied after its achievement rather than through the means these changes were obtained during the Revolution itself.

In this sense, perhaps the first idea we should be referring to when discussing the Radicalism of the American Revolution is the fact that it was a "catalyst of social change"

The American society up to the Revolution was characterized by the same hierarchical structures that dominated every territory of the ritish Empire. As a colony, the American territories were ruled by the King's representative, who was on top of the pyramid. The aristocracy, mostly ritish, subsequently followed down the line, including…… [Read More]


1. Gordon S. Wood. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. First Vintage Books Edition. 1993. Quote from the Internet, at    

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Looking Into the Revolutions in History

Words: 1333 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97880375

Industrial evolution was one of the momentous eras in history. The Industrial evolution had an impact on all levels of society as it instigated the change from an agriculture-and-handicrafts focused economy to one replaced by industries, machines, and large-scale manufacturing. The positive impacts are evident in the manner the goods and products are manufactured and the improvements in the way of living in all classes of societies across the world. However, it is important to point out is that the Industrial evolution has had negative influences as well. To begin with, the level of pollution increased in magnitude never seen before, affecting the environment adversely. Another shortcoming was the decrease in earnings along with significant deterioration in working conditions. There was also a proliferation of the number of working children and women, which negatively affected family structures.[footnoteef:2] The positives, on the other hand, include great advances in technology, increased level…… [Read More]


Hobsbawm, Eric. Age of revolution: 1789-1848. Hachette UK, 2010.

King, Steven., Timmins, Geoferry. Making Sense of the Industrial Revolution: English Economy and Society 1700-1850. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.

Overton, Mark. Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian economy 1500 -1850. Canbridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Scheina, Robert L. Latin America's Wars: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791-1899. 2003: Washington: Brassey's, Inc.
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Dutch Revolution Burkean Writings and

Words: 3155 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27989200

hen men, therefore, break up the original compact or agreement which gives its corporate form and capacity to a state, they are no longer a people; they have no longer a corporate existence; they have no longer a legal coactive force to bind within, nor a claim to be recognized abroad. They are a number of vague, loose, individuals, and nothing more. ith them all is to begin again (Sallust, 1963).

Soon authors started to insist on the antiquity of Dutch liberty. In 1587, for example, illem Verheyden urged the Dutch to uphold the 'exceptional freedom which we have inherited from our ancestors', as it had been retained 'since the time of Julius Caesar'. 5 The antiquity of Dutch liberty became one of the foundational ideas of the Dutch Republic. According to the Batavian myth, as it is called nowadays, (Brewer, 1975) the liberty of the United Provinces, and of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brewer J., Rockingham, Burke, and Whig Political Argument, Historical Journal, 18 (1975), 188-201.

Burke Edmund, The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke, 6 vols. (London, 18869).

Burke Edmund, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790).

Blackstone William, Commentaries on the Laws of England, 4 vols. (Oxford, 1765-9).
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Shen Tong Almost a Revolution

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50189194

Shen Tong, in his Almost a Revolution, provides the first autobiographical account of the student uprising in Beijing during the summer of 1989 to reach western audiences. The book as come under attack for being somewhat self-serving and Tong has been accused of attempting to "cash-in" on the tragedy that occurred at Tiananmen Square by publishing his own, insider's account.

Despite these accusations, Almost a Revolution is a valuable rendering of the student movement's atmosphere and ideologies because it comes from the perspective of those who were involved. It should be regarded as something of a primary historical source, in this respect; accordingly, we should expect it to be filled with personal and nationalistic bias, but this does not detract from its capability to illuminate the events that took place for those of us who were not there.

Accepting Tong's position with reference to the movement, other critics have noted…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Abraham, Yvonne. "Cashing in on Tiananmen." Changing China, 1997. Available:  .

2. Palumbaum, Judy. "China and Inner Asia." The Journal of Asian Studies, May 1991. Vol. 2, Iss. 50.

3. Tong, Shen and Marianne Yen. Almost a Revolution. Boston: Haughton Mifflin Company, 1990.

Abraham, Yvonne. "Cashing in on Tiananmen." Changing China, 1997. Available:
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Napoleon Was Sent to French Military Schools

Words: 492 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18200317

Napoleon was sent to French military schools at Brienne and Paris. He received his commission in the artillery in 1785. After the outbreak of the French Revolution, he attempted to join the Corsican patriots led by Pasquale Paoli, but his family was thought to be pro-French. A political event was to reopen his career overnight. In Oct. 1795, a royalist Parisian rebellion attacked the Convention, and Paul Barras convinced the Convention to place Bonaparte in command of the troops. Napoleon dispersed the mob with what he called "a whiff of grapeshot" -- which killed about 100 insurgents. He was given command of the army of the interior. After drawing up a plan for an Italian campaign, he was, made commander in chief of the army of Italy with Barras's help.

He left for Italy in March 1796. Assuming command of an ill-supplied army, he succeeded within a short time in…… [Read More]

Great Britain had never succumbed, and the Continental System proved difficult to enforce. Napoleon's first signs of weakness appeared early in the Peninsular War (1808 -- 14). The victory of 1809 over Austria had been costly, and the victory of Archduke Charles at Aspern (May, 1809) showed that the emperor was not indomitable. Forces were gathering everywhere to cast off the Napoleonic yoke.

Napoleon's decision to invade Russia marked the turning point of his career. His alliance with Czar Alexander I, dating from the treaties of Tilsit and extended at the Congress of Erfurt (1808), was tenuous. When the czar rejected the Continental System, which was ruinous to Russia's economy, Napoleon gathered the largest army Europe had ever seen.

In December, Napoleon left his army, returning to Paris to bolster French forces. Of his allies, Prussia was the first to desert; a Prussian truce with the czar (Dec. 30) was followed by an alliance in Feb. 1813. Great Britain and Sweden joined the coalition, followed (Aug., 1813) by Austria, and the "War of Liberation" began. At the Battle of the Nations (Oct. 16 -- 19), Napoleon was forced to retreat.
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Century of Revolution

Words: 723 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62284547

Christopher Hill's ideology and opinion of historical analysis in terms of religion and economics

According to the British Marxist historian Christopher Hill in 1961, the then-common historical interpretation of the revolutionary events of the 17th century was "that the English Revolution of 1640-60 was a great social movement like the French Revolution of 1789," at least in the eyes of most liberal historians, while conservative or Tory British historians tended to see the entire movement as misguided. (Hill, 1961, Introduction) Thus, more often than not, the transformation of the English Civil ar is seen as a fight between the forces of reaction and the forces of democratic pluralism, with the forces of reaction embodied in "the despotism" of the British King Charles I, who "was defended by the reactionary forces of the established Church and conservative landlords," after the king was set upon by the forces of Parliament and the…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Hill, Christopher. The Century of Revolution, 1603 -- 1714. First published 1940 and rewritten in 1961. Reprinted 1980 & 1982. London: Lawrence and Wishart. Transcribed by Anthony Blunden, 2002 at Marxists on the Web. Available on the web on 2005
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Rousseau and Marx French Educator

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66291689

Rousseau believed that a sovereign should rule the people, yet the State should be directed by the general will of the people and if some did not wish to go along with the rest they should be forced to do so by everyone else and "be forced to be free." Rousseau was a not really a Communist at heart, and believed that man should have a sovereign to act upon the will of the people. Marx, however, thought it would be best for the workers to rise up and take away the property, factories and property owned by the few in the ruling class in the name of Communism. Marx believed that Communists should "openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions," in the Communist revolution. "The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains," he said in Section III,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fiero, Gloria K. "Faith, Reason, and Power in the Early Modern World." The Humanistic Tradition, Vol. 4. Boston: McGraw Hill. 1998.

Fiero, Gloria K. "Romanticism, Realism, and the Nineteenth Century World." The Humanistic Tradition, Vol. 5. Boston: McGraw Hill. 2002.

Marx, Karl. Communist Manifesto. 1848.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Discourse on the Origin of Inequality Among Men. 1755.
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Khmer Rouge Bloody Aftermath of Revolution Did

Words: 2016 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71898316

Khmer ouge

Bloody Aftermath of evolution: Did it Have to Happen?

evolutions have a tendency to gain a terrible momentum. The level of both organization an anger that is required to overturn an established government (especially one that is either of long standing or autocratic nature or both) can continue to build in intensity and force even after the previous government has fallen, thus making the revolution a success. The result of such revolutionary force tends to run in at least two directions and often both at once. The revolution may turn inward, destroying (and usually executing) its original leaders. And it may turn outward, destroying the nation that it sought to rescue. The most revolutionary governments are likely to do both.

This paper analyzes the purges of the Khmer ouge that followed its revolutionary takeover of the government of Cambodia, assessing whether such purges were necessary to maintain the…… [Read More]


Kiernan, B. (2004). How Pol Pot Came to Power: Colonialism, Nationalism, and Communism in Cambodia, 1930 -- 1975 (2nd Ed.) New Haven: Yale University Press.

The fall of the Khmer Rouge, 

Khmer Rouge,

Rinaldo, R. (1997). Revisiting the Killing Fields: The Khmer Rouge and Globalization.
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French Economic System Since 1981

Words: 2252 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54754429

The Fordist system is dependent on the mutual interaction of a group of economic and social mechanisms. It is based on four elements firstly, of a particular consumption pattern, influenced by the increasing amounts of consumption of standardized manufactured objects which is liable to be produced in large series. Secondly, it is characterized by the allurement of Taylorism as the principal model of industrial work organization in maintaining with the consumption pattern. Thirdly, there is a Fordist social compromise. Fourthly, a Keynesian-interventionist State both in the economic and social field ensured the coherence of the system by means of a high and steady growth rate. (Which French Third Way? Administrative and Social Empowerment: Lessons from the Second Left in Power)

During the last three decades the system increasingly lost its consistency. Many elements of disturbance have been interacted weakening all the four elements. The weakening of Fordist coherence appropriately explains…… [Read More]


Adams, William James; Stoffa s, Christian. French Industrial Policy. The Brookings Institution. 1986. p. 13 Retrieved at on 18 June, 2005

Dirigisme. Retrieved at Accessed on 18 June, 2005

Economy of France. Retrieved at . Accessed on 18 June, 2005

Levy, Jonah. D. The State after Statism: French economic and social policy in the age of globalization. Paper prepared for presentation to the Thirteenth International Conference of Europeanists. Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, March 14-16, 2002. Retrieved at Accessed on 18 June, 2005
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French Russian War

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51724863

Russian Soldier


French/Russian War

As in every decisive point of war, so I have come about once more to add to the glory of the French Empire. The Grande Armee is ready for battle, and we are to cross Neman shortly on the morrow. Poland must not fall to the Russians, and if needs be, we shall show the Russian emperor our true force; the force of the French army in her magnificent glory.

No other empire could have hoped to grow as largely as France, not Alexander the Great, not even Caesar's Roman Empire. No, it shall be a glorified and united Europe, and I shall see my reforms through. No ancient imperial order should stand in the way of revolution. Certainly Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette fared the worst for their mistreatment of the Jacobins during the Reign of Terror. And if I have to fight…… [Read More]

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French Literature Pick as Many as You

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3176276

French literature? (Pick as many as you think are correct)

Detective stories

Songs sung by traveling minstrels (troubadours) and entertainers and jesters (jongleurs)

Oral histories evoking the exploits of saints and kings

Long verse poems telling the stories of heroes like Charlemagne, knights and ladies and their confrontations with giants, monsters, and the supernatural world

Gothic novels

The Renaissance - pick out which of the following elements characterize the changes and innovations of the Renaissance era in France - the late 15th century to the early 17th century.

An interest and celebration of the arts and thinking of ancient Greece and Rome

An attraction to humanism - a view of the world where individual choices direct one's actions more so than religious conviction


Royal support for music, architecture, and art


The bubonic plague


The Hundred Years War

Question 4

Which of the following were important Renaissance writers?…… [Read More]

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Revolution and Faith in European Art

Words: 2521 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48927280

Romantic and Neoclassical Paintings

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Eugene Delacroix were contemporaries -- but they practiced two very different styles: the former was a Neoclassical painter and the latter a Romantic painter. Neoclassicalism emphasized symmetry and simplicity and found its inspiration in the ancient art of Greece and Rome: its practitioners celebrated the artistic styles of the Greco-Roman world, rejecting the drama of the Baroque and adopting a more intellectualized approached to the visual arts. The subjects of these paintings were often political, social historical and classical -- a portrait of the Horatii, for example, or of a scene in Homer's Iliad. The visual style was decorous, concise, restrained, balanced, rational, and sometimes witty: it appealed to the Enlightenment thinkers of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Romanticism on the other hand was more emotional: its subjects were more often focused on nature, the individual, the common man, the spirit…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum." Freemasonry.

"The Lady with an Ermine." Italian Renaissance.
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Navies in American Revolution for Hundreds of

Words: 4742 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12678935

Navies in American Revolution

For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, ritish maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the ourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like ritain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…… [Read More]


Black, Jeremy, "Naval Power, Strategy and Foreign Policy, 1775-1791" in Michael Duffy (ed). Parameters of British Naval Power, 1650-1850. University of Exeter Press, 1992, pp. 93-120.

Black, Jeremy. European Warfare in a Global Context, 1660-1815. Routledge, 2007.

Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. Yale University Press, 1985.

Kelly, J.K. "The Struggle for American Seaborne Independence as Viewed by John Adams." PhD Dissertation, University of Maine, 1973.
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Optical Revolutions How the Telescope

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32027252

The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:

For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)

However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cohen, I. Bernard. The Birth of a New Physics. Rev. ed. New York: Norton, 1991. Print.

Fermi, Laura, and Gilberto Bernarndini. Galileo and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1961. Print.

Hooke, Robert. Micrographia. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, 2008. Print.

Konnert, Mark. Early Modern Europe: The Age of Religious Warfare, 1559-1715. North York, on: Higher Education University of Toronto Press, 2006. Print.