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hile such socially stimulating events were taking place, political workings were also making great headway. In 1791, the Constitution was accepted and the Assembly proclaimed, " the end of the Revolution has arrived."
The new constitution left France as a constitutional monarchy, and when war broke out with Austria and prices in the country spiked considerably, the monarchy was abolished and the Jacobins established the National Convention.
Not long after, Louis XVI was sentenced to execution and France declared war on Britain and the Dutch Republic. Riots and food shortages followed, and the Committee of Public Safety was created which ruled by terror.
By June of 1793, a new constitution was passed and Robespierre was put as head of the Committee of Public Safety. Robespierre was a "political and social thinker" that was "prone to substitute Jacobian rhetorical formulae for logical steps."
Terror ensues with the deaths of Girondin leaders,…
William Doyle, Robespierre (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000) 17.
Kristin Pederson, Marie Antoinette and the French Revolution, February 2, 2011, http://www.pbs.org/marieantoinette/credits/index.html .
For many people, the French evolution was the single most important event in modern world history. In a manner of speaking, it's a unique turning point for the ailing French society of the time and Europe. But, the events transpiring in Bastille Fortress in July 1789 are still discussed. The storming is discussed often. Peter Mcphee is an Australian born academic author specializing in modern French history and French evolution. His book titled "The French evolution 1789-1799" is a worthwhile reference to the French revolution when each chapter is analyzed.
It comprises of nine chapters beginning with "France in the 1780's." The initial chapter begins with his focus on rural settings of the 18th century. The economic conditions stemmed the French evolution. Only two people out of ten lived in urban settings for that matter. The French rural society was impoverished and their production was negligible. The population…
Hazen, C.D. (2013). The French Revolution and Napolean, Chapter 7, Section 2 (Kindle Edition). Waxkeep Publishing, pp. 222-224.
McPhee, P. (2002). The French Revolution 1789- 1799. New York: Oxford.
However, it is the not past this point that this study needs to go, rather it is at this point that we need to stop and take into analyze the information that is cited here, and to see if that analysis takes us in other directions. There is really very little detailed information about the discussions and debate that might have surrounded the creation of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. It is not like the American Constitution, where the thoughts of the singers are recorded, or renderings of the National Council showing the country's forefathers of freedom hard at work and debate. It is important to understand the complexities of society as they existed at the time of the revolution. Thompson describes the country as the wealthy, the middle "bourgeois" class, and the workers.
In the age-long constitution of French society, so soon to be dissolved by…
Aulard, a. The French Revolution, a Political History, 1789-1804. Vol. 1. London: T.F. Unwin, 1910. Questia. 4 May 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=20625504 .
Aulard, a. The French Revolution: A Political History 1789-1804. Trans. Bernard Miall. Vol. 2. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1910. Questia. 4 May 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=7932977 .
French Revolution and Napoleon
Napoleon and the French Revolution:
How the Leader both Continued and Broke from the Aims of his Revolutionary Predecessors
he French Revolution was a singular event in human history. Its importance to humankind is undeniable. he Revolution was both remarkable and horrific, in its scopes and its realities. As Charles Dickens wisely stated,
"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us […]. [1: Dickens, Charles. "he Period." A ale of wo Cities. Ann Arbor: Borders Group, 2006. Print. ]
hus, one can see there…
Thus, Napoleon himself stated that he wanted to continue with past aims and at the same time, establish new goals. As his actions show, the Emperor did provide France with a better foundation on which to "institutionalize revolutionary achievements," by providing it with administrative frameworks and thus ensuring that the goals of the Revolution would be carried out fully. It is clear that Napoleon stabilized an unstable society and provided it with a strong authoritarian leader and a republican monarchy. [4: Holmberg, Tom. Napoleon and the French Revolution. 1998. Website. < http://www.napoleonbonaparte.nl/html/body_nap_and_revolution.html>]
However, it was in this authoritarian way of ruling that the Emperor also broke from the aims of the Revolution, and especially from the aim of "liberty." Due to his practicality, Napoleon failed to see that liberty suffered most under his reign. The French desired to safeguard individual rights and property, so they felt that this guarantee could only come with stability, which Napoleon provided, and were thus willing to overlook a curtailment of liberty. In return, Napoleon sanctified "equality" in the Napoleonic Code, a Frenchman's most prized possession. Napoleon felt that, although the Revolution had ended and had achieved important reforms on its own, it was his duty to continue them and institute a way of government that would enable him to always ensure these reforms, and thus other facets had to be sacrificed. [5: Holmberg, P1.]
Napoleon is believed to have loved philosophy, but as a leader, he had to be pragmatic, and in order to do so, he had to both continue the revolutionaries' work, and begin anew, as he states in the aforementioned ambiguous quotation, goals which he actually achieved. Napoleon began as a meager military officer, and rose to be one of the best-known political figures in history. He took a country torn apart, put it back together, and led it to conquer Europe. Though he did not fulfill all his goals, Napoleon did lead France in a period in which a return of the monarchy without democracy would have erased all revolutionary progress. With regards to the French people, Napoleon led, and though he both continued and broke from revolutionary aims, this, to him meant leading well, to which historians agree. And in Napoleon's own words, "To [have] pursue[d] a different course […] would [have been] to philosophize, not to govern." [6: Holmberg, P1. ]
French Revolution was the greatest revolution of the 18th century. It was the revolution that started the modern era of politics and had its origins in the financial problems of the government.
In the 1770s and 1780s, a protracted war with England left the government of France depleted of money. France's national debt was high and bankruptcy and increased tax rates became inevitable. "The government's yearly income from taxation and other sources was, quite simply, less than its spending. By 1788, fully one-half of the annual budget went for ever-increasing interest payments on the ever-increasing debt."
Another financial burden on the people of France was the lavish lifestyle of King Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette at their extravagant home of Versailles. The king and his ministers could not print money and create inflation to cover their debts. France had no central bank, paper currency or means of creating…
Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf, "Classics of Modern Thought," Third Edition (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1980)
McKay, John P., Bennett D. Hill, and John Buckler. A History of Western Society Volume II: From Absolutism to the Present (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1979)
Oates, Stephen B. With Malice Toward None, The Life of Abraham Lincoln, (New York: New American Library, 1977)
Time-Life Books. Shadow of the Dictators, (Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1989)
An Analysis of the Radical Phase of the French Revolution
The French Revolution was almost extinguished in 1792. The economic reforms prompted by the Cahier of the Third Estate of Dourdan (29 March 1789) had only appeared to benefit the middle and upper classes of the Third Estate. Meanwhile, fearing the spread of revolt throughout all Europe, Prussian and Austrian forces were marching towards Paris to cut it off at its source. However, the determination of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette to put down the Revolution and flee the city combined with the approaching army of her brother, Leopold II, sparked a chain of events that pushed the Revolution into a radical phase. This paper will examine the causes of that radical phase, what it accomplished, and what role the Reign of Terror played in the Revolution.
Several personages had influenced estern philosophy prior to the outbreak of…
Hooker, Richard. "Radical Revolution." Revolution and After: Tragedies and Farce. 6
June 1999. Web. 29 Mar 2011.
Jones, E. Michael. Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control. South Bend, Indiana: St. Augustine's Press, 2000.
Kant, Immanuel. "What is Enlightenment?" Sources of the Western Tradition. Ed.
However, from the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man, the Revolution gradually changed its course when it was governed by the Committee of Public Safety. In what later became known as the Terror, Robespierre enforced a regime of revolutionary 'correctness.' While the original intention of the Revolution may have been to equalize the relationship between the estates (and did not even have the express intention of overthrowing the monarchy, although that did eventually result), the Terror advocated, in the words of Robespierre, to uphold "public rights over private interests" (Sherman 120).
"Worn out by the turmoil of the Revolution," shortly after the reign of the Terror, a new form of government swept France in the form of the Napoleonic Regime. The military genius Napoleon was neither a republican nor a monarchist (Sherman 132). Eventually Napoleon was able to place an "Imperial Crown" on his head, with remarkably…
One of the relevant executions, part of Napoleon's terror, that is worth examining is the execution of the Duc d'Enghien. The execution of the member of the Bourbon family was motivated by the need to consolidate the newly established Napoleonic hereditary monarchy. s any act of terror, it was also meant to frighten away any potential individuals willing to contest the act itself, notably members of the Bourbon family who were still armed to support the right of their family to the throne. The act of terror was thus also a political act.
t the same time, one needs to mention some of Napoleon's closest collaborators to understand how closely Napoleon was influenced by Terror during his reign. One of them is Fouche, the chief of police and, during the French Revolution, one of the key instrument of applying terror throughout the country. s a Jacobin, his activity in Lyon…
At the same time, one needs to mention some of Napoleon's closest collaborators to understand how closely Napoleon was influenced by Terror during his reign. One of them is Fouche, the chief of police and, during the French Revolution, one of the key instrument of applying terror throughout the country. As a Jacobin, his activity in Lyon marked one of the bloodiest campaigns of the period of terror. While his methods may have been adapted during Napoleon's reign to better fit the times, there is no doubt that some of the key elements used previously, most notably instruments aimed at ensuring a state of uncertainty and fear with the population, remained with Fouche and continued to be used.
On the other hand, these arguments do need a final conclusion pointing out that Napoleon was never willing to go beyond a dictatorship and into the actual use of terrorist means. During the 1814 invasion of France, as well as during the 100 days, many of his closest collaborators, including Carnot, suggested that a new Terror was the only way that the French population could be sufficiently galvanized to be able to fight the invader. The solution was refused. Even more so, during the 100 days, Napoleon preferred a liberal approach (inspired by the Liberal Revolution), but one totally inadequate for the respective times, when the military dictatorship was most needed to save the country.
A military dictatorship is the best term to describe Napoleon's reign as First Consul and Emperor. This type of government implies limiting the individual freedoms and imposing this through the support of the army. Considering this brief description of Napoleon's governmental approach, it is clear that he was more influenced by the Terror than by the Liberal Revolution, although his application did not actually reach the levels of the period from 1792 to 1794.
Seemingly prudent people go to war against their government when conditions under current laws make it impossible to earn a living and provide for their families, such as the conditions which led to the French Revolution.
The French Kingdom was divided into districts headed by an individual, the "intendant," appointed by the crown, who had complete authority and total control, except in military matters (Young pp). So enormous was his power that he could exempt, change, add, or diminish at pleasure, thus, friends, acquaintances, and dependents of the intendant as well as their friends, acquaintances and dependents formed a chain of class who were privileged under existing laws at the expense of the common people, including basic human rights (Young pp).
This chain of privileged persons would be favored in taxation and protected in court (Young pp). ith nobility and clergy exempt from taxation, the burden of taxes…
Young, Arthur. "Travels During the Years 1787, 1788 and 1789."
What is the Third Estate?" Modern History Sourcebook: Abbe Sieyes: What is the Third Estate?
The King was stripped of his power, the clergy was required to swear an oath of loyalty to the constitution and church property was confiscated and used for security on the issues of assignats, or paper money. After the overthrow of the Monarchy Napoleon came into power in France and ruled as a dictator however, the people in France had learned that this type of ruler did not have to be tolerated.
Summary and Conclusion
This work has answered the question posed which asks whether the French Revolution was a war of the classes. Indeed it was a war of the classes, however the lines are not clearly drawn dividing the classes and as well there was much bleeding over from one class to the other in terms of that dealt with by a particular class in relation to their social position. For example, the bourgeoisie were also inclusive of…
Bibliography (MSN Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005) Online at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_7615578 26/French_Revolution.html]
French Revolution (1985) New Standard Encyclopedia Vol.6 Standard Educational Corporation Chicago.
Hilton, Rodney (2005) the French Revolution [Online available at: www.aldridgeshs.qld.edu.au/sose/revrespg/french/aolnote1.htm
Hooker, Richard (2005) the Origins of the French Revolution: The History Guide; Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History [Online at www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture11a.html]
Woods, Alan (1989) the French Revolution [Online available at www.marxist.com/History/History/french_revolution.html
Talking About a evolution?
The word "revolution" has several meanings, all of which are closely related but that have significant and important differentiating details. The most basic and concrete meaning of the word, and the earliest usage of the word in English as derived directly from its Latin roots, is simply "a revolving," from Latin words meaning "to turn" or "to roll" (Online Etymology Dictionary, 2012). From this usage there quickly sprang the meaning of an "instance of a great change [or turn] in affairs," and in the current age the word can and has been applied from major scientific discoveries that fundamentally change the understanding of the universe to a new non-stick pan available for three payments of nine-ninety-nine (Online Etymology Dictionary, 2012). So when someone raises a question like, is the French evolution or the Industrial evolution more of a true revolution, the answer must include an…
Goloboy, J. & Mancall, P. (2008). Industrial Revolution. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Neely, S. (2008). A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Online Etymology Dictionary. (2012). "Revolution." Accessed 5 March 2012. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=revolution
When the revolutionary leaders confiscated Church land, they were restricting the rights of the French people to pursuer their religion and faith as they had done in the past. Even though the Church had, like the monarchy, imposed taxes on the French people, it was nonetheless their faith, which was, for a time, completely altered when the post evolution elite confiscated those holdings.
For a long time, the historians of the French evolution saw the revolutionary cults only as political endeavors appropriate to the circumstances. eacting against this tendency, Albert Mathiez wanted to underscore the specifically religious character of these cults.2 Then it became a question of agreeing on the nature of the religious occurrence. On this question, Mathiez is a strict follower of Durkheim who affirms that it is essentially by their form that we recognize religious phenomena. Like his predecessors, Mathiez seems little concerned with studying the religious…
Baker, L. (2005). The French Revolution as Local Experience: The Terror in Dijon. The Historian, 67(4), 694+. Retrieved December 5, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018510138
Desaulniers, M. (1995). Carlyle and the Economics of Terror: A Study of Revisionary Gothicism in the French Revolution. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press. Retrieved December 5, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=82289529
Frey, L.S., & Frey, M.L. (2004). The French Revolution / . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved December 5, 2007, from Questia database:
Soboul, a. (1988). Understanding the French Revolution. New York: International Publishers. Retrieved December 5, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53362916
French Revolution Revisited
No moment in history stands alone, but each builds surely from the moments before it. The French Revolution and its aftermath was no exception. In many ways it sprang from the undeniable and unswayable forces of modernization, toppling a system which was dying under its own weight and intrinsically unable to adapt and survive in the new economic and philosophical reality. One could argue that this violent overthrow of the old aristocracy was the inevitable outcome of modernization and the arrival of the bourgeoisie class. The war was caused by the financial and social collapse of the old regime and the disappointed hopes of a people who had been inspired by the enlightenment; its effects were far reaching and terrible in their bloody implications, and its overall effect upon the world is hopelessly drawn between the good and ill.
Three main issues may be pointed at as…
Aquinas Publications. "Effects of the French Revolution."
St. Joseph Messenger. 1998. http://www.aquinasmultimedia.com/stjoseph/history.html
Badanedwa, et al. "The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." Wikipedia. April 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_the_Rights_of_Man_and_of_the_Citizen
Effects of the Revolution." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press, 2000. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858289.html
The dominant religion of France at the time (as now) was Roman Catholicism. Aston begins his book by discussing the special, privileged role of the First Estate, as well as different theological debates raging at the time, such as the Jansenism controversy. He also gives attention to other faiths, including Protestantism and Judaism, which were present in France at the time. Protestants and Jews were some of the Revolution's earliest recipients of additional rights in the new, secular, equal society.[footnoteRef:4] [4: Nigel Aston, Religion and Revolution in France, 1780-1804, (Washington, D.C: Catholic University of America Press, 2000), 244.]
Another important influence was what Aston calls a lack of 'enlightened piety,' or the persistence of a mixture of folk traditions and populist Catholicism despised by intellectuals, but professed in practice by members of the working classes. Although France would come to seem like the paradigmatic example of Enlightenment revolution (or non-religion)…
Aston, Nigel. Religion and Revolution in France, 1780-1804. Washington, D.C: Catholic
University of America Press, 2000
Doyle, William. Origins of the French Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press:
French Revolution. There are three references used for this paper.
The French Revolution was known as a Reign of Terror. It is important to understand why it began, how it was justified, its goals and whether the goals were accomplished.
Beginning of Terror
The first stage of the Revolution was from 1787 to 1789, and was mainly a "legal debate between monarchy and aristocracy over the financing of the state and the political authority which each claimed to enjoy and exercise (www.britannia.com/history/euro/1/2_2.html)." Aristocrats known as an Assembly of Notables demanded "political authority in return for tax reform. This assembly achieved nothing but further aggravation between monarch and aristocracy (www.britannia.com/history/euro/1/2_2.html)."
The major phase began in 1789 as competing classes encountered each other, and when an extension of the nation's political base was "demanded and obtained by the bourgeoisie. This initiated an aristocratic protest against the absolute monarchy bequeathed by Louis XIV,…
(Britannia: The French Revolution. (accessed 19 February, 2004).
(The French Revolution. (accessed 19 February, 2004).
< http://history.hanover.edu/modern/FRENCHRV.html >).
The enlightenment was one of the most interesting times in history. In this period there was a considerable amount of philosophical inquiry being devoted to challenging traditional worldviews. Intellectuals began to investigate different forms of state power and questioning what rights people should be given simply because they were human. These were referred to as natural rights and John Locke's version includes the naturally acquired right for everyone to have "life, liberty, and property." These concepts have provided much of the foundation for the same principles that guide the Western world today. The rights that were identified in this period protected the citizens from extreme forms of despotic rule and provided a path for the creation of varying levels self-government in which people began to have a say in the creation and maintenance of authority.
While the enlightenment provided the philosophical frameworks and forms of…
French Revolution was the consequence of four interrelated issues. These were France's financial condition, social class tension, inept monarchy, and the Enlightenment. It resulted from the convergence of France's poor economy, social injustice, inept monarch, and enlightened thinking. However, there may have been no revolution if there was social justice.
A person was born into one of three classes (or estates) in pre-Revolution French society. The first and second estates were the aristocracy and the clergy. The third estate, which comprised most of the population, was the middle class (bourgeoisie) and the peasants. The first and second estates were exempt from taxes. The entire burden of state rested squarely on the bourgeoisie and the peasants. The first and second estates, numbering 300,000 owned three-fifths of the land, in a country with 25 million citizens. The third estate was collapsing under their unjust tax burden.
In addition to their tax grievance,…
Symbolically, however, it is interesting to note that women made an important impact in the way the Revolution was represented. The French Republic was then shown as a women, leading the people and being a powerful woman, and she was called Marianne, allegedly after the name of an old society. She would still be associated with the First French Republic and with the French Revolution even centuries after the events. It was not a glorious soldier representing the Republic, it was still the sturdy woman leading the people against the enemy.
The main conclusion about the role of women in the French Revolution is that, despite the fact that they played an incredibly important role on all levels, starting with the political life and ending with simple, everyday duties, recognition was always hard to come and, especially, their struggle had to be two-fold, both for the ideals of the Revolution…
1. Women and the French Revolution. On the Internet at http://www.pinn.net/~sunshine/whm2003/fr_rev_wmn.html.Last retrieved on March 25, 2008
2. Clark, Jennifer. Women in the French Revolution: the failure of the Parisian Women's Movement in relation to the other theories of feminism of Rousseau and Condorcet. The Concorde Review. 1992. Page 116.
2. Abbott, Jacob. Madame Roland. Harper and Brothers. 1902. Page 116.
Women and the French Revolution. On the Internet at http://www.pinn.net/~sunshine/whm2003/fr_rev_wmn.html.Last retrieved on March 25, 2008
Thus the conditions were fertile for outright revolt, spurred on by the hard economic circumstances and misery of the peasants.
However, another theory of the causes of the French Revolution was that France essentially imploded from within its most privileged classes, namely that of the monarchy, nobility, and clergy. Although the French Catholic Church was one of the a privileged Estates, holding tax-free land that amounted to 10% of the total acreage of France, and many bishops and abbots lived in Paris or at Versailles, "members of the lower clergy were usually humble, poorly-paid and overworked village priests" (Kreis 2000). The supposedly unified First Estate was thus become stratified from within, which created weaknesses within the Estate.
Like the clergy, the nobility or Second Estate was torn between two tiers, the upper and lower nobility. The Nobility of the Sword was made up of members of ancient lineage with family…
Kreis, Steven. "Lecture 11: The Origins of the French Revolution." The History Guide:
Lectures on Modern European History. 2000. October 30, 2006. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture11a.html
Enlightenment and the French evolution: What Went Wrong
(Chicago Style: Author-Date)
The "Age of eason" also known as the "Enlightenment," was the 18th century's attempt to break out of the self imposed restrictions of society and create something better. (osner 2000, 251-253) Beginning with the writings of John Locke in the mid-1600's, a new idea had begun to take root: that man could, through his reason, create better social structures. In other words, man had the ability to create a more perfect form of government, one more in line with the rights of the people. From this idea came a torrent of revolution and social unrest which rocked Europe to it's foundation. In France, a revolution which had begun with the ideas of the Enlightenment, spiraled out of control into a period which is still to this day called "The Terror." How did the well intentioned ideals of the Enlightenment…
Kennedy, Emmet. 1989. A Cultural History of the French Revolution. New York: Yale University Press.
Rosner, Lisa, and Theibault, John. 2000. A Short History of Europe, 1600-1815. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Viault, Birdsall. 1990. Modern European History. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wilson, E.J., and Reill, P.H.. 2004. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment. New York: Book Builders Inc..
The Revolution was based on these foundations.
Most of the revolutionaries had the best intentions, and truly hoped for revolutionary change for the better. Much of Europe still followed a semi-feudal way of life, and the revolutionaries recognized this was the way of the past, rather than the way of the future. Religious intolerance was also the order of the day, and since many Enlightenment proponents were also atheists, this is something they also wanted to change. Their ideals included happiness and fulfillment in this life, not the next, and they were optimistic and enthusiastic, perhaps to a fault.
In fact, the age of Enlightenment and its proponents were not the only participants in the French Revolution and Reign of Terror. The age of Enlightenment simply created a foundation for revolutionary thought and idealism. The atmosphere was ripe for change, and the French people were desperate for change. The ideals…
Books and articles both available, almost all from vetted scholarly sources that provide peer reviews as well as a broad scope. One weakness is in dating, typically, questia does not upload the most current (e.g. 12-18 months) articles. However, the search engine is quite powerful, and allows for Boolean searches through books, journals, newspapers, and magazines. The search parameters also allow interesting comparisons to be made between historical topics, like Simon Bolivar, and the current political culture of the region. For example: http://www.questia.com/app/direct/SM.qst#Journal.
Part 4 -- Website and FreeMarket Capiatlism-
Citation: www.fff.org (Future of Freedom Foundation). Mission to provide unbiased information on moral and economic cases for a scholarly or academic audience.
beling, R. (January 1993). Historical Capitalism vs. The Free Market. The Future of Freedom Foundation. Cited in: http://www.fff.org/freedom/0193b.asp
Review/Reliability: Commentaries, links, support, authorship. In our case, Professor beling is a Professor of conomics at Hillsdale College, with several…
Ebeling, R. (January 1993). Historical Capitalism vs. The Free Market. The Future of Freedom Foundation. Cited in: http://www.fff.org/freedom/0193b.asp
Review/Reliability: Commentaries, links, support, authorship. In our case, Professor Ebeling is a Professor of Economics at Hillsdale College, with several scholarly publications in his name. Finding the source (author) of the article is important to vet their credentials. One can also review opinions by looking at national publications that deal with economics like: The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, The Washington Post, or The UK Daily Mail. Newspapers of this caliber fact-check their articles, and are able to provide more current information than many scholarly journals because of their publication schedule. For example:
Broughton, P. (September 2008). Free-Market Capitalism Lies Shredded. The Daily Mail Online. Cited in: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1057395/Free-market-capitalism-lies-shredded -- Americas-confidence-badly-shaken.html
Third Estate and the French Revolution
The underlying cause of the French revolution was the state of the French society. The society was highly stratified and unequal with social, political, economic, and legal amenities available to the population based on privilege. There were three main social orders, comprising of the first, second, and third estate. The first order consisted of the clergy who owned a tenth of the total land of France, were exempt from Taille or chief tax (Duiker and Spielvogel 450). The second estate comprised of the nobility, who owned between 25% and 30% of the land. These held most of the leading positions in the military, government, law courts, and higher church offices (Roberts 45). The nobles were also tax exempted, especially from Tille, and sought to expand their power and the monarch. The third estate comprised of the commoners, who overwhelmingly made up the majority of…
Duiker, William J. And Spielvogel Jackson J. World History. 7th ed., Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.
Roberts, William J. European Nations; France: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. New York, NY: Facts on File Library of World History, 2004. Print.
Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization: A Brief History. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
French Revolution" is unlike any of these yawn-producing history books that you have read in the past. It literally covers the days -- Hibbert has chosen ten days -- of major of key themes that shaped the Revolution.
Written for the general reader, the book lacks the depth of one such as Simon Schama's voluminous Citizens, but is vividly told and page-turning providing an excellent overview of the subject for the unenlightened reader.
More historiography than history, Hibbert has produced a work of non-fiction that seems to more largely read as fiction where he describes the momentous events that occurred from the Revolution's beginning on an inner tennis court to the rise and decline of Napoleon. Grand figures trotted the stage: there was the indecisive Louis XVI and his equally immature wife Marie Antoinette. he austere and ambitious Robespierre tyrannized the nation, while the dames knitted at and watched the…
The characters, too, may likely never have been as reality as Hibbert portrayed them in his book. Full of charm and pathos in the book, they are animated by created persona and embellished with invented dialogues. Real life may have found them to be quite different. Hibbert is, therefore, more an author (tending towards the fictitious) than a historian. Nonetheless, his book pleases and delights. It makes us experience the "Days of the French Revolution" as though we lived during that time. We may be pleased that we didn't.
Hibbert, C. The Days of the French Revolution William Morrow Paperbacks, 1999
The French Revolution was emblematic of the political and social changes taking place in Europe, and indeed the world given the concurrence of the American Revolution and the entrenchment of Enlightenment values. If modernity is defined by liberalism, the move away from church and king towards self-governance and the rise of reason, then the French Revolution could be considered one major aspect of the birth of modernity. However, it would be overly simplistic to claim that the French Revolution was the birth of modernity. Modernity was conceived as early as the Magna Charta, as Burke points out (134). As soon as the authority vested in church and monarch was deemed illegitimate or at least arbitrary, the seeds of modernity were sewn.
With modernity came a tremendous amount of self-reflection. Sieyes and Rousseau, for example, reflect on the notions of liberty and independence, the empowerment of the people as old system…
Burke, E. “Reflections on the revolution in France.”
Rousseau, J.J. “Subject of the first book.” In The Social Contract.
Sieyes, E.J. “What is the third estate?”
The Rights of Man and Revolution in France
Despite the push to eradicate a class based system during the Enlightenment and events leading up to the French Revolution, it was replaced instead by classes based on property and wealth rather than nobility. Two leading figures for and against the new classes were Robespierre and Sieyes. Sieyes supported separating voting rights from human rights while Robespierre believed voting rights were inherent rights of man. Robespierre’s ideals deteriorated as he gained power. The rights of man were essentially an Enlightenment notion. Thomas Paine had written The Rights of Man in 1791 as the French Revolution was underway and he had even gone there to show his support for it; however, Robespierre had him locked away and schedule for execution, not trusting the American. In short, France was a hotbed of insurrection, chaos, mistrust, and change. The politics of governance were in…
French Revolution radicalize as it progressed?
In contrast to the American Revolution, the French Revolution was fundamentally a class-based revolution. hile the English had an established parliamentary system which the American colonists could be inspired by as they created a new form of government, France did not. The Ancien Regime was based upon inequalities between the three estates. Thus when it began to dissolve, moderate reform seemed impossible and a complete and radical break with the past seemed like the only feasible solution.
"In terms of social ideals the sans-culottes [impoverished French] wanted laws to prevent extremes of both wealth and property. Their vision was of a nation of small shopkeepers and small farmers. They favored a democratic republic in which the voice of the common man could be heard." [footnoteRef:1] hen they felt that the Revolution was not moving fast enough, they had little confidence in the ability of…
Kreis, Stephen. "Lecture 13 the French Revolution: The Radical Stage, 1792-1794." Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture13a.html (accessed December 28, 2015)
Many different types of governments have operated with this goal in mind, with varying degrees of success. Often, the most stable regimes are also the most repressive ones. Until the modern age, when our perspective if not the facts themselves have shifted and democracy was seen as an enforceable worldwide ideal, stability through dictatorship and the true subjection of a government or monarch's subjects was not only considered ethically appropriate, but even as ideal when compared to the instability created by increased individual liberty. he United States of America was perhaps the first major world government to be conceived with an eye to preserving both liberty and stability, and though cynics might regard this intention and the degree to which it has been acted upon and fulfilled with a heavy dose of skepticism, there is no doubting that an effort to ensure both of these values would continue to exist…
The first four Articles of the Unites States Constitution define and describe the three different branches of the government; the way they are to be appointed or elected, their various powers, and their respective checks and balances on each other. The inefficiency that this separation of powers creates was a conscious construct on the part of the Constitution's framers; from personal experience, they had seen what could happen when one of the branches -- most commonly the executive in the form of the king, but there were also instances of legislative abuse as in the Rump Parliament of the English Revolution and even the Senate of ancient Rome -- was able to act too quickly with too much authority. By forcing government to slow down, and to let each branch have some positive and negative say in the workings of the others, the framers ensured that personal liberties would be protected from the will of the majority, and also that the government would be forced to remain relatively stable as it simply could not become reactive and still operate within the confines of the Constitution.
The division of the various states and their rights and responsibilities to each other and to the federal government also reflect this balance of stability and liberty. Each state is free to maneuver according to its own needs and situation, up to a certain degree. This provides the liberty needed to make Massachusetts profitable for fisherman and Pennsylvania work for corn farmers, to give an over-simplified example. At the same time, the limits on each state's independence and the forced cooperation between and among them creates a stable environment both in terms of military protection and the supposed assurance that business can be conducted without the worry that one state's laws will favor one party over another.
The first ten Amendments to the Constitution, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, were aimed more at increasing personal liberty than maintaining and ensuring stability, but a liberalist would argue that the freedoms granted by these amendments do, in fact, ensure stability to a greater extent than limits on them. This argument is hard to buy; though Soviet stability during the Cold War, at least as was reflected economically, hardly compares to the United States', it is specious at best to link this to the Soviet's controlled press or lack of firearms. As George Orwell demonstrates in his fictional but completely possible vision of the totalitarian state in 1984, control of speech means control of thought, and that can't lead to anything but increased stability. For a more tangible example, we need only look at World War II -- as long as Hitler was winning wars, his oppressive regime was one of the most stable in the world. Still, though the Bill of Rights does nothing to increase stability, and may even undermine it, this is a necessary and worthy price to pay for liberty.
American evolution and the French evolution
The American evolution was important in more than one way, and it served as inspiration for the rest of the world. The most important thing that happened as a result of the American evolution is that a brand new country was created, and secondly, the rest of the world found that they could also achieve what they set out to do, because of the American evolution. It was on the Fourth of July that the Declaration of Independence was signed, and this was the day that America became a free independent democracy. The American evolution was, in fact, inspired by the very same ideals of equality, democracy, brotherhood, liberty, and freedom, that served to deliver inspiration to the French evolution too, and what both evolutions had in common was that they both served to inspire the people of their country that there was indeed…
Censer, Jack. R. The Night the Old Regime Ended: August 4, 1789, and the French Revolution. Journal of Social History. Summer, 2004. Vol: 15; No: 1; pp: 37-42
Gowland, Rob. The Glorious Fourth. The Guardian. July 30, 2003. pp: 5-7
Harsanyi, Doina Pasca. Review of Revolutionary Currents: Nation Building in the Transatlantic World. Michael Morrison and Melinda Zook, Eds. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2004. H France Review. March 2005. Vol. 5; No. 33; pp: 21-27
Morris, Marilyn. The British Monarchy and the French Revolution. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997.
Web 2.0 is the French evolution of cyber-space. The traditional sources of print media, such as television and newspapers, only allowed for one-way communication. Web 2.0 has revolutionized the world of business; not only are sellers able to market and advertise their product, they are also able to receive quick feedback from customers. The traditional method of receiving feedback from customers involved keeping a diary or a register, which customers would fill out after receiving their product or service. However, the use of social media networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Google+ has completely changed the face of customer feedback. Now that customers can post feedback about certain businesses on social media networks, the feedback is visible to hundreds of people, which can either help or hinder the running of a business.
Facebook's Open Graph Initiative was introduced in April of 2012. It enables users to share their activities on another…
Chandler, Nathan. "Top 5 Web Mashups." HowStuffWorks. Science, 3 Mar. 2011. Web. 2 Aug. 2014.
Fichter, Darlene. "What is a mashup?" Web. 2 Aug. 2014.
"Pros and Cons of Facebook's Open Graph Initiative." responsemedia. 18 May. 2010. Web. 2 Aug. 2014.
Carle of Her Own
Perspectives on History in Emilie Carle's a Life of Her Own: The Transformation of a Countrywoman in Twentieth Century France
History can be viewed from many different perspectives, with drastically different outcomes in determining the causes and effects of historical events and trends. For the most part, however, the examination of history has been relegated to the scholarly analysis of large-scale factors: the actions of governments, leaders, and militaries, with note on how these larger actions affected the lives of the common person living in a given time and place, without a focus on this common perspective. There have been some attempts to present a different view of what is important in history and in the world, though they are less well-known because they do not deliver grand theories that explain general situations -- they actively resist these in fact, with a clear insistence that history…
Enlightenment on the French evolution
evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.
Introduction to the French evolution
When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…
Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." Department of English, Washington State University (May 2000). http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~brians/hum_303/enlightenment.html.
Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Durham: Duke
University Press, 1991.
Fieser, James. "Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at http://www.utm.edu/ressearch/iep/r/rousseau.htm.
Known as much for her fashion choices as for her role in the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette is in many ways a quintessential queen in that the patriarchal historical record severely undermines her power. Marie Antoinette was far from being an architect of the Revolution and yet her role in it cannot be underestimated. Misogynistic misunderstandings and misconceptions about the role of women in positions of power have caused Antoinette’s legacy to have been distorted gravely, to the point where she has been incorrectly credited with saying “let them eat cake.”[footnoteRef:1] Vilified as she was, Marie Antoinette signifies the ways women wielded power even when they were stripped of official or legitimate political agency. [1: “Marie Antoinette Biography.” Last modified Jan 4, 2018. https://www.biography.com/people/marie-antoinette-9398996 ]
Marie Antoinette was born into power, the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa, the empress of the mighty Habsburg dynasty based in…
New Technology/Changes in Warfare from End of French Revolution/Napoleonic Wars to American Civil War eginning
Warfare Change in Technology
In France, reforms began after the great Seven-Year-long war. The war ended in French calamity in1763. Evidently, it was important to have reforms to field soldiers that could fight for French interests and honor. The government suggested that light infantry should be increased. This later brought about initiatives for conventional infantry training in techniques for light infantry. This training created soldiers that could fight both in open and close order. The multiple gun calibers used by the artillery unit were taken away; and they were left with only four varieties. There were new guns, which were more portable and lighter than the earlier ones. The new guns featured standardized segments and enclosed rounds. Lidell-Hart stated that according to Jean du Teil, "light mobile guns for use in the field when used…
Gibson. "Napoleon and the Grande Armee: Military Innovations Leading to a Revolution in 19th Century Military Affairs." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/organization/c_rma.html .
History.com. "Civil War Technology." 2010. Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/civil-war-technology .
Scholastic. "Strategy and Tactics, Military." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/strategy-and-tactics-military .
Zapotoczny, Walter. "The Impact of the Industrial Revolution On Warfare." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.wzaponline.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Inductrialrevolution.292125935.pdf.
He believed that if people join together and make a social contract they can both preserve their nation and remain free (Rousseau 93).
The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a ten-year period of upheaval in France as it was throughout Europe during the period which followed the American Revolution. In France, the political climate changed from a monarchy with aristocrats and much influence by the Catholic Church to a democracy. Citizens formulated their desires for rights and privileges equal to the aristocracy and, fighting for this ideal, won it.
The preamble to the French Constitution is a "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." The Declaration of Rights says that "No one shall be disturbed for his opinions, even religious, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law" (Knight 2).
The Constitution of the United States also has a preamble that declares that the…
Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent. (1854-78), vol 7-10. Boston: Little, Brown, and company.
Knight, Kevin. French Revolution. Catholic Encyclopedia. 2006. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13009a.htm .
Robinson, Dave & Groves, Judy. Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books. 2003.
Rousseau, George S. Nervous Acts: Essays on Literature, Culture and Sensibility. Palgrave Macmillan. 2004.
Compare similarities differences revolutions America, France, Latin America. Identify common themes present revolution. What fighting ? Who influenced revolutions? What outcome revolution? What effect revolutions world?.
evolutions in America, France, and Latin America:
Causes, ideology, and consequences
Perhaps the most notable difference between the 18th century revolution in America vs. The 18th century revolution in France was one of class: America was not, primarily, a class-driven revolution. The Founding Fathers and supporters of the American evolution came from the elites of American society. George Washington was an important British general during the French-Indian Wars and Benjamin Franklin was a prominent figure in American colonial politics before talk of revolution became common currency. The colonists' frustration at what they perceived as the British Crown's unreasonable taxation policy and their growing economic power that was not honored with political power within the Empire was at the heart of the American evolution.…
Kelly, Martin. (2012). Causes of the American Revolution. About.com. Retrieved:
Minster, Christopher. (2012). Causes of Latin American revolutions. About.com. Retrieved:
Unlike the French Revolution, Italian revolt was not successful, and Louis Napoleon restored papal authority to appease French Catholics and the Hapsburgs regained their influence by 1850 (Henry, 2007).
ithin Austria itself, there was a revolt more in the French class-based mode protesting the reactionary policies of the Hapsburgs that was crushed, although a new Hapsburg was placed on the throne -- just in time to put down a revolt in Hungary similar to that of the Italian nationalist revolt. The demands for German confederation likewise failed, as nationalism combined with a strong sense of republicanism did not galvanize the angry disenfranchised masses under a single banner. The middle classes and the radical socialists failed to overcome their differences, and the King of Prussia's refusal to govern a unified Germany struck a death-blow to the fractured movement (Henry, 2007)
Henry, Prof. "The Revolutions of 1848." estern Civilization Study…
Henry, Prof. "The Revolutions of 1848." Western Civilization Study Guide. 17 Mar 2007. http://www.wpunj.edu/~history/study/ws2/set7b.htm
There were several battles therefore that took place between France, Great ritain and American war ships. These battles occurred in European waters as well as in waters in the western hemisphere.
The most challenging ritish action was an order permitting seizure of neutral ships either sending food and supplies to France or trading goods produced in French colonies, above all the West Indies. When ritain obstructed French ships in the French harbors early in the French Revolution, American merchants moved swiftly to take over commerce in the West Indies. These American merchant ships were subject to seizure. The ritish Navy took approximately 300 American ships and forced thousands of captured American sailors to serve on ritish ships. When American tried to negotiate with ritain, France became outraged, which prompted France to start seizing American ships and the attempts to negotiate with France were utterly ineffective. France then started to imagine…
Bukovansky, Mlada. Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French
Revolutions in International Political Culture (Princeton Studies in International
History and Politics). NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Mintz, Steven. "The Critical Period: American in the 1780s: Economic and Foreign
Here, urke argued that revolution in general, and the French Revolution in particular, must be matched with reason and a reluctance to completely give up to radical thinking.
Rousseau gave in directly to the revolution, arguing that it is a direct result of man's socialization, but urke was much more cautious: Revolution is not automatically good for urke, nor is it intrinsic to man.
Given urke's record as a strong supporter of American independence and as a fighter against royalism in England, many readers and thinkers were taken aback when urke published his Reflections on the Revolution in France in 1790. With this work, urke suddenly went on to became one of the earliest and most passionate English critics of the French Revolution, which he interpreted not as movement towards a representative, constitutional democracy but instead as a violent rebellion against tradition and justified authority and as an experiment…
Discourse On The Arts and Sciences, 1750
The Social Contract, 1762
Discourse On The Origin And Basis Of The Inequality Of Men, 1754
The history of modern human civilization reflects the gradual evolution of thoughts, ideas, political reform, and technological progress. At various times, specific periods of change were important enough to have been recorded as revolutions. Some of the most significant of these revolutions contributed to human history and societal development individually as well as in conjunction with other simultaneous or nearly simultaneous changes.
The Scientific evolution was responsible for fundamental changes in the understanding of the physical world, chemistry, biology, and of human anatomy and physiology. The French evolution represented the recognition of the fundamental rights of citizens to fairness and humane consideration on the part of their respective monarchical governments. The Industrial evolution increased the availability of information and provided new modes of transportation and mechanical processes that radically changed the lives of large numbers of people throughout Europe and the North American continent.
The Scientific evolution
Bentley, Jerry H. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past (4th
Edition). McGraw-Hill: New York. 2005.
Kishlansky, Mark; Geary, Patrick; and O' Brien, Patricia. Civilization in the West.
Penguin Academic Edition (Combined Volume) Penguin: New York. 2009.
He uses no evidence, his essay is based only on his own opinion, and he does not view the opposition's opinion or their motivation. He writes well, and the points he makes are clear, but his methods and evidence are simply lacking. He is certainly welcome to his opinion, but it does not seem based in reality. Condorcet does not write about the revolution directly, but it is clear he supports the values that the revolutionaries were fighting for, and he mentions several of them, including education, and less distinction between the rich and poor. He does not cite any evidence or analysis either; he is simply expressing his opinion, just as Burke did. He is a good writer too, and gets his points across well, but somehow, his arguments seem more balanced than Burke's, perhaps because they seem more reasonable.
After understanding what the French evolutionaries were trying to…
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. p. 107-112.
Condorcet, Marquis de. The Future Progress of the Human Mind. p. 127-131.
French associate their country with a geometrical shape.
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and cold sometimes snowy winters
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and Eastern France
The South (also known as the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type of weather:
Hot summers and mild winters often made colder by the cold Mistral wind
North and Western Coastal Regions
Vosges, Jura, Alps, Pyrenees
Central and eastern France
The south (the Midi)
Having read the section on geography and weather, which one of the following regions is best known or most typically known for this type…
By the second night, a group of men had mutinied and attempted to kill the officers and destroy the raft, and by the third day, "those whom death had spared in the disastrous night […] fell upon the dead bodies with which the raft was covered, and cut off pieces, which some instantly devoured" (Savigny & Correard 192). Ultimately, the survivors were reduced to throwing the wounded overboard, and only after they had been reduced to fifteen men, "almost naked; their bodies and faces disfigured by the scorching beams of the sun," were they finally rescued by the Argus, which had set sail six days earlier to search for the raft and the wreck of the Medusa (Savigny & Correard 203).
Theodore Gericault's the Raft of the Medusa captures the moment on the 17th of July when the Argus first became visible to the survivors, and his choice to reflect…
Alhadeff, Albert. The raft of the Medusa: Gericault, art, and race. New York: Prestel, 2002.
Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "LEtat Et Les Artistes: De La Restauration a La Monarchie De
Juillet (1815-1833) / Salons." The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 811-3.
Blair, J.A. "The Possibility and Actuality of Visual Arguments." Argumentation and Advocacy
Thompson "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," The Romantics.
In the article "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," author E.P. Thompson explores the restoration of literary works by Wordsworth and Coleridge. Specifically, Thompson is interested in the moment when the poet became politically aware and disenchanted with the environs around him, turning his distaste into pieces of literature. While making his argument, Thompson delves heavily into the possible psychological profile of the author and his break with Godwinism. By doing this however, Thompson makes a critical mistake which all literary scholars and critics are meant to watch out for: that is confusing the narrator of the literature with the author himself.
Remarkably, Thompson determines that the change in Wordsworth's writings came at a time when he stopped writing towards an ideal and instead directed his writings at a real person. He writes, "It signaled also -- a central theme of…
evolution, Education, And Modernization
evolution, Education and Modernization
Is revolution an acceptable way to change government? Why or why not?
In 1776 the founding fathers of the United States faced a situation where this question was paramount among the interests of their fellow countrymen:
"When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation" ("The Declaration of Independence," 1776).
History shows that when the needs of a society are not being met revolution is generated from outside the existing system since it is that system that is perceived as…
"Egypt news -- Revolution and aftermath." (2011, June 2). The New York times. World. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/egypt/index.html
Kanalley, C. (2011, January 30). Egypt revolution 2011: A complete guide to unrest. The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/30/egypt-revolution-2011_n_816026.html
McElroy, W. (2005). Henery Thoreau and 'civil disobedience'. Future of the freedom foundation. In The Thoreau Reader. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://thoreau.eserver.org/civil.html
Rathbone, E. (2011, March 15). Can social networking spur a revolution? The university of Virgina magazine. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://uvamagazine.org/only_online/article/can_social_networking_cause_revolution/
Symbolism first developed in poetry, where it spawned free verse. Forefathers included the poets Baudelaire, Verlaine, and Rimbaud; practitioners included Laforgue, Moreas, and Regnier. The Swiss artist Arnold Becklin is perhaps the most well-known Symbolist painter; his pictures are like allegories without keys, drenched in melancholy and mystery. Other artists working in this vein include Odilon Redon and Gustave Moreau. The Surrealists drew heavily on the Symbolists later on.
Catalan masters played a major role in the development of 20th Century modern art in many fields. For example, modernism expressed by Gaudi, Rusinol, Gimeno, Camarasa, Picasso, Nonell or Miro epitomized the efforts of the Catalan people. Still, most of them expressed their talents outside Spain in Paris where many of them lived and worked before going home to continue their expression. Like anyone honing a craft, they needed a foundation of knowledge for their art and Paris offered…
2000. Catalan Masters. Available at http://www.artcult.com/na125.html" http://www.artcult.com/na125.html. Accessed on 9 January 2005.
2002. Notes on Picasso: Important Terms, People, and Events. Available at http://www.tamu.edu/mocl/picasso/archives/2002/opparch02-281.html . Accessed January 2005.
Art Nouveau in Catalonia. Available at http://www.gaudialigaudi.com/A0003.htm;. Accessed 9 January 2005.
Catalan Painting. Available at http://www.mnac.es/eng/dinou/s6.htm . Accessed January 2005.
The Japanese have learned how to combine the best of both worlds.
Decorum is another important aspect of pastry making. The aesthetics of French pastries sometimes is more important than the actual taste. Japanese pastry chefs have come to understand this and have produced some modern marvels and master pastry chefs. Chief among them is Sadaharu Aoki who is well-known in both Japan and France. His pastries tend to be much sweeter than traditional Japanese pastries, but it is mainly his artistic flavor in creating beautiful looking pastry that has won him so much acclaim within the pastry world. The key to "fusion" pastry is that they are economical. French pastries made by famous pastry chefs are aesthetically pleasing but are not only expensive, but often glazed to provide shape and texture that makes it extremely hard to eat. Japanese pastries made with the French techniques are much more economical…
Atlantic Revolutions and How the Structure of the Atlantic World Created the Environment for These Revolutionary Movements to Form
The objective of this study is to examine the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions, known as the Atlantic Revolutions and to answer as to how the structure of the Atlantic World created the environment for these revolutionary movements to form. The North American Revolution took place between 1775 and 1878. The French Revolution took place between 1789 and 1815, and the Haitian Revolution between 1971 and 1804 and finally the Spanish American Revolutions between 1810 and 1825. These revolutions were found because of the issues of slavery, nations and nationalism, and the beginnings of feminism. In fact, the entire century from 1750 to 1850 was a century of revolutions. Political revolutions occurred in North America, France, Haiti, and Spanish South America. All of the revolutions were derived from ideas concerning Enlightenment.…
13h. The Age of Atlantic Revolutions (2012) U.S. History: Pre-Colombian to the New Millennium. Retrieved from: http://www.ushistory.org/us/13h.asp
Klooster, W. (2009) Revolutions in the Atlantic World: A comparative history. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=8A-PwV_3zkcC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=culture&f=false
This document highlighted that human rights need to be universal in order for society to be healthy. The document influenced French people in general to get involved in the revolution and to express interest in reform.
5. Calvinists and Jews were persecuted groups up until the revolution and they thus played an active role in devising the human rights agenda. "On December 21, 1789, a deputy raised the question of the status of non-Catholics under the new regime; his intervention started a long debate that quickly expanded to cover Jews, actors, and executioners, all of them excluded from various rights before 1789" (Hunt 84).
6. The idea of slavery was questioned even before the French Revolution started, as there were numerous influential individuals who denounced the institution of slavery. The French National Assembly actually held individuals who believed that black people should have rights and that slavery needed to be…
Avery Hunt, Lynn, "The french revolution and human rights: a brief documentary history," (Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1996)
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…
Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.
Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2
American Revolution in 1776 inspired the French Revolution in 1789 by showing that the common people could overthrow the powerful political establishment. Both countries were ruled by absolute monarchies. The United States were then colonies of Great Britain, and were ruled unfairly. The early Americans became tired of "taxation without representation." In France, the common people and peasants were also not represented by their government. In both cases, only landowners could vote and there was little equality or justice. By taking up arms against Britain, the early American settlers took a stand against tyranny and this act then led to the French Revolution.
The American Revolution set an example to the people of France that it was possible to have democracy. By taking the first step in this process of change, the American settlers showed that democracy was possible, even if it meant going to war. After succeeding in the…
history libertinism, 18th century France. In concluding paragraphs, relate research formation, conflicts characters Dangerous Liaisons (Les Liaisons dangereuses), epistolary Choderlos de Laclos.
The notion of the libertine:
The radical and reactionary implications of libertinism in Les Liaisons Dangereuses
The novel Dangerous Liaisons (Les Liaisons Dangereuses) has a daring storyline, even by contemporary standards. Over the course of a series of letters between the Marquise de Merteuil and the Vicomte de Valmont, a plot is orchestrated to bring shame and scandal upon the conventional and pure Madame de Tourvel and Cecile Volanges. Valmont in particular embodies the notion of the 19th century libertine, or a man who lives without regard to conventional morality: in effect, he is 'liberated' from the conventions of society and religious dogma.
The notion of a 'libertine' was first articulated in the writings of the 17th century theologian John Calvin, who defined libertines as all that good…
Cavaille, J. "Libertine and libertinism: Polemic uses of the terms in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English and Scottish literature." Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, 12.2 (2012), 12-36,157.
Hollinger, K. "Losing the feminist drift: Adaptations of Les Liaisons Dangereuses."
Literature/Film Quarterly, 24.3 (1996), 293-300.
O'Connell, Lisa & Cryle, Peter. Libertine Enlightenment. Palgrave Macmillan 2003.
Christopher Hill's The Century of Revolution 1603-1714 details the transformations in English economic, political, ideological, and religious life. The author states in his introductory chapter, "The years between 1603 and 1714 were perhaps the most decisive in English history" because those years signified the dawn of the modern age and the rise of the English empire (13). Hill divides the various changes in English society, which would come to transform American society as well, into issues related to economic theory, political philosophy, and the realm of religion and ideas. The Century of Revolution is broken up into three chronological sections: 1603-40; 1640-60; 1660-88; and 1688-1714. The realm of religion and ideas encapsulates the realms of economics and politics because of the widespread influence of religion on culture. Therefore, the theme of transformation can best be illustrated through Hill's depiction of the changes occurring in religion and ideology in seventeenth…
Hill, Christopher. The Century of Revolution 1603-1714. London: Cardinal, 1974.
The final crisis of the French Monarchy occurred in 1789, with the official beginning of the French Revolution. Although this was the year in which the first official battle of this martial encounter was fought, it is vital to realize that the monarchy had been floundering for some time prior. There were numerous factors that contributed to the disfavor the monarchy found itself in at the end of the 18th century. Some of the more eminent of these political, financial, and environmental causes helped to weaken the French Monarchy's hold over its subjects, as judged by the standards of the present 1. Concurrently, there were military woes that accompanied these factors and which contributed to the mounting unpopularity of this government. However, an analysis of these factors reveals that the most prominent cause of the French Revolution pertained to the zeitgeist of the time in with Enlightenment ideals…
Acemoglu, Daaron, Cantoni, Davide, Johnson, Simon, Robinson, James. "The Consequences of Radical Reform: The French Revolution." NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved 4/3/2016. http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jrobinson/files/jr_consequeces_frenchrev.pdf
Davies, Norman. The History of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1990.
Langer, William. The Encyclopedia of World History. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972.
.. reason is being heard throughout the whole universe; discover your rights," led to her being charged with treason, resulting in her arrest, trial and execution in 1793 by the dreaded guillotine (1997, Halsall, "Olympe de Gouge," Internet).
The Haitian evolution:
While all of this revolt was happening in France, the small Caribbean colony of Haiti was experiencing similar turmoil. The Haitian evolution of 1789 to 1804 began as a political struggle among the free peoples of Saint Domingue, a French colony on the island of Hispaniola. The French evolution of the same period provided the impetus for class and racial hatreds to come about on the island. Each of the colony's social classes, being the wealthy planters and merchants, and the lower white classes, seized the chance to address their grievances and bring about social chaos and revolt. While many colonial members sought support from the political groups in…
Carpentier, Alejo. (2004). "The Kingdom of the World." Internet. November 12, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005. http://www.msu.edu/~williss2/carpentier .
Declaration of the Rights of Man -- 1789." Internet. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Accessed June 10, 2005. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/rightsof.htm .
Halsall, Paul (1997). "Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791." Internet. Modern History Sourcebook. Accessed June 10, 2005. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1791degouge1.html .
revolutionary the American evolution was in reality. This is one issue that has been debated on by many experts in the past and in the present too. The contents of this paper serve to justify this though-provoking issue.
American evolution-how revolutionary was it?
When we try to comprehend why the American evolution was fought, we come to know that the residents of the American colonies did so to retain their hard-earned economic, political and social order when the British had stated to neglect them. However, before we began to understand what The American evolution was all about, it is necessary for us to look at conditions of the colonies preceding the war. The economy of Colonial America were divided into three separate parts: New England, where the economy was commerce; the South, where cash crops were the major source of earning; and the middle colonies, a combination of both. [Account…
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1967).
Kurtz and Hutson (eds), Essays on the American Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 1973).
Account of a Declaration 1, available at: http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/account/ , accessed on: February 11, 2004
American Journey, available at:
history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.
Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.
History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com .
For example, Krishan Kumar of the University of Kent at Canterbury11 states,... "in sum, a fine piece of properly political sociology, of which there are in truth very few examples. Society gets its due share of attention; but as is fitting and absolutely essential in any discussion of revolution, it is the peculiar nature of and crisis of the state that occupies the centre of the stage."
Similarly, Michael Kimmel of the University of California -- Santa Cruz,12 states that "Theda Skocpol is perhaps the most ambitious and exciting of a new generation of historical-comparative sociologists who have focused their attention squarely on the big issues of social change that once preoccupied the classic sociologists."
The difficulty that some reviewers had about this book is because of some of the misinformation. For example, George Yaney 12 of the University of Maryland states it is based almost entirely on secondary sources…
Kimmel, Michael. "States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. By Theda Skocpol." http://www.jstor.org.libdb.fairfield.edu/browse/00029602 " the American Journal of Sociology. 86 No.5 (1981): 1145-1154
Kumar, Krishan. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France,
Russia and China by Theda Skocpol" the British Journal of Sociology. 31, no. 2
This became a reality with the killing of the tsar in 1918. The death of the tsar was the visible reaction to a series of underlining causes that would eventually encourage the raise to power of a political ideology that addressed these issues and offered political and propagandistic solutions.
The social situation of the populations was rather grim during the tsar's regime. ussia had been engaged in the First World War effort and the condition of the soldiers was disastrous. Similarly, the peasants often were subjected to oppressive taxes in order for the regime to be able to financially support the war effort.
Aside from the social causes of the revolution, there were also political aspects that determined the fall of the tsar and the subsequent establishment of the communist regime. Thus, the authoritarian imperial rule opposed the visions of politicians such as the Bolshevik leader Trotsky. He was seen…
Carroll, J., and George Herring. (1986) Modern American Diplomacy. Scholarly Resources Inc. Wilmington, Delaware.
Fairbank, J.K. (1986). The great Chinese Revolution: 1800- 1985. London: Pan Books.
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Rauch, Basil. (1963). The history of the New Deal. New York: Capricorn Books.
irth of the First French Republic
The first French Republic was established in 1792 in the aftermath of the 1789 Revolution and abolishment of the monarchy. The National Convention held a meeting in September 1792 that culminated with a vote to put an end to the monarchy and establish the first French Republic. The 1789 Revolution that acted as a catalyst for the abolishment of the monarchy and eventual establishment of the first French Republic gave the people the unprecedented opportunity to confront King Louis XIV who had dominated their lives. As the National Convention voted for the establishment of the first French Republic through abolishing the monarchy, it also tried Louis XVI for treason. The king was found guilty of treason and executed at the beginning of 1793. Given its role in the establishment of the first French Republic, the 1789 Revolution was a complex event with significant impacts…
McPhee, Peter. Living the French Revolution, 1789-99. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan,
Neely, Sylvia. A Concise History of the French Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
Publishers, Inc., 2008.