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functionalist social theory to answer, "Why are people interested in joining health clubs?" Culture, social structure and social interaction play major roles in contributing to the reasons why people are fanatically interested in sports. This paper will show how the manifest function of health clubs is that the physical appearance of a person is enhanced looking smarter and thinner by joining health clubs. In contrast, the latent function of health clubs is this that the diet suggested by these institutions to different members reflects the required needs of a body. Gym members have a connection to the functional aspects of their health club as it represents something that is critical: their health, self-image and entertainment.
Coakley (2009, p. 5) argues that a group's culture can be defined as the collective ways of life and the shared understandings as they live together. I grew up in a house with my two…
Coakley, J. (2009). Sports in society: Issues and controversies (10th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Zirin, D. (2008). Calling sports sociology off the bench. Contexts, 7(3), Retrieved December 14, 2009, from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1507545141&sid=4&Fmt=2&clientId 79&RQT T=309&VName=PQD
Crawford, G. (2003). The career of the sport supporter: The case of the Manchester Storm. Sociology: the Journal of the British Sociological Association, 37(2), 219-237. Retrieved December 14, 2009, from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=338071481&sid=7&Fmt=2&clientId=74379&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Functionalist view role education ritain. Plan Introduction - write a paragraph explain answer question. You explain discussing Functionalist views role education describing evaluating views Durkheim Parsons.
Sociology essay: Assess the functionalist view of the role of education in ritain
How best to educate children is a constant source of national debate in Great ritain. Likewise, the question of the function or role of education in society is no less contentious amongst sociological theorists. During the early 20th century, functionalism was the dominant mode used to conceptualize the purpose of education. In the 1960s and 1970s, Marxist critics and other authors on the subject of education began to become more critical of its central tenants, which they saw as reinforcing social inequalities rather than honoring the capacity of the educational system to enact meaningful changes to improve people's lives and to disrupt the unjust nature of the class system.
Crossman, Ashley. 2013. Functionalist theory. About.com. Available:
http://sociology.about.com/od/Sociological-Theory/a/Functionalist-Theory.htm [10 Apr 2013]
Functionalism and education. 2013. History Learning Site. Available:
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/functionalsim_education.htm [10 Apr 2013]
It is through the conflict theory that class systems are seen. It is the elite of society that dictates the rules to the masses. Institutions that are created are done so as a means of supporting those who are in power and those who are seen as superior within society. Any action that challenges those in power is perceived as deviant and discouraged. Conflict theory centers on: competition over scarce resources, inequalities in power, change as a result of conflict, and war as a unifier of society and an ender of societies ("Conflict theory," n.d.).
Prison institutions are easily understood in this view of society.
The elite of society need a way to maintain control of the individuals below them, utilizing the conflict paradigm.
Prison serves as punishment of those who deviate from the rules set forth, as well as serves as a deterrent for those who may be considering…
Conflict theory. (No date). Retrieved October 10, 2007, at http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm .
Holmwood, J. (2005). "Functionalism and its critics," in Harrington, a. (ed), Modern social theory: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Conflict and Functionalist Perspectives Regarding America's Incarceration Population
While it typically escapes our conscious realization, our attitudes, beliefs, and values, even about the most fundamental and obvious matters are dictated by the social environment in which we are socialized. The reading also touches upon the phenomenon of racial prejudice and includes a photograph of Jackie obinson, in connection with what the text describes as his "historic" breakthrough of the color barrier that once existed in professional baseball. That particular element of the text reminded me of another reading, the 1928 story by Zora Neale Hurston, "How it Feels to Be Colored Me." Whereas the assigned text discusses the phenomenon of racism in American society during the pre-Civil ights era, Hurston's account provides an important first-hand perspective from the point-of-view of someone who experienced it personally throughout her life. In my opinion, as important as it is to discuss these types of issues academically, the analytical perspective can never…
Grunwald, M. "The Party of No." Time, Vol. 180, No. 10 (2012): 42 -- 46. Retrieved
Hurston, Z.N. (1928). How it Feels to Be Colored Me. Retrieved
them mentality' provoking social intolerance and social or potentially violent military conflict with a religious society's differently believing neighbors. At best religion stifles individual creativity within a society, as people become afraid to espouse alternative points-of-view. The development of the Christian religion that coincided with a rise in anti-Semitism, as Christians reacted with intolerance against a smaller, minority religion is one example, as might be the lack of dissent advocated with excessively homogeneous neighborhoods in the racially polarized South of the 1950's. Thus the conflict perspective stresses the ability of dearly held, intransient beliefs to create negative forms of conflict and to stifle positive forms of dissent and creative perspectives upon life that differ with the hegemonic view. Because religious worldviews cannot be questioned by logic, they become entrenched, and create more negative societal views and conflict with others who believe differently.
Curry, Tim; Jiobu, Robert; and Schwirian,…
Curry, Tim; Jiobu, Robert; and Schwirian, Kent (2004). Sociology for the Twenty-first Century. Fourth Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
See Curry et al.2002, p.384
See Curry et al. 2002 p. 381.
Functionalist Roles of Markets and Misers in Candace Allen and Dwight Lee's In Defense Of Markets And Misers
People have always created thoughts and attitudes towards particular people or phenomena in the society based on their/its: (a) benefits to people and (b) potential inconveniences that the person or phenomenon can cause them. This is exactly the main thesis that Candace Allen and Dwight Lee confronts and explores in the article, In Defense of Markets and Misers. Using the functionalist perspective and deviating from the general opinion, Allen and Lee discusses how, in an indirect manner, markets and misers contribute to economic growth and developed. The authors used as tools for analysis the economic framework, where they can best explain how markets and misers play a vital role in the development of a nation's economy, particularly in lowering prices of goods and commodities and increasing the spending power of the consumers…
From a functionalist perspective, colleges are crucial parts or systems in the society because it promotes and makes possible education for the society. However, from a conflict theory standpoint, colleges can be considered structures or systems through which only those with access to education continue to perpetuate the 'oppression' of the "have-nots" -- people who cannot afford a college education. Symbolic interactionism, meanwhile, looks at colleges as an important tradition and process in the American society, wherein people are expected to be educated and go through the process of entering and having a college education, towards the goal of becoming a productive and/or learned member of the society. Primarily, symbolic interactionism focuses on the tradition of continuing education, and education as a critical part of every person's being and identity in his/her society.
enzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and…
Renzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. MA: Allyn and Bacon.
health care debate that has been going in the United States. It discusses the Obama Care Act and how it impacts the society. Functionalist perspectives and theories are utilized in analyzing the situation and what outcomes are expected. The major themes and concepts of the functionalist theory are discussed in detail.
The Health Care reform proposed by the Obama Administration has long been the area of debate in America and in countries all over the world. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act go on to cut down the number of people who are not insured. It requires small businesses to provide medical insurance to all the people working in the business. The employers are obliged to provide a good quality medical insurance. Failure of the small business to provide a good health care system will result in a penalty for any employee that goes uninsured. This act applies to…
Berkman, L. et al. (2000) from social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Social Science & Medicine 51 (2000), 51 p.843-857.
Gerhardt, U. (1979) The Parsonian paradigm and the identity of medical sociology. The Sociological Review, 27 (2), p.229-251.
Napsha, J. (2011) Small Business Owners Fret over Health Care Law's Fallout . Tribune-Review/Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 24th March.
Unknown. (2012) Supreme Court Ruling Dooms Small Business; Obamacare Increases Taxes and Red Tape Burden . The Washington Times, 29th June.
3. How does the author discuss the relationship between the individual and society?
Once again, interpretivism sees this relationship as a complex and intricate set of actions and interactions that are largely dependent on cultural and social context. In other words, there is no "correct "view of self but rather self and the individual's relationship with society is a result of interaction in different contexts. This view is contrasted with the more objective views of functionalism and Marxism, where the self is seen either in terms of its functional relation to the society or as an object of social repression.
4. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
As has been mentioned, the stress in this article is on the importance of context in the interpretivist view of the individual and society. It is this understanding of context that acts as the determining factor…
The emphasis on social stability, as seen in many institutions' suspicion regarding social change, can lead to the perpetuation of social inequality. In some instances, there is even a stronger link between religion and power structures.
The caste system in India privileges the rights of the priestly class. However, political leaders in India have also formed strong ties with the Brahmin class. These ties serve to "legitimize" the power in the political government.
Evaluating conflict theory
Conflict theory provides several important insights regarding the conservative role that religion has played in society. McGuire and Collins' study provide specific cases that uphold Marx's original premise. These studies show how conflict thinking still remains relevant, even until today.
However, the emphasis on the conservative and status quo orientation of religion also glosses over religion's liberating potential. Theologians like Gustavo Gutierrez, a priest who served in a Peruvian slum in the 1960s, argued…
Collins, Randall (1981). Sociology since mid century: Essays in theory cumulation. New York: Academic Press.
Durkheim, Emile. (1912). The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. New York: Oxford University Press
Hunter, James Davison. (1983). American evangelicalism: Conservative religion and the quandary of modernity. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Lawson, R. (1998). From American church to immigrant church: the changing face of seventh-day Adventism in metropolitan new York. Sociology of Religion, Winter 1998. Retrieved Oct 23, 2004, at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0SOR/is_4_59/ai_53590308 .
Finally, the third of the theories expects the student to develop in accordance with the interaction he had previously developed with the teacher. If the interaction was based on mutual respect and true feelings of cherishing and honesty, with also hard work, the individual is expected to further succeed. If on the other hand the interaction had been based on less fortunate feelings, beliefs and actions, the individual is likely to develop in a manner frowned on by society.
Having to choose a philosophy I would most agree with, I would select realism. The philosophy, promoted by Aristotle, amongst other great thinkers of all times, is a mixture of social influences and personal characteristics. It states that each individual is formed based on the events that occurred in his vicinity, but also by how his personal features made him relate and comprehend those particular events. In other words, realism promotes…
Stevens, W., Functional and Conflict Theory: A Point-of-View, 2008, http://www.helium.com/items/828440-functional-and-conflict-theory-a-point-of-viewlast accessed on September 10, 2008
Webb L., Metha a., & Jordan, K. 2007. Foundations of American Education 5th edition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall
2008, Theories of Education, Cliff Notes, last accessed on September 10, 2008
While the functionalist theory and the conflict theory aren't so different in theory, Durkheim's functionalist theory at least offers a bit more hope for students and it doesn't assume that education is meant to keep people in their place. However, preparing students for life is rather elusive as we can see especially today where the quality of education differs so dramatically from state-to-state and even from zip code to zip code.
The interactionist theorists examine how the educator's expectations influence the students' functioning, attitudes and impressions. osenthal and Jackson's groundbreaking study for the interactionist theory approach occurred in 1968 when the researchers studied a group of students of average IQ. The researchers then pointed out a handful of students whom they said would excel dramatically over the course of the coming year. The teachers were told who the students were and the teachers were asked to monitor the students' performance…
Dignan, Patricia. The Pygmalion Principal: The Impact of High Expectations on Students
and Staff Achievement. Author House, 2006.
Rosenthal, Robert., & Jackson, Lenore. Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher
Expectation and Pupils' Intellectual Development. Crown House Publishing,
To wit, power is a huge influence in any social interaction, and in a study reported by the University of California Press (est, 2008, p. 87), men often interrupt women during conversations because men are generally viewed as the power in any male-female interaction. "Physicians interrupt patients disproportionately" in doctor-patient interactions, est writes, "except when the doctor is a 'lady'; then, "patients interrupt as much or more than physicians, and their interruptions seem to subvert physicians' authority" (est, p. 87). In other words, the stratification of male doctors having the power to interrupt is reversed when a woman is the doctor.
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
Donovan, Jenny L., and Blake,…
Blumer, Herbert. (1986). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley:
Breen, Catherine M., Abernethy, Amy P., Abbott, Katherine H., and Tulsky, James a. (2007).
Conflict Associated with Decisions to Limit Life-Sustaining Treatment in Intensive Care
Units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(5), 283-289.
A weakness, however, can be seen in the fact that the two approaches are often in contradiction, which may make decision-making different for the administrators from time to time.
The tools used to uncover needs in my institution are often based on intimate conversations between the administrators and the teachers. In addition, the teachers are encouraged to ask students about the needs they feel must be met. The teachers, then, report this information to the administration. This reflects the institution's place in the community, as well as its empowerment approach to needs assessment. Other than these empowerment tools, the institution tends to use surveys to collect data from instructors and students regarding the level of satisfaction with the course and specific aspects of the course. While these tools are certainly sufficient for uncovering needs, my institution calls for further tools to be used in order to conduct effective assessments.…
Some never will be, due to the damage and loss sustained after the hurricane and floods. The society is New Orleans is still suffering because they have lost the order that was there, and are struggling to rebuild it, often without the support of any outside sources. It has taken too long to try to get New Orleans back to normal, and there are questions that wonder if it will ever be remotely close to the place it was before the hurricane.
In the functionalist approach, parts of society are interrelated. That certainly illustrates New Orleans after the hurricane, because the society has struggled so hard to come back together. Restaurants have reopened, Mardi Gras has continued, the French Quarter tries to lure visitors, and the businesses are coming back, some more slowly than others. Many people are determined to rebuild the city and make it better than it was…
The functionalist approach favors more severe punishment criminal activity and the use of the legal system to punish the individual, not change society. What of the community affected by drug use, the functionalist might ask of the above example? Punish the drug dealers so that they will not be positive examples to younger individuals to improve the community. This will bring new law-abiding citizens back to the community and thus create a more affluent society and school system. In other words, society should not be an excuse to avoid punishing misdeeds. Functionalists might also stress this is true for white-collar criminals who should be punished equally -- look how Martha Stewart became a positive example as a result of her incarceration. She is a warning not to do 'dirty' stock deals and is now more motivated to give back to the community since she has experienced punishment for her disregard…
According to Kessler (n.d.), there are five main theories of myth. Each of these theories is valuable and valid. Not all myths and related phenomena like ritual and religion can be explained by only one theory. To pick just one theory would be oversimplifying the complex phenomena of myth. Moreover, myths in different cultures serve different functions.
The five theories of myth outlined by Kessler (n.d.) are as follows. First, rationalistic theory suggests that, "myths are an attempt to explain things," but are just "false explanations," (p. 71). This is a common and generally true view about myths, but it can be dismissive of the role that myths play in shaping cultural values and cultural identity. Other theories offer a richer discussion of the role of myths. The functionalist theory of myth is commonly used in the social sciences (Kessler, n.d.). According to the functionalist theory, myths satisfy social…
Eliade, M. (1957). The sacred and the profane.
Rank, O. (1914). The myth of the rebirth of the hero.
Kessler, G. (n.d.). Studying religion.
Suicide and Society
Suicide: An Individual Phenomenon or a Societal Construct?
Statistics show that suicide rates in the U.S. are highly predictable. It is annually expected each year that over 30,000 suicides will occur, as compared to about 17,000 homicides. This stable and predictable estimate of suicide rate stems from a precise analysis of social factors describing four separate categories of suicidal influences: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. According to the functionalist theory described by Emile Durkheim, rates are social facts based on other established social facts, and thus have a sociological basis. As suicide rates are social facts, Durkheim set out to provide an empirical basis of social explanation regarding suicide, providing a far different account of trends than the previously perceived notion that suicide is based purely on individual or psychological reasons. Thus, the phenomenon of what actually motivates the occurrence of suicide can be examined from a…
Dunman LJ. "Suicide." The Emile Durkheim Archive. 2003. The Bettmann Archive. 18 Mar. 2004. http://durkheim.itgo.com/suicide.html
Henslin JM. Down to Earth Sociology, 12th Edition. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
Knapp P. "The Functionalist Analysis of Deviance." Peter Knapp Homepage. 1994. Villanova
University. 18 Mar. 2004. www94.homepage.villanova.edu/peter.knapp/Intro1-24.ppt
It is this struggle to maximize benefits that leads to such movements of social change in both politics and social revolutions. Conflict theory exists in direct opposition to the tenets of functionalist theory, arguing that instead of a society where everyone plays are particular part, society instead exists as a pyramid structure, with a group of elites that dictate the rules to the masses. Thus, all major societal institutions, including laws and traditions, exist for the sole purpose of maintaining this structure. Thus, according to the conflict theory, colleges and universities exist in order to perpetuate this status quo. On the one hand, colleges ensure that the elite become educated and thus capable of carrying on their leadership roles. On the other hand, students at the college are indoctrinated with the traditions of society.
Finally, the theory of interactionsim is based on the idea that nothing in society is determined…
Coser, L. Masters of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context. For Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. 1977.
Harrington, a. Modern Social Theory: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
The issues of race and its ramifications are some of the most pressing issues facing American society today, and will continue to challenge us in the decades to come. Of course, issues of race and socio-economic stratification have always been of vast importance, but in America the problems are magnified since the country and its people pride themselves on being a true melting pot, and the reality does not always match the ideals.
One way of examining race is the functionalist theory or perspective. The functionalist theory of social inequality contends that stratification exists because it is beneficial for society. Society must focus on and with human motivation because the duties associated with the various statuses are not all equally pleasant to the human species, important to social survival, and in need of the same abilities and talents.
In other words, society depends on certain types of people…
According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2010), childhood obesity has more than tripled over the past 30 years. The frequency of obesity among children aged 6 to 11 years rose from 6.5% in 1980 to 19.6% in 2008, while among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years the obesity rate increased from 5.0% to 18.1% during the same period. Obesity results when more calories are consumed than expended, and is influenced by genetic, behavioral and environmental factors. Let us take a look at four paradigms associated with this phenomenon.
The functionalist perspective asserts obese are necessary in order to drive others to become healthy and learn what is making people obese. From this perspective the key is not to eliminate this condition, but to utilize this state to explore the psychological and emotional factors that make this situation possible.
Functionalists are concerned with the stability of society…
Center for Disease Control. "Childhood Obesity." CDC/Healthy Youth. 3 June 2010. Web. 28 April 2012.
Functionalist Perspective of Society
The sociological perspective that will be applied to the social phenomena discussed in this particular document is the functional perspective. The functional perspective is based on the basic principle that society functions somewhat akin to the human body (McClelland). Just the way there are different facets of the body that perform specific functions -- such as the fact that the brain was designed to think, the heart designed to pump blood, etc. -- there are different facets of society that perform specific functions. Those different aspects of society that serve specific purposes are referred to as social control mechanisms. There are a variety of different examples of social control mechanisms in society. For instance, schools and the education system are designed to prepare members of society for the basic skills necessary to enter and compete in the work force. The major tenet with the functionalist perspective…
McLelland, Kent. "Functionalism." http://web.grinnell.edu / Web. 2000. http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
Renzulli, Linda, Grant, Linda, Kathuria, Sheetija. "Race, Gender, and the Wage Gap: Comparing Faculty Salaries in Predominately White and Historically Black Colleges and Universities." Gender and Society. 20(4), 491-510.
In fact, the cohabitation option serves a valuable function for many couples, especially where living together allows them to discover possible problem areas in their relationship that would have made marriage a bad idea. If anything, that is preferable to the traditional situation where couples really only begin learning about one another after making the lifelong commitment to a marriage. Finally, Congressman McDonald's point about childbirth out of wedlock ignores the tremendous advantages to children born in stable marriages and suggests that high rates of unwanted pregnancies among unmarried couples somehow negates the benefits of planned pregnancies within marriage.
The Functionalist Perspective Applied to Marriage:
In some respects, there are valid criticisms that justify reevaluating certain aspects of modern marriage, including the unfairness of child custody decisions that favor mothers and financial settlements that obligate married partners who supported the marriage financially to share more of what they earned than…
Compare the notion of state in Hegel with Marx's view
Both Hegel and Marx are dialectical materialists, in that both philosophers see the progress of human history in terms of an eternal and alternating struggle for control of the state instruments of power, a struggle between the haves and the have-nots. But rather than the political outlook of Hegel, who stresses the dialectical struggle of the classes in terms of who possesses political and governmental power, Marx identifies the struggle of the have-nots with the proletariat, the producers of wealth who are oppressed and exploited by capitalists. The state is no longer primarily determined in view of who rules the government, but who owns and dominates the economy in Marx.
Marx's view of the state, law, etc., as based upon the modes of production, depends upon his view of the human being. Discuss and exemplify.
The Marxist theory…
Charles Horton Cooley is a great sociologist who has contributed significantly to the field of sociology. He was born in Michigan State where he studied and work. He was a professor in the University of Michigan and lived near the university with his wife and three children. Looking glass self was one of his greatest works. The paper evaluates some of the sociologist major papers in the field of sociology and economics. The contributions to the conflicts theory and functionalism theory will also be evaluated in the paper. Charles Horton Cooley died in 1929 in the same state he was born of cancer.
Charles Horton Cooley born in 1864 was the forth born in a family of six siblings. His mother was Mary Elizabeth and his father was Thomas Cooley. The family lived in Ann Arbor in Michigan State. He attended the University of Michigan in 1887 where after graduating…
Ju, Biung-ghi. 2010. "Individual Powers and Social Consent: An Axiomatic Approach." Social Choice and Welfare 34(4):571-596
Landon, Charles E. 1960. "Technological Progress in Transportation on the Mississippi River System." The Journal of Business (Pre-1986) 33(1):43-43
Westley, Bruce. 1976. "Setting the Political Agenda what Makes it Change?" Journal of Communication (Pre-1986) 26(2):43
Functionalism is usually defined as viewing society from the aspect of its different parts, and how those parts relate to each other and society as a whole. Many functionalists liken society to a biological form, such as the human body, with its different organs all working in conjunction to keep the body as a whole functioning. Each of the elements of the body has a "function- to maintain the whole, so ensuring the stability or order of the system." (Bissell, 2005, p.41) But while each element has a manifest function, or the function that is expected from it, there are also unexpected functions called latent functions.
On the other hand, Conflict Theory states that the different parts of a society are in a state of conflict over the limited resources available to society. While Functionalism stresses the unity between the different groups, "conflict theory emphasizes strife and friction"…
Anderson, Margaret, Howard Francis Taylor. (2008). Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Print.
Bissell, Paul, Janine Morgall Traulsen. (2005). Sociology and Pharmacy Practice. London: Pharmaceutical Press. Print.
Ritzer, George. (1992). Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw Hill. Print.
Sifferlin, Alexandra. (9 Dec. 2013). "Sandy Hook Families Seek Privacy On Anniversary
For Giddens, the globalization of these abstract systems offers individuals opportunities and crises in which they must continually rebuild their own lives and identities. From his perspective, the increasing integration of systems does not necessarily signify greater worldwide social integration. In fact, the crises that arise from contradictions between the different abstract systems can actually lead to greater problems of social integration.
egardless of whether one looks at globalization from a uni- or multidimensional perspective or an economic or cultural one, it appears that global social integration will remain problematic in the years to come. Globalization is a relatively new phenomenon. The word "globalization," itself, in fact, was not even used much more than over a decade ago. Thus, the sociology of globalization is only in its infancy, and the theories noted here are just a few examples of others that will be argued. More and more, human societies worldwide…
Appadurai, A. (1990) Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy in D. Held and A. McGrew (eds.) The Global Transformations Reader. Cambridge: Polity Press, 239-246.
Busch, A. (2000) Unpacking the Globalization Debate: Approaches, Evidence and Data in C. Hay and D. Marsh (eds.) Demystifying Globalization London: Palgrave, 21-48
Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity in D. Held and A. McGrew (eds.) The Global Transformations Reader. Cambridge: Polity Press, 239-246.
Goldfrank, W.L. (2000). Paradigm Regained? The Rules of Wallerstein's World-System Method. Journal of World-Systems Research 6(2), 150-195
The Turbine Factory and its use of industrial material on a very grand scale is able to evoke feelings of machinery and production and how it changed society, or rather, how it controlled society at that time. Behrens was able to transform architecture by creating designs that reflected the changing culture.
Frank Lloyd Wright and Peter Behrens were pioneers in the innovation of functionalism. While Wright used more organic elements into his design to give the feeling that architecture and nature should go hand-in-hand, Behrens was creating designs out of more industrial materials that reflect the era and the culture of an era. However, both of these architects considered function as the dominating principal of building structures even though they essentially came to their way of designing via different ways of thinking (nature and organics vs. industry and function).
Both Wright and Behrens were innovative designers and architects and their…
McCarter, R. ( 2010) "Wright, Frank Lloyd." Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. Ed. Michael
Oxford Art Online. Retrieved Sep. 20, 2010, from .
President George W. Bush began two new wars during his time of office, and frequently used hyperbolic military rhetoric when giving speeches to the world. By awarding America's first African-American president a peace prize, the Nobel selection rewarded America's election of a more diplomatic president rather than Obama's actual accomplishments. This stamp of foreign 'approval' of American voting behavior caused a great deal of anger amongst Republicans.
Q3. Using conflict theory, discuss why we entered the war in Iraq.
Conflict theory is often associated with Marxism: it views all of human history as a series of conflicts between haves and have-nots, or different social classes. This is also seen on a global scale, whereby the 'haves' of the international community use their power and authority over the have-nots of the world. A conflict theorist would state that America entered Iraq to show its domination over the developing world, and the…
Under eno's direction, on April 22, 2000, under the scrutiny of national and international media and news cameras:
"Armed INS officers entered the home (where the child had been living with close relatives) before dawn and within three minutes carried Elian out to a waiting government van. Hours later, the boy was reunited with his father at Andrews Air Force Base near Washington, D.C., and eventually they returned to Cuba (Emert 2005 p. 144)."
eno's role in handling the case of Gonzalez was highly controversial and politically provocative. eno withstood with the assault of the Hispanic and Cuban communities around the country, but held firm in her position on handling the matter. It was not, however the first time that eno came under attack for handling a controversial matter. She likewise was responsible for the attack on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, where David Koresh was the spiritual…
Blumenthal, K., 2005. Let Me Play: The Story of Title IX: The Law that Changed the Future of Women, Simon and Schuster, New York, New York.
Emert, P.R., 2005. Attorney General: Enforcing the Law, The Oliver Press, Inc.,
Estrich, S., 2005. The Case for Hillary Clinton, HarperCollins Publishing, New York,
QUESTION THREE: "Is inequality of social classes inevitable?" The conflict theory put forward by Ralf Dahrendorf begins with a discussion of Marxism and the fact that in industry, the conflict between classes - the capitalist and proletariat (worker) - the worker had a natural inclination to be in conflict with the capitalists who were the authority, the bosses. The same kind of conflict carried over into the political realm as well, sometimes violent. The problem was that there was no system whereby conflicts could be resolved. But Marx's analysis, Dahrendorf goes on, was tainted because of his obsession with proletarian revolution.
At this point in his essay, Dahrendorf, though rejecting Marx in that context, asserts that since there are "interest groups" and "quasi-groups" those must then be considered "classes." And if there are classes, it is then logical to assume there will be groups, and quasi-groups that will always have…
Berger, Peter; & Luckmann, Thomas. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise
In the Sociology of Knowledge. Garden City NY: Anchor Books, pp. 51-55, 59-61.
Collins, Particia Hill. (1990). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Boston: UnwinHyman, pp. 221-238.
Dahrendorf, Ralf. (1959). Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. Stanford: Stanford
Town in Turmoil
The actions of people in a group are among the major theoretical underpinnings of sociology. The study talks about how those actions happened, why they happened, and what the ramifications are for society at large. Sociological theories try to explain the complexities of how people relate to one another and the major theoretical stances include: structural functionalism, social conflict, and symbolic interaction. With these three theories the article labeled "A town in Turmoil" will be analyzed.
Structural Functionalist Perspective
Basically, this theory states that there are certain structures within society that each have distinct functions. If a certain structure ceases to perform its function, then the entire system breaks down (Deiner, 1999). Many times the human body is used as an example of this theory. Within the body are structures called organs and they all serve distinct functions that are needed for the body to survive. If…
Briggs, J. (2010). Social-conflict theory. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/facts_5476453_socialconflict-theory.html
Deiner, J. (1999). The structural-functional approach. Retrieved from http://udel.edu/~jdeiner/strufunc.html
Mcclelland, K. (2000). Symbolic interactionism. Retrieved from http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Symbolic.html
films (The Pursuit happiness the Soloist) Discuss similarities 2 characters commenting upbringing, determination skills Contrast persons experience poverty, commenting external internal factors, systems place hurt, attitudes money, strengths weaknesses character hat criminal acts person commit viewed society differently ? hy Not? Note symbolism movies ( racoons Soloist ) Discuss stereotypes poor people.
The Pursuit of Happyness and The Soloist
The masses are obsessed with the concept of a journey of self-discovery and about events that make it possible for people to progress significantly. Gabriele Muccino and Joe Right have both gone at discussing this topic in their films, The Pursuit of Happyness, and, respectively, The Soloist. The central characters in these films, Chris Gardner (The Pursuit of Happyness) and Nathaniel Ayers (The Soloist) both experience significant problems as a result of poverty and as a result of their inability to adapt properly. The two films are meant to provide viewers…
Dir. Joe Wright, The Soloist. DreamWorks Pictures, 2009
Dir. Gabriele Muccino, The Pursuit of Happyness, Columbia Pictures, 2006
The author of this report is asked to answer to several questions relating to family. These answers include what the main functions of a family are including the answer to the question from a functionalist perspective. How someone's family influences his or her cultural identity shall be answered to including item such as gender, race and identity. Finally, it shall be explained how family life has changed over the last thirty years. While the forms of family have changed over the last generation or two, the core functions of the family have not changed much at all.
The main functions of a family have not entirely changed over the year but they have shifted a bit. Traditionally, the main focus of family has centered around marriage and having children. However, the definitions of marriage and what makes an "acceptable one" over the years has changed and many families are…
Jayson, S. (2010, November 25). What does a 'family' look like nowadays? - USATODAY.com. What does a 'family' look like nowadays? - USATODAY.com. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/yourlife/sex-relationships/marriage/2010-11-18-pew18_ST_N.htm
Levin, J. (2004, August 24). Functionalism. Stanford University. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/functionalism/
The authorities in charge of Lodz sought to completely separate the Jewish population from the non-Jewish population. Business were marked with the nationality and ethnic identity of the proprietors, which made it easier for Germans to target Jewish-owned stores and Jews were required to wear arm bands and forbidden to leave their houses between 5:00pm and 8:00am. In fact, Lodz was the first area to institute the armbands that would distinguish Jews from non-Jews. Jews could not use public transportation, public parks, or work at non-Jewish businesses. Furthermore, Jewish property was pillaged and taken, with official sanction. If the Jews abandoned any real property, that property went into receivership. Jews were prohibited from withdrawing substantial sums of money from their bank accounts or from keeping substantial sums of money in their homes. The government confiscated raw materials from Jewish workshops and prohibited them from engaging in certain trades. People began…
Bauer, Y. (2000). Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Browning, C. (1992). The path to genocide: essays on launching the final solution. Cambridge:
Browning, C. (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution. Omaha:(University of Nebraska Press.
Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. (2007). The Lodz ghetto. Retrieved February
According to functionalism, societal values also play an important role in governing a society by offering general guidelines for acceptable behavior through the establishment of roles and norms. For example, such societal institutions as the family, economy, education and government are essential aspects to the social structure, with each institution playing a role, related to the roles of the other institutions. In this sense, individuals will become interconnected through these institutions and therefore form a community.
Functionalism is based on three fundamental concepts. First, functionalism views society as a system. Accordingly, society is defined as a collection of interdependent parts that each exhibit a tendency toward reaching an equilibrium. Second, in order for a society to survive, certain functional requirements must be satisfied. An example of such a function is reproduction. Without reproduction, the population will not survive. Third, all societal phenomena or trends exist for the sole reason that…
Malinowski, Bronislaw. (1990): A Scientific Theory of Culture and Other Essays. Raleigh: University of North Carolina Press.
Malinowski, Bronislaw. (1939): "The Groups and the Individual in Functional Analysis." The American Journal of Sociology. V. 44, p. 938-964.
Logic and Biological Explanations of Human Behavior
What are the logic or biological explanations of human behavior? Why do sociologists argue that they are misguided/
Logical explanations of human behavior are common enough. For instance, in the society, it is always believed that it is natural for a woman and a man to fall in love, be married, and start a family. Equally, it is natural for this nuclear family to exist as a unit, with the parents going to work to provide for their children. The wife also devotes some of her time to looking after the kids and being a mother. As the family grows and becomes more independent, it is only logical for the kids to live at home with their parents at least until their late teen years. By this time, it is only logical for them to leave their parents' home and want to make…
Symbolic interactionalism thus posits a much more dynamic view of human learning, rather than the rote reception of societal norms in functionalism, or functionalism's belief in education to shape human minds in a pre-determined fashion. But it also is a more positive view of education than conflict theory, because even if there are problematic ideas in the way knowledge is conveyed, human beings may be creative enough to reconfigure preexisting systems of meaning in a liberating fashion. Also it is the individual who chooses how his or her personal liberation and development should take place, not the teacher. "Symbolic interactionalism emphasized several important dimensions of knowledge management through schooling: in school classroom interaction; by the professionalizing of the teaching process; through the bureaucratization of school organization; and, at the cultural level, where the links between the sociology of education and the sociology of knowledge are more immediately visible" (Marshall 1998).…
Four 20th century theories of education." Excerpt from George F. Kneller. Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. 1962. Excerpt available 2 Jan 2008 at http://people.morehead-st.edu/fs/w.willis/fourtheories.html
McClellan, Kenneth. (2000). "Functionalism." Sociological Theories. Grinnell University.
Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 at http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
Marshall, Gordon. (1998). "Sociology of education." Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 from the Dictionary of Sociology
We have come full circle to the days of local businesses, but geography has been eliminated as a barrier to communication. Companies are now expected to contribute to their local economy and culture. Whatever a company does at home will be broadcast to the world, positive or negative. Wal-Mart is highly criticized for its low wages, even though the company admits it does not expect to retain entry level employees. However, the company's support in its local communities wherever the stores are found counter the bad publicity about wages. In fact, Wal-Mart is a good example of several of the tenets listed here, especially that of agility. It has changed its management architecture, so that local managers have the local power to make the individual outlets good citizens of their communities.
So Jack Welch's simple rules for management need to be modified. Even the CEO who followed him has done…
Burkhardt, John C. And Overton, Betty J. 1999.; Applied Developmental Science, Vol. 3,
Business Mexico; 7/1/2005.Want to win? Some practical advice from Jack Welch.(Biography)
Flaherty, John E.. 1999. Peter Drucker: Shaping the Managerial Mind Jossey-Bass © 1999
Sociology -- Theoretical Paradigms
The Structural-Functionality of the Poor and Poverty
In the study of sociology, three classical paradigms dominate the process of sociological analysis: structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist theories. The structural-functionalist paradigm posits that individuals and groups in the society play specific roles in society that creates equilibrium to society's dysfunctions. The conflict theory, meanwhile, states that there exists, inevitably, oppression in the society, which results to a struggle by the oppressed group and social revolution that shall create reforms or changes in the society. Lastly, symbolic interactionism theorizes that symbols are the basis of life, and it is through interaction of these symbols that people reach an understanding of what s/he is and how society perceives him/her.
Given this set of paradigms in the study of sociology, this paper utilizes the structural-functionalist paradigm to discuss and analyze the role that the poor and poverty play in societies…
Gans, H. (1971). "The uses of poverty: the poor pay all." Available at: http://www.soc.duke.edu/~jcook/gans.html.
Lambert, B. "Free care for the poor varies widely in Nassau." The New York Times. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/26/nyregion/26charity.html .
Maharaj, D. "When the push for survival is a full-time job." Los Angeles Times. Available at: http://www.latimes.com/news/specials/world/la-fg-work11jul11,0,7153984.story .
Zoroya, G. "Rise of drug trade threat to Afghanistan's security." USA Today. Available at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2004-10-26-opium-afghanistan_x.htm .
Parental Rights and Children's Welfare
Sociological Analysis on Parental Rights vs. Children's Welfare: Structural-Functionalist, Conflict, and Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
Studying the structure and dynamics of society entails not only analyzing the elements that comprise it, but also the general or 'bigger picture' of what society is -- that is, analysis of social structure and dynamics must be at the macro and micro levels. Indeed, sociological phenomena are analyzed and studied by social scientists using various theoretical perspectives formulated in order to provide researchers, as well as their audience, a look into the various interpretations that people give to explain specific events or realities experienced by the society and the individual. In the field of sociology, among these theoretical perspectives are the structural-functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist traditions.
A particular example illustrating the discussion above is the analysis of parental rights and children's welfare, considered as an essential sociological phenomenon affecting…
In preparation for this paper, I reviewed all class notes and lectures. I also referred to Schriver's (2011) Human Behavior and the Social Environment and also Payne's (2005) Modern Social Work Theory. I also reviewed several websites in preparation for a thorough community analysis, while also evaluating my own notes and photographs from assessing the community. My analysis of a specific community is based on several interrelated theories of social work and sociology including conflict theory, systems theory, and functionalism.
In light of what I have read, and based on my observations and interviews with locals, Downtown Indianapolis has undergone major restoration, gentrification, and revival since the 1990s. Issues like empowerment, advocacy, cultural diversity, and conflict theory all come to mind as I evaluate the community by applying theories of social work. I would like to focus in particular on the positive changes that have taken place,…
Arndt, R. (n.d.). Functionalist theory background. University of North Carolina: Pembroke. Retrieved online: http://libguides.uncp.edu/content.php?pid=315635&sid=2582715
Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/32947_Chapter1.pdf
Payne, M. (2005). Modern social work theory, 3rd Ed. London: Lyceum Books.
Schriver, J. (2011). Human behavior and the social environment, 5th Ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New York, the Guilford Press.
Byrne, a. (1998). Interpretivism. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI Publications
Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books.
Giroux, H. (1997) 'Crossing the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, post-modernism, and Feminism' in a.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and a.S. Wells (eds.) Education: Culture, Economy, and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sutherland was quite critical of why some crimes were defined as deviant, while society appears more tolerant of other transgressions. For example, individual theft is seen as causing great harm, while the harm caused by illegal pollution and the dissemination of hazardous waste are hardly recognized. In 2002, for example, the Carnival Company, a Florida-based cruise company which operates 40 ships, was convicted of falsifying its oil record books. The company under-reported the levels of oil in the bilge water it discharged. The higher levels of oil threatened ocean life. To avoid prosecution, Carnival agreed to pay $18 million in fines (Ferro 2003).
Though Carnival was guilty of wrongdoing, few members of the general public at the time would go so far as to define Carnival's actions as criminally deviant.
In summary, both functionalist and social labeling theories help to explain how corporate deviance are both defined and addressed in…
Ferro, Jeffrey. 2003. "White-Collar Crime." Crime: A Serious American Problem. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC
Friedrichs, David O. 1996. Trusted Criminals: White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society. New York: Wadsworth.
Sutherland, Edwin H. 1983. White Collar Crime: The Uncut Version. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group
Neo-Functionalism the European Model
The concept of neo-functionalism originated in the 1950s after the Second World War. During that time, the world was witnessing an emerging pattern of regional integration that saw countries especially in Europe and Latin America eliminate trade barriers in a bid to form regional economic blocks. Neo-functionalism, widely considered as a theory, is synonymous with western European integration. It is thought that the proponents of European integration adopted this theory as their main integration strategy. According to Rosamond (2000), neo-functionalism was triggered by the interactive activity among the original six member states (p. 10). On the other hand, Eilstrup-Sangiovanni (2006), asserts that neo-functionalism was as a result of the behaviorist turn in American social science that were centered on institutional forms, behavior and the integration process (p. 89). He however notes that neo-functionalism failed to describe the integration process during the 1965 empty chair crisis because…
Cini, M., & Perez-Solorzano Borragan, N. (2004). European Union Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Commission of the European Communities. (1983). Treaties Establishing the European Communities. uxembourg: Office of Official Publications of the European Community.
Eilstrup-Sangiovanni, M. (2006). Debates on European Integration. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.
Goldstein, W. (1993). Europe After Maastricht. Foreign Affairs, 117-32.
Strategic Perspectives in Management Accounting and Finance
The main reason for differentiation in the accounting studies seemed to occur due to the functionalist perceptions in the expertise of social studies. According to Dellaportas and Davenport (2008) professions are being separated by occupation on the basis of the level of distinctiveness one occupation has from another; a model first designed by Greenwood in 1975.
Abercrombie et al. (1994, p. 335) in their study explained that such distinctiveness is surrounded by the concept which results in more beneficiary outcomes for the public than for an individual's professional interest in providing services. This simply means that it was an original human demand that gave birth to all professions. There's an equality on profession's social compulsion i.e. there is a balance between a professional's job and his obligation to serve the public. In this regard Carey (1965, p. 376) asserted that it was in…
Abbott, A. The system of professions: an essay on the division of expert labor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1988).
Abercrombie, N., Hill, S., Turner, B.S. The penguin dictionary of sociology. 3rd ed. Ringwood: Penguin Books (1994).
Bedard, J. The disciplinary process of the accounting profession: protecting the public or the profession? The Quebec experience. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy; 20 (2001) (4/5): 399 -- 437.
Bivins, T.H. Public relations, professionalism, and the public interest. Journal of Business Ethics; 12 (1993) (2): 117 -- 26.
death: suicide, euthanasia and the death penalty. Looking at certain aspects of each and discussing the issues concerning society. Also providing a sociological out look and economic basis for the arguments.
Death: Three Chances
Suicide is not a new phenomenon it has been around as long as mankind. The causes of suicide have been discussed on many occasions, and different theories have merged regarding the reason for which someone would commit suicide. There have been many studies undertaken in order to understand the phenomena in greater detail. Certain social factors were identified as being causal or contributing to this phenomenon, and suicides was broken down into different types, with different causes.
Henslin just as Durkheim before has looked at suicide, which Durkheim defined as any action which, leads subsequently to the death of the individual, either through positive action, such as hanging oneself or shooting oneself, or by way of…
Conwell Yeates, MD; Caine Eric D., MD 'Rational Suicide and the Right to Die: Reality and Myth' (1991 Oct 10); The New England Journal of Medicine, pp 1100-1103
Callahan J 'The ethics of assisted suicide' (1994 November);Health and Social Work, Vol. 19, PP. 234-244.
Donchin, Anne Autonomy, interdependence, and assisted suicide: Respecting boundaries/crossing lines. Bioethics. 2000 Jul; Vol 14(3): 187-204.
Haralambos and Holborn, (2000), Sociology; Themes and Perspectives, London, Collins.
Sociological Class Theories - ush
In every society, people are grouped into a variety of categories in order to determine how they earn a living, and how much they earn that actually affects or is affected by the economy. This kind of social stratification is common in virtually all of modern societies, but social class theories can help explain or provide some insight as to why a certain economy works smoothly or inadequately. In effect, the real question becomes, is each social class being served fairly, or does one appear to have a class advantage over the others? The three primary theories of social class are 1) conflict, 2) functionalist, and 3) interactionist. If we examine George ush's economic policies we'd notice that these were implemented for the express purpose of benefiting the upper classes even though tax cuts may at first glance, seem like an equal benefit for all.…
Kornblum, William. Sociology in a Changing World Sixth edition New York: Thomson-Wadsworth, 2002.
Greider, William. "Bush's Touchy-Feely Economics: The Rich Still Get Richer and the Rest Get the Shaft, But It's Done in a Friendlier Way" The Nation (August 7, 2000) v271 i5 p24.
Herbert, Bob "There's A Catch: Jobs" New York Times (Oct 27, 2003) A21.
Graham Jill and Charlie Mitchell. "Pivotal Events in Congress" National Journal Feb 10, 2001 v33 i6 p416
Talcott Parsons' analysis U.S. sex roles 1940s essay, "Sex oles Amer
Parsons' essay "Sex oles in the American Kinship Theory," analyzes the American social structure of the 1940's from several different perspectives. Specifically, the author examines societal structure from a familial or "kinship" (Parsons 1943:300) perspective, an occupational perspective and, finally from a perspective between the two sexes. The primary focus of his argument is that the unit of the family is the basic foundation of society but the effects of romantic relationships and occupational perceptions ultimately contribute to a "tension" (Parsons 1943:303) that is inherently manifested between the sexes. He largely bolsters this viewpoint with a functionalist perspective that was far from unique at the time, and which would have readily supplied a conflict theorist with the means to likely overturn his conclusions -- which partly explains later trends in gender relations.
The principle point of departure in this…
Hardman. 2013. On the 50th Anniversary of the Publication of The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan. Women & Language. 36(1): 57-61.
Parsons. Talcott. 1943. "Sex Roles in the American Kinship System."
MacDonald, Kevin. 2009. "Evolution, Psychology, and a Conflict Theory of Culture." Evolutionary Psychology. 7(2): 208-233.
McClelland, Kent. 2000. "Functionalism." http://web.grinnell.edu http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
Structuralsim vs. Functionalism
The structuralist/functionalist debate in the field of psychology focuses on the framework that psychological approaches should take. In the pioneer days of psychology, scholars argued whether one should take a structuralist or a functionalist approach to interpreting how the mind works. The essence of structuralism was promoted by Wilhelm Wundt in Germany and his pupil, Edward Titchener, is the man who gave the approach its name when he brought its school to America. In competition with Titchener's "structuralism," however, was "functionalism," which grew out of the American response to the German ideas. Functionalism was rooted in the ideas of Darwin and William James, the American philosopher.
The debates between the two schools were heated in spite of calls for a reconciliation between the two, as some saw them as both dealing primarily with the same problem: the conscious self (Chalkins, 1906). The advocates of the two schools,…
Calkins, M.W. (1906). A reconciliation between structural and functional psychology. Psychological Review, 13: 61-81.
Fancher, R.E. (1996). Pioneers of Psychology. New York: Norton.
James, W. (1904) The Chicago School. Psychological Bulletin, 1: 1-5.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. IN: St. Augustine's Press.
The theory also recognizes the latent role of education in the society as one that is used in the socialization of persons into the mainstream of the society. This form of education is referred to as "moral education" and serves in increasing the level of cohesions in our social structures and therefore resulting in the creation of social diversity through the bringing of people from different backgrounds together. This theory can be used in the contemporary society in integrating immigrants into the mainstream population of a country (e.g. "Americanizing" immigrants). This theory points out the role of education in the society as the transmission of social values as well as control.
The conflict theory
This theory purports that education is intended for bringing about social inequality so as to preserve power society's bourgeoisie. Their view is concurrent to the one advanced by the functionalists at certain points such as the…
Durkheim, E. (1956). Education and Sociology. (S. Fox, Trans.) New York: The Free Press.
MacIver, R.M. (1942) Social causation, Boston: Ginn and Company
Robin, J.B (2002).Education and Social Change: A Proactive or Reactive Role?
Sociology Guide (2010).Education and Social Change
theoretical paradigms: symbolic interaction approach, structural-function approach ( identifying manifest function, latent functions, social latent dysfunction) social-conflict approach analyzing euthanasia.
There is presently much controversy regarding the topic of euthanasia as even though the process gathered many supporters, most of the general public continues to criticize it. It is difficult to determine the exact effect that euthanasia has on the patient, given that some might be unable to fully comprehend everything related to the medical procedure when they are the ones responsible for ordering it. Although some communities are likely to accept euthanasia as being moral, others are very probable to condemn it and relate to it as something that is particularly wrong. There are a series of factors influencing people's perspectives in regard to euthanasia, ranging from the cultural standards that they were accustomed with and until their social status. Examining euthanasia by using theoretical paradigms makes it…
Hammersley, Martyn. The Dilemma of Qualitative Method: Herbert Blumer and the Chicago Tradition (London: Routledge, 1990)
Tucker, Robert C. Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1961)
Merton, Robert K. Broom, Leonard and Cottrell, Leonard S. eds., Sociology Today; Problems and Prospects (New York: Basic Books, 1959)
Functionalism is now a widely criticized social theory and the large percentage of this criticism is directed against its inability to explain social change. Emile Durkheim and other functionalists were of the view that society works as a whole and each part of this whole contributes towards keeping the entire system as it is. hey felt that each part of society such as the media, family, government and schools work in such a manner as to keep the society in its present shape. Kuper and Kuper have defined functionalism as a "doctrine which asserts that the principal task of sociology and social anthropology is to examine the contribution which social items make to the social and cultural life of human collectivities; it may additionally assert that to examine social phenomena in this way is to explain why those items occur at all, and/or why they have persisted." his is…
The democratic theory of education needs to be effectively implemented in our learning system because it addresses the grievances of all classes in a society. The theory doesn't represent any particular class and thus gives a chance of equal representation to everyone.
1) Amy Gutmann. Democratic Education. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ. 1999
They are therefore not determined or restricted by factors such as norms, morals or external principles. A concise definition of this view is as follows:
Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. It is believed by constructivists that representations of physical and biological reality, including race, sexuality, and gender are socially constructed
Another theoretical and philosophical stance that is pertinent to the understanding of the status of the family in modern society is the post-structural or deconstructive view. This is allied to a certain extent with the constructivist viewpoint, which sees society as a social construction and denies the reality of transcendent factors. This view therefore sees the family as a structure which is not fixed or static but is relative in terms of the norms and values…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.).1997, the Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors World Peace Academy.
Baker, M. 2003, 'Reinventing the Family: In Search of New Lifestyles', Journal of Sociology, Vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 178+.
Constructivist epistemology. [Online] Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_constructivism
Coulter, G. 2001, 'Cohabitation: An Alternative Form of Family Living', Canadian Journal of Sociology, Vol.26, no. 2. p. 245.
Murdock (4 functions family) Paragraph 2 - Describe evaluate Parsons (2 functions
When attempting to identify the various different functions that the family provides to both individuals and to collective groups in society, it becomes necessary to illustrate the principles of a number of different vantage points on this subject. This document will consider those of functionalists, Marxists, radical feminists and interpetivists in attempts to reach a consensus opinion.
George Murdock was one of the principle functionalists, and advanced the viewpoint that the family provides four vital functions for individuals and units within society. He believed that the family was a basic social unit that lived in a single residence that consisted of at least a pair of adults of both sexes and at least one child. One of the four main functions that Murdock believed the family provided for individuals was a means of having a sexual relationship that…
Cohen, D, & Crabtree, B 2006 'The Interpretivist Paradigm', Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, http://www.qualres.org/HomeInte-3516.html
Delphy, C, & Leonard, D 1988 'Patriarchy, Domestic Mode of Production, Gender, and Class', Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.
Haralambos, M 2008, Sociology: Themes and Perspectives, 7th revised edn. Collins, New York.
McLellan, DT, & Chambre, H 2012, 'Marxism', Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/367344/Marxism
There are four different levels of sociological analysis, including meso. The micro level focuses on "the social dynamics of intimate, face-to-face interactions" (Little et al., p. 4), the macro level focuses on "large-scale, society-wide social interactions" (Little et al., 4) and the global level is higher still, looking at more universal sociological themes. The same event can be viewed through these different lenses, because many sociological interactions will occur at both micro and macro levels, and there are often global elements to such interactions as well.
For instance, the book discusses the 2011 Stanley Cup riots in Vancouver. On an individual level, the event can be studied in terms of what drove any individual person to join the riot, in particular what factors might contribute to somebody who would not normally break the law to join the riot. A more macro-level analysis might wish to examine what in the…
Little, W., McGiven, R., Keirns, N., Strayer, E., Griffiths, H., Cody, S., Scaramuzzo, G., Vyain, S. (2013). Introduction to Sociology, 1st Canadian Edition. In possession of the author.
' The researchers did include one anecdote of a South African woman of Indian ancestry, and how she dealt with the unconscious racism of her colleagues, drawing upon a positive sense of community solidarity and avoiding some of the negative emotions such conflicts spawned in others. But other than her comment that professionalism and a strong sense of family identity was helpful in emotionally coping with racism, her remarks were not specifically insightful about working in a global, international organization in a formerly segregated area of the world.
The conclusions of the article regarding what organizational forces positively impact and do not impact identity seem fairly vague and generalized, despite the advantage that a case study format can have in terms of studying a highly specific context. Communication is suggested as the key to broaching identity conflicts, as well as having formal sensitivity training and grievance procedures. Although these…
Mayer, Claude H. (2009). Managing conflicts through strength of identity. Management Revue.
Retrieved through FindArticles.com on January 21, 2011. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5454/is_200907/ai_n42039398/
Perhaps the best example of a structural-functionalist theory in action is at Google, where specific types of organizational institutions, such as free lunches and yoga classes, create a common organizational culture and generate a community of freedom, openness, tolerance, and constant mutual exchanges of thoughts and ideas. A negative example of organizational structures, such as the cutthroat competition that encouraged irresponsible lending practices at many investment banking firms, also demonstrates how organizational structures create certain commonly-accepted standards that people tend to obey to promote social harmony.
Conflict theory, however, would emphasize how within organizations there is often intense factionalism between different groups of people. Particularly in modern organizations where historically discriminated-against groups are gaining traction within managerial positions, but still often experience discrimination, the struggle between opposing forces of change and stasis is manifest (Smith & ogers 2000). Conflict may also be seen after two large organizations merge, meshing two…
Conflict theory. (2011). About sociology. Retrieved January 9, 2011 at http://www.aboutsociology.com/sociology/Conflict_theory
Smith, Aileen & Rogers, Violet (2000, Nov). Ethics-related responses to specific situation vignettes: Evidence of gender-based differences and occupational socialization.
Journal of Business Ethics. 28(1). 73-87
Symbolic interactionism. (2011). Intro Theories. Grinnell College.
Instead, critical theorists would focus on the facts of the situation and the possibilities for the future. If public programs are going under-funded, then resources need to be used more effectively and quite likely more money will be needed, plain and simple. onvincing a population of taxpayers of this might be easier said than done, but if higher taxes are needed to keep public education worthwhile than a critical theorist (who approved of public education) would say so be it. As far as the social issues go, a critical theorist would certainly be vocal in demanding more resolute answers to the listed issues. Whether the sociologist were for or against gay marriage, marijuana use, or closed borders, they would not let their attention be shifted away from these important social considerations by the relatively easy task of appropriating necessary funds for schools and roads.
Functionalism, a different sociological theory, takes…
Critical theory would not necessarily care to establish whether or not there was any sort of relationship -- causal or otherwise -- between the two phenomenon. Instead, critical theorists would focus on the facts of the situation and the possibilities for the future. If public programs are going under-funded, then resources need to be used more effectively and quite likely more money will be needed, plain and simple. Convincing a population of taxpayers of this might be easier said than done, but if higher taxes are needed to keep public education worthwhile than a critical theorist (who approved of public education) would say so be it. As far as the social issues go, a critical theorist would certainly be vocal in demanding more resolute answers to the listed issues. Whether the sociologist were for or against gay marriage, marijuana use, or closed borders, they would not let their attention be shifted away from these important social considerations by the relatively easy task of appropriating necessary funds for schools and roads.
Functionalism, a different sociological theory, takes a different view of the situation. This framework sees all the part of a society as dependent on each other, with changes in one area creating changes in the system. Like other theorists, functionalists would want to address both issues, but they would think it necessary to do so as a whole. The granting of citizenship to illegal immigrants, for instance, could greatly increase tax revenue, which could be used to pay for the public education and health care that many illegal immigrants now receive on some level without paying for it at all. Gay marriage would increase the number of people eligible for healthcare through their spouses, which would change healthcare costs as well. In the functionalist perspective, there are no separate issues.
CEOs, however, would most likely argue that they are invaluable to their companies, and are adequately compensated for the work they do. hile the authors of this article conclude that they are not attempting to persuade readers to one position or the other, they do suggest that they are attempting to allow readers to understand the double-sided argument of CEO pay. In accomplishing this goal, they have done well. Both employees who are frustrated at the lifestyle that their CEOs are able to live while they struggle to get by and CEOs who are making hundreds of dollars an hour would be able to understand the rational for each side in this argument. By presenting the argument in this non-biased formula, the authors invite discussion on the topic, a discussion that most likely would not have happened if this type of presentation has been achieved. In allowing for an open…
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Edmans, Alex and Gabaix, Xavier, Is CEO Pay Really Inefficient? A Survey of New Optimal Contracting Theories (September 8, 2008). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1280390Jones,Del . (2008).
Female CEOs make more gains in 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from USA Today. Web Site: http://www.usatoday.com/money/companies/management/2008-01-02-women-ceos_N.htm